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Document 21979A0412(09)

Multilateral Agreements resulting from the trade negotiations of 1973-1979 (GATT) - Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade

OJ L 71, 17.3.1980, p. 107–126 (DA, DE, EN, FR, IT, NL)
Greek special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 019 P. 110 - 129
Spanish special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 012 P. 143 - 162
Portuguese special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 012 P. 143 - 162
Special edition in Finnish: Chapter 11 Volume 009 P. 109 - 128
Special edition in Swedish: Chapter 11 Volume 009 P. 109 - 128

In force

21979A0412(09)

Multilateral Agreements resulting from the trade negotiations of 1973-1979 (GATT) - Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade

Official Journal L 071 , 17/03/1980 P. 0107 - 0126
Finnish special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 9 P. 0109
Swedish special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 9 P. 0109
Greek special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 19 P. 0110
Spanish special edition: Chapter 11 Volume 12 P. 0143
Portuguese special edition Chapter 11 Volume 12 P. 0143


AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VII OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE

GENERAL INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY

1. The primary basis for customs value under this Agreement is "transaction value" as defined in Article 1. Article 1 is to be read together with Article 8 which provides inter alia for adjustments to the price actually paid or payable in cases where certain specific elements which are considered to form a part of the value for customs purposes are incurred by the buyer but are not included in the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods. Article 8 also provides for the inclusion in the transaction value of certain considerations which may pass from the buyer to the seller in the form of specified goods or services rather than in the form of money. Articles 2 to 7, inclusive, provide methods of determining the customs value whenever it cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1.

2. Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1 there should normally be a process of consultation between the customs administration and importer with a view to arriving at a basis of value under the provisions of Articles 2 or 3. It may occur, for example, that the importer has information about the customs value of identical or similar imported goods which is not immediately available to the customs administration in the port of importation. On the other hand, the customs administration may have information about the customs value of identical or similar imported goods which is not readily available to the importer. A process of consultation between the two parties will enable information to be exchanged, subject to the requirements of commercial confidentiality, with a view to determining a proper basis of value for customs purposes.

3. Articles 5 and 6 provide two bases for determining the customs value where it cannot be determined on the basis of the transaction value of the imported goods or of identical or similar imported goods. Under Article 5 (1) the customs value is determined on the basis of the price at which the goods are sold in the condition as imported to an unrelated buyer in the country of importation. The importer also has the right to have goods which are further processed after importation valued under the provisions of Article 5 if he so requests. Under Article 6 the customs value is determined on the basis of the computed value. Both these methods present certain difficulties and because of this the importer is given the right, under the provisions of Article 4, to choose the order of application of the two methods.

4. Article 7 sets out how to determine the customs value in cases where it cannot be determined under the provisions of any of the preceding Articles.

PREAMBLE

Having regard to the multilateral trade negotiations, THE PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT (hereinafter referred to as "Parties"),

DESIRING to further the objectives of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade (hereinafter referred to as "General Agreement" or "GATT") and to secure additional benefits for the international trade of developing countries;

RECOGNIZING the importance of the provisions of Article VII of the General Agreement and desiring to elaborate rules for their application in order to provide greater uniformity and certainty in their implementation;

RECOGNIZING the need for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valutation of goods for customs purposes that precludes the use of arbitrary or fictitious customs values;

RECOGNIZING that the basis for valuation of goods for customs purposes should, to the greatest extent possible, be the transaction value of the goods being valued;

RECOGNIZING that customs value should be based on simple and equitable criteria consistent with commercial practices and that valuation procedures should be of general application without distinction between sources of supply;

RECOGNIZING that valuation procedures should not be used to combat dumping;

HEREBY AGREE AS FOLLOWS:

PART I RULES ON CUSTOMS VALUATION

Article 1

1. The customs value of imported goods shall be the transaction value, that is the price actually paid or payable for the goods when sold for export to the country of importation adjusted in accordance with the provisions of Article 8, provided: (a) that there are no restrictions as to the disposition or use of the goods by the buyer other than restrictions which: (i) are imposed or required by law or by the public authorities in the country of importation,

(ii) limit the geographical area in which the goods may be resold, or

(iii) do not substantially affect the value of the goods;

(b) that the sale or price is not subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued;

(c) that no part of the proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal or use of the goods by the buyer will accrue directly or indirectly to the seller, unless an appropriate adjustment can be made in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 ; and

(d) that the buyer and seller are not related, or where the buyer and seller are related, that the transaction value is acceptable for customs purposes under the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article.

2. (a) In determining whether the transaction value is acceptable for the purposes of paragraph 1, the fact that the buyer and the seller are related within the meaning of Article 15 shall not in itself be grounds for regarding the transaction value as unacceptable. In such case the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted provided that the relationship did not influence the price. If, in the light of information provided by the importer or otherwise, the customs administration has grounds for considering that the relationship influenced the price, it shall communicate its grounds to the importer and he shall be given a reasonable opportunity to respond. If the importer so requests, the communication of the grounds shall be in writing.

(b) In a sale between related persons, the transaction value shall be accepted and the goods valued in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 whenever the importer demonstrates that such value closely approximates to one of the following occurring at or about the same time: (i) the transaction value in sales to unrelated buyers of identical or similar goods for export to the same country of importation;

(ii) the customs value of identical or similar goods as determined under the provisions of Article 5;

(iii) the customs value of identical or similar goods as determined under the provisions of Article 6;

(iv) the transaction value in sales to unrelated buyers for export to the same country of importation of goods which would be identical to the imported goods except for having a different country of production provided that the sellers in any two transactions being compared are not related.

In applying the foregoing tests, due account shall be taken of demonstrated differences in commercial levels, quantity levels, the elements enumerated in Article 8 and costs incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the buyer are not related that are not incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the buyer are related.

(c) The test set forth in paragraph 2 (b) are to be used at the initiative of the importer and only for comparison purposes. Substitute values may not be established under the provisions of paragraph 2 (b).

Article 2

1. (a) If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1, the customs value shall be the transaction value of identical goods sold for export to the same country of importation and exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued.

(b) In applying this Article, the transaction value of identical goods in a sale at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantity as the goods being valued shall be used to determine the customs value. Where no such sale is found, the transaction value of identical goods sold at a different commercial level and/or in different quantities, adjusted to take account of differences attributable to commercial level and/or to quantity, shall be used, provided that such adjustments can be made on the basis of demonstrated evidence which clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, whether the adjustment leads to an increase or a decrease in the value.

2. Where the costs and charges referred to in Article 8 (2) are included in the transaction value, an adjustment shall be made to take account of significant differences in such costs and charges between the imported goods and the identical goods in question arising from differences in distances and modes of transport.

3. If, in applying this Article, more than one transaction value of identical goods is found, the lowest such value shall be used to determine the customs value of the imported goods.

Article 3

1. (a) If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 and 2, the customs value shall be the transaction value of similar goods sold for export to the same country of importation and exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued.

