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Document 32008L0128

Commission Directive 2008/128/EC of 22 December 2008 laying down specific purity criteria concerning colours for use in foodstuffs (Codified version) (Text with EEA relevance)

OJ L 6, 10.1.2009, p. 20–63 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

No longer in force, Date of end of validity: 30/11/2012; Repealed by 32012R0231

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2008/128/oj

10.1.2009   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 6/20


COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2008/128/EC

of 22 December 2008

laying down specific purity criteria concerning colours for use in foodstuffs

(Codified version)

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community,

Having regard to Council Directive 89/107/EEC of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning food additives authorized for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption (1), and in particular Article 3(3)(a) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

Commission Directive 95/45/EC of 26 July 1995 laying down specific criteria concerning colours for use in foodstuffs (2) has been substantially amended several times (3). In the interests of clarity and rationality the said Directive should be codified.

(2)

It is necessary to establish purity criteria for all colours mentioned in European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of 30 June 1994 on colours for use in foodstuffs (4).

(3)

It is necessary to take into account the specifications and analytical techniques for colours as set out in the Codex Alimentarius as drafted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

(4)

Food additives prepared by production methods or starting materials significantly different from those evaluated by the Scientific Committee for Food or different from those mentioned in this Directive should be submitted for safety evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority with emphasis on the purity criteria.

(5)

The measures provided for in this Directive are in accordance with the opinion of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health.

(6)

This Directive should be without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives set out in Annex II, Part B,

HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

Article 1

The purity criteria referred to in Article 3(3)(a) of Directive 89/107/EEC for colours mentioned in Directive 94/36/EC are set out in Annex I hereto.

Article 2

Directive 95/45/EC, as amended by the Directives listed in Annex II, Part A, is repealed, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives set out in Annex II, Part B.

References to the repealed Directive shall be construed as references to this Directive and shall be read in accordance with the correlation table in Annex III.

Article 3

This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 4

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Brussels, 22 December 2008.

For the Commission

The President

José Manuel BARROSO


(1)  OJ L 40, 11.2.1989, p. 27.

(2)  OJ L 226, 22.9.1995, p. 1.

(3)  See Annex II, Part A.

(4)  OJ L 237, 10.9.1994, p. 13.


ANNEX I

A.   GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALUMINIUM LAKES OF COLOURS

Definition

Aluminium lakes are prepared by reacting colours complying with the purity criteria set out in the appropriate specification monograph with alumina under aqueous conditions. The alumina is usually freshly prepared undried material made by reacting aluminium sulfate or chloride with sodium or calcium carbonate or bicarbonate or ammonia. Following lake formation, the product is filtered, washed with water and dried. Unreacted alumina may also be present in the finished product.

HCl insoluble matter

Not more than 0,5 %

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % (under neutral conditions)

Specific purity criteria for the corresponding colours are applicable.

B.   SPECIFIC CRITERIA OF PURITY

E 100 CURCUMIN

Synonyms

CI Natural Yellow 3, Turmeric Yellow, Diferoyl Methane

Definition

Curcumin is obtained by solvent extraction of turmeric i.e. the ground rhizomes of natural strains of Curcuma longa L. In order to obtain a concentrated curcumin powder, the extract is purified by crystallisation. The product consists essentially of curcumins; i.e. the colouring principle (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-dien-3,5-dione) and its two desmethoxy derivatives in varying proportions. Minor amounts of oils and resins naturally occuring in turmeric may be present.

Only the following solvents may be used in the extraction: ethylacetate, acetone, carbon dioxide, dichloromethane, n-butanol, methanol, ethanol, hexane.

Class

Dicinnamoylmethane

Colour Index No

75300

Einecs

207-280-5

Chemical names

I

1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione

II

1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione

III

1,7-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione

Chemical formula

I

C21H20O6

II

C20H18O5

III

C19H16O4

Molecular weight

I.

368,39

II.

338,39

III.

308,39

Assay

Content not less than 90 % total colouring matters

E1 cm 1 %1 607 at ca 426 nm in ethanol

Description

Orange-yellow crystalline powder

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in ethanol at ca 426 nm

B.

Melting Range

179 °C-182 °C

Purity

Solvent residues

Ethylacetate

Acetone

n-butanol

Methanol

Ethanol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 101 (i) RIBOFLAVIN

Synonyms

Lactoflavin

Class

Isoalloxazine

Einecs

201-507-1

Chemical names

7,8-Dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)benzo(g)pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione

7,8-dimethyl-10-(1′-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine

Chemical formula

C17H20N4O6

Molecular weight

376,37

Assay

Content not less than 98 % on the anhydrous basis

E1 cm 1 % 328 at ca 444 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Yellow to orange-yellow crystalline powder, with slight odour

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

The ratio A375/A267 is between 0,31 and 0,33

The ratio A444/A267 is between 0,36 and 0,39

in aqueous solution

Maximum in water at ca 444 nm

B.

Specific rotation

[α]D20 between – 115° and – 140° in a 0,05 N sodium hydroxide solution

Purity

Loss on drying

Not more than 1,5 % after drying at 105 °C for 4 hrs

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,1 %

Primary aromatic amines

Not more than 100 mg/kg (calculated as aniline)

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 101 (ii) RIBOFLAVIN-5′-PHOSPHATE

Synonyms

Riboflavin-5′-phosphate sodium

Definition

These specifications apply to riboflavin 5′-phosphate together with minor amounts of free riboflavin and riboflavin diphosphate

Class

Isoalloxazine

Einecs

204-988-6

Chemical names

Monosodium

(2R,3R,4S)-5-(3′)10′-dihydro-7′,8′-dimethyl-2′,4′-dioxo-10′-benzo[γ]pteridinyl)-2,3,4-trihydroxypentyl phosphate;

monosodium salt of 5′-monophosphate ester of riboflavin

Chemical formula

For the dihydrate form

:

C17H20N4NaO9P·2H2O

For the anhydrous form

:

C17H20N4NaO9P

Molecular weight

541,36

Assay

Content not less than 95 % total colouring matters calculated as C17H20N4NaO9P·2H2O

E1 cm 1 % 250 at ca 375 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Yellow to orange crystalline hygroscopic powder, with slight odour and a bitter taste

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

The ratio A375/A267 is between 0,30 and 0,34

The ratio A444/A267 is between 0,35 and 0,40

in aqueous solution

Maximum in water at ca 444 nm

B.

Specific rotation

[α]D20 between + 38° and + 42° in a 5 molar HCl solution

Purity

Loss on drying

Not more than 8 % (100 °C, 5 hrs in vacuum over P2O5) for the dihydrate form

Sulfated ash

Not more than 25 %

Inorganic phosphate

Not more than 1,0 % (calculated as PO4 on the anhydrous basis)

Subsidiary colouring matters

Riboflavin (free)

:

Not more than 6 %

Riboflavine diphosphate

:

Not more than 6 %

Primary aromatic amines

Not more than 70 mg/kg (calculated as aniline)

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 102 TARTRAZINE

Synonyms

CI Food Yellow 4

Definition

Tartrazine consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Tartrazine is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

19140

Einecs

217-699-5

Chemical names

Trisodium-5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate

Chemical formula

C16H9N4Na3O9S2

Molecular weight

534,37

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 530 at ca 426 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Light orange powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 426 nm

B.

Yellow solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 1,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-hydrazinobenzene sulfonic acid

 

4-aminobenzene-1-sulfonic acid

 

5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-2-pyrazoline-3-carboxylic acid

 

4,4′-diazoaminodi(benzene sulfonic acid)

 

Tetrahydroxysuccinic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 104 QUINOLINE YELLOW

Synonyms

CI Food Yellow 13

Definition

Quinoline Yellow is prepared by sulfonating 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione. Quinoline Yellow consists essentially of sodium salts of a mixture of disulfonates (principally), monosulfonates and trisulfonates of the above compound and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Quinoline Yellow is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Chinophthalone

Colour Index No

47005

Einecs

305-897-5

Chemical name

The disodium salts of the disulfonates of 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione (principal component)

Chemical formula

C18H9N Na2O8S2 (principal component)

Molecular weight

477,38 (principal component)

Assay

Content not less than 70 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt

Quinoline Yellow shall have the following composition:

Of the total colouring matters present:

not less than 80 % shall be disodium 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione-disulfonates

not more than 15 % shall be sodium 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione-monosulfonates

not more than 7,0 % shall be trisodium 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione-trisulfonate

E1 cm 1 % 865 (principal component) at ca 411 nm in aqueous acetic acid solution

Description

Yellow powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in aqueous acetic acid solution of pH 5 at ca 411 nm

B.

