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Document 32016R0631

Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/631 of 14 April 2016 establishing a network code on requirements for grid connection of generators (Text with EEA relevance)

C/2016/2001

OJ L 112, 27.4.2016, p. 1–68 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

Legal status of the document In force

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/631/oj

27.4.2016   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 112/1


COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/631

of 14 April 2016

establishing a network code on requirements for grid connection of generators

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1228/2003 (1), and in particular Article 6(11) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

The swift completion of a fully functioning and interconnected internal energy market is crucial to maintaining security of energy supply, increasing competitiveness and ensuring that all consumers can purchase energy at affordable prices.

(2)

Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 sets out non-discriminatory rules governing access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity with a view to ensuring the proper functioning of the internal market in electricity. In addition Article 5 of Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (2) requires that Member States or, where Member States have so provided, regulatory authorities ensure, inter alia, that objective and non-discriminatory technical rules are developed which establish minimum technical design and operational requirements for the connection to the system. Where requirements constitute terms and conditions for connection to national networks, Article 37(6) of the same Directive requires regulatory authorities to be responsible for fixing or approving at least the methodologies used to calculate or establish them. In order to provide system security within the interconnected transmission system, it is essential to establish a common understanding of the requirements applicable to power-generating modules. Those requirements that contribute to maintaining, preserving and restoring system security in order to facilitate proper functioning of the internal electricity market within and between synchronous areas, and to achieve cost efficiencies, should be regarded as cross-border network issues and market integration issues.

(3)

Harmonised rules for grid connection for power-generating modules should be set out in order to provide a clear legal framework for grid connections, facilitate Union-wide trade in electricity, ensure system security, facilitate the integration of renewable electricity sources, increase competition and allow more efficient use of the network and resources, for the benefit of consumers.

(4)

System security depends partly on the technical capabilities of power-generating modules. Therefore regular coordination at the level of the transmission and distribution networks and adequate performance of the equipment connected to the transmission and distribution networks with sufficient robustness to cope with disturbances and to help to prevent any major disruption or to facilitate restoration of the system after a collapse are fundamental prerequisites.

(5)

Secure system operation is only possible if there is close cooperation between power-generating facility owners and system operators. In particular, the functioning of the system under abnormal operating conditions depends on the response of power-generating modules to deviations from the reference 1 per unit (pu) values of voltage and nominal frequency. In the context of system security, the networks and the power-generating modules should be considered as one entity from a system engineering point of view, given that those parts are interdependent. Therefore, as a prerequisite for grid connection, relevant technical requirements should be set for power-generating modules.

(6)

Regulatory authorities should consider the reasonable costs effectively incurred by system operators in the implementation of this Regulation when fixing or approving transmission or distribution tariffs or their methodologies or when approving the terms and conditions for connection and access to national networks in accordance with Article 37(1) and (6) of Directive 2009/72/EC and with Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 714/2009.

(7)

Different synchronous electricity systems in the Union have different characteristics which need to be taken into account when setting the requirements for generators. It is therefore appropriate to consider regional specificities when establishing network connection rules as required by Article 8(6) of Regulation (EC) No 714/2009.

(8)

In view of the need to provide regulatory certainty, the requirements of this Regulation should apply to new generating facilities but should not apply to existing generating modules and generating modules already at an advanced stage of planning but not yet completed unless the relevant regulatory authority or Member State decides otherwise based on evolution of system requirements and a full cost-benefit analysis, or where there has been substantial modernisation of those generating facilities.

(9)

The significance of power-generating modules should be based on their size and their effect on the overall system. Synchronous machines should be classed on the machine size and include all the components of a generating facility that normally run indivisibly, such as separate alternators driven by the separate gas and steam turbines of a single combined-cycle gas turbine installation. For a facility including several such combined-cycle gas turbine installations, each should be assessed on its size, and not on the whole capacity of the facility. Non-synchronously connected power-generating units, where they are collected together to form an economic unit and where they have a single connection point should be assessed on their aggregated capacity.

(10)

In view of the different voltage level at which generators are connected and their maximum generating capacity, this Regulation should make a distinction between different types of generators by establishing different levels of requirements. This Regulation does not set the rules to determine the voltage level of the connection point to which the power-generating module shall be connected.

(11)

The requirements applicable to type A power-generating modules should be set at the basic level necessary to ensure capabilities of generation with limited automated response and minimal system operator control. They should ensure that there is no large-scale loss of generation over system operational ranges, thereby minimising critical events, and include requirements necessary for widespread intervention during system-critical events.

(12)

The requirements applicable to type B power-generating modules should provide for a wider range of automated dynamic response with greater resilience to operational events, in order to ensure the use of this dynamic response, and a higher level of system operator control and information to utilise those capabilities. They ensure an automated response to mitigate the impact of, and maximise dynamic generation response to, system events.

(13)

The requirements applicable to type C power-generating modules should provide for a refined, stable and highly controllable real-time dynamic response aiming to provide principle ancillary services to ensure security of supply. Those requirements should cover all system states with consequential detailed specification of interactions of requirements, functions, control and information to utilise those capabilities and ensure the real-time system response necessary to avoid, manage and respond to system events. Those requirements should also provide for sufficient capability of generating modules to respond to both intact and system disturbed situations, and should provide the information and control necessary to utilise generation in different situations.

(14)

The requirements applicable to type D power-generating modules should be specific to higher voltage connected generation with an impact on control and operation of the entire system. They should ensure stable operation of the interconnected system, allowing the use of ancillary services from generation Europe-wide.

(15)

The requirements should be based on the principles of non-discrimination and transparency as well as on the principle of optimisation between the highest overall efficiency and lowest total cost for all involved parties. Therefore those requirements should reflect the differences in the treatment of generation technologies with different inherent characteristics, and avoid unnecessary investments in some geographical areas in order to take into account their respective regional specificities. Transmission system operators (‘TSOs’) and distribution system operators (‘DSOs’) including closed distribution system operators (‘CDSOs’) can take those differences into account when defining the requirements in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation, whilst recognising that the thresholds which determine whether a system is a transmission system or a distribution system are established at the national level.

(16)

Due to its cross-border impact, this Regulation should aim at the same frequency-related requirements for all voltage levels, at least within a synchronous area. That is necessary because, within a synchronous area, a change in frequency in one Member State would immediately impact frequency and could damage equipment in all other Member States.

(17)

To ensure system security, it should be possible for power-generating modules in each synchronous area of the interconnected system to remain connected to the system for specified frequency and voltage ranges.

(18)

This Regulation should provide for ranges of parameters for national choices for fault-ride-through capability to maintain a proportionate approach reflecting varying system needs such as the level of renewable energy sources (‘RES’) and existing network protection schemes, both transmission and distribution. In view of the configuration of some networks, the upper limit for fault-ride-through requirements should be 250 milliseconds. However, given that the most common fault clearing time in Europe is currently 150 milliseconds it leaves scope for the entity, as designated by the Member State to approve the requirements of this Regulation, to verify that a longer requirement is necessary before approving it.

(19)

When defining the pre-fault and post-fault conditions for the fault-ride-through capability, taking into account system characteristics such as network topology and generation mix, the relevant TSO should decide whether priority is given to pre-fault operating conditions of power-generating modules or to longer fault clearance times.

(20)

Ensuring appropriate reconnection after an incidental disconnection due to a network disturbance is important to the functioning of the interconnected system. Proper network protection is essential for maintaining system stability and security, particularly in case of disturbances to the system. Protection schemes can prevent aggravation of disturbances and limit their consequences.

(21)

Adequate information exchange between system operators and power-generating facility owners is a prerequisite for enabling system operators to maintain system stability and security. System operators need to have a continuous overview of the state of the system, which includes information on the operating conditions of power-generating modules, as well as the possibility to communicate with them in order to direct operational instructions.

(22)

In emergency situations which could endanger system stability and security, system operators should have the possibility to instruct that the output of power-generating modules be adjusted in a way which allows system operators to meet their responsibilities for system security.

(23)

Voltage ranges should be coordinated between interconnected systems because they are crucial to secure planning and operation of a power system within a synchronous area. Disconnections because of voltage disturbances have an impact on neighbouring systems. Failure to specify voltage ranges could lead to widespread uncertainty in planning and operation of the system with respect to operation beyond normal operating conditions.

(24)

The reactive power capability needs depend on several factors including the degree of network meshing and the ratio of in-feed and consumption, which should be taken into account when establishing reactive power requirements. When regional system characteristics vary within a systems operator's area of responsibility, more than one profile could be appropriate. Reactive power production, known as lagging, at high voltages and reactive power consumption, known as leading, at low voltages might not be necessary. Reactive power requirements could put constraints on the design and operation of power-generating facilities. Therefore it is important that the capabilities actually required for efficient system operation be thoroughly assessed.

(25)

Synchronous power-generating modules have an inherent capability to resist or slow down frequency deviations, a characteristic which many RES technologies do not have. Therefore countermeasures should be adopted, to avoid a larger rate of change of frequency during high RES production. Synthetic inertia could facilitate further expansion of RES, which do not naturally contribute to inertia.