(b) In applying this Article, the transaction value of similar goods in a sale at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantity as the goods being valued shall be used to determine the customs value. Where no such sale is found, the transaction value of similar goods sold at a different commercial level and/or in different quantities, adjusted to take account of differences attributable to commercial level and/or to quantity, shall be used, provided that such adjustments can be made on the basis of demonstrated evidence which clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, whether the adjustment leads to an increase or a decrease in the value.

2. Where the costs and charges refereed to in Article 8 (2) are included in the transaction value, an adjustment shall be made to take account of significant differences in such costs and charges between the imported goods and the similar goods in question arising from differences in distances and modes of transport.

3. If, in applying this Article, more than one transaction value of similar goods is found, the lowest such value shall be used to determine the customs value of the imported goods.

Article 4

If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1, 2 and 3 the customs value shall be determined under the provisions of Article 5 or, when the customs value cannot be determined under that Article, under the provisions of Article 6 except that, at the request of the importer, the order of application of Articles 5 and 6 shall be reversed.

Article 5

1. (a) If the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported, the customs value of the imported goods under the provisions of this Article shall be based on the unit price at which the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are so sold in the greatest aggregate quantity, at or about the time of the importation of the goods being valued, to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods, subject to deductions for the following: (i) either the commissions usually paid or agreed to be paid or the additions usually made for profit and general expenses in connection with sales in such country of imported goods of the same class or kind;

(ii) the usual costs of transport and insurance and associated costs incurred within the country of importation;

(iii) where appropriate, the costs and charges referred to in Article 8 (2) ; and

(iv) the customs duties and other national taxes payable in the country of importation by reason of the importation or sale of the goods.

(b) If neither the imported goods nor identical nor similar imported goods are sold at or about the time of importation of the goods being valued, the customs value shall, subject otherwise to the provisions of paragraph 1 (a) of this Article, be based on the unit price at which the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported at the earliest date after the importation of the goods being valued but before the expiration of 90 days after such importation.

2. If neither the imported goods nor identical nor similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported, then, if the importer so requests, the customs value shall be based on the unit price at which the imported goods, after further processing, are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity to persons in the country of importation who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods, due allowance being made for the value added by such processing and the deductions provided for in paragraph 1 (a) of this Article.

Article 6

1. The customs value of imported goods under the provisions of this Article shall be based on a computed value. Computed value shall consist of the sum of: (a) the cost or value of materials and fabrication or other processing employed in producing the imported goods;

(b) an amount for profit and general expenses equal to that usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation;

(c) the cost or value of all other expenses necessary to reflect the valuation option chosen by the Party under Article 8 (2).

2. No Party may require or compel any person not resident in its own territory to produce for examination, or to allow access to, any account or other record for the purposes of determining a computed value. However, information supplied by the producer of the goods for the purposes of determining the customs value under the provisions of this Article may be verified in another country by the authorities of the country of importation with the agreement of the producer and provided they give sufficient advance notice to the government of the country in question and the latter does not object to the investigation.

Article 7

1. If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 to 6, inclusive, the customs value shall be determined using reasonable means consistent with the principles and general provisions of this Agreement and of Article VII of the General Agreement and on the basis of data available in the country of importation.

2. No customs value shall be determined under the provisions of this Article on the basis of: (a) the selling price in the country of importation of goods produced in such country;

(b) a system which provides for the acceptance for customs purposes of the higher of two alternative values;

(c) the price of goods on the domestic market of the country of exportation;

(d) the cost of production other than computed values which have been determined for identical or similar goods in accordance with the provisions of Article 6;

(e) the price of the goods for export to a country other than the country of importation;

(f) minimum customs values ; or

(g) arbitrary or fictitious values.

3. If he so requests, the importer shall be informed in writing of the customs value determined under the provisions of this Article and the method used to determine such value.

Article 8

1. In determining the customs value under the provisions of Article 1, there shall be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods: (a) the following, to the extent that they are incurred by the buyer but are not included in the price actually paid or payable for the goods: (i) commissions and brokerage, except buying commissions,

(ii) the cost of containers which are treated as being one for customs purposes with the goods in question,

(iii) the cost of packing whether for labour or materials;

(b) the value, apportioned as appropriate, of the following goods and services where supplied directly or indirectly by the buyer free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods, to the extent that such value has not been included in the price actually paid or payable: (i) materials, components, parts and similar items incorporated in the imported goods,

(ii) tools, dies, moulds and similar items used in the production of the imported goods,

(iii) materials consumed in the production of the imported goods,

(iv) engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and sketches undertaken elsewhere than in the country of importation and necessary for the production of the imported goods;

(c) royalties and licence fees related to the goods being valued that the buyer must pay, either directly or indirectly, as a condition of sale of the goods being valued, to the extent that such royalties and fees are not included in the price actually paid or payable;

(d) the value of any part of the proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal or use of the imported goods that accrues directly or indirectly to the seller.

2. In framing its legislation, each Party shall provide for the inclusion in or the exclusion from the customs value, in whole or in part, of the following: (a) the cost of transport of the imported goods to the port or place of importation;

(b) loading, unloading and handling charges associated with the transport of the imported goods to the port or place of importation ; and

(c) the cost of insurance.

3. Additions to the price actually paid or payable shall be made under this Article only on the basis of objective and quantifyable data.

4. No additions shall be made to the price actually paid or payable in determining the customs value except as provided in this Article.

Article 9

1. Where the conversion of currency is necessary for the determination of the customs value, the rate of exchange to be used shall be that duly published by the competent authorities of the country of importation concerned and shall reflect as effectively as possible, in respect of the period covered by each such document of publication, the current value of such currency in commercial transactions in terms of the currency of the country of importation.

2. The conversion rate to be used shall be that in effect at the time of exportation or the time of importation, as provided by each Party.

Article 10

All information which is by nature confidential or which is provided on a confidential basis for the purposes of customs valuation shall be treated as strictly confidential by the authorities concerned who shall not disclose it without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information, except to the extent that it may be required to be disclosed in the context of judicial proceedings.

Article 11

1. The legislation of each Party shall provide in regard to a determination of customs value for the right of appeal, without penalty, by the importer or any other person liable for the payment of the duty.

2. An initial right of appeal without penalty may be to an authority within the customs administration or to an independent body, but the legislation of each Party shall provide for the right of appeal without penalty to a judicial authority.

3. Notice of the decision on appeal shall be given to the appellant and the reasons for such decision shall be provided in writing. He shall also be informed of his rights of any further appeal.

Article 12

Laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application giving effect to this Agreement shall be published in conformity with Article X of the General Agreement by the country of importation concerned.

Article 13

If, in the course of determining the customs value of imported goods, it becomes necessary to delay the final determination of such customs value, the importer shall nevertheless be able to withdraw his goods from customs if, where so required, he provides sufficient guarantee in the form of a surety, a deposit or some other appropriate instrument, covering the ultimate payment of customs duties for which the goods may be liable. The legislation of each Party shall make provisions for such circumstances.

Article 14

The notes at Annex I to this Agreement form an integral part of this Agreement and the Articles of this Agreement are to be read and applied in conjunction with their respective notes. Annexes II and III also form an integral part of this Agreement.