Yellow solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 4,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

2-methylquinoline

 

2-methylquinoline-sulfonic acid

 

Phthalic acid

 

2,6-dimethyl quinoline

 

2,6-dimethyl quinoline sulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

2-(2-quinolyl)indan-1,3-dione

Not more than 4 mg/kg

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 110 SUNSET YELLOW FCF

Synonyms

CI Food Yellow 3, Orange Yellow S

Definition

Sunset Yellow FCF consists essentially of disodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenylazo) naphthalene-6-sulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Sunset Yellow FCF is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

15985

Einecs

220-491-7

Chemical names

Disodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)naphthalene-6-sulfonate

Chemical formula

C16H10N2Na2O7S2

Molecular weight

452,37

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 555 at ca 485 nm in aqueous solution at pH 7

Description

Orange-red powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 485 nm at pH 7

B.

Orange solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 5,0 %

1-(Phenylazo)-2-naphthalenol (Sudan I)

Not more than 0,5 mg/kg

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-aminobenzene-1-sulfonic acid

 

3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

 

6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid

 

7-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3-disulfonic acid

 

4,4′-diazoaminodi(benzene sulfonic acid)

 

6,6′-oxydi(naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid)

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

E 120 COCHINEAL, CARMINIC ACID, CARMINES

Definition

Carmines and carminic acid are obtained from aqueous, aqueous alcoholic or alcoholic extracts from Cochineal, which consists of the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa.

The colouring principle is carminic acid.

Aluminium lakes of carminic acid (carmines) can be formed in which aluminium and carminic acid are thought to be present in the molar ratio 1:2.

In commercial products the colouring principle is present in association with ammonium, calcium, potassium or sodium cations, singly or in combination, and these cations may also be present in excess.

Commercial products may also contain proteinaceous material derived from the source insect, and may also contain free carminate or a small residue of unbound aluminium cations.

Class

Anthraquinone

Colour Index No

75470

Einecs

Cochineal: 215-680-6; carminic acid: 215-023-3; carmines: 215-724-4

Chemical names

7-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid (carminic acid); carmine is the hydrated aluminium chelate of this acid

Chemical formula

C22H20O13 (carminic acid)

Molecular weight

492,39 (carminic acid)

Assay

Content not less than 2,0 % carminic acid in the extracts containing carminic acid; not less than 50 % carminic acid in the chelates.

Description

Red to dark red, friable, solid or powder. Cochineal extract is generally a dark red liquid but can also be dried as a powder.

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in aqueous ammonia solution at ca 518 nm

Maximum in dilute hydrochloric solution at ca 494 nm for carminic acid

Purity

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 122 AZORUBINE, CARMOISINE

Synonyms

CI Food Red 3

Definition

Azorubine consists essentially of disodium 4-hydroxy-3-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-1-sulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Azorubine is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

14720

Einecs

222-657-4

Chemical name

Disodium 4-hydroxy-3-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-1-sulfonate

Chemical formula

C20H12N2Na2O7S2

Molecular weight

502,44

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 510 at ca 516 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Red to maroon powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 516 nm

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 2,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid

 

4-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 123 AMARANTH

Synonyms

CI Food Red 9

Definition

Amaranth consists essentially of trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Amaranth is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

16185

Einecs

213-022-2

Chemical name

Trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate

Chemical formula

C20H11N2Na3O10S3

Molecular weight

604,48

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 440 at ca 520 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Reddish-brown powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 520 nm

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 3,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid

 

3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

 

6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid

 

7-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3-disulfonic acid

 

7-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3-6-trisulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 124 PONCEAU 4R, COCHINEAL RED A

Synonyms

CI Food Red 7, New Coccine

Definition

Ponceau 4R consists essentially of trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-6,8-disulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Ponceau 4R is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

16255

Einecs

220-036-2

Chemical name

Trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-6,8-disulfonate

Chemical formula

C20H11N2Na3O10S3

Molecular weight

604,48

Assay

Content not less than 80 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt.

E1 cm 1 % 430 at ca 505 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Reddish powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 505 nm

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 1,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid

 

7-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3-disulfonic acid

 

3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

 

6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid

 

7-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3-6-trisulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 127 ERYTHROSINE

Synonyms

CI Food Red 14

Definition

Erythrosine consists essentially of disodium 2-(2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3-oxido-6-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoate monohydrate and subsidiary colouring matters together with water, sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Erythrosine is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Xanthen

Colour Index No

45430

Einecs

240-474-8

Chemical name

Disodium 2-(2,4,5,7-tetraiodo-3-oxido-6-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoate monohydrate

Chemical formula

C20H6I4Na2O5.H2O

Molecular weight

897,88

Assay

Content not less than 87 % total colouring matters, calculated as the anhydrous sodium salt

E1 cm 1 %1 100 at ca 526 nm in aqueous solution at pH 7

Description

Red powder or granules.

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 526 nm at pH 7

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Inorganic iodides calculated as sodium iodide

Not more than 0,1 %

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters (except fluorescein)

Not more than 4,0 %

Fluorescein

Not more than 20 mg/kg

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

Tri-iodoresorcinol

Not more than 0,2 %

2-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-diodobenzoyl) benzoic acid

Not more than 0,2 %

Ether extractable matter

From a solution of pH from 7 through 8, not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

Aluminium Lakes

The hydrochloric acid insoluble matter method is not applicable. It is replaced by a sodium hydroxide insoluble matter, at not more than 0,5 %, for this colour only.

E 128 RED 2G

Synonyms

CI Food Red 10, Azogeranine

Definition

Red 2G consists essentially of disodium 8-acetamido-1-hydroxy-2-phenylazonaphthalene-3,6-disulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Red 2G is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

18050

Einecs

223-098-9

Chemical name

Disodium 8-acetamido-1-hydroxy-2-phenylazo-naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate

Chemical formula

C18H13N3Na2O8S2

Molecular weight

509,43

Assay

Content not less than 80 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 620 at ca 532 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Red powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 532 nm

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 2,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

5-acetamido-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

 

5-amino-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 129 ALLURA RED AC

Synonyms

CI Food Red 17

Definition

Allura Red AC consists essentially of disodium 2-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxy-5-methyl-4-sulfonato-phenylazo) naphthalene-6-sulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Allura Red AC is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

16035

Einecs

247-368-0

Chemical name

Disodium 2-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxy-5-methyl-4-sulfonatophenylazo) naphthalene-6-sulfonate

Chemical formula

C18H14N2Na2O8S2

Molecular weight

496,42

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 540 at ca 504 nm in aqueous solution at pH 7

Description

Dark red powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 504 nm

B.

Red solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 3,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

6-hydroxy-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid, sodium salt

Not more than 0,3 %

4-amino-5-methoxy-2-methylbenezene sulfonic acid

Not more than 0,2 %

6,6-oxybis (2-naphthalene sulfonic acid) disodium salt

Not more than 1,0 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

From a solution of pH 7, not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 131 PATENT BLUE V

Synonyms

CI Food Blue 5

Definition

Patent Blue V consists essentially of the calcium or sodium compound of [4-(α-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-5-hydroxy-2,4-disulfophenyl-methylidene)2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene] diethylammonium hydroxide inner salt and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate and/or calcium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

The potassium salt is also permitted.

Class

Triarylmethane

Colour Index No

42051

Einecs

222-573-8

Chemical names

The calcium or sodium compound of [4-(α-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-5-hydroxy-2,4-disulfophenyl-methylidene) 2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene] diethyl-ammonium hydroxide inner salt

Chemical formula

Calcium compound: C27H31N2O7S2Ca Formula

Sodium compound: C27H31N2O7S2Na

Molecular weight

Calcium compound: 579,72

Sodium compound: 582,67

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 %2 000 at ca 638 nm in aqueous solution at pH 5

Description

Dark-blue powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at 638 nm at pH 5

B.

