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Document 32020R0551

Commission Regulation (EU) 2020/551 of 21 April 2020 amending Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards International Financial Reporting Standard 3 (Text with EEA relevance)

C/2020/2268

OJ L 127, 22.4.2020, p. 13–18 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

In force

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2020/551/oj

22.4.2020   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 127/13


COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2020/551

of 21 April 2020

amending Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards International Financial Reporting Standard 3

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 2002 on the application of international accounting standards (1), and in particular Article 3(1) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

By Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 (2) certain international standards and interpretations that were in existence at 15 October 2008 were adopted.

(2)

On 22 October 2018, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published Definition of a Business (Amendments to IFRS 3) in order to address the concerns highlighted by the post-implementation review of IFRS 3 Business Combinations about the challenges to apply the definition in practice. The objective of the amendments is to clarify the definition of a business with a view to facilitating its practical implementation.

(3)

Following the consultation with the European Financial Reporting Advisory Group, the Commission concludes that the amendments to International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 3 Business Combinations meet the criteria for adoption set out in Article 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002.

(4)

Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 should therefore be amended accordingly.

(5)

The measures provided for in this Regulation are in accordance with the opinion of the Accounting Regulatory Committee,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Article 1

The Annex to Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008, International Financial Reporting Standard 3 Business Combinations, is amended as set out in the Annex to this Regulation.

Article 2

Each company shall apply the amendments referred to in Article 1, at the latest, as from the commencement date of its first financial year starting on or after 1 January 2020

Article 3

This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 21 April 2020.

For the Commission

The President

Ursula VON DER LEYEN


(1)  OJ L 243, 11.9.2002, p. 1.

(2)  Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 of 3 November 2008 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 320, 29.11.2008, p. 1).


ANNEX

Definition of a Business

Amendments to IFRS 3

Amendments to IFRS 3 Business Combinations

Paragraph 3, the definition of the term ‘business’ in Appendix A and paragraphs B7–B9, B11 and B12 are amended. Paragraphs 64P, B7A–B7C, B8A and B12A–B12D, and headings above paragraphs B7A, B8 and B12, are added. Paragraph B10 is deleted.

IDENTIFYING A BUSINESS COMBINATION

3

An entity shall determine whether a transaction or other event is a business combination by applying the definition in this IFRS, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constitute a business. If the assets acquired are not a business, the reporting entity shall account for the transaction or other event as an asset acquisition. Paragraphs B5–B12D provide guidance on identifying a business combination and the definition of a business.

EFFECTIVE DATE AND TRANSITION

Effective date

 

...

64P

Definition of a Business, issued in October 2018, added paragraphs B7A–B7C, B8A and B12A–B12D, amended the definition of the term ‘business’ in Appendix A, amended paragraphs 3, B7–B9, B11 and B12 and deleted paragraph B10. An entity shall apply these amendments to business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2020 and to asset acquisitions that occur on or after the beginning of that period. Earlier application of these amendments is permitted. If an entity applies these amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact.


Appendix A

Defined terms

...

 

business

An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing goods or services to customers, generating investment income (such as dividends or interest) or generating other income from ordinary activities.

DEFINITION OF A BUSINESS (APPLICATION OF PARAGRAPH 3)

B7

A business consists of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to contribute to the creation of outputs. The three elements of a business are defined as follows (see paragraphs B8–B12D for guidance on the elements of a business):

(a)

Input: Any economic resource that creates outputs, or has the ability to contribute to the creation of outputs, when one or more processes are applied to it. Examples include non-current assets (including intangible assets or rights to use non-current assets), intellectual property, the ability to obtain access to necessary materials or rights and employees.

(b)

Process: Any system, standard, protocol, convention or rule that, when applied to an input or inputs, creates outputs or has the ability to contribute to the creation of outputs. Examples include strategic management processes, operational processes and resource management processes. These processes typically are documented, but the intellectual capacity of an organised workforce having the necessary skills and experience following rules and conventions may provide the necessary processes that are capable of being applied to inputs to create outputs. (Accounting, billing, payroll and other administrative systems typically are not processes used to create outputs.)

(c)

Output: The result of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that provide goods or services to customers, generate investment income (such as dividends or interest) or generate other income from ordinary activities.

Optional test to identify concentration of fair value

B7A

Paragraph B7B sets out an optional test (the concentration test) to permit a simplified assessment of whether an acquired set of activities and assets is not a business. An entity may elect to apply, or not apply, the test. An entity may make such an election separately for each transaction or other event. The concentration test has the following consequences:

(a)

if the concentration test is met, the set of activities and assets is determined not to be a business and no further assessment is needed.

(b)

if the concentration test is not met, or if the entity elects not to apply the test, the entity shall then perform the assessment set out in paragraphs B8–B12D.


B7B

The concentration test is met if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets. For the concentration test:

(a)

gross assets acquired shall exclude cash and cash equivalents, deferred tax assets, and goodwill resulting from the effects of deferred tax liabilities.

(b)

the fair value of the gross assets acquired shall include any consideration transferred (plus the fair value of any non-controlling interest and the fair value of any previously held interest) in excess of the fair value of net identifiable assets acquired. The fair value of the gross assets acquired may normally be determined as the total obtained by adding the fair value of the consideration transferred (plus the fair value of any non-controlling interest and the fair value of any previously held interest) to the fair value of the liabilities assumed (other than deferred tax liabilities), and then excluding the items identified in subparagraph (a). However, if the fair value of the gross assets acquired is more than that total, a more precise calculation may sometimes be needed.