Article 15

1. In this Agreement: (a) "customs value of imported goods" means the value of goods for the purposes of levying ad valorem duties of customs on imported goods;

(b) "country of importation" means country or customs territory of importation ; and

(c) "produced" includes grown, manufactured and mined.

2. (a) In this Agreement "identical goods" means goods which are the same in all respects, including physical characteristics, quality and reputation. Minor differences in appearance would not preclude goods otherwise conforming to the definition from being regarded as identical.

(b) In this Agreement "similar goods" means goods which, although not alike in all respects, have like characteristics and like component materials which enable them to perform the same functions and to be commercially interchangeable. The quality of the goods, their reputation and the existence of a trademark are among the factors to be considered in determining whether goods are similar.

(c) The terms "identical goods" and "similar goods" do not include, as the case may be, goods which incorporate or reflect engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and sketches for which no adjustment has been made under Article 8 (1) (b) (iv) because such elements were undertaken in the country of importation.

(d) Goods shall not be regarded as "identical goods" or "similar goods" unless they were produced in the same country as the goods being valued.

(e) Goods produced by a different person shall be taken into account only when there are no identical goods or similar goods, as the case may be, produced by the same person as the goods being valued.

3. In this Agreement "goods of the same class or kind" means goods which fall within a group or range of goods produced by a particular industry or industry sector, and includes identical or similar goods.

4. For the purposes of this Agreement, persons shall be deemed to be related only if: (a) they are officers or directors of one another's business;

(b) they are legally recognized partners in business;

(c) they are employer and employee;

(d) any person directly or indirectly owns, controls or holds 5 % or more of the outstanding voting stock or shares of both of them;

(e) one of them directly or indirectly controls the other;

(f) both of them are directly or indirectly controlled by a third person;

(g) together they directly or indirectly control a third person ; or

(h) they are members of the same family.

5. Persons who are associated in business with one another in that one is the sole agent, sole distributor or sole concessionaire, however described, of the other shall be deemed to be related for the purposes of this Agreement if they fall within the criteria of paragraph 4 of this Article.

Article 16

Upon written request, the importer shall have the right to an explanation in writing from the customs administration of the country of importation as to how the customs value of his imported goods was determined.

Article 17

Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as restricting or calling into question the rights of customs administrations to satisfy themselves as to the truth or accuracy of any statement, document or declaration presented for customs valuation purposes.

PART II ADMINISTRATION, CONSULTATION AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

Institutions

Article 18

There shall be established under this Agreement: 1. a Committee on Customs Valuation (hereinafter referred to as "the Committee") composed of representatives from each of the Parties. The Committee shall elect its own chairman and shall normally meet once a year, or as is otherwise envisaged by the relevant provisions of this Agreement, for the purpose of affording Parties the opportunity to consult on matters relating to the administration of the customs valuation system by any Party as it might affect the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives and carrying out such other responsibilities as may be assigned to it by the Parties. The GATT secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee;

2. a Technical Committee on Customs Valuation (hereinafter referred to as "the Technical Committee") under the auspices of the Customs Cooperation Council, which shall carry out the responsibilities described in Annex II to this Agreement and shall operate in accordance with the rules of procedure contained therein.

Consultation

Article 19

1. If any Party considers that any benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement is being nullified or impaired, or that the achievement of any objective of this Agreement is being impeded, as a result of the actions of another Party or of other Parties, it may, with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory solution of the matter, request consultations with the Party or Parties in question. Each Party shall afford sympathetic consideration to any request from another Party for consultations.

2. The Parties concerned shall initiate requested consultations promptly.

3. Parties engaged in consultations on a particular matter affecting the operation of this Agreement shall attempt to conclude such consultations within a reasonably short period of time. The Technical Committee shall provide, upon request, advice and assistance to Parties engaged in consultations.

Dispute settlement

Article 20

1. If no mutually satisfactory solution has been reached between the Parties concerned in consultations under Article 19 above, the Committee shall meet at the request of any party to the dispute, within 30 days of receipt of such a request, to investigate the matter, with a view to facilitating a mutually satisfactory solution.

2. In investigating the matter and in selecting its procedures, the Committee shall take into account whether the issues in dispute relate to commercial policy considerations or to questions requiring detailed technical consideration. The Committee may request on its own initiative that the Technical Committee carry out an examination, as provided in paragraph 4 below, of any question requiring technical consideration. Upon the request of any party to the dispute that considers the issues to relate to questions of a technical nature, the Committee shall request the Technical Committee to carry out such an examination.

3. During any phase of a dispute settlement procedure, competent bodies and experts in matters under consideration may be consulted ; appropriate information and assistance may be requested from such bodies and experts. The Committee shall take into consideration the results of any work of the Technical Committee that pertain to the matter in dispute.

Technical issues

4. When the Technical Committee is requested under the provisions of paragraph 2 above, it shall examine the matter and report to the Committee no later than three months from the date the technical issue was referred to it, unless the period is extended by mutual agreement between the parties to the dispute.

Panel proceedings

5. In cases where the matter is not referred to the Technical Committee, the Committee shall establish a panel upon the request of any party to the dispute if no mutually satisfactory solution has been reached within three months from the date of the request to the Committee to investigate the matter. Where the matter is referred to the Technical Committee, the Committee shall establish a panel upon the request of any party to the dispute if no mutually satisfactory solution has been reached within one month from the date when the Technical Committee presents its report to the Committee.

6. (a) When a panel is established, it shall be governed by the procedures as set forth in Annex III.

(b) If the Technical Committee has made a report on the technical aspects of the matter in dispute, the panel shall use this report as the basis for its consideration of the technical aspects of the matter in dispute.

Enforcement

7. After the investigation is completed or after the report of the Technical Committee or panel is presented to the Committee, the Committee shall give the matter prompt consideration. With respect to panel reports, the Committee shall take appropriate action normally within 30 days of receipt of the report. Such action shall include: (i) a statement concerning the facts of the matter ; and

(ii) recommendations to one or more Parties or any other ruling which it deems appropriate.

8. If a Party to which recommendations are addressed considers itself unable to implement them, it should promptly furnish reasons in writing to the Committee. In that event, the Committee shall consider what further action may be appropriate.

9. If the Committee considers that the circumstances are serious enough to justify such action, it may authorize one or more Parties to suspend the application to any other Party or Parties of such obligations under this Agreement as it determines to be appropriate in the circumstances.

10. The Committee shall keep under surveillance any matter on which it has made recommendations or given rulings.

11. If a dispute arises between Parties relating to rights and obligations under this Agreement, Parties should complete the dispute settlement procedures under this Agreement before availing themselves of any rights which they have under the GATT, including invoking Article XXIII thereof.

PART III SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT

Article 21

1. Developing country Parties may delay application of its provisions for a period not exceeding five years from the date of entry into force of this Agreement for such countries. Developing country Parties who choose to delay application of this Agreement shall notify the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT accordingly.

2. In addition to paragraph 1 above, developing country Parties may delay application of Article 1 (2) (b) (iii) and Article 6 for a period not exceeding three years following their application of all other provisions of this Agreement. Developing country Parties that choose to delay application of the provisions specified in this paragraph shall notify the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT accordingly.