Blue solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 2,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

3-hydroxy benzaldehyde

 

3-hydroxy benzoic acid

 

3-hydroxy-4-sulfobenzoic acid

 

N,N-diethylamino benzene sulfonic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Leuco base

Not more than 4,0 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

From a solution of pH 5 not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 132 INDIGOTINE, INDIGO CARMINE

Synonyms

CI Food Blue 1

Definition

Indigotine consists essentially of a mixture of disodium 3,3′dioxo-2,2′-bi-indolylidene-5,5′-disulfonate, and disodium 3,3′-dioxo-2,2′-bi-indolylidene-5,7′-disulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Indigotine is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Indigoid

Colour Index No

73015

Einecs

212-728-8

Chemical names

Disodium 3,3′-dioxo-2,2′-bi-indolylidene-5,5′-disulfonate

Chemical formula

C16H8N2Na2O8S2

Molecular weight

466,36

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt;

disodium 3,3′-dioxo-2,2′-bi-indolylidene-5,7′-disulfonate: not more than 18 %

E1 cm 1 % 480 at ca 610 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Dark-blue powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 610 nm

B.

Blue solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Excluding disodium 3,3′-dioxo-2,2′-bi-indolylidene-5,7′-disulfonate: not more than 1,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

Isatin-5-sulfonic acid

 

5-sulfoanthranilic acid

 

Anthranilic acid

Total not more than 0,5 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 133 BRILLIANT BLUE FCF

Synonyms

CI Food Blue 2

Definition

Brilliant Blue FCF consists essentially of disodium α-(4-(N-ethyl-3-sulfonatobenzylamino) phenyl)-α-(4-N-ethyl-3-sulfonatobenzylamino) cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene) toluene-2-sulfonate and its isomers and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Brilliant Blue FCF is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Triarylmethane

Colour Index No

42090

Einecs

223-339-8

Chemical names

Disodium α-(4-(N-ethyl-3-sulfonatobenzylamino) phenyl)-α-(4-N-ethyl-3-sulfonatobenzylamino) cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene) toluene-2-sulfonate

Chemical formula

C37H34N2Na2O9S3

Molecular weight

792,84

Assay

Content not less than 85 % total colouring matters, calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 %1 630 at ca 630 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Reddish-blue powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 630 nm

B.

Blue solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 6,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

Sum of 2-, 3- and 4-formyl benzene sulfonic acids

Not more than 1,5 %

3-((ethyl)(4-sulfophenyl) amino) methyl benzene sulfonic acid

Not more than 0,3 %

Leuco base

Not more than 5,0 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % at pH 7

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 140 (i) CHLOROPHYLLS

Synonyms

CI Natural Green 3, Magnesium Chlorophyll, Magnesium Phaeophytin

Definition

Chlorophylls are obtained by solvent extraction of natural strains of edible plant material, grass, lucerne and nettle. During the subsequent removal of solvent, the naturally present co-ordinated magnesium may be wholly or partly removed from the chlorophylls to give the corresponding phaeophytins. The principal colouring matters are the phaeophytins and magnesium chlorophylls. The extracted product, from which the solvent has been removed, contains other pigments such as carotenoids as well as oils, fats and waxes derived from the source material. Only the following solvents may be used for the extraction: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol and hexane.

Class

Porphyrin

Colour Index No

75810

Einecs

Chlorophylls: 215-800-7, chlorophyll a: 207-536-6, Chlorophyll b: 208-272-4

Chemical names

The major colouring principles are:

 

Phytyl (132 R,17S,18S)-3-(8-ethyl-132-methoxycarbonyl-2,7,12,18-tetramethyl-13′-oxo-3-vinyl-131-132-17,18-tetrahydrocyclopenta [at]-porphyrin-17-yl)propionate, (Pheophytin a), or as the magnesium complex (Chlorophyll a)

 

Phytyl (132 R,17S,18S)-3-(8-ethyl-7-formyl-132-methoxycarbonyl-2,12,18-trimethyl-13′-oxo-3-vinyl-131-132-17,18-tetrahydrocyclopenta[at]-porphyrin-17-yl)propionate, (Pheophytin b), or as the magnesium complex (Chlorophyll b)

Chemical formula

Chlorophyll a (magnesium complex): C55H72MgN4O5

Chlorophyll a: C55H74N4O5

Chlorophyll b (magnesium complex): C55H70MgN4O6

Chlorophyll b: C55H72N4O6

Molecular weight

Chlorophyll a (magnesium complex): 893,51

Chlorophyll a: 871,22

Chlorophyll b (magnesium complex): 907,49

Chlorophyll b: 885,20

Assay

Content of total combined Chlorophylls and their magnesium complexes is not less than 10 %

E1 cm 1 % 700 at ca 409 nm in chloroform

Description

Waxy solid ranging in colour from olive green to dark green depending on the content of co-ordinated magnesium

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in chloroform at ca 409 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl Ethyl ketone

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: Not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 140 (ii) CHLOROPHYLLINS

Synonyms

CI Natural Green 5, Sodium Chlorophyllin, Potassium Chlorophyllin

Definition

The alkali salts of chlorophyllins are obtained by the saponification of a solvent extract of natural strains of edible plant material, grass, lucerne and nettle. The saponification removes the methyl and phytol ester groups and may partially cleave the cyclopentenyl ring. The acid groups are neutralized to form the salts of potassium and/or sodium.

Only the following solvents may be used for the extraction: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol and hexane.

Class

Porphyrin

Colour Index No

75815

Einecs

287-483-3

Chemical names

The major colouring principles in their acid forms are:

3-(10-carboxylato-4-ethyl-1,3,5,8-tetramethyl-9-oxo-2-vinylphorbin-7-yl)propionate (chlorophyllin a)

and

3-(10-carboxylato-4-ethyl-3-formyl-1,5,8-trimethyl-9-oxo-2-vinylphorbin-7-yl)propionate (chlorophyllin b)

Depending on the degree of hydrolysis the cyclopentenyl ring may be cleaved with the resultant production of a third carboxyl function.

Magnesium complexes may also be present.

Chemical formula

Chlorophyllin a (acid form): C34H34N4O5

Chlorophyllin b (acid form): C34H32N4O6

Molecular weight

Chlorophyllin a: 578,68

Chlorophyllin b: 592,66

Each may be increased by 18 daltons if the cyclopentenyl ring is cleaved.

Assay

Content of total chlorophyllins is not less than 95 % of the sample dried at ca 100 °C for 1 hour.

E1 cm 1 % 700 at ca 405 nm in aqueous solution at pH 9

E1 cm 1 % 140 at ca 653 nm in aqueous solution at pH 9

Description

Dark green to blue/black powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 9 at ca 405 nm and at ca 653 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 141 (i) COPPER COMPLEXES OF CHLOROPHYLLS

Synonyms

CI Natural Green 3, Copper Chlorophyll, Copper Phaeophytin

Definition

Copper chlorophylls are obtained by addition of a salt of copper to the substance obtained by solvent extraction of natural strains of edible plant material, grass, lucerne, and nettle. The product, from which the solvent has been removed, contains other pigments such as carotenoids as well as fats and waxes derived from the source material. The principal colouring matters are the copper phaeophytins. Only the following solvents may be used for the extraction: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol and hexane.

Class

Porphyrin

Colour Index No

75815

Einecs

Copper chlorophyll a: 239-830-5; copper chlorophyll b: 246-020-5

Chemical names

[Phytyl (132 R,17S,18S)-3-(8-ethyl-132-methoxycarbonyl-2,7,12,18-tetramethyl-13′-oxo-3-vinyl-131-132-17,18-tetrahydrocyclopenta[at]-porphyrin-17-yl)propionate] copper (II) (Copper Chlorophyll a)

[Phytyl (132 R,17S,18S)-3-(8-ethyl-7-formyl-132-methoxycarbonyl-2,12,18-trimethyl-13′-oxo-3-vinyl-131-132-17,18-tetrahydrocyclopenta[at]-porphyrin-17-yl)propionate] copper (II) (Copper chlorophyll b)

Chemical formula

Copper chlorophyll a: C55H72Cu N4O5

Copper chlorophyll b: C55H70Cu N4O6

Molecular weight

Copper chlorophyll a: 932,75

Copper chlorophyll b: 946,73

Assay

Content of total copper chlorophylls is not less than 10 %.

