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Document 52023IP0339

European Parliament resolution of 3 October 2023 on ensuring European transportation works for women (2022/2140(INI))

OJ C, C/2024/1179, 23.2.2024, ELI: (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, GA, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)


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Official Journal
of the European Union


Series C




Ensuring European transportation works for women

European Parliament resolution of 3 October 2023 on ensuring European transportation works for women (2022/2140(INI))


The European Parliament,

having regard to Articles 2 and 3 of the Treaty on European Union,

having regard to Articles 4, 8, 10, 19, 91, 153 and 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

having regard to Articles 21 and 23 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

having regard to the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) thereof, in particular SDG 5 and its targets and indicators,

having regard to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women of 18 December 1979,

having regard to the EU directives from 1975 onwards on various aspects of equal treatment for women and men, including Council Directive 79/7/EEC of 19 December 1978 on the progressive implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security (1), Council Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding (2), Council Directive 2004/113/EC of 13 December 2004 implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services (3), Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation (4), Directive (EU) 2019/1158 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on work-life balance for parents and carers and repealing Council Directive 2010/18/EU (5), Directive 2010/41/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the application of the principle of equal treatment between men and women engaged in an activity in a self-employed capacity and repealing Council Directive 86/613/EEC (6) and Directive (EU) 2023/970 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 May 2023 to strengthen the application of the principle of equal pay for equal work or work of equal value between men and women through pay transparency and enforcement mechanisms (7) (Pay Transparency Directive),

having regard to the Commission communication of 17 June 2009 entitled ‘A sustainable future for transport: Towards an integrated, technology-led and user-friendly system’ (COM(2009)0279),

having regard to the Commission communication of 5 March 2020 entitled ‘A Union of Equality: Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025’ (COM(2020)0152),

having regard to the Commission communication of 9 December 2020 entitled ‘Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy — putting European transport on track for the future’ (COM(2020)0789),

having regard to the Commission communication of 14 July 2021 entitled ‘Fit for 55’: delivering the EU’s 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality’ (COM(2021)0550),

having regard to the Commission communication of 14 December 2021 on the new EU urban mobility framework (COM(2021)0811),

having regard to Regulation (EU) 2020/1054 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2020 amending Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 as regards minimum requirements on maximum daily and weekly driving times, minimum breaks and daily and weekly rest periods and Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 as regards positioning by means of tachographs (8),

having regard to its resolution of 11 September 2012 on the role of women in the green economy (9),

having regard to its resolution of 29 November 2018 on the situation of women with disabilities (10),

having regard to the EU Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030,

having regard to its resolution of 21 January 2021 on the gender perspective in the COVID-19 crisis and post-crisis period (11),

having regard to its resolution of 21 January 2021 on the EU strategy for gender equality (12),

having regard to the International Labour Organization (ILO) 2013 Working Paper No 298 entitled ‘Promoting the employment of women in the transport sector — Obstacles and policy options’,

having regard to its resolution of 6 October 2021 entitled ‘EU Road Safety Policy Framework 2021-2030 — Recommendations on next steps towards Vision Zero’  (13),

having regard to its resolution of 16 February 2023 on developing an EU cycling strategy (14),

having regard to the Council of Europe’s Gender Equality Strategy 2018-2023,

having regard to the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) 2022 Gender Equality Index,

having regard to the study of the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs of its Directorate-General for Internal Policies of 16 December 2021 entitled ‘Women and transport’,

having regard to the Commission report of 14 September 2022 entitled ‘Study on the social dimension of the future EU transport system regarding users and passengers — Final report’,

having regard to Rule 54 of its Rules of Procedure,

having regard to the opinion of the Committee on Transport and Tourism,

having regard to the report of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (A9-0239/2023),


whereas gender equality should be and indeed is a core EU value; whereas gender equality is essential for a prosperous European way of life and for all citizens to be united in diversity; whereas all EU policies should integrate the gender perspective, through gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting; whereas the EIGE highlights specifically that gender mainstreaming should be included in the preparation of all policies and programmes as well as of relevant expenditure outgoings such as infrastructure, noting that the aim of promoting gender equality and combating discrimination should also apply to the transport sector;


whereas on 1 January 2021, there were 229 million women and 219 million men in the European Union (15), a fact that should be reflected in tailored transport policy measures and transport decision-making in every Member State; whereas understanding gender-specific concerns, such as women’s needs and experiences, when assessing the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of transport policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres is necessary so that women, families and households in all their diversity, older people, young people, with disabilities, LGBTIQ+ people, people of colour and other vulnerable groups benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated;


whereas the EIGE highlights specifically that gender mainstreaming should be included in the preparation of all policies and programmes as well as in relevant expenditure such as infrastructure, noting that the aim of promoting gender equality and combating discrimination should also apply to the transport sector;


whereas cities worldwide are pursuing policies to reduce car use and prioritise public transport as a means of tackling congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions; whereas travel time, safety and built environment are considered to be the most critical factors when users choose their travel modes; whereas nevertheless travel time when using public transport is approximately three times longer than when using a private car and is often due to long waiting times for buses or peak hour boarding congestion in metro stations (16);


whereas the COVID pandemic and the related necessary lockdowns demonstrated to people how essential services which are local and equitably available with minimal obstacles are essential to the well-being and health of the whole community, including women, vulnerable groups, families in all their diversity, the younger generation and older people;