3. Developed country Parties shall furnish, on mutually agreed terms, technical assistance to developing country Parties that so request. On this basis developed country Parties shall draw up programmes of technical assistance which may include inter alia training of personnel, assistance in preparing implementation measures, access to sources of information regarding customs valuation methodology, and advice on the application of the provisions of this Agreement.

PART IV FINAL PROVISIONS

Acceptance and accession

Article 22

1. This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise by Government Contracting Parties to the GATT and by the European Economic Community.

2. This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise by governments having provisionally acceded to the GATT, on terms related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, which take into account rights and obligations in the instruments providing for their provisional accession.

3. This Agreement shall be open to accession by any other government on terms, related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, to be agreed between that government and the Parties, by the deposit with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT of an instrument of accession which states the terms so agreed.

4. In regard to acceptance, the provisions of Article XXVI (5) (a) and (b) of the General Agreement would be applicable.

Reservations

Article 23

Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Parties.

Entry into force

Article 24

This Agreement shall enter into force on 1 January 1981 for the governments (1) which have accepted or acceded to it by that date. For each other government it shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of its acceptance or accession to this Agreement.

National legislation

Article 25

1. Each government accepting or acceding to this Agreement shall ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of this Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement. (1)The term "governments" is deemed to include the competent authorities of the European Economic Community.

2. Each Party shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.

Review

Article 26

The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof. The Committee shall annually inform the Contracting Parties to the GATT of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

Amendments

Article 27

The Parties may amend this Agreement, having regard inter alia to the experience gained in its implementation. Such an amendment, once the Parties have concurred in accordance with procedures established by the Committee, shall not come into force for any Party until it has been accepted by such Party.

Withdrawal

Article 28

Any Party may withdraw from this Agreement. The withdrawal shall take effect upon the expiration of 60 days from the date on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT. Any Party may, upon the receipt of such notice, request an immediate meeting of the Committee.

Secretariat

Article 29

This Agreement shall be serviced by the GATT secretariat except in regard to those responsibilities specifically assigned to the Technical Committee, which will be serviced by the secretariat of the Customs Cooperation Council.

Deposit

Article 30

This Agreement shall be deposited with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT, who shall promptly furnish to each Party and each contracting party to the GATT a certified copy thereof and of each amendment thereto pursuant to Article 27, and a notification of each acceptance thereof or accession thereto pursuant to Article 22 and of each withdrawal therefrom pursuant to Article 28.

Registration

Article 31

This Agreement shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Done at Geneva this twelfth day of April nineteen hundred and seventy-nine in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

ANNEX I INTERPRETATIVE NOTES

GENERAL NOTE

Sequential application of valuation methods

1. Articles 1 to 7, inclusive, define how the customs value of imported goods is to be determined under the provisions of this Agreement. The methods of valuation are set out in a sequential order of application. The primary method for customs valuation is defined in Article 1 and imported goods are to be valued in accordance with the provisions of this Article whenever the conditions prescribed therein are fulfilled.

2. Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1, it is to be determined by proceeding sequentially through the succeeding Articles to the first such Article under which the customs value can be determined. Except as provided in Article 4, it is only when the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of a particular Article that the provisions of the next Article in the sequence can be used.

3. If the importer does not request that the order of Articles 5 and 6 be reversed, the normal order of the sequence is to be followed. If the importer does so request but it then proves impossible to determine the customs value under the provisions of Article 6, the customs value is to be determined under the provisions of Article 5, if it can be so determined.

4. Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 to 6, inclusive, it is to be determined under the provisions of Article 7.

Use of generally accepted accounting principles

1. "Generally accepted accounting principles" refers to the recognized consensus or substantial authoritative support within a country at a particular time as to which economic resources and obligations should be recorded as assets and liabilities, which changes in assets and liabilities should be recorded, how the assets and liabilities and changes in them should be measured, what information should be disclosed and how it should be disclosed and which financial statements should be prepared. These standards may be broad guidelines of general application as well as detailed practices and procedures.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement, the customs administration of each party shall utilize information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles in the country which is appropriate for the Article in question. For example, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 5 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of importation. On the other hand, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of production. As a further example, the determination of an element provided for in Article 8 (1) (b) (ii) undertaken in the country of importation would be carried out utilizing information in a manner consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles of that country.

Note to Article 1

Price actually paid or payable

The price actually paid or payable is the total payment made or to be made by the buyer to or for the benefit of the seller for the imported goods. The payment need not necessarily take the form of a transfer of money. Payment may be made by way of letters of credit or negotiable instruments. Payment may be made directly or indirectly. An example of an indirect payment would be the settlement by the buyer, whether in whole or in part, of a debt owed by the seller.

Activities undertaken by the buyer on his own account, other than those for which an adjustment is provided in Article 8, are not considered to be an indirect payment to the seller, even though they might be regarded as of benefit to the seller. The costs of such activities shall not, therefore, be added to the price actually paid or payable in determining the customs value.

The customs value shall not include the following charges or costs, provided that they are distinguished from the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods: (a) charges for construction, erection, assembly, maintenance or technical assistance, undertaken after importation on imported goods such as industrial plant, machinery or equipment;

(b) the cost of transport after importation;

(c) duties and taxes of the country of importation.

The price actually paid or payable refers to the price for the imported goods. Thus the flow of dividends or other payments from the buyer to the seller that do not relate to the imported goods are not part of the customs value.

Paragraph 1 (a) (iii)

Among restrictions which would not render a price actually paid or payable unacceptable are restrictions which do not substantially affect the value of the goods. An example of such restrictions would be the case where a seller requires a buyer of automobiles not to sell or exhibit them prior to a fixed date which represents the beginning of a model year.

Paragraph 1 (b)

If the sale or price is subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued, the transaction value shall not be acceptable for customs purposes. Some examples of this include: (a) the seller establishes the price of the imported goods on condition that the buyer will also buy other goods in specified quantities;

(b) the price of the imported goods is dependent upon the price or prices at which the buyer of the imported goods sells other goods to the seller of the imported goods;

(c) the price is established on the basis of a form of payment extraneous to the imported goods, such as where the imported goods are semi-finished goods which have been provided by the seller on condition that he will receive a specified quantity of the finished goods.

However, conditions or considerations relating to the production or marketing of the imported goods shall not result in rejection of the transaction value. For example, the fact that the buyer furnishes the seller with engineering and plans undertaken in the country of importation shall not result in rejection of the transaction value for the purposes of Article 1. Likewise, if the buyer undertakes on his own account, even though by agreement with the seller, activities relating to the marketing of the imported goods, the value of these activities is not part of the customs value nor shall such activities result in rejection of the transaction value.

Paragraph 2

1. Paragraphs 2 (a) and (b) provide different means of establishing the acceptability of a transaction value.

2. Paragraph 2 (a) provides that where the buyer and the seller are related, the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted as the customs value provided that the relationship did not influence the price. It is not intended that there should be an examination of the circumstances in all cases where the buyer and the seller are related. Such examination will only be required where there are doubts about the acceptability of the price. Where the customs administration have no doubts about the acceptability of the price, it should be accepted without requesting further information from the importer. For example, the customs administration may have previously examined the relationship, or it may already have detailed information concerning the buyer and the seller, and may already be satisfied from such examination or information that the relationship did not influence the price.