E1 cm 1 % 540 at ca 422 nm in chloroform

E1 cm 1 % 300 at ca 652 nm in chloroform

Description

Waxy solid ranging in colour from blue green to dark green depending on the source material

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in chloroform at ca 422 nm and at ca 652 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Copper ions

Not more than 200 mg/kg

Total copper

Not more than 8,0 % of the total copper phaeophytins

E 141 (ii) COPPER COMPLEXES OF CHLOROPHYLLINS

Synonyms

Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin, Potassium Copper Chlorophyllin, CI Natural Green 5

Definition

The alkali salts of copper chlorophyllins are obtained by the addition of copper to the product obtained by the saponification of a solvent extraction of natural strains of edible plant material, grass, lucerne, and nettle; the saponification removes the methyl and phytol ester groups and may partially cleave the cyclopentenyl ring. After addition of copper to the purified chlorophyllins, the acid groups are neutralized to form the salts of potassium and/or sodium.

Only the following solvents may be used for the extraction: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, carbon dioxide methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol and hexane.

Class

Porphyrin

Colour Index No

75815

Einecs

 

Chemical names

The major colouring principles in their acid forms are:

3-(10-Carboxylato-4-ethyl-1,3,5,8-tetramethyl-9-oxo-2-vinylphorbin-7-yl)propionate, copper complex (Copper chlorophyllin a)

and

3-(10-Carboxylato-4-ethyl-3-formyl-1,5,8-trimethyl-9-oxo-2-vinylphorbin-7-yl) propionate, copper complex (Copper chlorophyllin b)

Chemical formula

Copper chlorophyllin a (acid form): C34H32Cu N4O5

Copper chlorophyllin b (acid form): C34H30Cu N4O6

Molecular weight

Copper chlorophyllin a: 640,20

Copper chlorophyllin b: 654,18

Each may be increased by 18 daltons if the cyclopentenyl ring is cleaved.

Assay

Content of total copper chlorophyllins is not less than 95 % of the sample dried at 100 °C for 1 h.

E1 cm 1 % 565 at ca 405 nm in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 7,5

E1 cm 1 % 145 at ca 630 nm in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 7,5

Description

Dark green to blue/black powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 7,5 at ca 405 nm and at ca 630 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Copper ions

Not more than 200 mg/kg

Total copper

Not more than 8,0 % of the total copper chlorophyllins

E 142 GREEN S

Synonyms

CI Food Green 4, Brilliant Green BS

Definition

Green S consists essentially of sodium N-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl] 2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-1-naphthalenyl)methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-N-methylmethanaminium and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured compounds.

Green S is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Triarylmethane

Colour Index No

44090

Einecs

221-409-2

Chemical names

Sodium N-[4-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl](2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-1-naphthalenyl)-methylene]2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-N-methylmethanaminium;

Sodium 5-[4-dimethylamino-α-(4-dimethyliminocyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene) benzyl]-6-hydroxy-7-sulfonato-naphthalene-2-sulfonate (alternative chemical name).

Chemical formula

C27H25N2NaO7S2

Molecular Weight

576,63

Assay

Content not less than 80 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 %1 720 at ca 632 nm in aqueous solution

Description

Dark blue or dark green powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 632 nm

B.

Blue or green solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 1,0 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

4,4′-bis(dimethylamino)-benzhydryl alcohol

Not more than 0,1 %

4,4′-bis(dimethylamino)-benzophenone

Not more than 0,1 %

3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid

Not more than 0,2 %

Leuco base

Not more than 5,0 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 150a PLAIN CARAMEL

Definition

Plain caramel is prepared by the controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates (commercially available food grade nutritive sweeteners which are the monomers glucose and fructose and/or polymers thereof, e.g. glucose syrups, sucrose, and/or invert syrups, and dextrose). To promote caramelization, acids, alkalis and salts may be employed, with the exception of ammonium compounds and sulphites.

Einecs

232-435-9

Description

Dark brown to black liquids or solids

Purity

Colour bound by DEAE cellulose

Not more than 50 %

Colour bound by phosphoryl cellulose

Not more than 50 %

Colour intensity (1)

0,01-0,12

Total nitrogen

Not more than 0,1 %

Total sulphur

Not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 25 mg/kg

E 150b CAUSTIC SULPHITE CARAMEL

Definition

Caustic sulphite caramel is prepared by the controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates (commercially available food grade nutritive sweeteners which are the monomers glucose and fructose and/or polymers thereof, e.g. glucose syrups, sucrose, and/or invert syrups, and dextrose) with or without acids or alkalis, in the presence of sulphite compounds (sulphurous acid, potassium sulphite, potassium bisulphite, sodium sulphite and sodium bisulphite); no ammonium compounds are used.

Einecs

232-435-9

Description

Dark brown to black liquids or solids

Purity

Colour bound by DEAE cellulose

More than 50 %

Colour intensity (1)

0,05-0,13

Total nitrogen

Not more than 0,3 % (2)

Sulphur dioxide

Not more than 0,2 % (2)

Total sulphur

0,3-3,5 % (2)

Sulphur bound by DEAE cellulose

More than 40 %

Absorbance ratio of colour bound by DEAE cellulose

19-34

Absorbance ratio

(A 280/560)

Greater than 50

Arsenic

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 25 mg/kg

E 150c AMMONIA CARAMEL

Definition

Ammonia caramel is prepared by the controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates (commercially available food grade nutritive sweeteners which are the monomers glucose and fructose and/or polymers thereof, e.g. glucose syrups, sucrose, and/or invert syrups, and dextrose) with or without acids or alkalis, in the presence of ammonium compounds (ammonium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydrogen carbonate and ammonium phosphate); no sulphite compounds are used.

Einecs

232-435-9

Description

Dark brown to black liquids or solids

Purity

Colour bound by DEAE cellulose

Not more than 50 %

Colour bound by phosphoryl cellulose

More than 50 %

Colour intensity (1)

0,08-0,36

Ammoniacal nitrogen

Not more than 0,3 % (2)

4-methylimidazole

Not more than 250 mg/kg (2)

2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxy-butylimidazole

Not more than 10 mg/kg (2)

Total sulphur

Not more than 0,2 % (2)

Total nitrogen

0,7-3,3 % (2)

Absorbance ratio of colour bound by phosphoryl cellulose

13-35

Arsenic

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 25 mg/kg

E 150d SULPHITE AMMONIA CARAMEL

Definition

Sulphite ammonia caramel is prepared by the controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates (commercially available food grade nutritive sweeteners which are the monomers glucose and fructose and/or polymers thereof (e.g. glucose syrups, sucrose, and/or invert syrups, and dextrose) with or without acids or alkalis in the presence of both sulphite and ammonium compounds (sulphurous acid, potassium sulphite, potassium bisulphite, sodium sulphite, sodium bisulphite, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, ammonium sulphite and ammonium hydrogen sulphite).

Einecs

232-435-9

Description

Dark brown to black liquids or solids

Purity

Colour bound by DEAE cellulose

More than 50 %

Colour intensity (1)

0,10-0,60

Ammoniacal nitrogen

Not more than 0,6 % (2)

Sulphur dioxide

Not more than 0,2 % (2)

4-methylimidazole

Not more than 250 mg/kg (2)

Total nitrogen

0,3-1,7 % (2)

Total sulphur

0,8-2,5 % (2)

Nitrogen/sulphur ratio of alcohol precipitate

0,7-2,7

Absorbance ratio of alcohol precipitate (3)

8-14

Absorbance ratio (A 280/560)

Not more than 50

Arsenic

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 25 mg/kg

E 151 BRILLIANT BLACK BN, BLACK PN

Synonyms

CI Food Black 1

Definition

Brilliant Black BN consists essentially of tetrasodium-4-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-[7-sulfonato-4-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)-1-naphthylazo] naphthalene-1,7-disulfonate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Brilliant Black BN is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Bisazo

Colour Index No

28440

Einecs

219-746-5

Chemical names

Tetrasodium 4-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-[7-sulfonato-4-(4-sulfonatophenylazo)-1-naphthylazo] naphthalene-1,7-disulfonate

Chemical formula

C28H17N5Na4O14S4

Molecular weight

867,69

Assay

Content not less than 80 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt

E1 cm 1 % 530 at ca 570 nm in solution

Description

Black powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water at ca 570 nm

B.