whereas research performed across the Member States has shown that gender-based violence in public spaces and on collective transport is a highly significant problem and that safety measures and victim support remain insufficient; whereas, according to the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), up to 55 % of women in the European Union have experienced sexual harassment in public transport (17); whereas there are a multitude of reports on sexual assaults carried out in different transport modes, such as by the drivers of ride-hailing platforms and taxis; whereas this can have a negative impact on transport choices, employment, education and social and professional opportunities for women in all their diversity;


whereas ride-hailing and platform transport providers have a responsibility to help keep people safe and it is incumbent on providers to improve safety from a gender perspective; whereas technology can make travel safer for women and girls through the work of safety engineers, including women engineers, who have developed innovative new safety features;


whereas poorly-designed transport policies can exacerbate existing poverty and social exclusion; whereas there continues to be a lack of sex and gender-disaggregated data, as well as of data disaggregated by other socio-economic factors such as income, living arrangements and employment status; whereas there is also still a lack of gender analysis on transport and mobility across the EU, as well as of data disaggregated by other factors such as age; whereas this lack of disaggregated data hinders the implementation of well-targeted gender-responsive and inclusive transport policies for individuals, families and households in all their diversity; whereas gender-disaggregated data would be valuable input for developing a transport policy that adequately addresses gender differences; whereas at present the data available is not always comparable and standardised and cannot be efficiently used; whereas further in-depth research is required on the psychological and social factors that determine women’s specific needs and preferences for the use of modes of transport; whereas more data is needed to clearly distinguish between the barriers and lack of opportunities that prevent women from entering the transport sector and the factors that influence their decision to leave or remain;


whereas the average percentage of women working in the transport sector across the EU stands at around 22 %, with these values varying considerably among transport sub-sectors (land, air, sea) and Member States; whereas women are faced with greater harassment and sexual violence in transport than men, which is likely to be one of the reasons behind women’s limited representation in transport;


whereas adopting a gender-responsive approach to urban planning and performing a gender analysis of transport services are instrumental to improving the quality of life of women in all their diversity; whereas additionally, this approach has the potential to be transformative for all users, including families and households in all their diversity, who will be able to access the opportunities afforded by cities and outermost regions, while at the same time generating wider social, economic and environmental benefits; whereas an improved gender balance and greater diversity and inclusion lead to more diverse workplaces, enhancing the attractiveness of transport jobs and the competitiveness of the transport sector as a whole;


whereas air pollution is responsible for the significant acceleration of osteoporosis in women; whereas women with reduced bone mass and early-onset of osteoporosis are at particular risk of injury on public transport (18);


whereas transport use differs according to gender, as well as other factors, such as complexity, sustainability, frequency, mode, duration, purpose, cost, security accessibility and safety; whereas different genders therefore have different transport needs and requirements, often due to persisting gender stereotypes and inequalities, using public transport and cars in distinct manners; whereas women are more likely to have more complicated travel patterns, choosing public transport more often and making several stops along the way, and are more likely to travel at off-peak hours, in particular because of care responsibilities; whereas men more often opt to use car transport and are more likely to have a direct daily journey route than women, with 31 % of women using public transport compared to 24 % of men (19);


whereas women tend to live longer, which usually means reduced mobility and thus increased difficulties while using transport services;


whereas too little attention is being paid to women’s needs in public transport or infrastructure planning; whereas understanding transport patterns and the mobility of women in all their diversity is fundamental to the development of gender-sensitive transport policies, which should provide an enabling environment for women to share safe, accessible, reliable, sustainable and non-discriminatory modes of transport; whereas women are under-represented as experts and decision-makers in the transport sector and in urban mobility planning;


whereas safe commuting for women transport workers is not always guaranteed, especially when they start their work early and/or finish late at night; whereas sexual harassment and gender-based violence in transport have an impact on women's travel behaviour; whereas fear of harassment in public places is not only limited to women and girls, but is also prevalent among LGBTQI+ individuals as well, limiting their social and economic integration;


whereas more women than men use more collective and sustainable modes of transport, such as public transport, walking or cycling, and often perform trip chaining, which makes them accelerating agents for change in the green transition; whereas these higher rates of walking, when in clean air environments, can have a positive impact on the health of women and girls’, as it serves to reduce cardiovascular risks and the mechanical quality of blood vessels;


whereas the Commission Cities Mission aims for 100 EU cities to be climate-neutral by 2030 with various measures such as creating car-free city centres to help people better access public transport, active mobility and low-emission transport solutions; whereas achieving the SDGs on gender equality should go hand in hand with the exciting potential role women can play in turbocharging of the decarbonisation of the transport sector; whereas eradicating mobility poverty is an essential part of the EU Green Deal’s objective of ensuring a just transition where no one is left behind; whereas women are more likely to suffer from mobility poverty, in particular single mothers (who account for 85 % of single parent families) women minority groups, women on low incomes, as well as single women, women with disabilities and elderly women;


whereas the adoption of new vehicle and automation technologies should take the specific needs of women into account and increase safety and sustainability, and not exclude citizens with poor IT literacy and limited access to the internet;


whereas software solutions can model, simulate, analyse and optimise mobility ecosystems thus their development should take into account gender-specific needs;


whereas sustainable transport, such as public transport, especially local trains, and bikes, requires equal access to mobility services through measures that ensure affordability and greater mobility for all, including older people and people with disabilities, and the same quality of service in urban and rural areas;


whereas safety and convenience are major factors in deterring women and girls from cycling; whereas they are more likely to use strollers or to benefit from the possibility of using cargo bikes for care responsibilities; whereas women are more likely to take sustainability and safety into account when choosing their means of transport; whereas women are more likely to choose to cycle in places if safe and continued cycling paths and lanes are provided; whereas bike-friendly infrastructures, bike lanes and separate bike paths increase safety and perceived safety and thus encourage more of the population and especially women to cycle; whereas the development of easy-to-use bike-sharing applications offers new exciting travel possibilities, including for people living in rural areas;