3. Where the customs administration is unable to accept the transaction value without further inquiry, it should give the importer an opportunity to supply such further detailed information as may be necessary to enable it to examine the circumstances surrounding the sale. In this context, the customs administration should be prepared to examine relevant aspects of the transaction, including the way in which the buyer and seller organize their commercial relations and the way in which the price in question was arrived at, in order to determine whether the relationship influenced the price. Where it can be shown that the buyer and seller, although related under the provisions of Article 15, buy from and sell to each other as if they were not related, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As an example of this, if the price had been settled in a manner consistent with the normal pricing practices of the industry in question or with the way the seller settles prices for sales to buyers who are not related to him, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As a further example, where it is shown that the price is adequate to ensure recovery of all costs plus a profit which is representative of the firm's overall profit realized over a representative period of time (e.g. on an annual basis) in sales of goods of the same class or kind, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced.

4. Paragraph 2 (b) provides an opportunity for the importer to demonstrate that the transaction value closely approximates to a "test" value previously accepted by the customs administration and is therefore acceptable under the provisions of Article 1. Where a test under paragraph 2 (b) is met, it is not necessary to examine the question of influence under paragraph 2 (a). If the customs administration has already sufficient information to be satisfied, without further detailed inquiries, that one of the tests provided in paragraph 2 (b) has been met, there is no reason for it to require the importer to demonstrate that the test can be met. In paragraph 2 (b) the term "unrelated buyers" means buyers who are not related to the seller in any particular case.

Paragraph 2 (b)

A number of factors must be taken into consideration in determining whether one value "closely approximates" to another value. These factors include the nature of the imported goods, the nature of the industry itself, the season in which the goods are imported, and, whether the difference in values is commercially significant. Since these factors may vary from case to case, it would be impossible to apply a uniform standard such as a fixed percentage, in each case. For example, a small difference in value in a case involving one type of goods could be unacceptable while a large difference in a case involving another type of goods might be acceptable in determining whether the transaction value closely approximates to the "test" values set forth in Article 1 (2) (b).

Note to Article 2

1. In applying Article 2, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of identical goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. Where no such sale is found, a sale of identical goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used: (a) a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

(b) a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities ; or

(c) a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

2. Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be for: (a) quantity factors only;

(b) commercial level factors only ; or

(c) both commercial level and quantity factors.

3. The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

4. For the purposes of Article 2, the transaction value of identical imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1 (b) and 2 of this Article, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

5. A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities. As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only identical imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units. This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities. In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 2 is not appropriate.

Note to Article 3

1. In applying Article 3, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of similar goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. Where no such sale is found, a sale of similar goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used: (a) a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

(b) a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities ; or

(c) a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

2. Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be, for: (a) quantity factors only;

(b) commercial level factors only ; or

(c) both commercial level and quantity factors.

3. The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

4. For the purposes of Article 3, the transaction value of similar imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1 (b) and 2 of this Article, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

5. A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities. As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only similar imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units. This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities. In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 3 is not appropriate.

Note to Article 5

1. The term "unit price at which ... goods are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity" means the price at which the greatest number of units is sold in sales to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods at the first commercial level after importation at which such sales take place.

2. As an example of this, goods are sold from a price list which grants favourable unit prices for purchases made in larger quantities.

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The greatest number of units sold at a price is 80 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

3. As another example of this, two sales occur. In the first sale 500 units are sold at a price of 95 currency units each. In the second sale 400 units are sold at a price of 90 currency units each. In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 500 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 95.

4. A third example would be the following situation where various quantities are sold at various prices. >PIC FILE= "T0012156">

In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 65 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

5. Any sale in the importing country, as described in paragraph 1 above, to a person who supplies directly or indirectly free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods any of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b), should not be taken into account in establishing the unit price for the purposes of Article 5.

6. It should be noted that "profit and general expenses" referred to in Article 5.1 should be taken as a whole. The figure for the purposes of this deduction should be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the importer unless his figures are inconsistent with those obtaining in sales in the country of importation of imported goods of the same class or kind. Where the importer's figures are inconsistent with such figures, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the importer.

7. The "general expenses" include the direct and indirect costs of marketing the goods in question.

8. Local taxes payable by reason of the sale of the goods for which a deduction is not made under the provisions of Article 5 (1) (a) (iv) shall be deducted under the provisions of Article 5 (1) (a) (i).

9. In determining either the Commissions or the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of Article 5 (1), the question whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis by reference to the circumstances involved. Sales in the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of imported goods of the same class or kind, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined. For the purposes of Article 5, "goods of the same class or kind" includes goods imported from the same country as the goods being valued as well as goods imported from other countries.

10. For the purposes of Article 5 (1) (b), the "earliest date" shall be the date by which sales of the imported goods or of identical or similar imported goods are made in sufficient quantity to establish the unit price.

11. Where the method in Article 5 (2) is used, deductions made for the value added by further processing shall be based on objective and quantifiable data relating to the cost of such work Accepted industry formulas, recipes, methods of construction, and other industry practices would form the basis of the calculations.

12. It is recognized that the method of valuation provided for in Article 5 (2) would normally not be applicable when, as a result of the further processing, the imported goods lose their identity. However, there can be instances where, although the, identity of the imported goods is lost, the value added by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable difficulty. On the other hand, there can also be instances where the imported goods maintain their identity but form such a minor element in the goods sold in the country of importation that the use of this valuation method would be unjustified. In view of the above, each situation of this type must be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Note to Article 6

1. As a general rule, customs value is determined under this Agreement on the basis of information readily available in the country of importation. In order to determine a computed value, however, it may be necessary to examine the costs of producing the goods being valued and other information which has to be obtained from outside the country of importation. Furthermore, in most cases the producer of the goods will be outside the jurisdiction of the authorities of the country of importation. The use of the computed value method will generally be limited to those cases where the buyer and seller are related, and the producer is prepared to supply to the authorities of the country of importation the necessary costings and to provide facilities for any subsequent verification which may be necessary.

2. The "cost or value" referred to in Article 6 (1) (a) is to be determined on the basis of information relating to the production of the goods being valued supplied by or on behalf of the producer. It is to be based upon the commercial accounts of the producer, provided that such accounts are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles applied in the country where the goods are produced.

3. The "cost or value" shall include the cost of elements specified in Article 8 (1) (a) (ii) and (iii). It shall also include the value, apportioned as appropriate under the provisions of the relevant note to Article 8, of any element specified in Article 8 (1) (b) which has been supplied directly or indirectly by the buyer for use in connection with the production of the imported goods. The value of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (iv) which are undertaken in the country of importation shall be included only to the extent that such elements are charged to the producer. It is to be understood that no cost or value of the elements referred to in this paragraph shall be counted twice in determining the computed value.

4. The "amount for profit and general expenses" referred to in Article 6 (1) (b) is to be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the producer unless his figures are inconsistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation.