Black-bluish solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 10 % (expressed on the dye content)

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

 

4-acetamido-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid

 

4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid

 

8-aminonaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid

 

4,4′-diazoaminodi-(benzenesulfonic acid)

Total not more than 0,8 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % under neutral conditions

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 153 VEGETABLE CARBON

Synonyms

Vegetable black

Definition

Vegetable carbon is produced by the carbonization of vegetable material such as wood, cellulose residues, peat and coconut and other shells. The raw material is carbonised at high temperatures. It consists essentially of finely divided carbon. It may contain minor amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. Some moisture may be absorbed on the product after manufacture.

Colour Index No

77266

Einecs

215-609-9

Chemical names

Carbon

Chemical formula

C

Molecular weight

12,01

Assay

Content not less than 95 % of carbon calculated on an anhydrous and ash-free basis

Description

Black powder, odourless and tasteless

Identification

A.

Solubility

Insoluble in water and organic solvents

B.

Burning

When heated to redness it burns slowly without a flame

Purity

Ash (Total)

Not more than 4,0 % (ignition temperature: 625 °C)

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

The extract obtained by extraction of 1 g of the product with 10 g pure cyclohexane in a continuous extraction apparatus shall be colourless, and the fluorescence of the extract in ultraviolet light shall not be more intense than that of a solution of 0,100 mg of quinine sulfate in 1 000 ml of 0,01 M sulphuric acid.

Loss on drying

Not more than 12 % (120 °C, 4 hrs)

Alkali soluble matter

The filtrate obtained by boiling 2 g of the sample with 20 ml N sodium hydroxide and filtering shall be colourless

E 154 BROWN FK

Synonyms

CI Food Brown 1

Definition

Brown FK consists essentially of a mixture of:

I

sodium 4-(2,4-diaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonate

II

sodium 4-(4,6-diamino-m-tolylazo) benzenesulfonate

III

disodium 4,4′-(4,6-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

IV

disodium 4,4′-(2,4-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

V

disodium 4,4′-(2,4-diamino-5-methyl-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

VI

trisodium 4,4′,4″-(2,4-diaminobenzene-1,3,5-trisazo)tri-(benzenesulfonate)

and subsidiary colouring matters together with water, sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Brown FK is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Azo (a mixture of mono-, bis- and trisazo colours)

Einecs

 

Chemical names

A mixture of:

I

sodium 4-(2,4-diaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonate

II

sodium 4-(4,6-diamino-m-tolylazo) benzenesulfonate

III

disodium 4,4′-(4,6-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

IV

disodium 4,4′-(2,4-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

V

disodium 4,4′-(2,4-diamino-5-methyl-1,3-phenylenebisazo)di (benzenesulfonate)

VI

trisodium 4,4′,4″-(2,4-diaminobenzene-1,3,5-trisazo)tri-(benzenesulfonate)

Chemical formula

I

C12H11N4NaO3S

II

C13H13N4NaO3S

III

C18H14N6Na2O6S2

IV

C18H14N6Na2O6S2

V

C19H16N6Na2O6S2

VI

C24H17N8Na3O9S3

Molecular weight

I

314,30

II

328,33

III

520,46

IV

520,46

V

534,47

VI

726,59

Assay

Content not less than 70 % total colouring matters

Of the total colouring matters present the proportions of the components shall not exceed:

I

26 %

II

17 %

III

17 %

IV

16 %

V

20 %

VI

16 %

Description

Red-brown powder or granules

Identification

Orange to reddish solution

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 3,5 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

4-aminobenzene-1-sulfonic acid

Not more than 0,7 %

m-phenylenediamine and 4-methyl-m-phenylenediamine

Not more than 0,35 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines other than m-phenylene diamine and 4-methyl-m-phenylene diamine

Not more than 0,007 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

From a solution of pH 7, not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 155 BROWN HT

Synonyms

CI Food Brown 3

Definition

Brown HT consists essentially of disodium 4,4′-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3-phenylene bisazo) di (naphthalene-1-sulfonate) and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Brown HT is described as the sodium salt. The calcium and potassium salt are also permitted.

Class

Bisazo

Colour Index No

20285

Einecs

224-924-0

Chemical names

Disodium 4,4′-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3-phenylene bisazo)di (naphthalene-1-sulfonate)

Chemical formula

C27H18N4Na2O9S2

Molecular Weight

652,57

Assay

Content not less than 70 % total colouring matters calculated as the sodium salt.

E1 cm 1 % 403 at ca 460 nm in aqueous solution at pH 7

Description

Reddish-brown powder or granules

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in water of pH 7 at ca 460 nm

B.

Brown solution in water

 

Purity

Water insoluble matter

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 10 % (TLC method)

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid

Not more than 0,7 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (calculated as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

Not more than 0,2 % in a solution of pH 7

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 160a (i) MIXED CAROTENES

1.   

Plant carotenes

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 5

Definition

Mixed carotenes are obtained by solvent extraction of natural strains of edible plants, carrots, vegetable oils, grass, alfalfa (lucerne) and nettle.

The main colouring principle consists of carotenoids of which beta-carotene accounts for the major part. Alpha, gamma-carotene and other pigments may be present. Besides the colour pigments, this substance may contain oils, fats and waxes naturally occurring in the source material.

Only the following solvents may be used in the extraction: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, hexane (4), dichloromethane and carbon dioxide.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

75130

Einecs

230-636-6

Chemical formula

Beta-carotene: C40H56

Molecular weight

Beta-carotene: 536,88

Assay

Content of carotenes (calculated as beta-carotene) is not less than 5 %. For products obtained by extraction of vegetables oils: not less than 0,2 % in edible fats.

E1 cm 1 %2 500 at approximately 440 nm to 457 nm in cyclohexane

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at 440 nm to 457 nm and 470 nm to 486 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Ethanol

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: Not more than 10 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 5 mg/kg

2.   

Algal carotenes

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 5

Definition

Mixed carotenes may also be produced from natural strains of the algae Dunaliella salina, grown in large saline lakes located in Whyalla, South Australia. Beta-carotene is extracted using an essential oil. The preparation is a 20 to 30 % suspension in edible oil. The ratio of trans-cis isomers is in the range of 50/50 to 71/29.

The main colouring principle consists of carotenoids of which beta-carotene accounts for the major part. Alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin may be present. Besides the colour pigments, this substance may contain oils, fats and waxes naturally occurring in the source material.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

75130

Chemical formula

Beta-Carotene: C40H56

Molecular weight

Beta-Carotene: 536,88

Assay

Content of carotenes (calculated as beta-carotene) is not less than 20 %

E1 cm 1 %2 500 at approximately by 440 nm to 457 nm in cyclohexane

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at 440 nm to 457 nm and 474 nm to 486 nm

Purity

Natural tocopherols in edible oil

Not more than 0,3 %

Lead

Not more than 5 mg/kg

E 160a (ii) BETA-CAROTENE

1.   

Beta-carotene

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 5

Definition

These specifications apply predominantly to all trans isomer of beta-carotene together with minor amounts of other carotenoids. Diluted and stabilised preparations may have different trans-cis isomer ratios.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

40800

Einecs

230-636-6

Chemical names

Beta-carotene, beta, beta-carotene

Chemical formula

C40H56

Molecular weight

536,88

Assay

Not less than 96 % total colouring matters (expressed as beta-carotene)

E1 cm 1 %2 500 at approximately by 440 nm to 457 nm in cyclohexane

Description

Red to brownish-red crystals or crystalline powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at 453 nm to 456 nm

Purity

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Carotenoids other than beta-carotene: not more than 3,0 % of total colouring matters

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

2.   