whereas roads are generally not designed to be people-friendly, as far too often pedestrians are an afterthought, and where pedestrian facilities exist they are often insufficient;


whereas differences in body structure between men and women are a key determining factor in vulnerability in a car crash; whereas men are more likely to be involved in a car crash overall, but women involved in a car crash are 47 % more likely to be seriously injured, 71 % more likely to be moderately injured (20) and 17 % more likely to die than men (21); whereas women are also twice as likely as men to be trapped in a crashed vehicle (22); whereas the design of vehicles and carriages, including safety features such as car seats and seat belts, often assumes a larger, stereotypically male physical form, leading to lower efficiency and ease of use as well as much higher risks of serious injury and higher death rates in accidents for those of small stature, including women and girls; whereas cars, seat belts, car seats and airbags have mainly been designed using crash test dummies based on biofidelic male bodies; whereas gender-responsive crash test standards are not yet legally required;


whereas transport infrastructures with well-designed and safe surroundings at points of transit (including hubs and other transport centres) have a positive impact on both actual and perceived safety (23);


whereas women and other parents and carers travelling alone with babies or toddlers face additional logistic challenges during security checks at airports and other international terminals, inside aircraft when using sanitary facilities or when disembarking; whereas travelling on public transport is difficult if access and space for children in prams and buggies is limited; whereas women are more likely to suffer from transport poverty, in particular single mothers, women belonging to minority groups, women with low income, as well as single women, women with disabilities, or older women;


whereas employment, access to services and social inclusion are closely related to access to transport and mobility; whereas mobility barriers hinder women’s access to jobs and key services, such as health and education, affecting both their own and their dependants’ human capital accumulation;


whereas employing more women in public transport results in safer public transport for women workers and passengers (24);


whereas according to the 2017 survey by the European Transport Workers’ Federation, 63 % of respondents had faced violence, 49 % of which was by customers, 22 % by colleagues and 17 % by managers/supervisors; whereas 80 % of women who reported an incident did not believe that their complaint had negative consequences for the perpetrator or made the workplace safer (25);


whereas women should be able to choose their type of work on the basis of their own free choice and needs, so as to allow them to achieve their full potential, without being limited by gender stereotyping or other external barriers; whereas women, who face barriers that make the transport sector less attractive for them, such as an aggressive culture, gender stereotypes, discrimination and unequal treatment, lack of work-life balance, lack of health and safety measures, including access to decent sanitary facilities and high levels of violence and harassment, are under-represented in transport employment at all levels, accounting for an average of around 16 % of total employees (26), and they are particularly rare in management roles; whereas the sector needs to take steps to address women’s under-representation in operations, decision-making, planning and research; whereas more effort should be made to obtain women’s input on transport matters in general; whereas stronger representation of women in the sector would help ensure that women’s needs in relation to transport are better taken into account; whereas addressing these issues would contribute to the design of products, systems and policies reflecting the needs of the majority of society, namely women, of vulnerable groups, of families in all their diversity and of young people and older people; whereas making the transport sector more attractive to women will be beneficial for all workers in the sector and improve the resilience and sustainability of the sector as a whole;


whereas the maritime industry is a male-dominated environment where women make up only an estimated 2 % of the world’s maritime workforce, including crew working in hospitality on cruise ships and only 1 % of seafarers (27); whereas women currently make up only 1,2 % of the worldwide seafarer workforce, according to the BIMCO/ICS Seafarer Workforce Report 2021; whereas women’s standing in the maritime community has improved in recent years, but has done so too slowly, and men are still predominant in traditional sectors such as transport, the construction industry or fisheries;


whereas women employees account for 40 % of the total workforce in air transport in Europe; whereas the majority of female employees in aviation work in customer service and administration, being still under-represented in positions of responsibility despite progress in recent years; whereas only 3 % of the airline pilots worldwide are women (28), whereas, in a 2018 survey carried out by Women in Aviation International, 71 % of the women consulted said they had been victims of harassment at work;


whereas the share of women truck drivers is less than 3 % in most European regions and below 12 % among bus and coach drivers (29); whereas, according to the International Road Transport Union (IRU), only 2 % of drivers in Europe in 2019 were women, while the shortage of drivers is getting worse and is leading to up to 40 % of requests not being fulfilled; whereas poor working conditions are the main reason for this situation; whereas, according to an IRU study, 87 % of drivers aged over 55 and 73 % of drivers aged under 24 believe that being required to spend long periods away from home is critical to explaining the low number of job applications in the sector;


whereas the transport sector should take into account the specific needs of women so as to guarantee their health and safety, both at work and while travelling; whereas, in many sectors and countries in the world, transport continues to be seen as a sector in which women are concentrated in lower-paid positions with comparatively few opportunities for career progression; whereas the ILO believes that violence, discrimination, psychological, sexual and workplace harassment, bullying and a lack of basic facilities affecting transport workers are leading factors that make jobs in the sector less attractive for women and make it difficult to retain people working in the sector, leading to a challenging situation in some sectors; whereas automation and digitalisation have changed the nature of previously laborious job profiles, are a challenge and have the potential to increase the sector’s attractiveness for women; whereas women are a minority among train drivers, particularly freight train drivers; whereas this situation is due to challenging working conditions, especially for women; whereas the lack of toilets and toilet paper and other poor, unhygienic conditions on freight and passenger trains are a major obstacle to increasing the number of women working in the sector; whereas distributing period underwear is not sufficient for improving the experience of women and girls when they use toilet facilities; whereas improvements can only be achieved by installing proper toilets to ensure positive and restful toilet breaks between and during journeys;