5. It should be noted in this context that the "amount for profit and general expenses" has to be taken as a whole. It follows that if, in any particular case, the producer's profit figure is low and his general expenses are high, his profit and general expenses taken together may nevertheless be consistent with that usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind. Such a situation might occur, for example, if a product were being launched in the country of importation and the producer accepted a nil or low profit to offset high general expenses associated with the launch. Where the producer can demonstrate that he is taking a low profit on his sales of the imported goods because of particular commercial circumstances, his actual profit figures should be taken into account provided that he has valid commercial reasons to justify them and his pricing policy reflects usual pricing policies in the branch of industry concerned. Such a situation might occur, for example, where producers have been forced to lower prices temporarily because of an unforeseeable drop in demand, or where they sell goods to complement a range of goods being produced in the country of importation and accept a low profit to maintain competitivity. Where the producer's own figures for profit and general expenses are not consistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer of the goods.

6. Where information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer is used for the purposes of determining a computed value, the authorities of the importing country shall inform the importer, if the latter so requests, of the source of such information, the data used and the calculations based upon such data, subject to the provisions of Article 10.

7. The "general expenses" referred to in Article 6 (1) (b) covers the direct and indirect costs of producing and selling the goods for export which are not included under Article 6 (1) (a).

8. Whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis with reference to the circumstances involved. In determining the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6, sales for export to the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of goods, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined. For the purposes of Article 6, "goods of the same class or kind" must be from the same country as the goods being valued.

Note to Article 7

1. Customs values determined under the provisions of Article 7 should, to the greatest extent possible, be based on previously determined customs values.

2. The methods of valuation to be employed under Article 7 should be those laid down in Articles 1 to 6, inclusive, but a reasonable flexibility in the application of such methods would be in conformity with the aims and provisions of Article 7.

3. Some examples of reasonable flexibility are as follows: (a) Identical goods - the requirement that the identical goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted ; identical imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation ; customs values of identical imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

(b) Similar goods - the requirement that the similar goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted ; similar imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation ; customs values of similar imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

(c) Deductive method - the requirement that the goods shall have been sold in the "condition as imported" in Article 5 (1) (a) could be flexibly interpreted ; the "90 days" requirement could be administered flexibly.

Note to Article 8

Paragraph 1 (a) (i)

The term "buying Commissions" means fees paid by an importer to his agent for the service of representing him abroad in the purchase of the goods being valued.

Paragraph 1 (b) (ii)

1. There are two factors involved in the apportionment of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (ii) to the imported goods - the value of the element itself and the way in which that value is to be apportioned to the imported goods. The apportionment of these elements should be made in a reasonable manner appropriate to the circumstances and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

2. Concerning the value of the element, if the importer acquires the element from a seller not related to him at a given cost, the value of the element is that cost. If the element was produced by the importer or by a person related to him, its value would be the cost of producing it. If the element had been previously used by the importer, regardless of whether it had been acquired or produced by such importer, the original cost of acquisition or production would have to be adjusted downward to reflect its use in order to arrive at the value of the element.

3. Once a value has been determined for the element, it is necessary to apportion that value to the imported goods. Various possibilities exist. For example, the value might be apportioned to the first shipment if the importer wishes to pay duty on the entire value at one time. As another example, the importer may request that the value be apportioned over the number of units produced up to the time of the fist shipment. As a further example, he may request that the value be apportioned over the entire anticipated production where contracts or firm commitments exist for that production. The method of apportionment used will depend upon the documentation provided by the importer.

4. As an illustration of the above, an importer provides the producer with a mould to be used in the production of the imported goods and contracts with him to buy 10 000 units. By the time of arrival of the first shipment of 1 000 units, the producer has already produced 4 000 units. The importer may request the customs administration to apportion the value of the mould over 1 000 units, 4 000 units or 10 000 units.

Paragraph 1 (b) (iv)

1. Additions for the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (iv) should be based on objective and quantifiable data. In order to minimize the burden for both the importer and customs administration in determining the values to be added, data readily available in the buyer's commercial record system should be used in so far as possible.

2. For those elements supplied by the buyer which were purchased or leased by the buyer, the addition would be the cost of the purchase or the lease. No addition shall be made for those elements available in the public domain, other than the cost of obtaining copies of them.

3. The case with which it may be possible to calculate the values to be added will depend on a particular fim's structure and management practice, as well as its accounting methods.

4. For example, it is possible that a firm which imports a variety of products from several countries maintains the records of its design centre outside the country of importation in such a way as to show accurately the costs attributable to a given product. In such cases, a direct adjustment may appropriately be made under the provisions of Article 8.

5. In another case, a firm may carry the cost of the design centre outside the country of importation as a general overhead expense without allocation to specific products. In this instance, an appropriate adjustment could be made under the provisions of Article 8 with respect to the imported goods by apportioning total design centre costs over total production benefiting from the design centre and adding such apportioned cost on a unit basis to imports.

6. Variations in the above circumstances will, of course, require different factors to be considered in determining the proper method of allocation.

7. In cases where the production of the element in question involves a number of countries and over a period of time, the adjustment should be limited to the value actually added to that element outside the country of importation.

Paragraph 1 (c)

1. The royalties and licence fees referred to in Article 8 (1) (c) may include, among other things, payments in respect to patents, trademarks and copyrights. However, the charges for the right to reproduce the imported goods in the country of importation shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods in determining the customs value.

2. Payments made by the buyer for the right to distribute or resell the imported goods shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods if such payments are not a condition of the sale for export to the country of importation of the imported goods.

Paragraph 3

Where objective and quantifiable data do not exist with regard to the additions required to be made under the provisions of Article 8, the transaction value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1. As an illustration of this, a royalty is paid on the basis of the price in a sale in the importing country of a litre of a particular product that was imported by the kilogram and made up into a solution after importation. If the royalty is based partially on the imported goods and partially on other factors which have nothing to do with the imported goods (such as when the imported goods are mixed with domestic ingredients and are no longer separately identifiable, or when the royalty cannot be distinguished from special financial arrangements between the buyer and the seller), it would be inappropriate to attempt to make an addition for the royalty. However, if the amount of this royalty is based only on the imported goods and can be readily quantified, an addition to the price actually paid or payable can be made.

Note to Article 9

For the purposes of Article 9, "time of importation" may include the time of entry for customs purposes.

Note to Article 11

1. Article 11 provides the importer with the right to appeal against a valuation determination made by the customs administration for the goods being valued. Appeal may first be to a higher level in the customs administration, but the importer shall have the right in the final instance to appeal to the judiciary.

2. "Without penalty" means that the importer shall not be subject to a fine or threat of fine merely because he chose to exercise his right of appeal. Payment of normal court costs and lawyers' fees shall not be considered to be a fine.

3. However, nothing in Article 11 shall prevent a Party from requiring full payment of assessed customs duties prior to an appeal.

Note to Article 15

Paragraph 4

For the purposes of this Article, the term "persons" includes legal persons, where appropriate.

Paragraph 4 (e)

For the purposes of this Agreement, one person shall be deemed to control another when the former is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the latter.