Beta-carotene from Blakeslea trispora

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 5

Definition

Obtained by a fermentation process using a mixed culture of the two sexual mating types (+) and (–) of natural strains of the fungus Blakeslea trispora. The beta-carotene is extracted from the biomass with ethyl acetate, or isobutyl acetate followed by isopropyl alcohol, and crystallised. The crystallised product consists mainly of trans beta-carotene. Because of the natural process approximately 3 % of the product consists of mixed carotenoids, which is specific for the product.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

40800

Einecs

230-636-6

Chemical names

Beta-carotene, beta,beta-carotene

Chemical formula

C40H56

Molecular weight

536,88

Assay

Not less than 96 % total colouring matters (expressed as beta-carotene)

E1 cm 1 %2 500 at approximately 440 nm to 457 nm in cyclohexane

Description

Red, brownish-red or purple-violet crystals or crystalline powder (colour varies according to extraction solvent used and conditions of crystallisation)

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at 453 nm to 456 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Ethyl acetate

Ethanol

Not more than 0,8 %, singly or in combination

Isobutyl acetate: Not more than 1,0 %

Isopropyl alcohol: Not more than 0,1 %

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,2 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Carotenoids other than beta-carotene: not more than 3,0 % of total colouring matters

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mycotoxins:

Aflatoxin B1

Absent

Trichothecene (T2)

Absent

Ochratoxin

Absent

Zearalenone

Absent

Microbiology:

Moulds

Not more than 100/g

Yeasts

Not more than 100/g

Salmonella

Absent in 25 g

Escherichia coli

Absent in 5 g

E 160b ANNATTO, BIXIN, NORBIXIN

Synonyms

CI Natural Orange 4

Definition

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

75120

Einecs

Annatto: 215-735-4, annatto seed extract: 289-561-2; bixin: 230-248-7

Chemical names

Bixin

:

6′-Methylhydrogen-9′-cis-6,6′-diapocarotene-6,6′-dioate

6′-Methylhydrogen-9′-trans-6,6′-diapocarotene-6,6′-dioate

Norbixin

:

9′Cis-6,6′-diapocarotene-6,6′-dioic acid

9′-Trans-6,6′-diapocarotene-6,6′-dioic acid

Chemical formula

Bixin

:

C25H30O4

Norbixin

:

C24H28O4

Molecular weight

Bixin

:

394,51

Norbixin

:

380,48

Description

Reddish-brown powder, suspension or solution

Identification

Spectrometry

Bixin

:

maximum in chloroform at ca 502 nm

Norbixin

:

maximum in dilute KOH solution at ca 482 nm

(i)   

Solvent extracted bixin and norbixin

Definition

Bixin is prepared by the extraction of the outer coating of the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.) with one or more of the following solvents: acetone, methanol, hexane or dichloromethane, carbon dioxide followed by the removal of the solvent.

Norbixin is prepared by hydrolysis by aqueous alkali of the extracted bixin.

Bixin and norbixin may contain other materials extracted from the annatto seed.

The bixin powder contains several coloured components, the major single one being bixin, which may be present in both cis- and trans- forms. Thermal degradation products of bixin may also be present.

The norbixin powder contains the hydrolysis product of bixin, in the form of the sodium or potassium salts as the major colouring principle. Both cis- and trans-forms may be present.

Assay

Content of bixin powders not less than 75 % total carotenoids calculated as bixin.

Content of norbixin powders not less than 25 % total carotenoids calculated as norbixin

Bixin

:

E1 cm 1 %2 870 at ca 502 nm in chloroform

Norbixin

:

E1 cm 1 %2 870 at ca 482 nm in KOH solution

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methanol

Hexane

not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

(ii)   

Alkali extracted annatto

Definition

Water soluble annatto is prepared by extraction with aqueous alkali (sodium or potassium hydroxide) of the outer coating of the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.)

Water soluble annatto contains norbixin, the hydrolysis product of bixin, in the form of the sodium or potassium salts, as the major colouring principle. Both cis- and trans- forms may be present.

Assay

Contains not less than 0,1 % of total carotenoids expressed as norbixin

Norbixin

:

E1 cm 1 %2 870 at ca 482 nm in KOH solution

Purity

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

(iii)   

Oil extracted annatto

Definition

Annatto extracts in oil, as solution or suspension, are prepared by extraction of the outer coating of the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.) with edible vegetable oil. Annatto extract in oil contains several coloured components, the major single one being bixin, which may be present in both cis- and transforms. Thermal degradation products of bixin may also be present.

Assay

Contains not less than 0,1 % of total carotenoids expressed as bixin

Bixin

:

E1 cm 1 %2 870 at ca 502 nm in chloroform

Purity

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 160c PAPRIKA EXTRACT, CAPSANTHIN, CAPSORUBIN

Synonyms

Paprika Oleoresin

Definition

Paprika extract is obtained by solvent extraction of the natural strains of paprika, which consists of the ground fruits pods, with or without seeds, of Capsicum annuum L., and contains the major colouring principles of this spice. The major colouring principles are capsanthin and capsorubin. A wide variety of other coloured compounds is known to be present.

Only the following solvents may be used in the extraction: methanol, ethanol, acetone, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and carbon dioxide.

Class

Carotenoid

Einecs

Capsanthin: 207-364-1, capsorubin: 207-425-2

Chemical names

Capsanthin: (3R, 3′S, 5′R)-3,3′-dihydroxy-β,k-carotene-6-one

Capsorubin: (3S, 3′S, 5R, 5R′)-3,3′-dihydroxy-k,k-carotene-6,6′-dione

Chemical formula

Capsanthin: C40H56O3

Capsorubin: C40H56O4

Molecular weight

Capsanthin: 584,85

Capsorubin: 600,85

Assay

Paprika extract: content not less than 7,0 % carotenoids

Capsanthin/capsorubin: not less than 30 % of total carotenoids

E1 cm 1 %2 100 at ca 462 nm in acetone

Description

Dark-red viscous liquid

Identification

A.

Spectrometry

Maximum in acetone at ca 462 nm

B.

Colour reaction

A deep blue colour is produced by adding one drop of sulfuric acid to one drop of sample in 2-3 drops of chloroform

Purity

Solvent residues

Ethyl acetate

Methanol

Ethanol

Acetone

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Capsaicin

Not more than 250 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 160d LYCOPENE

Synonyms

Natural Yellow 27

Definition

Lycopene is obtained by solvent extraction of the natural strains of red tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) with subsequent removal of the solvent. Only the following solvents may be used: dichloromethane, carbon dioxide, ethyl acetate, acetone, propan-2-ol, methanol, ethanol, hexane. The major colouring principle of tomatoes is lycopene, minor amounts of other carotenoid pigments may be present. Beside the other colour pigments the product may contain oils, fats, waxes, and flavour components naturally occurring in tomatoes.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

75125

Chemical names

Lycopene, ψ,ψ-carotene

Chemical formula

C40H56

Molecular weight

536,85

Assay

Content not less than 5 % total colouring matters

E1 cm 1 %3 450 at ca 472 nm in hexane

Description

Dark red viscous liquid

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in hexane at ca 472 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Ethyl acetate

Methanol

Ethanol

Acetone

Hexane

Propan-2-ol

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,1 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 160e BETA-APO-8′-CAROTENAL (C30)

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 6

Definition

These specifications apply to predominantly all trans isomer of β-apo-8′-carotenal together with minor amounts of other carotenoids. Diluted and stabilized forms are prepared from β-apo-8′-carotenal meeting these specifications and include solutions or suspensions of ß-apo-8′carotenal in edible fats or oils, emulsions and water dispersible powders. These preparations may have different cis/trans isomer ratios.