(26)

Appropriate and proportionate compliance testing should be introduced so that system operators can ensure operational security.

(27)

The regulatory authorities, Member States and system operators should ensure that, in the process of developing and approving the requirements for network connection, they are harmonised to the extent possible, in order to ensure full market integration. Established technical standards should be taken into particular consideration in the development of connection requirements.

(28)

A process for derogating from the rules should be set out in this Regulation to take into account local circumstances where exceptionally, for example, compliance with those rules could jeopardise the stability of the local network or where the safe operation of a power-generating module might require operating conditions that are not in line with the Regulation. In the case of particular combined heat and power plants, which bring wider efficiency benefits, applying the rules set out in this Regulation could result in disproportionate costs and lead to the loss of those efficiency benefits.

(29)

Subject to approval by the relevant regulatory authority, or other authority where applicable in a Member State, system operators should be allowed to propose derogations for certain classes of power-generating modules.

(30)

This Regulation has been adopted on the basis of Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 which it supplements and of which it forms an integral part. References to Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 in other legal acts should be understood as also referring to this Regulation.

(31)

The measures provided for in this Regulation are in accordance with the opinion of the Committee referred to in Article 23(1) of Regulation (EC) No 714/2009

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

TITLE I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation establishes a network code which lays down the requirements for grid connection of power-generating facilities, namely synchronous power-generating modules, power park modules and offshore power park modules, to the interconnected system. It, therefore, helps to ensure fair conditions of competition in the internal electricity market, to ensure system security and the integration of renewable electricity sources, and to facilitate Union-wide trade in electricity.

This regulation also lays down the obligations for ensuring that system operators make appropriate use of the power-generating facilities' capabilities in a transparent and non-discriminatory manner to provide a level playing field throughout the Union.

Article 2

Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation, the definitions in Article 2 of Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (3), Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 714/2009, Article 2 of Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1222 (4) Article 2 of Commission Regulation (EU) No 543/2013 (5) and Article 2 of Directive 2009/72/EC shall apply.

In addition, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)

‘entity’ means a regulatory authority, other national authority, system operator or other public or private body appointed under national law.

(2)

‘synchronous area’ means an area covered by synchronously interconnected TSOs, such as the synchronous areas of Continental Europe, Great Britain, Ireland-Northern Ireland and Nordic and the power systems of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, together referred to as ‘Baltic’ which are part of a wider synchronous area;

(3)

‘voltage’ means the difference in electrical potential between two points measured as the root-mean-square value of the positive sequence phase-to-phase voltages at fundamental frequency;

(4)

‘apparent power’ means the product of voltage and current at fundamental frequency, and the square root of three in the case of three-phase systems, usually expressed in kilovolt-amperes (‘kVA’) or megavolt-amperes (‘MVA’);

(5)

‘power-generating module’ means either a synchronous power-generating module or a power park module;

(6)

‘power-generating facility’ means a facility that converts primary energy into electrical energy and which consists of one or more power-generating modules connected to a network at one or more connection points;

(7)

‘power-generating facility owner’ means a natural or legal entity owning a power-generating facility;

(8)

‘main generating plant’ means one or more of the principal items of equipment required to convert the primary source of energy into electricity;

(9)

‘synchronous power-generating module’ means an indivisible set of installations which can generate electrical energy such that the frequency of the generated voltage, the generator speed and the frequency of network voltage are in a constant ratio and thus in synchronism;

(10)

‘power-generating module document’ or ‘PGMD’ means a document provided by the power-generating facility owner to the relevant system operator for a type B or C power-generating module which confirms that the power-generating module's compliance with the technical criteria set out in this Regulation has been demonstrated and provides the necessary data and statements, including a statement of compliance;

(11)

‘relevant TSO’ means the TSO in whose control area a power-generating module, a demand facility, a distribution system or a HVDC system is or will be connected to the network at any voltage level;

(12)

‘network’ means a plant and apparatus connected together in order to transmit or distribute electricity;

(13)

‘relevant system operator’ means the transmission system operator or distribution system operator to whose system a power-generating module, demand facility, distribution system or HVDC system is or will be connected;

(14)

‘connection agreement’ means a contract between the relevant system operator and either the power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner, which includes the relevant site and specific technical requirements for the power-generating facility, demand facility, distribution system, distribution system connection or HVDC system;

(15)

‘connection point’ means the interface at which the power-generating module, demand facility, distribution system or HVDC system is connected to a transmission system, offshore network, distribution system, including closed distribution systems, or HVDC system, as identified in the connection agreement;

(16)

‘maximum capacity’ or ‘Pmax’ means the maximum continuous active power which a power-generating module can produce, less any demand associated solely with facilitating the operation of that power-generating module and not fed into the network as specified in the connection agreement or as agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner;

(17)

‘power park module’ or ‘PPM’ means a unit or ensemble of units generating electricity, which is either non-synchronously connected to the network or connected through power electronics, and that also has a single connection point to a transmission system, distribution system including closed distribution system or HVDC system;

(18)

‘offshore power park module’ means a power park module located offshore with an offshore connection point;

(19)

‘synchronous compensation operation’ means the operation of an alternator without prime mover to regulate voltage dynamically by production or absorption of reactive power;

(20)

‘active power’ means the real component of the apparent power at fundamental frequency, expressed in watts or multiples thereof such as kilowatts (‘kW’) or megawatts (‘MW’);

(21)

‘pump-storage’ means a hydro unit in which water can be raised by means of pumps and stored to be used for the generation of electrical energy;

(22)

‘frequency’ means the electric frequency of the system expressed in hertz that can be measured in all parts of the synchronous area under the assumption of a consistent value for the system in the time frame of seconds, with only minor differences between different measurement locations. Its nominal value is 50Hz;

(23)

‘droop’ means the ratio of a steady-state change of frequency to the resulting steady-state change in active power output, expressed in percentage terms. The change in frequency is expressed as a ratio to nominal frequency and the change in active power expressed as a ratio to maximum capacity or actual active power at the moment the relevant threshold is reached;

(24)

‘minimum regulating level’ means the minimum active power, as specified in the connection agreement or as agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner, down to which the power-generating module can control active power;

(25)

‘setpoint’ means the target value for any parameter typically used in control schemes;

(26)

‘instruction’ means any command, within its authority, given by a system operator to a power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner in order to perform an action;

(27)

‘secured fault’ means a fault which is successfully cleared according to the system operator's planning criteria;

(28)

‘reactive power’ means the imaginary component of the apparent power at fundamental frequency, usually expressed in kilovar (‘kVAr’) or megavar (‘MVAr’);

(29)

‘fault-ride-through’ means the capability of electrical devices to be able to remain connected to the network and operate through periods of low voltage at the connection point caused by secured faults;

(30)

‘alternator’ means a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of a rotating magnetic field;

(31)

‘current’ means the rate at which electric charge flows which is measured by the root-mean-square value of the positive sequence of the phase current at fundamental frequency;

(32)

‘stator’ means the portion of a rotating machine which includes the stationary magnetic parts with their associated windings;

(33)

‘inertia’ means the property of a rotating rigid body, such as the rotor of an alternator, such that it maintains its state of uniform rotational motion and angular momentum unless an external torque is applied;

(34)

‘synthetic inertia’ means the facility provided by a power park module or HVDC system to replace the effect of inertia of a synchronous power-generating module to a prescribed level of performance;

(35)

‘frequency control’ means the capability of a power-generating module or HVDC system to adjust its active power output in response to a measured deviation of system frequency from a setpoint, in order to maintain stable system frequency;

(36)

‘frequency sensitive mode’ or ‘FSM’ means the operating mode of a power-generating module or HVDC system in which the active power output changes in response to a change in system frequency, in such a way that it assists with the recovery to target frequency;

(37)

‘limited frequency sensitive mode — overfrequency’ or ‘LFSM-O’ means a power-generating module or HVDC system operating mode which will result in active power output reduction in response to a change in system frequency above a certain value;

(38)

‘limited frequency sensitive mode — underfrequency’‘LFSM-U’ means a power-generating module or HVDC system operating mode which will result in active power output increase in response to a change in system frequency below a certain value;

(39)

‘frequency response deadband’ means an interval used intentionally to make the frequency control unresponsive;

(40)

‘frequency response insensitivity’ means the inherent feature of the control system specified as the minimum magnitude of change in the frequency or input signal that results in a change of output power or output signal;

(41)

‘P-Q-capability diagram’ means a diagram describing the reactive power capability of a power-generating module in the context of varying active power at the connection point;

(42)

‘steady-state stability’ means the ability of a network or a synchronous power-generating module to revert and maintain stable operation following a minor disturbance;

(43)

‘island operation’ means the independent operation of a whole network or part of a network that is isolated after being disconnected from the interconnected system, having at least one power-generating module or HVDC system supplying power to this network and controlling the frequency and voltage;

(44)