whereas transport companies across nearly all transport modes face significant recruitment problems, due inter alia to working conditions that are incompatible with a good work-life balance and care responsibilities and low salaries, particularly for mobile staff; whereas staff shortages in the transport sector could be remedied by employing more women, which could be achieved by making the sector more competitive and attractive to them, such as by improving working conditions (30),;


whereas small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can play a role in revitalising the transport sector and promoting gender equality;


whereas it is important to promote and preserve efficient, sustainable and affordable mobility in rural areas and the outermost regions; whereas promoting and preserving efficient and affordable mobility options that allow for better connectivity and accessibility are key to greater economic and social opportunities in these areas and regions; whereas connectivity in rural areas is not adequately developed due to often poor transport infrastructure and sporadic connections, which cause unequal access to health services; whereas the development of easy-to-use bike-sharing or car-sharing applications offers promising new travel and mobility possibilities for people living in rural areas; whereas women in rural areas are less likely to have a driving licence or access to a car than men, but also travel more than men to carry out care roles;


whereas women, girls and other vulnerable groups living in rural areas experience barriers to receiving support, including health services, when they are victims of gender-based violence because of the persistent lack of a developed transport infrastructure; whereas these barriers include affordability and a lack of access to transport or means of contacting transport and care services in rural areas;


whereas insufficient collective transport can severely hinder the ability of women, girls and other vulnerable persons’ to obtain lifesaving medication, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), as well as emergency contraception;


Reaffirms the EU’s commitment to achieving gender equality in transport, while noting the progress achieved so far; underlines that concrete measures are needed to improve the safety, availability, accessibility and affordability of transport services and employment opportunities and working conditions in the sector for women in all their diversity;


Takes note of the demographic change in some regions of the Union with concern; suggests that this should be taken into account of to reinforce public policy when seeking to tackle an ageing workforce and related labour shortages, which could be a catalyst for talented women to fill these shortages;


Highlights that women are needed in both the physical design and delivery of transport services if gender equality is to be achieved in the sector;


Emphasises that gender mainstreaming in transport has positive effects across the board, including social inclusion and employment opportunities; underlines the importance of gender mainstreaming in transport in achieving the green and digital transitions; reiterates in this regard its call for the Commission, Member States and local authorities to effect intersectional gender mainstreaming in transport and urban mobility planning and to consult and involve women and girls in all their diversity, including women with disabilities, in decision-making processes in order to ensure that transport and city planning effectively meet women’s needs;


Points out that monitoring and reporting on transport measures implemented in the EU is essential in order for them to evolve in line with changing mobility patterns among women and men and with an ageing society; stresses, in this regard, that sharing best practices and consulting local stakeholders, including women’s and LGBTQI+ associations, is key to optimising transport policy measures; recognises that sustainable mobility must ensure the dignity of the individual and be in line with both the EU Gender Equality Strategy and EU LGBTIQ+ strategy; stresses furthermore that stakeholder engagement is critical for better comprehending and meeting transport users’ needs, especially the specific needs of women in all their diversity, as well as to secure stakeholder buy-in (31);


Recalls that gender stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination exclude women from economic, political and social activities, leading to a lack of efficiency, increased waste of human resources, lack of income and economic independence for women, and hinder the political participation of women; emphasises the need for women to be active and equally involved at all levels and areas of the transport sector, including decision-making; identifies the need for resources to ensure that women are represented in research and decision-making on transport matters;


Regrets the lack of standardised, sex- and gender-disaggregated transport data and gender analysis collected in compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation across all modes of transport, as identified in the ‘Women and Transport’ study; calls therefore on the Commission to assess whether to include the sharing of gender data among transport actors in the Common European Data Space in order to address data gaps in transport and to inform policymaking; identifies the need for more consultation and data to identify women’s habits and needs in the transport sector; welcomes, in this regard, that energy and transport is the thematic focus of the 2023 edition of the EIGE Gender Equality Index, which will contribute to understanding based on the probable impacts of the transition towards low-carbon society from a gender and intersectional perspective; notes Gender Equality Index will include survey data on environmentally-friendly behaviours relating to transport and on potential impacts on the time spent on unpaid care;


Considers that the Commission, the Member States and regional and local authorities should identify the causes of women’s under-representation in the transport sector, collect further data and draw up key indicators, such as gender-sensitive statistics, data on socio-economic factors and gender-differentiated mobility data on usage and requirements for each mode of transport and risk exposure, as well as age- and disability-related data, in order to identify and overcome barriers for women in transport, improve road safety, understand travel patterns and optimise mobility, while taking women’s needs into account, while also contributing to public transport design and policy initiatives related to both transport users and workers; believes that the data collected should be made available to all interested parties; recalls that EU policymaking on transport should be based on reliable, accessible and detailed data, together with impact assessments, so as to help mainstream a gender-responsive approach in all relevant EU policies so as to address women’s needs effectively;


Calls on transport companies in Member States to encourage the collection of disaggregated data that would build a better evidence base for gender-sensitive planning, allowing robust baselines to be set and for trends to be identified and increase competitiveness as transport would better reflect the needs of an ever-changing and dynamic society and economy;


Notes the ability of artificial intelligence (AI) to aggregate anonymised datasets on public transport usage and to develop intermodal services or inclusive transport applications, including by complying with gender requirements; recognises that this has the potential to improve transport, especially for women, as it can help adapt to the specific requirements of women and girls in all their diversity;