ANNEX II TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ON CUSTOMS VALUATION

1. In accordance with Article 18 of this Agreement, the Technical Committee shall be established under the auspices of the Customs Cooperation Council with a view, at the technical level, towards uniformity in interpretation and application of this Agreement.

2. The responsibilities of the Technical Committee shall include the following: (a) to examine specific technical problems arising in the day-to-day administration of the customs valuation systems of Parties and to give advisory opinions on appropriate solutions based upon the facts presented;

(b) to study, as requested, valuation laws, procedures and practices as they relate to this Agreement and to prepare reports on the results of such studies;

(c) to prepare and circulate annual reports on the technical aspects of the operation and status of this Agreement;

(d) to furnish such information and advice on any matters concerning the valuation of imported goods for customs purposes as may be requested by any Party or the Committee. Such information and advice may take the form of advisory opinions, commentaries or explanatory notes;

(e) to facilitate, as requested, technical assistance to Parties with a view to furthering the international acceptance of this Agreement ; and

(f) to exercise such other responsibilities as the Committee may assign to it.

General

3. The Technical Committee shall attempt to conclude its work on specific matters, especially those referred to it by Parties or the Committee, in a reasonably short period of time.

4. The Technical Committee shall be assisted as appropriate in its activities by the Secretariat of the Customs Cooperation Council.

Representation

5. Each Party shall have the right to be represented on the Technical Committee. Each Party may nominate one delegate and one or more alternates to be its representatives on the Technical Committee. Such a Party so represented on the Technical Committee is hereinafter referred to as a member of the Technical Committee. Representatives of members of the Technical Committee may be assisted by advisers. The GATT secretariat may also attend such meetings with observer status.

6. Members of the Customs Cooperation Council who are not Parties may be represented at meetings of the Technical Committee by one delegate and one or more alternates. Such representatives shall attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

7. Subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Technical Committee, the Secretary-General of the Customs Cooperation Council (hereinafter referred to as "the Secretary-General") may invite representatives of governments which are neither Parties nor members of the Customs Cooperation Council and representatives of international governmental and trade organizations to attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

8. Nominations of delegates, alternates and advisers to meetings of the Technical Committee shall be made to the Secretary-General.

Technical Committee meetings

9. The Technical Committee shall meet as necessary but at least two times a year. The date of each meeting shall be fixed by the Technical Committee at its preceding session. The date of the meeting may be varied either at the request of any member of the Technical Committee concurred in by a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee or, in cases requiring urgent attention, at the request of the Chairman.

10. The meetings of the Technical Committee shall be held at the headquarters of the Customs Cooperation Council unless otherwise decided.

11. The Secretary-General shall inform all members of the Technical Committee and those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance, except in urgent cases, of the opening date of each session of the Technical Committee.

Agenda

12. A provisional agenda for each session shall be drawn up by the Secretary-General and circulated to the members of the Technical Committee and to those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance of the session, except in urgent cases. This agenda shall comprise all items whose inclusion has been approved by the Technical Committee during its preceding sessions, all items included by the chairman on his own initiative, and all items whose inclusion has been requested by the Secretary-General, by the Committee or by any member of the Technical Committee.

13. The Technical Committee shall determine its agenda at the opening of each session. During the session the agenda may be altered at any time by the technical Committee.

Officers and conduct of business

14. The Technical Committee shall elect from among the delegates of its members a chairman and one or more vice-chairmen. The chairman and vice-chairmen shall each hold office for a period of one year. The retiring chairman and vice-chairmen are eligible for re-election. A chairman or vice-chairman who ceases to represent a member of the Technical Committee shall automatically lose his mandate.

15. If the chairman is absent from any meeting or part thereof, a vice-chairman shall preside. In that event, the latter shall have the same powers and duties as the chairman.

16. The chairman of the meeting shall participate in the proceedings of the Technical Committee as such and not as the representative of a member of the Technical Committee.

17. In addition to exercising the powers conferred upon him elsewhere by these rules, the chairman shall declare the opening and closing of each meeting, direct the discussion, accord the right to speak, and, pursuant to these rules, have control of the proceedings. The chairman may also call a speaker to order if his remarks are not relevant.

18. During discussion of any matter a delegation may raise a point of order. In this event, the chairman shall immediately state his ruling. If this ruling is challenged, the chairman shall submit it to the meeting for decisions and it shall stand unless overruled.

19. The Secretary-General ; or officers of the Secretariat designated by him, shall perform the secretarial work of meetings of the Technical Committee.

Quorum and voting

20. Representatives of a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee shall constitute a quorum.

21. Each member of the Technical Committee shall have one vote. A decision of the Technical Committee shall be taken by a majority comprising at least two-thirds of the members present. Regardless of the outcome of the vote on a particular matter, the Technical Committee shall be free to make a full report to the Committee and to the Customs Cooperation Council on that matter indicating the different views expressed in the relevant discussions.

Languages and records

22. The official languages of the Technical Committee shall be English, French and Spanish. Speeches or statements made in any of these three languages shall be immediately translated into the other official languages unless all delegations agree to dispense with translation. Speeches or statements made in any other language shall be translated into English, French and Spanish, subject to the same conditions, but in that event the delegation concerned shall provide the translation into English, French or Spanish. Only English, French and Spanish shall be used for the official documents of the Technical Committee. Memoranda and correspondence for the consideration of the Technical Committee must be presented in one of the official languages.

23. The Technical Committee shall draw up a report of all its sessions and, if the chairman considers it necessary, minutes or summary records of its meetings. The chairman or his designee shall report on the work of the Technical Committee at each meeting of the Committee and at each meeting of the Customs Cooperation Council.

ANNEX III "Ad hoc" panels

1. Ad hoc panels established by the Committee under this Agreement shall have the following responsibilities: (a) to examine the matter referred to it by the Committee;

(b) to consult with the parties to the dispute and give full opportunity for them to develop a mutually satisfactory solution ; and

(c) to make a statement concerning the facts of the matter as they relate to the application of the provisions of this Agreement and, make such findings as will assist the Committee in making recommendations or giving rulings on the matter.

2. In order to facilitate the constitution of panels, the chairman of the Committee shall maintain an informal indicative list of government officials knowledgeable in the area of customs valuation and experienced in the field of trade relations and economic development. This list may also include persons other than government officials. In this connection, each Party shall be invited to indicate at the beginning of every year to the chairman of the Committee the name(s) of the one or two governmental experts whom the Parties would be willing to make available for such work. When a panel is established, the chairman, after consultation with the Parties concerned, shall, within seven days of such establishment propose the composition of the panel consisting of three or five members and preferably government officials. The Parties directly concerned shall react within seven working days to nominations of panel members by the chairman and shall not oppose nominations except for compelling reasons.

Citizens of countries whose governments are parties to a dispute shall not be eligible for membership of the panel concerned with that dispute. Panel members shall serve in their individual capacities and not as government representatives, nor as representatives of any organization. Governments or organizations shall therefore not give them instructions with regard to matters before a panel.