‘houseload operation’ means the operation which ensures that power-generating facilities are able to continue to supply their in-house loads in the event of network failures resulting in power-generating modules being disconnected from the network and tripped onto their auxiliary supplies;

(45)

‘black start capability’ means the capability of recovery of a power-generating module from a total shutdown through a dedicated auxiliary power source without any electrical energy supply external to the power-generating facility;

(46)

‘authorised certifier’ means an entity that issues equipment certificates and power-generating module documents and whose accreditation is given by the national affiliate of the European cooperation for Accreditation (‘EA’), established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (6);

(47)

‘equipment certificate’ means a document issued by an authorised certifier for equipment used by a power-generating module, demand unit, distribution system, demand facility or HVDC system. The equipment certificate defines the scope of its validity at a national or other level at which a specific value is selected from the range allowed at a European level. For the purpose of replacing specific parts of the compliance process, the equipment certificate may include models that have been verified against actual test results;

(48)

‘excitation control system’ means a feedback control system that includes the synchronous machine and its excitation system;

(49)

‘U-Q/Pmax-profile’ means a profile representing the reactive power capability of a power-generating module or HVDC converter station in the context of varying voltage at the connection point;

(50)

‘minimum stable operating level’ means the minimum active power, as specified in the connection agreement or as agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner, at which the power-generating module can be operated stably for an unlimited time;

(51)

‘overexcitation limiter’ means a control device within the AVR which prevents the rotor of an alternator from overloading by limiting the excitation current;

(52)

‘underexcitation limiter’ means a control device within the AVR, the purpose of which is to prevent the alternator from losing synchronism due to lack of excitation;

(53)

‘automatic voltage regulator’ or ‘AVR’ means the continuously acting automatic equipment controlling the terminal voltage of a synchronous power-generating module by comparing the actual terminal voltage with a reference value and controlling the output of an excitation control system;

(54)

‘power system stabiliser’ or ‘PSS’ means an additional functionality of the AVR of a synchronous power-generating module whose purpose is to damp power oscillations;

(55)

‘fast fault current’ means a current injected by a power park module or HVDC system during and after a voltage deviation caused by an electrical fault with the aim of identifying a fault by network protection systems at the initial stage of the fault, supporting system voltage retention at a later stage of the fault and system voltage restoration after fault clearance;

(56)

‘power factor’ means the ratio of the absolute value of active power to apparent power;

(57)

‘slope’ means the ratio of the change in voltage, based on reference 1 pu voltage, to a change in reactive power in-feed from zero to maximum reactive power, based on maximum reactive power;

(58)

‘offshore grid connection system’ means the complete interconnection between an offshore connection point and the onshore system at the onshore grid interconnection point;

(59)

‘onshore grid interconnection point’ means the point at which the offshore grid connection system is connected to the onshore network of the relevant system operator;

(60)

‘installation document’ means a simple structured document containing information about a type A power-generating module or a demand unit, with demand response connected below 1 000 V, and confirming its compliance with the relevant requirements;

(61)

‘statement of compliance’ means a document provided by the power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner to the system operator stating the current status of compliance with the relevant specifications and requirements;

(62)

‘final operational notification’ or ‘FON’ means a notification issued by the relevant system operator to a power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner who complies with the relevant specifications and requirements, allowing them to operate respectively a power-generating module, demand facility, distribution system or HVDC system by using the grid connection;

(63)

‘energisation operational notification’ or ‘EON’ means a notification issued by the relevant system operator to a power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner prior to energisation of its internal network;

(64)

‘interim operational notification’ or ‘ION’ means a notification issued by the relevant system operator to a power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner which allows them to operate respectively a power-generating module, demand facility, distribution system or HVDC system by using the grid connection for a limited period of time and to initiate compliance tests to ensure compliance with the relevant specifications and requirements;

(65)

‘limited operational notification’ or ‘LON’ means a notification issued by the relevant system operator to a power-generating facility owner, demand facility owner, distribution system operator or HVDC system owner who had previously attained FON status but is temporarily subject to either a significant modification or loss of capability resulting in non-compliance with the relevant specifications and requirements.

Article 3

Scope of application

1.   The connection requirements set out in this Regulation shall apply to new power-generating modules which are considered significant in accordance with Article 5, unless otherwise provided.

The relevant system operator shall refuse to allow the connection of a power-generating module which does not comply with the requirements set out in this Regulation and which is not covered by a derogation granted by the regulatory authority, or other authority where applicable in a Member State pursuant to Article 60. The relevant system operator shall communicate such refusal, by means of a reasoned statement in writing, to the power-generating facility owner and, unless specified otherwise by the regulatory authority, to the regulatory authority.

2.   This Regulation shall not apply to:

(a)

power-generating modules connected to the transmission system and distribution systems, or to parts of the transmission system or distribution systems, of islands of Member States of which the systems are not operated synchronously with either the Continental Europe, Great Britain, Nordic, Ireland and Northern Ireland or Baltic synchronous area;

(b)

power-generating modules that were installed to provide back-up power and operate in parallel with the system for less than five minutes per calendar month while the system is in normal system state. Parallel operation during maintenance or commissioning tests of that power-generating module shall not count towards the five-minute limit;

(c)

power-generating modules that do not have a permanent connection point and are used by the system operators to temporarily provide power when normal system capacity is partly or completely unavailable;

(d)

storage devices except for pump-storage power-generating modules in accordance with Article 6(2).

Article 4

Application to existing power-generating modules

1.   Existing power-generating modules are not subject to the requirements of this Regulation, except where:

(a)

a type C or type D power-generating module has been modified to such an extent that its connection agreement must be substantially revised in accordance with the following procedure:

(i)

power-generating facility owners who intend to undertake the modernisation of a plant or replacement of equipment impacting the technical capabilities of the power-generating module shall notify their plans to the relevant system operator in advance;

(ii)

if the relevant system operator considers that the extent of the modernisation or replacement of equipment is such that a new connection agreement is required, the system operator shall notify the relevant regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State; and

(iii)

the relevant regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State shall decide if the existing connection agreement needs to be revised or a new connection agreement is required and which requirements of this Regulation shall apply; or

(b)

a regulatory authority or, where applicable, a Member State decides to make an existing power-generating module subject to all or some of the requirements of this Regulation, following a proposal from the relevant TSO in accordance with paragraphs 3, 4 and 5.

2.   For the purposes of this Regulation, a power-generating module shall be considered existing if:

(a)

it is already connected to the network on the date of entry into force of this Regulation; or

(b)

the power-generating facility owner has concluded a final and binding contract for the purchase of the main generating plant by two years after the entry into force of the Regulation. The power-generating facility owner must notify the relevant system operator and relevant TSO of conclusion of the contract within 30 months after the entry into force of the Regulation.

The notification submitted by the power-generating facility owner to the relevant system operator and to the relevant TSO shall at least indicate the contract title, its date of signature and date of entry into force and the specifications of the main generating plant to be constructed, assembled or purchased.

A Member State may provide that in specified circumstances the regulatory authority may determine whether the power-generating module is to be considered an existing power-generating module or a new power-generating module.

3.   Following a public consultation in accordance with Article 10 and in order to address significant factual changes in circumstances, such as the evolution of system requirements including penetration of renewable energy sources, smart grids, distributed generation or demand response, the relevant TSO may propose to the regulatory authority concerned, or where applicable, to the Member State to extend the application of this Regulation to existing power-generating modules.

For that purpose a sound and transparent quantitative cost-benefit analysis shall be carried out, in accordance with Articles 38 and 39. The analysis shall indicate:

(a)

the costs, in regard to existing power-generating modules, of requiring compliance with this Regulation;

(b)

the socioeconomic benefit resulting from applying the requirements set out in this Regulation; and

(c)

the potential of alternative measures to achieve the required performance.

4.   Before carrying out the quantitative cost-benefit analysis referred to in paragraph 3, the relevant TSO shall:

(a)

carry out a preliminary qualitative comparison of costs and benefits;

(b)

obtain approval from the relevant regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State.

5.   The relevant regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State shall decide on the extension of the applicability of this Regulation to existing power-generating modules within six months of receipt of the report and the recommendation of the relevant TSO in accordance with Article 38(4). The decision of the regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State shall be published.

6.   The relevant TSO shall take account of the legitimate expectations of power-generating facility owners as part of the assessment of the application of this Regulation to existing power-generating modules.

7.   The relevant TSO may assess the application of some or all of the provisions of this Regulation to existing power-generating modules every three years in accordance with the criteria and process set out in paragraphs 3 to 5.

Article 5

Determination of significance

1.   The power-generating modules shall comply with the requirements on the basis of the voltage level of their connection point and their maximum capacity according to the categories set out in paragraph 2.