Welcomes the launch of the Commission’s new Ambassadors for Diversity in Transport Network initiative, which will seek to promote diversity, equality and inclusion within the EU transport sector, raise awareness, develop and implement different initiatives from the perspectives of both transport workers and transport users;


Calls for safety performance tests and crash tests to include gender-responsive standards and biofidelic female models; acknowledges the potential for AI to increase our understanding of how the diverse human physique reacts differently in emergency situations; emphasises the need to use gender data in decision-making; calls on the Commission and Member States to tackle the gender safety gap by ensuring that national standards bodies and standards developing organisations include a plan for gender-responsive standards and standards development in their gender action plan, in line with the actions outlined in the Gender-Responsive Standards Declaration; welcomes the fact that disparities in fatality rates between men and women are being reduced in recent car models (32);

Understanding women’s mobility and equity in transport


Underlines the differing expectations, travel patterns, needs and experiences of women as transport users; calls for relevant legislation and a gender perspective in transport to fully integrate women’s perspectives, as they currently still perform more care duties in society, so as to increase sustainability and efficiency, and to better respond to society’s needs, including those of women with disabilities and from marginalised groups;


Regrets that micro-mobility does not yet adequately work for women, as its design and implementation has typically been undertaken by men; calls on micro-mobility providers to take into account the needs of women in all their diversity in order to better ensure a gender perspective to sustainable cities;


Calls on the Member States to use sufficient data when making decisions on land use; emphasises that urban and rural areas have to be designed to take account of the transport habits of all genders;

Inclusive mobility services and adequate infrastructure


Calls for measures to ensure the availability and affordability of sustainable transport modes, including bikes, to meet women’s needs and to ensure that comfortable, safe and stress-free multimodal journeys become a reality;


Notes that the concept of the 15-minute city, which means having all essential amenities within a short walk, bike ride or point of public transit from one’s home, would have positive benefits for women and girls’ quality of life;


Points out that women with disabilities encounter specific barriers and discrimination in transport and as transport workers, which often remain invisible and unaddressed; recognises the important role played by service animals such as guide dogs who ensure the safety of blind and deaf women and other vulnerable people; calls on Member States and the Commission to take due note of mainstreaming accessibility into its policies and legislation; encourages Member States, furthermore, to develop public transport policies and transport infrastructure, such as bus structures, that facilitate mobility for women with disabilities and to promote training for public transport professionals in accessibility;


Regrets that journey assistance cards or lanyards and other signage are less effective in cross-border travel and that this creates an extra burden for women and girls with disabilities when travelling across the Union; calls on the Commission, in this regard, to develop a pan-European QR code to serve as a European journey assistance card, facilitating cross-border travel and helping to overcome linguistic and other logistical barriers for women in all their diversity;


Highlights that in subways, trying to alight and disembark in a timely manner with small children or a stroller can be highly challenging;


Calls on collective transport companies to consider a holistic, gender-inclusive design such as for example, for bus straps which are currently difficult to reach for many women, as they are often designed by men to accommodate an on average taller male body;


Calls on the Member States and regional and local authorities to ensure that transport infrastructure, in particular when being upgraded, fully takes into account the continuity, accessibility and safety of sustainable pedestrian, bicycle infrastructure and other sustainable connections and seek synergies with these connections in order to promote active modes of transport;


Notes that onboarding can be an arduous challenge for women including women with infants or other small children in strollers and those with disabilities due to large gaps between the platform and transport carriages as well as stairs being present in some older versions of rolling stock, buses and coaches;


Calls on the Member States and local authorities to encourage all sectors of society that are aiming specifically to increase take-up by women, vulnerable groups, families in all their diversity, the young generation and older people as well as those with reduced mobility where possible, to use low-carbon and zero-emission transport options such as cycling and walking by providing well-designed, sufficiently wide pavements and cycling paths to accommodate strollers and cargo bikes, extensive and integrated network of high-quality segregated cycle lanes, as well as secure and accessible bike parking, including for cargo bikes, in particular near transport infrastructure such as train and bus stations; highlights that segregated and wide cycling lanes not only increase ridership overall but also promoted the closing of the gender-cycling-gap;


Notes that the increasing popularity of electric bicycles and other similar options, coupled with local or national financial incentives, have increased the real and perceived viability of cycling as a positive transport choice; welcomes the programmes of several Member States to encourage young or atypical cyclists to begin cycling, which can in turn encourage a modal shift; calls for secure bicycle parking and storage facilities and for the most essential sanitary needs to be met by guaranteeing clean, quality sanitary facilities in offices and public buildings, which should also meet the needs of female cyclists; calls on Member States and local authorities to ensure the possibility of transporting bikes on trains and buses with a view of developing intermodality; welcomes the Commission’s guidance on cycling projects in the EU, which brings together existing advice into a single, consistent and universal online guidance resource that allows users to identify the most relevant information for their situation; calls for an agreement on cycling infrastructure to be reached between Parliament and the Council within a reasonable period of time, taking into account the needs of rural communities, providing for infrastructure along the public road network covered by smart transport systems and amending Directive 2010/40/EU (33);


Underlines that better infrastructure design, such as bus stations within short walking distance, greater bus frequency during off-peak hours, increased availability of services for women living in rural areas and stroller-friendly infrastructure can increase usability for women and encourage women to use public and more sustainable modes transport;


Calls on the Member States to investigate how different budget solutions benefit different groups and to introduce gender budgeting;


