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The increasing evidence of climate change and growing dependence on energy have underlined the determination of the European Union (EU) to become the world’s first climate-neutral continent and economy and ensure that the energy consumed is secure, safe, competitive, locally produced and sustainable.

The European Green Deal aims to make the EU’s climate, energy, transport and taxation policies fit for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels, with a goal of reaching climate neutrality by 2050, as set out as a binding obligation in the European Climate Law. The energy objectives are decisive: producing cleaner energy thanks to technological research and innovation, and investing in renovated, energy-efficient buildings.

These objectives base themselves on the energy union strategy (2015) which, together with Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the governance of the energy union, define the dimensions of the EU’s energy policy.

  • Diversifying the EU’s sources of energy, ranging from fossil fuels, through nuclear power, to renewables (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydro-electric and tidal) to ensure energy security.
  • Realising a fully integrated, efficient internal energy market without technical or regulatory barriers.
  • Improving energy efficiency and the interconnection of energy networks, and cutting emissions.
  • Moving towards a low-carbon economy in line with the commitments set out in the Paris Agreement.
  • Promoting research in low-carbon and clean energy technologies, and prioritising research and innovation to drive the energy transition and improve competitiveness.

Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union introduces a specific legal basis for the field of energy based on shared competences between the EU and the EU Member States, leading them towards a common energy policy.