(c)

a single identifiable asset shall include any asset or group of assets that would be recognised and measured as a single identifiable asset in a business combination.

(d)

if a tangible asset is attached to, and cannot be physically removed and used separately from, another tangible asset (or from an underlying asset subject to a lease, as defined in IFRS 16 Leases), without incurring significant cost, or significant diminution in utility or fair value to either asset (for example, land and buildings), those assets shall be considered a single identifiable asset.

(e)

when assessing whether assets are similar, an entity shall consider the nature of each single identifiable asset and the risks associated with managing and creating outputs from the assets (that is, the risk characteristics).

(f)

the following shall not be considered similar assets:

(i)

a tangible asset and an intangible asset;

(ii)

tangible assets in different classes (for example, inventory, manufacturing equipment and automobiles) unless they are considered a single identifiable asset in accordance with the criterion in subparagraph (d);

(iii)

identifiable intangible assets in different classes (for example, brand names, licences and intangible assets under development);

(iv)

a financial asset and a non-financial asset;

(v)

financial assets in different classes (for example, accounts receivable and investments in equity instruments); and

(vi)

identifiable assets that are within the same class of asset but have significantly different risk characteristics.


B7C

The requirements in paragraph B7B do not modify the guidance on similar assets in IAS 38 Intangible Assets; nor do they modify the meaning of the term ‘class’ in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment, IAS 38 and IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures.

Elements of a business

B8

Although businesses usually have outputs, outputs are not required for an integrated set of activities and assets to qualify as a business. To be capable of being conducted and managed for purpose identified in the definition of a business, an integrated set of activities and assets requires two essential elements—inputs and processes applied to those inputs. A business need not include all of the inputs or processes that the seller used in operating that business. However, to be considered a business, an integrated set of activities and assets must include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output. Paragraphs B12–B12D specify how to assess whether a process is substantive.

B8A

If an acquired set of activities and assets has outputs, continuation of revenue does not on its own indicate that both an input and a substantive process have been acquired.

B9

The nature of the elements of a business varies by industry and by the structure of an entity’s operations (activities), including the entity’s stage of development. Established businesses often have many different types of inputs, processes and outputs, whereas new businesses often have few inputs and processes and sometimes only a single output (product). Nearly all businesses also have liabilities, but a business need not have liabilities. Furthermore, an acquired set of activities and assets that is not a business might have liabilities.

B10

[Deleted]

B11

Determining whether a particular set of activities and assets is a business shall be based on whether the integrated set is capable of being conducted and managed as a business by a market participant. Thus, in evaluating whether a particular set is a business, it is not relevant whether a seller operated the set as a business or whether the acquirer intends to operate the set as a business.

Assessing whether an acquired process is substantive

B12

Paragraphs B12A–B12D explain how to assess whether an acquired process is substantive if the acquired set of activities and assets does not have outputs (paragraph B12B) and if it does have outputs (paragraph B12C).

B12A

An example of an acquired set of activities and assets that does not have outputs at the acquisition date is an early-stage entity that has not started generating revenue. Moreover, if an acquired set of activities and assets was generating revenue at the acquisition date, it is considered to have outputs at that date, even if subsequently it will no longer generate revenue from external customers, for example because it will be integrated by the acquirer.

B12B

If a set of activities and assets does not have outputs at the acquisition date, an acquired process (or group of processes) shall be considered substantive only if:

(a)

it is critical to the ability to develop or convert an acquired input or inputs into outputs; and

(b)

the inputs acquired include both an organised workforce that has the necessary skills, knowledge, or experience to perform that process (or group of processes) and other inputs that the organised workforce could develop or convert into outputs. Those other inputs could include:

(i)

intellectual property that could be used to develop a good or service;

(ii)

other economic resources that could be developed to create outputs; or

(iii)

rights to obtain access to necessary materials or rights that enable the creation of future outputs.

Examples of the inputs mentioned in subparagraphs (b)(i)–(iii) include technology, in-process research and development projects, real estate and mineral interests.


B12C

If a set of activities and assets has outputs at the acquisition date, an acquired process (or group of processes) shall be considered substantive if, when applied to an acquired input or inputs, it:

(a)

is critical to the ability to continue producing outputs, and the inputs acquired include an organised workforce with the necessary skills, knowledge, or experience to perform that process (or group of processes); or

(b)

significantly contributes to the ability to continue producing outputs and:

(i)

is considered unique or scarce; or

(ii)

cannot be replaced without significant cost, effort, or delay in the ability to continue producing outputs.


B12D

The following additional discussion supports both paragraphs B12B and B12C:

(a)

an acquired contract is an input and not a substantive process. Nevertheless, an acquired contract, for example, a contract for outsourced property management or outsourced asset management, may give access to an organised workforce. An entity shall assess whether an organised workforce accessed through such a contract performs a substantive process that the entity controls, and thus has acquired. Factors to be considered in making that assessment include the duration of the contract and its renewal terms.

(b)

difficulties in replacing an acquired organised workforce may indicate that the acquired organised workforce performs a process that is critical to the ability to create outputs.

(c)

a process (or group of processes) is not critical if, for example, it is ancillary or minor within the context of all the processes required to create outputs.


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