Recalls that a wide range of EU funding instruments are available for Member States to invest in women’s mobility needs and female employment in the transport sector, as well as to address mobility poverty, including the European Regional Development Fund, the Recovery and Resilience Facility, European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) and the Social Climate Fund and the Cohesion Fund; calls on the Commission and Member States to ensure that measures and investments supported by these funds respect the principle of gender equality and that particular attention is given to ensure that women benefit from the implementation of these funding instruments;


Underlines that maintenance of the road network, including seasonal measures such as snow clearing and ploughing, should prioritise active, sustainable or public transport, as well as access to day care centres and other necessary pavements;


Regrets that although about one third of Recovery and Resilience Fund under the green transition pillar is allocated to sustainable mobility, not enough funding is dedicated to promote gender equality in the transport sector; calls on the Commission and Member States to propose and implement gender equality projects in the transport sector under the Recovery and Resilience Fund;


Calls for new aircraft to be equipped with lavatories with sufficient space to permit a passenger with a disability or an adult assisting a child to approach, enter and manoeuvre within the aircraft lavatory with ease and to be able to change the baby or assist a baby while using the facility, as this will better reinforce gender equality; notes the importance of designating specific and safe areas to leave children so that they are always visible to parents during the required security checks;


Calls on Member States, local authorities and stakeholders to ensure that the busiest routes are served by specially-designed low-floor vehicles and that transit stops are configured to improve vehicle accessibility and to provide barrier-free access to metro and railway stations in order to improve women’s transport experiences;


Highlights the role that local authorities play in providing public transport services for citizens and the extent to which they are abreast of their communities’ needs, demonstrating that local authorities are often close to women users; recalls how important it is to support local authorities in delivering the transport services that would address the needs of women, vulnerable groups, older people, people with disabilities and those living in rural areas and outermost regions; calls in this regard on Member States not to restrict the financing of local governments;

Ensuring women’s safety and security in transport environments


Calls for an increased emphasis on safety and security in public transport and urban mobility planning, to be achieved by such means as adequate and sustainable street lighting and well-lit public transit stops in order to avoid situations where women have to travel through dark, eerie spots when commuting; calls furthermore for integrated transport designs to take into account ‘the last mile’, especially at off-peak times, as well as connections to and from all areas, including economically disadvantaged areas and emergency facilities;


Highlights the importance of employers and public authorities working together to ensure safe public transport for women employees when commuting to and from work, including the option for employers to provide safe means of transport for workers commuting at night after a late shift or where public transport is not available and through gender-specific risk assessment in transport planning; highlights that preventive measures, such as bus stops located in highly visible places, increased lighting, panic buttons, staff on board buses and drop-offs at requested locations during the night, can increase safety; calls on collective transport companies to ensure that users can use electronic means of payment so that women and girls do not find themselves in an unpleasant or even unsafe situation without the right change and therefore unable to return home safely on collective transport; recalls that collective transport companies have a duty of care to ensure that passengers have emergency communication lines available so that victims can quickly obtain help especially when carriages are empty; calls on transport providers to implement tailored training courses for all their staff on identifying and combating gender-based violence and adequate victim support; calls on the Member States to raise awareness, including via information campaigns, on measures to prevent and fight harassment and gender-based violence in public transport networks and in the public sphere; calls on law enforcement authorities to increase the presence of police personnel, including women police, at peak times so as to serve as a deterrent for perpetrators and a symbol of reassurance for vulnerable persons;


Encourages Member States to adopt measures to reduce motor vehicle traffic around schools and childcare facilities and develop safe routes to schools;


Encourages the Member States to further introduce digitalisation and new transport models which can provide better, safer, more accessible and more affordable services for women;


Calls for ride-hailing apps to include a safety toolkit that would centralise all key safety information and features for riders and drivers in one place on the app; highlights furthermore the need to include panic buttons, trusted contacts, anonymised address history, as well as in-app bike lane and pedestrian alerts;


Notes that it could be useful to allow bus drivers to stop to let passengers disembark between bus stops within an already determined route in order to allow women and girls to arrive closer to their destinations at night;


Notes that women play an important role in shaping the mobility choices of households, and that their negative experiences, such as insecurity, inefficiency and lack of affordability when using certain collective and sustainable modes of transport including public transport, walking and cycling but also newer options such as electric scooters, can be off-putting and unappealing and can understandably induce considerable anxiety and fear and therefore perpetuate inefficient travel; recognises that high-quality public and collective transport that tends to be affordable contributes to empowering women; calls on Member States, in this regard, to adopt measures to ensure safer facilities for cyclists and pedestrians, including traffic-calming measures and investments in upgrading infrastructure with a view to adequately protecting vulnerable road users;


Emphasises that public transport must ensure that women are enabled to use transport in security, without threats, uncomfortable situations or the risk of violence; notes the importance of organising regular training courses for drivers, transport workers and staff working in transit hubs on gender sensitivity and on how to report and refer gender-based violence and harassment incidents; highlights in this regard the importance of including transport contractors and stakeholders in training sessions and awareness raising;


Notes the challenges faced by women, who are currently still proportionally more likely than men to be carers, taking into account in particular the specific situation in rural areas, where public transport is usually still underdeveloped; stresses that policies aiming to promote sustainable transport must not exclude women, families in all their diversity, LGBTQI+ individuals, older people, the young and other vulnerable groups and those living in rural areas; calls on Member States to ensure sustainable and affordable mobility options in rural areas, including an increased frequency, affordability and regularity of service; notes that on-demand mobility services have proven a popular solution when offered in low demand and rural areas or outermost regions and have the potential to meet some of the needs left unmet by the declining quality of public transport in these areas;