2.   Power-generating modules within the following categories shall be considered as significant:

(a)

connection point below 110 kV and maximum capacity of 0,8 kW or more (type A);

(b)

connection point below 110 kV and maximum capacity at or above a threshold proposed by each relevant TSO in accordance with the procedure laid out in paragraph 3 (type B). This threshold shall not be above the limits for type B power-generating modules contained in Table 1;

(c)

connection point below 110 kV and maximum capacity at or above a threshold specified by each relevant TSO in accordance with paragraph 3 (type C). This threshold shall not be above the limits for type C power-generating modules contained in Table 1; or

(d)

connection point at 110 kV or above (type D). A power-generating module is also of type D if its connection point is below 110 kV and its maximum capacity is at or above a threshold specified in accordance with paragraph 3. This threshold shall not be above the limit for type D power-generating modules contained in Table 1.

Table 1

Limits for thresholds for type B, C and D power-generating modules

Synchronous areas

Limit for maximum capacity threshold from which a power-generating module is of type B

Limit for maximum capacity threshold from which a power-generating module is of type C

Limit for maximum capacity threshold from which a power-generating module is of type D

Continental Europe

1 MW

50 MW

75 MW

Great Britain

1 MW

50 MW

75 MW

Nordic

1,5 MW

10 MW

30 MW

Ireland and Northern Ireland

0,1 MW

5 MW

10 MW

Baltic

0,5 MW

10 MW

15 MW

3.   Proposals for maximum capacity thresholds for types B, C and D power-generating modules shall be subject to approval by the relevant regulatory authority or, where applicable, the Member State. In forming proposals the relevant TSO shall coordinate with adjacent TSOs and DSOs and shall conduct a public consultation in accordance with Article 10. A proposal by the relevant TSO to change the thresholds shall not be made sooner than three years after the previous proposal.

4.   Power-generating facility owners shall assist this process and provide data as requested by the relevant TSO.

5.   If, as a result of modification of the thresholds, a power-generating module qualifies under a different type, the procedure laid down in Article 4(3) concerning existing power-generating modules shall apply before compliance with the requirements for the new type is required.

Article 6

Application to power-generating modules, pump-storage power-generating modules, combined heat and power facilities, and industrial sites

1.   Offshore power-generating modules connected to the interconnected system shall meet the requirements for onshore power-generating modules, unless the requirements are modified for this purpose by the relevant system operator or unless the connection of power park modules is via a high voltage direct current connection or via a network whose frequency is not synchronously coupled to that of the main interconnected system (such as via a back-to-back convertor scheme).

2.   Pump-storage power-generating modules shall fulfil all the relevant requirements in both generating and pumping operation mode. Synchronous compensation operation of pump-storage power-generating modules shall not be limited in time by the technical design of power-generating modules. Pump-storage variable speed power-generating modules shall fulfil the requirements applicable to synchronous power-generating modules as well as those set out in point (b) of Article 20(2), if they qualify as type B, C or D.

3.   With respect to power-generating modules embedded in the networks of industrial sites, power-generating facility owners, system operators of industrial sites and relevant system operators whose network is connected to the network of an industrial site shall have the right to agree on conditions for disconnection of such power-generating modules together with critical loads, which secure production processes, from the relevant system operator's network. The exercise of this right shall be coordinated with the relevant TSO.

4.   Except for requirements under paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 13 or where otherwise stated in the national framework, requirements of this Regulation relating to the capability to maintain constant active power output or to modulate active power output shall not apply to power-generating modules of facilities for combined heat and power production embedded in the networks of industrial sites, where all of the following criteria are met:

(a)

the primary purpose of those facilities is to produce heat for production processes of the industrial site concerned;

(b)

heat and power-generating is inextricably interlinked, that is to say any change of heat generation results inadvertently in a change of active power-generating and vice versa;

(c)

the power-generating modules are of type A, B, C or, in the case of the Nordic synchronous area, type D in accordance with points (a) to (c) of Article 5(2).

5.   Combined heat and power-generating facilities shall be assessed on the basis of their electrical maximum capacity.

Article 7

Regulatory aspects

1.   Requirements of general application to be established by relevant system operators or TSOs under this Regulation shall be subject to approval by the entity designated by the Member State and be published. The designated entity shall be the regulatory authority unless otherwise provided by the Member State.

2.   For site specific requirements to be established by relevant system operators or TSOs under this Regulation, Member States may require approval by a designated entity.

3.   When applying this Regulation, Member States, competent entities and system operators shall:

(a)

apply the principles of proportionality and non-discrimination;

(b)

ensure transparency;

(c)

apply the principle of optimisation between the highest overall efficiency and lowest total costs for all parties involved;

(d)

respect the responsibility assigned to the relevant TSO in order to ensure system security, including as required by national legislation;

(e)

consult with relevant DSOs and take account of potential impacts on their system;

(f)

take into consideration agreed European standards and technical specifications.

4.   The relevant system operator or TSO shall submit a proposal for requirements of general application, or the methodology used to calculate or establish them, for approval by the competent entity within two years of entry into force of this Regulation.

5.   Where this Regulation requires the relevant system operator, relevant TSO, power-generating facility owner and/or the distribution system operator to seek agreement, they shall endeavour to do so within six months after a first proposal has been submitted by one party to the other parties. If no agreement has been found within this time frame, each party may request the relevant regulatory authority to issue a decision within six months.

6.   Competent entities shall take decisions on proposals for requirements or methodologies within six months following the receipt of such proposals.

7.   If the relevant system operator or TSO deems an amendment to requirements or methodologies as provided for and approved under paragraph 1 and 2 to be necessary, the requirements provided for in paragraphs 3 to 8 shall apply to the proposed amendment. System operators and TSOs proposing an amendment shall take into account the legitimate expectations, if any, of power-generating facility owners, equipment manufacturers and other stakeholders based on the initially specified or agreed requirements or methodologies.

8.   Any party having a complaint against a relevant system operator or TSO in relation to that relevant system operator's or TSO's obligations under this Regulation may refer the complaint to the regulatory authority which, acting as dispute settlement authority, shall issue a decision within two months after receipt of the complaint. That period may be extended by two months where additional information is sought by the regulatory authority. That extended period may be further extended with the agreement of the complainant. The regulatory authority's decision shall have binding effect unless and until overruled on appeal.

9.   Where the requirements under this Regulation are to be established by a relevant system operator that is not a TSO, Member States may provide that instead the TSO be responsible for establishing the relevant requirements.

Article 8

Multiple TSOs

1.   Where more than one TSO exists in a Member State, this Regulation shall apply to all those TSOs.

2.   Member States may, under the national regulatory regime, provide that the responsibility of a TSO to comply with one or some or all obligations under this Regulation is assigned to one or more specific TSOs.

Article 9

Recovery of costs

1.   The costs borne by system operators subject to network tariff regulation and stemming from the obligations laid down in this Regulation shall be assessed by the relevant regulatory authorities. Costs assessed as reasonable, efficient and proportionate shall be recovered through network tariffs or other appropriate mechanisms.

2.   If requested by the relevant regulatory authorities, system operators referred to in paragraph 1 shall, within three months of the request, provide the information necessary to facilitate assessment of the costs incurred.

Article 10

Public consultation

1.   Relevant system operators and relevant TSOs shall carry out consultation with stakeholders, including the competent authorities of each Member State, on proposals to extend the applicability of this Regulation to existing power-generating modules in accordance with Article 4(3), for the proposal for thresholds in accordance with Article 5(3), and on the report prepared in accordance with Article 38(3) and the cost-benefit analysis undertaken in accordance with Article 63(2). The consultation shall last at least for a period of one month.

2.   The relevant system operators or relevant TSOs shall duly take into account the views of the stakeholders resulting from the consultations prior to the submission of the draft proposal for thresholds, the report or cost benefit analysis for approval by the regulatory authority or, if applicable, the Member State. In all cases, a sound justification for including or not the views of the stakeholders shall be provided and published in a timely manner before, or simultaneously with, the publication of the proposal.

Article 11

Stakeholder involvement

The Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (the Agency), in close cooperation with the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO for Electricity), shall organise stakeholder involvement regarding the requirements for grid connection of power-generating facilities, and other aspects of the implementation of this Regulation. This shall include regular meetings with stakeholders to identify problems and propose improvements notably related to the requirements for grid connection of power-generating facilities.

Article 12

Confidentiality obligations

1.   Any confidential information received, exchanged or transmitted pursuant to this Regulation shall be subject to the conditions of professional secrecy laid down in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4.

2.   The obligation of professional secrecy shall apply to any persons, regulatory authorities or entities subject to the provisions of this Regulation.

3.   Confidential information received by the persons, regulatory authorities or entities referred to in paragraph 2 in the course of their duties may not be divulged to any other person or authority, without prejudice to cases covered by national law, the other provisions of this Regulation or other relevant Union law.

4.   Without prejudice to cases covered by national or Union law, regulatory authorities, entities or persons who receive confidential information pursuant to this Regulation may use it only for the purpose of carrying out their duties under this Regulation.