Class

Carotinoid

Colour Index No

40820

Einecs

214-171-6

Chemical names

β-apo-8′-carotenal, Trans-β-apo-8′carotene-aldehyde

Chemical formula

C30H40O

Molecular weight

416,65

Assay

Not less than 96 % of total colouring matters

E1 cm 1 %2 640 at ca 460-462 nm in cyclohexane

Description

Dark violet crystals with metallic lustre or crystalline powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at 460-462 nm

Purity

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,1 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Carotenoids other than β-apo-8′-carotenal:

not more than 3,0 % of total colouring matters

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 160f ETHYL ESTER OF BETA-APO-8′-CAROTENOIC ACID (C30)

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 7, β-apo-8′-carotenoic ester

Definition

These specifications apply to predominantly all trans isomer of β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester together with minor amounts of other carotenoids. Diluted and stabilized forms are prepared from β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester meeting these specifications and include solutions or suspensions of β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in edible fats or oils, emulsions and water dispersible powders. These preparations may have different cis/trans isomer ratios.

Class

Carotenoid

Colour Index No

40825

Einecs

214-173-7

Chemical names

β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl 8′-apo-β-caroten-8′-oate

Chemical formula

C32H44O2

Molecular weight

460,70

Assay

Not less than 96 % of total colouring matters

E1 cm 1 %2 550 at ca 449 nm in cyclohexane

Description

Red to violet-red crystals or crystalline powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in cyclohexane at ca 449 nm

Purity

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,1 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Carotenoids other than β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester: not more than 3,0 % of total colouring matters

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 161b LUTEIN

Synonyms

Mixed Carotenoids, Xanthophylls

Definition

Lutein is obtained by solvent extraction of the natural strains of edible fruits and plants, grass, lucerne (alfalfa) and tagetes erecta. The main colouring principle consists of carotenoids of which lutein and its fatty acid esters account for the major part. Variable amounts of carotenes will also be present. Lutein may contain fats, oils and waxes naturally occurring in the plant material.

Only the following solvents may be used for the extraction: methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, hexane, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane and carbon dioxide

Class

Carotenoid

Einecs

204-840-0

Chemical names

3,3′-dihydroxy-d-carotene

Chemical formula

C40H56O2

Molecular weight

568,88

Assay

Content of total colouring matter not less than 4 % calculated as lutein

E1 cm 1 %2 550 at ca 445 nm in chloroform/ethanol (10 + 90) or in hexane/ethanol/acetone (80 + 10 + 10)

Description

Dark, yellowish brown liquid

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in chloroform/ethanol (10 + 90) at ca 445 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Acetone

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan-2-ol

Hexane

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Dichloromethane: not more than 10 mg/kg

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 161g CANTHAXANTHIN

Synonyms

CI Food Orange 8

Definition

These specifications apply to predominantly all trans isomers of canthaxanthin together with minor amounts of other carotenoids. Diluted and stabilized forms are prepared from canthaxanthin meeting these specifications and include solutions or suspensions of canthaxanthin in edible fats or oils, emulsions and water dispersible powders. These preparations may have different cis/trans isomer ratios.

Class

Carotinoid

Colour Index No

40850

Einecs

208-187-2

Chemical names

β-Carotene-4,4′-dione, canthaxanthin, 4,4′-dioxo-β-carotene

Chemical formula

C40H52O2

Molecular weight

564,86

Assay

Not less than 96 % of total colouring matters (expressed as canthaxanthin)

E1 cm 1 %2 200

at ca 485 nm in chloroform

at 468-472 nm in cyclohexane

at 464-467 nm in petroleum ether

Description

Deep violet crystals or crystalline powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in chloroform at ca 485 nm

Maximum in cyclohexane at 468-472 nm

Maximum in petroleum ether at 464-467 nm

Purity

Sulfated ash

Not more than 0,1 %

Subsidiary colouring matters

Carotenoids other than canthaxanthin: not more than 5,0 % of total colouring matters

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 162 BEETROOT RED, BETANIN

Synonyms

Beet Red

Definition

Beet red is obtained from the roots of natural strains of red beets (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) by pressing crushed beet as press juice or by aqueous extraction of shredded beet roots and subsequent enrichment in the active principle. The colour is composed of different pigments all belonging to the class betalaine. The main colouring principle consists of betacyanins (red) of which betanin accounts for 75-95 %. Minor amounts of betaxanthin (yellow) and degradation products of betalaines (light brown) may be present.

Besides the colour pigments the juice or extract consists of sugars, salts, and/or proteins naturally occurring in red beets. The solution may be concentrated and some products may be refined in order to remove most of the sugars, salts and proteins.

Class

Betalaine

Einecs

231-628-5

Chemical names

(S-(R′,R′)-4-(2-(2-Carboxy-5(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-1H-indol-1-yl)ethenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid; 1-(2-(2,6-dicarboxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-pyridylidene)ethylidene)-5-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-6-hydroxyindolium-2-carboxylate

Chemical formula

Betanin: C24H26N2O13

Molecular weight

550,48

Assay

Content of red colour (expressed as betanine) is not less than 0,4 %

E1 cm 1 %1 120 at ca 535 nm in aqueous solution at pH 5

Description

Red or dark red liquid, paste, powder or solid

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in water of pH 5 at ca 535 nm

Purity

Nitrate

Not more than 2 g nitrate anion/g of red colour (as calculated from assay).

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 163 ANTHOCYANINS

Definition

Anthocyanins are obtained by extraction with sulphited water, acidified water, carbon dioxide, methanol or ethanol from the natural strains of vegetables and edible fruits. Anthocyanins contain common components of the source material, namely anthocyanine, organic acids, tannins, sugars, minerals etc., but not necessarily in the same proportions as found in the source material.

Class

Anthocyanin

Einecs

208-438-6 (cyanidin); 205-125-6 (peonidin); 208-437-0 (delphinidin); 211-403-8 (malvidin); 205-127-7 (pelargonidin)

Chemical names

3,3′,4′,5,7-Pentahydroxy-flavylium chloride (cyanidin)

3,4′,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavylium chloride (peonidin)

3,4′,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyflavylium chloride (malvidin)

3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(3,4,5,trihydroxyphenyl)-1-benzopyrylium chloride (delphinidin)

3,3′4′,5,7-Pentahydroxy-5′-methoxyflavylium chloride (petunidin)

3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-benzopyrilium chloride (pelargonidin)

Chemical formula

Cyanidin: C15H11O6Cl

Peonidin: C16H13O6Cl

Malvidin: C17H15O7Cl

Delphinidin: C15H11O7Cl

Petunidin: C16H13O7Cl

Pelargonidin: C15H11O5Cl

Molecular weight

Cyanidin: 322,6

Peonidin: 336,7

Malvidin: 366,7

Delphinidin: 340,6

Petunidin: 352,7

Pelargonidin: 306,7

Assay

E1 cm 1 % 300 for the pure pigment at 515-535 nm at pH 3,0

Description

Purplish-red liquid, powder or paste, having a slight characteristic odour

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in methanol with 0,01 % conc. HCl

Cyanidin: 535 nm

Peonidin: 532 nm

Malvidin: 542 nm

Delphinidin: 546 nm

Petunidin: 543 nm

Pelargonidin: 530 nm

Purity

Solvent residues

Methanol

Ethanol

Not more than 50 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Sulfur dioxide

Not more than 1 000 mg/kg per percent pigment

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 170 CALCIUM CARBONATE

Synonyms

CI Pigment White 18, Chalk

Definition

Calcium carbonate is the product obtained from ground limestone or by the precipitation of calcium ions with carbonate ions.

Class

Inorganic

Colour Index No

77220

Einecs

Calcium carbonate: 207-439-9

Limestone: 215-279-6

Chemical names

Calcium carbonate

Chemical formula

CaCO3

Molecular weight

100,1

Assay

Content not less than 98 % on the anhydrous basis

Description

White crystalline or amorphous, odourless and tasteless powder

Identification

Solubility

Practically insoluble in water and in alcohol. Dissolves with effervescence in diluted acetic acid, in diluted hydrochloric acid and in diluted nitric acid, and the resulting solutions, after boiling, give positive tests for calcium.

Purity

Loss on drying

Not more than 2,0 % (200 °C, 4 hours)

Acid-insoluble substances

Not more than 0,2 %

Magnesium and alkali salts

Not more than 1,5 %

Fluoride

Not more than 50 mg/kg

Antimony (as Sb)

Copper (as Cu)

Chromium (as Cr)

Zinc (as Zn)

Barium (as Ba)

Not more than 100 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

E 171 TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Synonyms

CI Pigment White 6

Definition

Titanium dioxide consists essentially of pure anatase and/or rutile titanium dioxide which may be coated with small amounts of alumina and/or silica to improve the technological properties of the product.