Calls on national and local authorities to make sure that e-scooters and shared bikes are not abandoned on pavements and in unsuitable places, creating obstructions for pedestrians, such as women with strollers, and general hazards that could trip up blind and visually impaired persons and older and disabled women; calls on stakeholders in this regard to include on applications a function prompting users to park their scooters parallel to the kerb and with consideration for other pavement users, including women with strollers, people in wheelchairs and the partially sighted;


Notes that underpasses and footbridges may pose major safety risks and accessibility challenges for commuters, including active commuters, women with strollers, older people and people with disabilities; calls on national and local authorities to bring all parties together in the urban development process so as to create new (or adapt where necessary already existing) underpass and footbridge infrastructure so that they are clean, safe, inclusive, well-marked, more visually appealing and accessible to all users; calls further in this regard for the involvement of more women in the design and planning process to be encouraged so that these built environments are designed in a more pedestrian-friendly and gender-sensitive way;


Calls on local authorities to ensure that sustainable urban mobility plans satisfy the mobility needs of people, with special emphasis on women and the overarching need for a better quality of life for all citizens;

Women and employment in the transport sector


Underlines that women transport workers at all levels can face barriers, such as gender bias and stereotyping, intersectional discrimination and improper work-life balance, which disproportionately affect women with responsibilities, and lower pay than men for equal work or work of equal value, as well as a lack of facilities or poorly adapted facilities, which enable harassment and violence; notes that women also have few role models or business mentors in the transport sector, which makes it difficult to attract and retain women in transport jobs; calls in this regard on collective transport operators to acknowledge that women’s initial experiences, how they are welcomed and treated, and whether they are supported and promoted are critical to their willingness to remain in the sector; calls on Member States to implement the Women on Boards Directive and the Pay Transparency Directive as soon as possible;


Notes that in 2018, Eurostat found that the employment rate for women aged between 20 and 64 in the EU stood at 67 %, while the female employment rate in the European transport sector is even lower (22 %); notes, in this regard, that approximately one third (30 %) of women employed in the EU were working part-time, which is nearly four times the rate for men (8 %); calls on the Member States, therefore, to promote and support full and part-time jobs for women, possibly by means of such policy initiatives as supporting access to childcare;


Stresses that any form of discrimination, harassment, bullying, intimidation or violence in the workplace must be eliminated; calls on the Commission, therefore, to step up efforts to include gender-related provisions in all relevant legislation, in line with the Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy and the Gender Equality Strategy, in order to address gender-based discrimination and inequalities, and ensure a fair, safe and secure working environment for women in all transport modes, as well as the implementation of any necessary preventive and dissuasive measures (e.g. safe and secure parking areas);


Calls on the Commission and the Member States to combat discrimination and ensure the implementation of policies and existing legislation to address the gender pay gap and improve working conditions for everybody in the transport sector, including measures or initiatives that may improve work-life balance, to encourage gender-specific risk assessments and a gender-balanced approach to health and safety, promote measures ensuring safe and secure workplaces, such as anti-harassment training courses for employees and all levels of management, protocols with clear legal procedures and measures to adequately support victims, which would benefit all transport workers;


Condemns all forms of sexist, discriminatory or degrading behaviour towards transport workers; underlines unequivocally that such behaviour must be treated with zero tolerance; calls on collective transport companies to ensure that gender-inclusive language is used in all communications; points out that factors, such as working conditions, remuneration, the working environment, training and work-life balance are vital to attracting more women into the transport sector; recognises that only by improving working conditions in the different parts of the transport sector will it be possible to hire and retain more women within the sector; takes the view that more women in the sector is an inspiring means of achieving true equality in the workplace and the only way to remedy the lack of women professionals in the sector;


Calls on the Member States to combat gender-based occupational segregation that is underpinned and reinforced by the myth that women are unable or physically unsuited to performing certain duties, tasks or roles;


Welcomes the relative success and potential of some SMEs in ensuring good networks with other companies, clients and local authorities in order to target potential women employees, as well as in reaching out to employment agencies in order to find talented, qualified and enthusiastic female applicants;


Calls on all Member States to implement ILO Convention C190 on the elimination of violence and harassment in the world of work, which also applies to commuting to and from work (Article 3(f)) and therefore emphasises employers’ legal responsibility in this regard;


Underlines that if there is an imbalance in gender representation, as well as in some cases a ‘masculine culture’ in the transport sector, this can lead to harassment and gender-based violence; points out that workplace violence in different parts of the transport sector is an essential issue when trying to understand the lack of women in the sector; emphasises that such violence could be the result of sexist or even misogynistic practices or connected to external factors, such as attacks by passengers (in public transport) and/or organised gangs in freight transport; calls for the EU and its Member States to make combating workplace violence a priority and calls for more data to be gathered on the issue in order to better understand, analyse and combat this kind of attack on human rights;


Calls on the Commission to promote equal training opportunities for men and women; highlights that training is one of the cornerstones of professional and personal development and maintains equivalent levels of skills for men and women;

Empowering women in the transport sector


Stresses that the lack of women in the transport sector should be seen as a challenge that can be tackled; calls for the implementation of policies to combat the barriers to women’s employment and promote increased awareness of these obstacles; calls on the Commission, the Member States, stakeholders and social partners to address these barriers and to take proactive measures to boost the attractiveness of the sector for women; calls for what is working well at national level not to be changed, but instead for existing national systems to be strengthened, with a strong emphasis on social dialogue and collective bargaining, including the binding nature of the latter; highlights the gender pay gap in the transport sector, which is to a large extent due to women earning less for equal work or work of equal value; calls for an extensive study to map and analyse the gender pay gap in the sector;