TITLE II

REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 1

General requirements

Article 13

General requirements for type A power-generating modules

1.   Type A power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to frequency stability:

(a)

With regard to frequency ranges:

(i)

a power-generating module shall be capable of remaining connected to the network and operate within the frequency ranges and time periods specified in Table 2;

(ii)

the relevant system operator, in coordination with the relevant TSO, and the power-generating facility owner may agree on wider frequency ranges, longer minimum times for operation or specific requirements for combined frequency and voltage deviations to ensure the best use of the technical capabilities of a power-generating module, if it is required to preserve or to restore system security;

(iii)

the power-generating facility owner shall not unreasonably withhold consent to apply wider frequency ranges or longer minimum times for operation, taking account of their economic and technical feasibility.

(b)

With regard to the rate of change of frequency withstand capability, a power-generating module shall be capable of staying connected to the network and operate at rates of change of frequency up to a value specified by the relevant TSO, unless disconnection was triggered by rate-of-change-of-frequency-type loss of mains protection. The relevant system operator, in coordination with the relevant TSO, shall specify this rate-of-change-of-frequency-type loss of mains protection.

Table 2

Minimum time periods for which a power-generating module has to be capable of operating on different frequencies, deviating from a nominal value, without disconnecting from the network.

Synchronous area

Frequency range

Time period for operation

Continental Europe

47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 30 minutes

48,5 Hz-49,0 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than the period for 47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

49,0 Hz-51,0 Hz

Unlimited

51,0 Hz-51,5 Hz

30 minutes

Nordic

47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

30 minutes

48,5 Hz-49,0 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 30 minutes

49,0 Hz-51,0 Hz

Unlimited

51,0 Hz-51,5 Hz

30 minutes

Great Britain

47,0 Hz-47,5 Hz

20 seconds

47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

90 minutes

48,5 Hz-49,0 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 90 minutes

49,0 Hz-51,0 Hz

Unlimited

51,0 Hz-51,5 Hz

90 minutes

51,5 Hz-52,0 Hz

15 minutes

Ireland and Northern Ireland

47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

90 minutes

48,5 Hz-49,0 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 90 minutes

49,0 Hz-51,0 Hz

Unlimited

51,0 Hz-51,5 Hz

90 minutes

Baltic

47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 30 minutes

48,5 Hz-49,0 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than the period for 47,5 Hz-48,5 Hz

49,0 Hz-51,0 Hz

Unlimited

51,0 Hz-51,5 Hz

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 30 minutes

2.   With regard to the limited frequency sensitive mode — overfrequency (LFSM-O), the following shall apply, as determined by the relevant TSO for its control area in coordination with the TSOs of the same synchronous area to ensure minimal impacts on neighbouring areas:

(a)

the power-generating module shall be capable of activating the provision of active power frequency response according to figure 1 at a frequency threshold and droop settings specified by the relevant TSO;

(b)

instead of the capability referred to in paragraph (a), the relevant TSO may choose to allow within its control area automatic disconnection and reconnection of power-generating modules of Type A at randomised frequencies, ideally uniformly distributed, above a frequency threshold, as determined by the relevant TSO where it is able to demonstrate to the relevant regulatory authority, and with the cooperation of power-generating facility owners, that this has a limited cross-border impact and maintains the same level of operational security in all system states;

(c)

the frequency threshold shall be between 50,2 Hz and 50,5 Hz inclusive;

(d)

the droop settings shall be between 2 % and 12 %;

(e)

the power-generating module shall be capable of activating a power frequency response with an initial delay that is as short as possible. If that delay is greater than two seconds, the power-generating facility owner shall justify the delay, providing technical evidence to the relevant TSO;

(f)

the relevant TSO may require that upon reaching minimum regulating level, the power-generating module be capable of either:

(i)

continuing operation at this level; or

(ii)

further decreasing active power output;

(g)

the power-generating module shall be capable of operating stably during LFSM-O operation. When LFSM-O is active, the LFSM-O setpoint will prevail over any other active power setpoints.

Figure 1

Active power frequency response capability of power-generating modules in LFSM-O

Image 1

·

Synchronous Power Generating Modules:

Pref is the Maximum Capacity

·

Power Park Modules:

Pref is the actual Active Power output at the moment the LFSM-O threshold is reached or the Maximum Capacity, as defined by the Relevant TSO

Pref is the reference active power to which ΔΡ is related and may be specified differently for synchronous power-generating modules and power park modules. ΔΡ is the change in active power output from the power-generating module. fn is the nominal frequency (50 Hz) in the network and Δf is the frequency deviation in the network. At overfrequencies where Δf is above Δf1, the power-generating module has to provide a negative active power output change according to the droop S2.

3.   The power-generating module shall be capable of maintaining constant output at its target active power value regardless of changes in frequency, except where output follows the changes specified in the context of paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Article or points (c) and (d) of Article 15(2) as applicable.

4.   The relevant TSO shall specify admissible active power reduction from maximum output with falling frequency in its control area as a rate of reduction falling within the boundaries, illustrated by the full lines in Figure 2:

(a)

below 49 Hz falling by a reduction rate of 2 % of the maximum capacity at 50 Hz per 1 Hz frequency drop;

(b)

below 49,5 Hz falling by a reduction rate of 10 % of the maximum capacity at 50 Hz per 1 Hz frequency drop.

5.   The admissible active power reduction from maximum output shall:

(a)

clearly specify the ambient conditions applicable;

(b)

take account of the technical capabilities of power-generating modules.

Figure 2

Maximum power capability reduction with falling frequency

Image 2

The diagram represents the boundaries in which the capability can be specified by the relevant TSO.

6.   The power-generating module shall be equipped with a logic interface (input port) in order to cease active power output within five seconds following an instruction being received at the input port. The relevant system operator shall have the right to specify requirements for equipment to make this facility operable remotely.

7.   The relevant TSO shall specify the conditions under which a power-generating module is capable of connecting automatically to the network. Those conditions shall include:

(a)

frequency ranges within which an automatic connection is admissible, and a corresponding delay time; and

(b)

maximum admissible gradient of increase in active power output.

Automatic connection is allowed unless specified otherwise by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO.

Article 14

General requirements for type B power-generating modules

1.   Type B power-generating modules shall fulfil the requirements set out in Article 13, except for Article 13(2)(b).

2.   Type B power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements in relation to frequency stability:

(a)

to control active power output, the power-generating module shall be equipped with an interface (input port) in order to be able to reduce active power output following an instruction at the input port; and

(b)

the relevant system operator shall have the right to specify the requirements for further equipment to allow active power output to be remotely operated.

3.   Type B power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements in relation to robustness:

(a)

with regard to fault-ride-through capability of power-generating modules:

(i)

each TSO shall specify a voltage-against-time-profile in line with Figure 3 at the connection point for fault conditions, which describes the conditions in which the power-generating module is capable of staying connected to the network and continuing to operate stably after the power system has been disturbed by secured faults on the transmission system;

(ii)

the voltage-against-time-profile shall express a lower limit of the actual course of the phase-to-phase voltages on the network voltage level at the connection point during a symmetrical fault, as a function of time before, during and after the fault;

(iii)

the lower limit referred to in point (ii) shall be specified by the relevant TSO using the parameters set out in Figure 3, and within the ranges set out in Tables 3.1 and 3.2;

(iv)

each TSO shall specify and make publicly available the pre-fault and post-fault conditions for the fault-ride-through capability in terms of:

the calculation of the pre-fault minimum short circuit capacity at the connection point,

pre-fault active and reactive power operating point of the power-generating module at the connection point and voltage at the connection point, and

calculation of the post-fault minimum short circuit capacity at the connection point;

(v)

at the request of a power-generating facility owner, the relevant system operator shall provide the pre-fault and post-fault conditions to be considered for fault-ride-through capability as an outcome of the calculations at the connection point as specified in point (iv) regarding:

pre-fault minimum short circuit capacity at each connection point expressed in MVA,

pre-fault operating point of the power-generating module expressed in active power output and reactive power output at the connection point and voltage at the connection point, and

post-fault minimum short circuit capacity at each connection point expressed in MVA.

Alternatively, the relevant system operator may provide generic values derived from typical cases;

Figure 3

Fault-ride-through profile of a power-generating module

Image 3

t/sec

trec2

trec3

trec1

0

tclear

Uret

Uclear

Urec1

Urec2

1.0

U/p.u.

The diagram represents the lower limit of a voltage-against-time profile of the voltage at the connection point, expressed as the ratio of its actual value and its reference 1 pu value before, during and after a fault. Uret is the retained voltage at the connection point during a fault, tclear is the instant when the fault has been cleared. Urec1, Urec2, trec1, trec2 and trec3 specify certain points of lower limits of voltage recovery after fault clearance.