Class

Inorganic

Colour Index No

77891

Einecs

236-675-5

Chemical names

Titanium dioxide

Chemical formula

TiO2

Molecular weight

79,88

Assay

Content not less than 99 % on an alumina and silica-free basis

Description

White to slightly coloured powder

Identification

Solubility

Insoluble in water and organic solvents. Dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid and in hot concentrated sulfuric acid.

Purity

Loss on drying

Not more than 0,5 % (105 °C, 3 hours)

Loss on ignition

Not more than 1,0 % on a volatile matter free basis (800 °C)

Aluminium oxide and/or silicon dioxide

Total not more than 2,0 %

Matter soluble in 0,5 N HCl

Not more than 0,5 % on an alumina and silica-free basis and, in addition, for products containing alumina and/or silica, not more than 1,5 % on the basis of the product as sold.

Water soluble matter

Not more than 0,5 %

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Antimony

Not more than 50 mg/kg by total dissolution

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg by total dissolution

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg by total dissolution

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg by total dissolution

Zink

Not more than 50 mg/kg by total dissolution

E 172 IRON OXIDES AND IRON HYDROXIDES

Synonyms

Iron Oxide Yellow

:

CI Pigment Yellow 42 and 43

Iron Oxide Red

:

CI Pigment Red 101 and 102

Iron Oxide Black

:

CI Pigment Black 11

Definition

Iron oxides and iron hydroxides are produced synthetically and consist essentially of anhydrous and/or hydrated iron oxides. The range of hues includes yellows, reds, browns and blacks. Food quality iron oxides are primarily distinguished from technical grades by the comparatively low levels of contamination by other metals. This is achieved by the selection and control of the source of the iron and/or by the extent of chemical purification during the manufacturing process.

Class

Inorganic

Colour Index No

Iron Oxide Yellow

:

77492

Iron Oxide Red

:

77491

Iron Oxide Black

:

77499

Einecs

Iron Oxide Yellow

:

257-098-5

Iron Oxide Red

:

215-168-2

Iron Oxide Black

:

235-442-5

Chemical names

Iron Oxide Yellow

:

hydrated ferric oxide, hydrated iron (III) oxide

Iron Oxide Red

:

anhydrous ferric oxide, anhydrous iron (III) oxide

Iron Oxide Black

:

ferroso ferric oxide, iron (II, III) oxide

Chemical formula

Iron Oxide Yellow

:

FeO(OH)·H2O

Iron Oxide Red

:

Fe2O3

Iron Oxide Black

:

FeO·Fe2O3

Molecular weight

88,85

:

FeO(OH)

159,70

:

Fe2O3

231,55

:

FeO·Fe2O3

Assay

Yellow not less than 60 %, red and black not less than 68 % total iron, expressed as iron

Description

Powder; yellow, red, brown or black in hue

Identification

Solubility

Insoluble in water and in organic solvents

Soluble in concentrated mineral acids

Purity

Water soluble matter

Not more than 1,0 %

By total dissolution

Arsenic

Not more than 5 mg/kg

Barium

Not more than 50 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 5 mg/kg

Chromium

Not more than 100 mg/kg

Copper

Not more than 50 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 20 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Nickel

Not more than 200 mg/kg

Zinc

Not more than 100 mg/kg

E 173 ALUMINIUM

Synonyms

CI Pigment Metal, Al

Definition

Aluminium powder is composed of finely divided particles of aluminium. The grinding may or may not be carried out in the presence of edible vegetable oils and/or food additive quality fatty acids. It is free from admixture with substances other than edible vegetable oils and/or food additive quality fatty acids.

Colour Index No

77000

Einecs

231-072-3

Chemical names

Aluminium

Chemical formula

Al

Atomic weight

26,98

Assay

Not less than 99 % calculated as Al on an oil-free basis

Description

A silvery-grey powder or tiny sheets

Identification

Solubility

Insoluble in water and in organic solvents. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution gives positive tests for aluminium.

Purity

Loss on drying

Not more than 0,5 % (105 °C, to constant weight)

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg

E 174 SILVER

Synonyms

Argentum, Ag

Class

Inorganic

Colour Index No

77820

Einecs

231-131-3

Chemical names

Silver

Chemical formula

Ag

Atomic weight

107,87

Assay

Content not less than 99,5 % Ag

Description

Silver-coloured powder or tiny sheets

E 175 GOLD

Synonyms

Pigment Metal 3, Aurum, Au

Class

Inorganic

Colour Index No

77480

Einecs

231-165-9

Chemical names

Gold

Chemical formula

Au

Atomic weight

197,0

Assay

Content not less than 90 % Au

Description

Gold-coloured powder or tiny sheets

Purity

Silver

Not more than 7,0 %

After complete dissolution

Copper

Not more than 4,0 %

E 180 LITHOLRUBINE BK

Synonyms

CI Pigment Red 57, Rubinpigment, Carmine 6B

Definition

Lithol Rubine BK consists essentially of calcium 3-hydroxy-4-(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenylazo)-2-naphthalenecarboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with water, calcium chloride and/or calcium sulfate as the principal uncoloured components.

Class

Monoazo

Colour Index No

15850:1

Einecs

226-109-5

Chemical names

Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenylazo)-2-naphthalene-carboxylate

Chemical formula

C18H12CaN2O6S

Molecular weight

424,45

Assay

Content not less than 90 % total colouring matters

E1 cm 1 % 200 at ca 442 nm in dimethylformamide

Description

Red powder

Identification

Spectrometry

Maximum in dimethylformamide at ca 442 nm

Purity

Subsidiary colouring matters

Not more than 0,5 %

Organic compounds other than colouring matters:

 

2-Amino-5-methylbenzenesulfonic acid, calcium salt

Not more than 0,2 %

3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid, calcium salt

Not more than 0,4 %

Unsulfonated primary aromatic amines

Not more than 0,01 % (expressed as aniline)

Ether extractable matter

From a solution of pH 7, not more than 0,2 %

Arsenic

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 40 mg/kg


(1)  Colour intensity is defined as the absorbance of a 0,1 % (w/v) solution of caramel colour solids in water in a 1 cm cell at 610 nm.

(2)  Expressed on equivalent colour basis i.e. is expressed in terms of a product having a colour intensity of 0,1 absorbance units.

(3)  Absorbance ratio of alcohol precipitate is defined as the absorbance of the precipitate at 280 nm divided by the absorbance at 560 nm (1 cm cell).

(4)  Benzene not more than 0,05 % v/v.


ANNEX II

PART A

Repealed Directive with list of its successive amendments

(referred to in Article 2)

Commission Directive 95/45/EC

(OJ L 226, 22.9.1995, p. 1)

Commission Directive 1999/75/EC

(OJ L 206, 5.8.1999, p. 19)

Commission Directive 2001/50/EC

(OJ L 190, 12.7.2001, p. 14)

Commission Directive 2004/47/EC

(OJ L 113, 20.4.2004, p. 24)

Commission Directive 2006/33/EC

(OJ L 82, 21.3.2006, p. 10)

PART B

List of time-limits for transposition into national law

(referred to in Article 2)

Directive

Time-limit for transposition

95/45/EC

1 July 1996 (1)

1999/75/EC

1 July 2000

2001/50/EC

29 June 2002

2004/47/EC

1 April 2005 (2)

2006/33/EC

10 April 2007


(1)  According to Article 2(2) of Directive 95/45/EC, products put on the market or labelled before 1 July 1996 which do not comply with that Directive may, however, be marketed until stocks are exhausted.

(2)  According to Article 3 of Directive 2004/47/EC, products on the market or labelled before 1 April 2005 which do not comply with that Directive may be marketed until stocks are exhausted.


ANNEX III

Correlation table

Directive 95/45/EC

This Directive

Article 1, first paragraph

Article 1

Article 1, second paragraph

Article 2

Article 2

Article 3

Article 3

Article 4

Article 4

Annex

Annex I

Annex II

Annex III


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