Raising awareness and encouraging behavioural change


Notes that women are traditionally under-represented in technical education and areas such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics, which are key to the development of the mobility and transport sector; calls on the Member States to combat market segmentation in transport and science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers; notes that the promotion of entrepreneurship among girls from an early age could reduce existing educational stereotypes and ensure that more women enter the logistics, engineering and transport sectors; calls, therefore, on the Commission to promote and support gender-sensitive projects and to identify women role models;


Welcomes the establishment of the Women in Transport — EU platform for a change where European stakeholders can learn from each other and exchange best practices; calls for more initiatives prioritising women’s employability such as the WEgate platform or the Aviation 4 Girls event so that women can best overcome the barriers to women’s entry to and performance in the transport sector, in turn be encouraged to pursue a prosperous career in STEM and meet, as well as learn from, successful and aspiring female transport sector workers and venture capitalists in the transport sector;


Highlights the potential imbalances in the workforce of the transport sector resulting from recruitment and selection policies; calls on the Member States to promote targeted advertising campaigns encouraging women to apply for work in the transport sector, to promote gender-responsive corporate governance and human resources policies, such as equal wage policies, on-site childcare facilities, flexible work schedules and the option of part-time work, and to ensure an appropriately designed working environment, along with personal protective equipment and clothing, drivers’ cabins, sufficient and safe changing and sanitary facilities, etc.;


Notes the need for campaigns and social media actions to ensure a culture of zero tolerance on harassment and unsafe working environments, as well as for educational programmes at schools on safe mobility and gender roles so as to increase safety in collective transport;


Calls on Member States to launch awareness programmes to increase understanding so that citizens can recognise when a woman, girl or other vulnerable person looks uncomfortable, feels unsafe or is at risk of violence and/or harassment;


Notes that digitalisation and new transport models have the potential provide better, safer and more accessible working environments for women;


Calls on the Commission to ensure that the green and digital transitions target and eliminate barriers to female employment in transport; stresses that current funding programmes and instruments such as the Green New Deal or ESF+ can make a tangible difference in this regard; underlines that measures further promoting the modal shift to public transport and active mobility, while preserving all mobility options allowing women to always have the right to opt for the mobility option of their choice as they know their particular situation best, whether it be private mobility, micro-mobility or active mobility, would not only contribute to achieving the goal of climate neutrality but also be an appropriate answer to women’s needs; highlights that prioritising women’s needs in transport supports the green transition;


Calls on collective transport companies to increase display advertisements educating people on the spectrum of abuse as well as the legislation currently in place; recalls that increased awareness will embolden women to seek help but also encourage bystanders to intervene; to this end, reiterates the need for clear, visible and functional helpdesks where people can obtain immediate assistance;


Calls on the airline industry stakeholders to consider adopting a holistic approach to gender equality at every level, as well as to recognise that there are discrepancies in the number of women in different positions in the industry;


Highlights how the inclusion of female executives in collective transport management has the potential to improve decision-making processes, demonstrating the benefits and societal advantages of corporate sustainability and investment;


Urges the Member States to ensure early outreach to schools, universities, networks and business associations as a means of engaging with girls and women from an early age and making technical subjects attractive to them, which could lead to a prosperous career in transport;


o o


Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1)   OJ L 6, 10.1.1979, p. 24.

(2)   OJ L 348, 28.11.1992, p. 1.

(3)   OJ L 373, 21.12.2004, p. 37.

(4)   OJ L 204, 26.7.2006, p. 23.

(5)   OJ L 188, 12.7.2019, p. 79.

(6)   OJ L 180, 15.7.2010, p. 1.

(7)   OJ L 132, 17.5.2023, p. 21.

(8)   OJ L 249, 31.7.2020, p. 1.

(9)   OJ C 353 E, 3.12.2013, p. 38.

(10)   OJ C 363, 28.10.2020, p. 164.

(11)   OJ C 456, 10.11.2021, p. 191.

(12)   OJ C 456, 10.11.2021, p. 208.

(13)   OJ C 132, 24.3.2022, p. 45.

(14)  Texts adopted, P9_TA(2023)0058.

(15)  Eurostat,


(17)  Women Mobilize Women, Safe commuting for all — how cities can tackle sexual harassment on public transport, 2022.

(18)  The Guardian, Air pollution ‘speeds up osteoporosis’ in postmenopausal women, 10 March 2023.

(19)  Eurobarometer, Mobility and transport, July 2020.

(20)  Washington Post, Female dummy makes her mark on male-dominated crash tests, 25 March 2012.

(21)  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Injury Vulnerability and Effectiveness of Occupant Protection Technologies for Older Occupants and Women, Washington DC, 2013.

(22)  The Guardian, Women almost twice as likely to be trapped in crashed vehicle, study finds, 2022.

(23)  International Transport Forum, Women’s Safety and Security: A Public Transport Priority, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2018.



(26) A(2022)729293_EN.pdf.

(27)  Economist Impact, Empowering women in the maritime industry, September 2019.

(28)  Eurostat, 2017.

(29)  IRU, International Women’s Day spotlight: commercial road transport, March 2023.

(30)  European Commission, Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport, Good staff scheduling and rostering practices in transport — Final report, Publications Office of the EU, Luxembourg, 2021.

(31)  European Commission, Study on the social dimension of the future EU transport system regarding users and passengers: final report, 2022.


(33)  Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport (OJ L 207, 6.8.2010, p. 1).


ISSN 1977-091X (electronic edition)