Table 3.1

Parameters for Figure 3 for fault-ride-through capability of synchronous power-generating modules

Voltage parameters (pu)

Time parameters (seconds)

Uret:

0,05-0,3

tclear:

0,14-0,15 (or 0,14-0,25 if system protection and secure operation so require)

Uclear:

0,7-0,9

trec1:

tclear

Urec1:

Uclear

trec2:

trec1-0,7

Urec2:

0,85-0,9 and ≥ Uclear

trec3:

trec2-1,5


Table 3.2

Parameters for Figure 3 for fault-ride-through capability of power park modules

Voltage parameters (pu)

Time parameters (seconds)

Uret:

0,05-0,15

tclear:

0,14-0,15 (or 0,14-0,25 if system protection and secure operation so require)

Uclear:

Uret-0,15

trec1:

tclear

Urec1:

Uclear

trec2:

trec1

Urec2:

0,85

trec3:

1,5-3,0

(vi)

the power-generating module shall be capable of remaining connected to the network and continuing to operate stably when the actual course of the phase-to-phase voltages on the network voltage level at the connection point during a symmetrical fault, given the pre-fault and post-fault conditions in points (iv) and (v) of paragraph 3(a), remain above the lower limit specified in point (ii) of paragraph 3(a), unless the protection scheme for internal electrical faults requires the disconnection of the power-generating module from the network. The protection schemes and settings for internal electrical faults must not jeopardise fault-ride-through performance;

(vii)

without prejudice to point (vi) of paragraph 3(a), undervoltage protection (either fault-ride-through capability or minimum voltage specified at the connection point voltage) shall be set by the power-generating facility owner according to the widest possible technical capability of the power-generating module, unless the relevant system operator requires narrower settings in accordance with point (b) of paragraph 5. The settings shall be justified by the power-generating facility owner in accordance with this principle;

(b)

fault-ride-through capabilities in case of asymmetrical faults shall be specified by each TSO.

4.   Type B power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to system restoration:

(a)

the relevant TSO shall specify the conditions under which a power-generating module is capable of reconnecting to the network after an incidental disconnection caused by a network disturbance; and

(b)

installation of automatic reconnection systems shall be subject both to prior authorisation by the relevant system operator and to the reconnection conditions specified by the relevant TSO.

5.   Type B power-generating modules shall fulfil the following general system management requirements:

(a)

with regard to control schemes and settings:

(i)

the schemes and settings of the different control devices of the power-generating module that are necessary for transmission system stability and for taking emergency action shall be coordinated and agreed between the relevant TSO, the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner;

(ii)

any changes to the schemes and settings, mentioned in point (i), of the different control devices of the power-generating module shall be coordinated and agreed between the relevant TSO, the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner, in particular if they apply in the circumstances referred to in point (i) of paragraph 5(a);

(b)

with regard to electrical protection schemes and settings:

(i)

the relevant system operator shall specify the schemes and settings necessary to protect the network, taking into account the characteristics of the power-generating module. The protection schemes needed for the power-generating module and the network as well as the settings relevant to the power-generating module shall be coordinated and agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner. The protection schemes and settings for internal electrical faults must not jeopardise the performance of a power-generating module, in line with the requirements set out in this Regulation;

(ii)

electrical protection of the power-generating module shall take precedence over operational controls, taking into account the security of the system and the health and safety of staff and of the public, as well as mitigating any damage to the power-generating module;

(iii)

protection schemes may cover the following aspects:

external and internal short circuit,

asymmetric load (negative phase sequence),

stator and rotor overload,

over-/underexcitation,

over-/undervoltage at the connection point,

over-/undervoltage at the alternator terminals,

inter-area oscillations,

inrush current,

asynchronous operation (pole slip),

protection against inadmissible shaft torsions (for example, subsynchronous resonance),

power-generating module line protection,

unit transformer protection,

back-up against protection and switchgear malfunction,

overfluxing (U/f),

inverse power,

rate of change of frequency, and

neutral voltage displacement.

(iv)

changes to the protection schemes needed for the power-generating module and the network and to the settings relevant to the power-generating module shall be agreed between the system operator and the power-generating facility owner, and agreement shall be reached before any changes are made;

(c)

the power-generating facility owner shall organise its protection and control devices in accordance with the following priority ranking (from highest to lowest):

(i)

network and power-generating module protection;

(ii)

synthetic inertia, if applicable;

(iii)

frequency control (active power adjustment);

(iv)

power restriction; and

(v)

power gradient constraint;

(d)

with regard to information exchange:

(i)

power-generating facilities shall be capable of exchanging information with the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO in real time or periodically with time stamping, as specified by the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO;

(ii)

the relevant system operator, in coordination with the relevant TSO, shall specify the content of information exchanges including a precise list of data to be provided by the power-generating facility.

Article 15

General requirements for type C power-generating modules

1.   Type C power-generating modules shall fulfil the requirements laid down in Articles 13 and 14, except for Article 13(2)(b) and (6) and Article 14(2).

2.   Type C power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to frequency stability:

(a)

with regard to active power controllability and control range, the power-generating module control system shall be capable of adjusting an active power setpoint in line with instructions given to the power-generating facility owner by the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO.

The relevant system operator or the relevant TSO shall establish the period within which the adjusted active power setpoint must be reached. The relevant TSO shall specify a tolerance (subject to the availability of the prime mover resource) applying to the new setpoint and the time within which it must be reached;

(b)

manual local measures shall be allowed in cases where the automatic remote control devices are out of service.

The relevant system operator or the relevant TSO shall notify the regulatory authority of the time required to reach the setpoint together with the tolerance for the active power;

(c)

In addition to Article 13(2), the following requirements shall apply to type C power-generating modules with regard to limited frequency sensitive mode — underfrequency (LFSM-U):

(i)

the power-generating module shall be capable of activating the provision of active power frequency response at a frequency threshold and with a droop specified by the relevant TSO in coordination with the TSOs of the same synchronous area as follows:

the frequency threshold specified by the TSO shall be between 49,8 Hz and 49,5 Hz inclusive,

the droop settings specified by the TSO shall be in the range 2-12 %.

This is represented graphically in Figure 4;

(ii)

the actual delivery of active power frequency response in LFSM-U mode shall take into account:

ambient conditions when the response is to be triggered,

the operating conditions of the power-generating module, in particular limitations on operation near maximum capacity at low frequencies and the respective impact of ambient conditions according to paragraphs 4 and 5 of Article 13, and

the availability of the primary energy sources.

(iii)

the activation of active power frequency response by the power-generating module shall not be unduly delayed. In the event of any delay greater than two seconds, the power-generating facility owner shall justify it to the relevant TSO;

(iv)

in LFSM-U mode the power-generating module shall be capable of providing a power increase up to its maximum capacity;

(v)

stable operation of the power-generating module during LFSM-U operation shall be ensured;

Figure 4

Active power frequency response capability of power-generating modules in LFSM-U

Image 4

·

Synchronous Power Generating Modules:

Pref is the Maximum Capacity

·

Power Park Modules:

Pref is the actual Active Power output at the moment the LFSM-U threshold is reached or the Maximum Capacity, as defined by the Relevant TSO

Pref is the reference active power to which ΔΡ is related and may be specified differently for synchronous power-generating modules and power park modules. ΔΡ is the change in active power output from the power-generating module. fn is the nominal frequency (50 Hz) in the network and Δf is the frequency deviation in the network. At underfrequencies where Δf is below Δf1 the power-generating module has to provide a positive active power output change according to the droop S2.

(d)

in addition to point (c) of paragraph 2, the following shall apply cumulatively when frequency sensitive mode (‘FSM’) is operating:

(i)

the power-generating module shall be capable of providing active power frequency response in accordance with the parameters specified by each relevant TSO within the ranges shown in Table 4. In specifying those parameters, the relevant TSO shall take account of the following facts:

in case of overfrequency, the active power frequency response is limited by the minimum regulating level,

in case of underfrequency, the active power frequency response is limited by maximum capacity,

the actual delivery of active power frequency response depends on the operating and ambient conditions of the power-generating module when this response is triggered, in particular limitations on operation near maximum capacity at low frequencies according to paragraphs 4 and 5 of Article 13 and available primary energy sources;

Table 4

Parameters for active power frequency response in FSM (explanation for Figure 5)

Parameters

Ranges

Active power range related to maximum capacity

Formula

1,5-10 %

Frequency response insensitivity

Formula

10-30 mHz

Formula

0,02-0,06 %

Frequency response deadband

0-500 mHz

Droop s 1

2-12 %

Figure 5

Active power frequency response capability of power-generating modules in FSM illustrating the case of zero deadband and insensitivity

Image 5

·

Synchronous Power Generating Modules:

Pref is the Maximum Capacity

·

Power Park Modules:

Pref is the actual Active Power output at the moment the FSM threshold is reached or the Maximum Capacity, as defined by the Relevant TSO.

Pref is the reference active power to which ΔΡ is related. ΔΡ is the change in active power output from the power-generating module. fn is the nominal frequency (50 Hz) in the network and Δf is the frequency deviation in the network.

(ii)

the frequency response deadband of frequency deviation and droop must be able to be reselected repeatedly;

(iii)

in the event of a frequency step change, the power-generating module shall be capable of activating full active power frequency response, at or above the full line shown in Figure 6 in accordance with the parameters specified by each TSO (which shall aim at avoiding active power oscillations for the power-generating module) within the ranges given in Table 5. The combination of choice of the parameters specified by the TSO shall take possible technology-dependent limitations into account;

(iv)

the initial activation of active power frequency response required shall not be unduly delayed.

If the delay in initial activation of active power frequency response is greater than two seconds, the power-generating facility owner shall provide technical evidence demonstrating why a longer time is needed.

For power-generating modules without inertia, the relevant TSO may specify a shorter time than two seconds. If the power-generating facility owner cannot meet this requirement they shall provide technical evidence demonstrating why a longer time is needed for the initial activation of active power frequency response;

Figure 6

Active power frequency response capability

Image 6

Pmax is the maximum capacity to which ΔΡ relates. ΔΡ is the change in active power output from the power-generating module. The power-generating module has to provide active power output ΔΡ up to the point ΔΡ1 in accordance with the times t1 and t2 with the values of ΔΡ1, t1and t2 being specified by the relevant TSO according to Table 5. t1 is the initial delay. t2 is the time for full activation.

(v)

the power-generating module shall be capable of providing full active power frequency response for a period of between 15 and 30 minutes as specified by the relevant TSO. In specifying the period, the TSO shall have regard to active power headroom and primary energy source of the power-generating module;

(vi)

within the time limits laid down in point (v) of paragraph 2(d), active power control must not have any adverse impact on the active power frequency response of power-generating modules;

(vii)

the parameters specified by the relevant TSO in accordance with points (i), (ii), (iii) and (v) shall be notified to the relevant regulatory authority. The modalities of that notification shall be specified in accordance with the applicable national regulatory framework;

Table 5

Parameters for full activation of active power frequency response resulting from frequency step change (explanation for Figure 6)

Parameters

Ranges or values

Active power range related to maximum capacity (frequency response range)

Formula

1,5-10 %

For power-generating modules with inertia, the maximum admissible initial delay t 1 unless justified otherwise in line with Article 15(2)(d)(iv)

2 seconds

For power-generating modules without inertia, the maximum admissible initial delay t 1 unless justified otherwise in line with Article 15(2)(d)(iv)

as specified by the relevant TSO.

Maximum admissible choice of full activation time t 2, unless longer activation times are allowed by the relevant TSO for reasons of system stability

30 seconds

(e)

with regard to frequency restoration control, the power-generating module shall provide functionalities complying with specifications specified by the relevant TSO, aiming at restoring frequency to its nominal value or maintaining power exchange flows between control areas at their scheduled values;

(f)

with regard to disconnection due to underfrequency, power-generating facilities capable of acting as a load, including hydro pump-storage power-generating facilities, shall be capable of disconnecting their load in case of underfrequency. The requirement referred to in this point does not extend to auxiliary supply;

(g)

with regard to real-time monitoring of FSM:

(i)

to monitor the operation of active power frequency response, the communication interface shall be equipped to transfer in real time and in a secured manner from the power-generating facility to the network control centre of the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO, at the request of the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO, at least the following signals:

status signal of FSM (on/off),

scheduled active power output,

actual value of the active power output,

actual parameter settings for active power frequency response,

droop and deadband;

(ii)

the relevant system operator and the relevant TSO shall specify additional signals to be provided by the power-generating facility by monitoring and recording devices in order to verify the performance of the active power frequency response provision of participating power-generating modules.

3.   With regard to voltage stability, type C power-generating modules shall be capable of automatic disconnection when voltage at the connection point reaches levels specified by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO.

The terms and settings for actual automatic disconnection of power-generating modules shall be specified by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO.

4.   Type C power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to robustness:

(a)

in the event of power oscillations, power-generating modules shall retain steady-state stability when operating at any operating point of the P-Q-capability diagram;

(b)

without prejudice to paragraph 4 and 5 of Article 13, power-generating modules shall be capable of remaining connected to the network and operating without power reduction, as long as voltage and frequency remain within the specified limits pursuant to this Regulation;

(c)

power-generating modules shall be capable of remaining connected to the network during single-phase or three-phase auto-reclosures on meshed network lines, if applicable to the network to which they are connected. The details of that capability shall be subject to coordination and agreements on protection schemes and settings as referred to in point (b) of Article 14(5).

5.   Type C power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to system restoration:

(a)

with regard to black start capability:

(i)

black start capability is not mandatory without prejudice to the Member State's rights to introduce obligatory rules in order to ensure system security;

(ii)

power-generating facility owners shall, at the request of the relevant TSO, provide a quotation for providing black start capability. The relevant TSO may make such a request if it considers system security to be at risk due to a lack of black start capability in its control area;

(iii)

a power-generating module with black start capability shall be capable of starting from shutdown without any external electrical energy supply within a time frame specified by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO;

(iv)

a power-generating module with black start capability shall be able to synchronise within the frequency limits laid down in point (a) of Article 13(1) and, where applicable, voltage limits specified by the relevant system operator or in Article 16(2);

(v)

a power-generating module with black start capability shall be capable of automatically regulating dips in voltage caused by connection of demand;

(vi)

a power-generating module with black start capability shall:

be capable of regulating load connections in block load,

be capable of operating in LFSM-O and LFSM-U, as specified in point (c) of paragraph 2 and Article 13(2),

control frequency in case of overfrequency and underfrequency within the whole active power output range between minimum regulating level and maximum capacity as well as at houseload level,

be capable of parallel operation of a few power-generating modules within one island, and

control voltage automatically during the system restoration phase;

(b)

with regard to the capability to take part in island operation:

(i)

power-generating modules shall be capable of taking part in island operation if required by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO and:

the frequency limits for island operation shall be those established in accordance with point (a) of Article 13(1),

the voltage limits for island operation shall be those established in accordance with Article 15(3) or Article 16(2), where applicable;

(ii)

power-generating modules shall be able to operate in FSM during island operation, as specified in point (d) of paragraph 2.

In the event of a power surplus, power-generating modules shall be capable of reducing the active power output from a previous operating point to any new operating point within the P-Q-capability diagram. In that regard, the power-generating module shall be capable of reducing active power output as much as inherently technically feasible, but to at least 55 % of its maximum capacity;

(iii)

the method for detecting a change from interconnected system operation to island operation shall be agreed between the power-generating facility owner and the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO. The agreed method of detection must not rely solely on the system operator's switchgear position signals;

(iv)

power-generating modules shall be able to operate in LFSM-O and LFSM-U during island operation, as specified in point (c) of paragraph 2 and Article 13(2);

(c)

with regard to quick re-synchronisation capability:

(i)

in case of disconnection of the power-generating module from the network, the power-generating module shall be capable of quick re-synchronisation in line with the protection strategy agreed between the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO and the power-generating facility;

(ii)

a power-generating module with a minimum re-synchronisation time greater than 15 minutes after its disconnection from any external power supply must be designed to trip to houseload from any operating point in its P-Q-capability diagram. In this case, the identification of houseload operation must not be based solely on the system operator's switchgear position signals;

(iii)

power-generating modules shall be capable of continuing operation following tripping to houseload, irrespective of any auxiliary connection to the external network. The minimum operation time shall be specified by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO, taking into consideration the specific characteristics of prime mover technology.

6.   Type C power-generating modules shall fulfil the following general system management requirements:

(a)

with regard to loss of angular stability or loss of control, a power-generating module shall be capable of disconnecting automatically from the network in order to help preserve system security or to prevent damage to the power-generating module. The power-generating facility owner and the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO shall agree on the criteria for detecting loss of angular stability or loss of control;

(b)

with regard to instrumentation:

(i)

power-generating facilities shall be equipped with a facility to provide fault recording and monitoring of dynamic system behaviour. This facility shall record the following parameters:

voltage,

active power,

reactive power, and

frequency.

The relevant system operator shall have the right to specify quality of supply parameters to be complied with on condition that reasonable prior notice is given;

(ii)

the settings of the fault recording equipment, including triggering criteria and the sampling rates shall be agreed between the power-generating facility owner and the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO;

(iii)

the dynamic system behaviour monitoring shall include an oscillation trigger specified by the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO, with the purpose of detecting poorly damped power oscillations;

(iv)

the facilities for quality of supply and dynamic system behaviour monitoring shall include arrangements for the power-generating facility owner, and the relevant system operator and the relevant TSO to access the information. The communications protocols for recorded data shall be agreed between the power-generating facility owner, the relevant system operator and the relevant TSO;

(c)

with regard to the simulation models:

(i)

at the request of the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO, the power-generating facility owner shall provide simulation models which properly reflect the behaviour of the power-generating module in both steady-state and dynamic simulations (50 Hz component) or in electromagnetic transient simulations.

The power-generating facility owner shall ensure that the models provided have been verified against the results of compliance tests referred to in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of Title IV, and shall notify the results of the verification to the relevant system operator or relevant TSO. Member States may require that such verification be carried out by an authorised certifier;

(ii)

the models provided by the power-generating facility owner shall contain the following sub-models, depending on the existence of the individual components:

alternator and prime mover,

speed and power control,

voltage control, including, if applicable, power system stabiliser (‘PSS’) function and excitation control system,

power-generating module protection models, as agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner, and

converter models for power park modules;

(iii)

the request by the relevant system operator referred to in point (i) shall be coordinated with the relevant TSO. It shall include:

the format in which models are to be provided,

the provision of documentation on a model's structure and block diagrams,

an estimate of the minimum and maximum short circuit capacity at the connection point, expressed in MVA, as an equivalent of the network;

(iv)

the power-generating facility owner shall provide recordings of the power-generating module's performance to the relevant system operator or relevant TSO if requested. The relevant system operator or relevant TSO may make such a request, in order to compare the response of the models with those recordings;

(d)

with regard to the installation of devices for system operation and devices for system security, if the relevant system operator or the relevant TSO considers that it is necessary to install additional devices in a power-generating facility in order to preserve or restore system operation or security, the relevant system operator or relevant TSO and the power-generating facility owner shall investigate that matter and agree on an appropriate solution;

(e)

the relevant system operator shall specify, in coordination with the relevant TSO, minimum and maximum limits on rates of change of active power output (ramping limits) in both an up and down direction of change of active power output for a power-generating module, taking into consideration the specific characteristics of prime mover technology;

(f)

earthing arrangement of the neutral-point at the network side of step-up transformers shall comply with the specifications of the relevant system operator.

Article 16

General requirements for type D power-generating modules

1.   In addition to fulfilling the requirements listed in Article 13, except for Article 13(2)(b), (6) and (7), Article 14, except for Article 14(2), and Article 15, except for Article 15(3), type D power-generating modules shall fulfil the requirements set out in this Article.

2.   Type D power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements relating to voltage stability:

(a)

with regard to voltage ranges:

(i)

without prejudice to point (a) of Article 14(3) and point (a) of paragraph 3 below, a power-generating module shall be capable of staying connected to the network and operating within the ranges of the network voltage at the connection point, expressed by the voltage at the connection point related to the reference 1 pu voltage, and for the time periods specified in Tables 6.1 and 6.2;

(ii)

the relevant TSO may specify shorter periods of time during which power-generating modules shall be capable of remaining connected to the network in the event of simultaneous overvoltage and underfrequency or simultaneous undervoltage and overfrequency;

(iii)

notwithstanding the provisions of point (i), the relevant TSO in Spain may require power-generating modules to be capable of remaining connected to the network in the voltage range between 1,05 pu and 1,0875 pu for an unlimited period;

(iv)

for the 400 kV grid voltage level (or alternatively commonly referred to as 380 kV level), the reference 1 pu value is 400 kV; for other grid voltage levels, the reference 1 pu voltage may differ for each system operator in the same synchronous area;

(v)

notwithstanding the provisions of point (i), the relevant TSOs in the Baltic synchronous area may require power-generating modules to remain connected to the 400 kV network in the voltage range limits and for the time periods that apply in the Continental Europe synchronous area;

Table 6.1

Synchronous area

Voltage range

Time period for operation

Continental Europe

0,85 pu-0,90 pu

60 minutes

0,90 pu-1,118 pu

Unlimited

1,118 pu-1,15 pu

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 20 minutes and not more than 60 minutes

Nordic

0,90 pu-1,05 pu

Unlimited

1,05 pu-1,10 pu

60 minutes

Great Britain

0,90 pu-1,10 pu

Unlimited

Ireland and Northern Ireland

0,90 pu-1,118 pu

Unlimited

Baltic

0,85 pu-0,90 pu

30 minutes

0,90 pu-1,118 pu

Unlimited

1,118 pu-1,15 pu

20 minutes

The table shows the minimum time periods during which a power-generating module must be capable of operating for voltages deviating from the reference 1 pu value at the connection point without disconnecting from the network, where the voltage base for pu values is from 110 kV to 300 kV.

Table 6.2

Synchronous area

Voltage range

Time period for operation

Continental Europe

0,85 pu-0,90 pu

60 minutes

0,90 pu-1,05 pu

Unlimited

1,05 pu-1,10 pu

To be specified by each TSO, but not less than 20 minutes and not more than 60 minutes

Nordic

0,90 pu-1,05 pu

Unlimited

1,05 pu-1,10 pu

To be specified by each TSO, but not more than 60 minutes

Great Britain

0,90 pu-1,05 pu

Unlimited

1,05 pu-1,10 pu

15 minutes

Ireland and Northern Ireland

0,90 pu-1,05 pu

Unlimited

Baltic

0,88 pu-0,90 pu

20 minutes

0,90 pu-1,097 pu

Unlimited

1,097 pu-1,15 pu

20 minutes

The table shows the minimum time periods during which a power-generating module must be capable of operating for voltages deviating from the reference 1 pu value at the connection point without disconnecting from the network where the voltage base for pu values is from 300 kV to 400 kV.

(b)

wider voltage ranges or longer minimum time periods for operation may be agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner in coordination with the relevant TSO. If wider voltage ranges or longer minimum times for operation are economically and technically feasible, the power-generating facility owner shall not unreasonably withhold an agreement;

(c)

without prejudice to point (a), the relevant system operator in coordination with the relevant TSO shall have the right to specify voltages at the connection point at which a power-generating module is capable of automatic disconnection. The terms and settings for automatic disconnection shall be agreed between the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner.

3.   Type D power-generating modules shall fulfil the following requirements in relation to robustness:

(a)

with regard to fault-ride-through capability:

(i)

power-generating modules shall be capable of staying connected to the network and continuing to operate stably after the power system has been disturbed by secured faults. That capability shall be in accordance with a voltage-against-time profile at the connection point for fault conditions specified by the relevant TSO.

The voltage-against-time-profile shall express a lower limit of the actual course of the phase-to-phase voltages on the network voltage level at the connection point during a symmetrical fault, as a function of time before, during and after the fault.

That lower limit shall be specified by the relevant TSO, using the parameters set out in Figure 3 and within the ranges set out in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 for type D power-generating modules connected at or above the 110 kV level.

That lower limit shall also be specified by the relevant TSO, using parameters set out in Figure 3 and within the ranges set out in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 for type D power-generating modules connected below the 110 kV level;

(ii)

each TSO shall specify the pre-fault and post-fault conditions for the fault-ride-through capability referred to in point (iv) of Article 14(3)(a). The specified pre-fault and post-fault conditions for the fault-ride-through capability shall be made publicly available;

Table 7.1

Parameters for Figure 3 for fault-ride-through capability of synchronous power-generating modules

Voltage parameters (pu)

Time parameters (seconds)

Uret:

0

tclear:

0,14-0,15 (or 0,14-0,25 if system protection and secure operation so require)

Uclear:

0,25

trec1:

tclear-0,45

Urec1:

0,5-0,7

trec2:

trec1-0,7

Urec2:

0,85-0,9

trec3:

trec2-1,5


Table 7.2

Parameters for Figure 3 for fault-ride-through capability of power park modules

Voltage parameters (pu)

Time parameters (seconds)

Uret:

0

tclear:

0,14-0,15 (or 0,14-0,25 if system protection and secure operation so require)

Uclear:

Uret

trec1:

tclear

Urec1:

Uclear

trec2:

trec1

Urec2:

0,85

trec3:

1,5-3,0

(b)

at the request of a power-generating facility owner, the relevant system operator shall provide the pre-fault and post-fault conditions to be considered for fault-ride-through capability as an outcome of the calculations at the connection point as specified in point (iv) of Article 14(3)(a) regarding:

(i)

pre-fault minimum short circuit capacity at each connection point expressed in MVA;

(ii)

pre-fault operating point of the power-generating module expressed as active power output and reactive power output at the connection point and voltage at the connection point; and

(iii)

post-fault minimum short circuit capacity at each connection point expressed in MVA;

(c)

fault-ride-through capabilities in case of asymmetrical faults shall be specified by each TSO.

4.   Type D power-generating modules shall fulfil the following general system management requirements:

(a)

with regard to synchronisation, when starting a power-generating module, synchronisation shall be performed by the power-generating facility owner only after authorisation by the relevant system operator;

(b)

the power-generating module shall be equipped with the necessary synchronisation facilities;

(c)

synchronisation of power-generating modules shall be possible at frequencies within the ranges set out in Table 2;

(d)

the relevant system operator and the power-generating facility owner shall agree on the settings of synchronisation devices to be concluded prior to operation of the power-generating module. This agreement shall cover:

(i)

voltage;

(ii)

frequency;

(iii)

phase angle range;

(iv)

phase sequence;

(v)

deviation of voltage and frequency.

CHAPTER 2

Requirements for synchronous power-generating modules

Article 17

Requirements for type B synchronous power-generating modules

1.   Type B synchronous power-generating modules shall fulfil the requirements listed in Articles 13, except for Article 13(2)(b), and 14.

2.   Type B synchronous power-generating modules shall fulfil the following additional requirements relating to voltage stability:

(a)

with regard to reactive power capability, the relevant system operator shall have the right to specify the capability of a synchronous power-generating module to provide reactive power;

(b)

with regard to the voltage control system, a synchronous power-generating module shall be equipped with a permanent a