3. Each panel shall develop its own working procedures. All Parties having a substantial interest in the matter and having notified this to the Committee shall have an opportunity to be heard. Each panel may consult and seek information and technical advice from any source it deems appropriate. Before a panel seeks such information or technical advice from a source within the jurisdiction of a Party, it shall inform the government of that Party. Any Party shall respond promptly and fully to any request by a panel for such information as the panel considers necessary and appropriate. Confidential information provided to the panel shall not be disclosed without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information. Where such information is requested from the panel but release of such information by the panel is not authorized, a non-confidential summary of the information, authorized by the person or government providing the information, will be provided.

4. Where the parties to the dispute have failed to reach a satisfactory solution, the panel shall submit its findings in writing. The report of a panel should normally set out the rationale behind its findings. Where a settlement of the matter is reached between the parties, the report of the panel may be confined to a brief description of the dispute and to a statement that a solution has been reached.

5. Panels shall use such report of the Technical Committee as may have been issued under Article 20 (4) of this Agreement as the basis for their consideration of issues that involve questions of a technical nature.

6. The time required by panels will vary with the particular case. They should aim to deliver their findings, and where appropriate, recommendations, to the Committee without undue delay, normally within a period of three months from the date that the panel was established.

7. To encourage development of mutually satisfactory solutions between the parties to a dispute and with a view to obtaining their comments, each panel should first submit the descriptive part of its report to the Parties concerned, and should subsequently submit to the parties to the dispute its conclusions, or an outline thereof, a reasonable period of time before they are circulated to the Parties.

PROTOCOL TO THE AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VII OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE

The Parties to the Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade (hereinafter referred to as "the Agreement"),

Having regard to the multilateral trade negotiations and to the desire expressed by the Trade Negotiations Committee at its meeting of 11 and 12 April 1979 to arrive at a single text of an Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement of tariffs and trade;

Recognizing that developing countries may have particular problems in applying the Agreement;

Considering that the provisions of Article 27 of the Agreement relating to amendments have not yet entered into force;

Hereby:

I

1. Agree to the deletion of the provision of Article 1 (2) (b) (iv) of the Agreement;

2. Recognize that the five-year delay in the application of the provisions of the Agreement by developing countries provided for in Article 21 (1) may, in practice, be insufficient for certain developing countries. In such cases a developing country Party to the Agreement may request before the end of the period referred to in Article 21 (1) an extension of such period, it being understood that the Parties to the Agreement will give sympathetic consideration to such a request in cases where the developing country in question can show good cause;

3. Recognize that developing countries which currently value goods on the basis of officially established minimum values may wish to make a reservation to enable them to retain such values on a limited and transitional basis under such terms and conditions as may be agreed to by the Parties to the Agreement;

4. Recognize that developing countries which consider that the reversal of the sequential order at the request of the importer provided for in Article 4 of the Agreement may give rise to real difficulties for them may wish to make a reservation to Article 4 in the following terms:

"The Government of ... reserves the right to provide that the relevant provision of Article 4 of the Agreement shall apply only when the customs authorities agree to the request to reverse the order of Articles 5 and 6."

If developing countries make such a reservation, the Parties to the Agreement shall consent to it under Article 23 of the Agreement;

5. Recognize that developing countries may wish to make a reservation with respect to Article 5 (2) of the Agreement in the following terms:

"The Government of ... reserves the right to provide that Article 5 (2) of the Agreement shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of the relevant note thereto whether or not the importer so requests."

If developing countries make such a reservation, the Parties to the Agreement shall consent to it under Article 23 of the Agreement;

6. Recognize that certain developing countries have expressed concern that there may be problems in the implementation of Article 1 of the Agreement in so far as it relates to importations into their countries by sole agents, sole distributors and sole concessionaires. The Parties to the Agreement agree that, if such problems arise in practice in developing countries applying the Agreement, a study of this question shall be made, at the request of such countries, with a view to finding appropriate solutions;

7. Agree that Article 17 recognizes that in applying the Agreement, customs administrations may need to make enquiries concerning the truth or accuracy of any statement, document or declaration presented to them for customs valuation purposes. They further agree that the Article thus acknowledges that enquiries may be made which are, for example, aimed at verifying that the elements of value declared or presented to customs in connection with a determination of customs value are complete and correct. They recognize that Parties to the Agreement, subject to their national laws and procedures, have the right to expect the full cooperation of importers in these enquiries;

8. Agree that the price actually paid or payable includes all payments actually made or to be made as a condition of sale of the imported goods, by the buyer to the seller, or by the buyer to a third party to satisfy an obligation of the seller.

II

1. Upon the entry into force of the Agreement the provisions of this Protocol shall be deemed to be part of the Agreement.

2. This Protocol shall be deposited with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT. It is open for acceptance, by signature or otherwise, by signatories of the Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade and by other governments accepting or acceding to the Agreement pursuant to the provisions of Article 22 thereof.

Done at Geneva this first day of November nineteen hundred and seventy-nine in a single copy in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

ANNEX I INTERPRETATIVE NOTES

GENERAL NOTE

Sequential application of valuation methods

1. Articles 1 to 7, inclusive, define how the customs value of imported goods is to be determined under the provisions of this Agreement. The methods of valuation are set out in a sequential order of application. The primary method for customs valuation is defined in Article 1 and imported goods are to be valued in accordance with the provisions of this Article whenever the conditions prescribed therein are fulfilled.

2. Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1, it is to be determined by proceeding sequentially through the succeeding Articles to the first such Article under which the customs value can be determined. Except as provided in Article 4, it is only when the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of a particular Article that the provisions of the next Article in the sequence can be used.

3. If the importer does not request that the order of Articles 5 and 6 be reversed, the normal order of the sequence is to be followed. If the importer does so request but it then proves impossible to determine the customs value under the provisions of Article 6, the customs value is to be determined under the provisions of Article 5, if it can be so determined.

4. Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 to 6, inclusive, it is to be determined under the provisions of Article 7.

Use of generally accepted accounting principles

1. "Generally accepted accounting principles" refers to the recognized consensus or substantial authoritative support within a country at a particular time as to which economic resources and obligations should be recorded as assets and liabilities, which changes in assets and liabilities should be recorded, how the assets and liabilities and changes in them should be measured, what information should be disclosed and how it should be disclosed and which financial statements should be prepared. These standards may be broad guidelines of general application as well as detailed practices and procedures.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement, the customs administration of each party shall utilize information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles in the country which is appropriate for the Article in question. For example, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 5 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of importation. On the other hand, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of production. As a further example, the determination of an element provided for in Article 8 (1) (b) (ii) undertaken in the country of importation would be carried out utilizing information in a manner consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles of that country.

Note to Article 1

Price actually paid or payable

The price actually paid or payable is the total payment made or to be made by the buyer to or for the benefit of the seller for the imported goods. The payment need not necessarily take the form of a transfer of money. Payment may be made by way of letters of credit or negotiable instruments. Payment may be made directly or indirectly. An example of an indirect payment would be the settlement by the buyer, whether in whole or in part, of a debt owed by the seller.

Activities undertaken by the buyer on his own account, other than those for which an adjustment is provided in Article 8, are not considered to be an indirect payment to the seller, even though they might be regarded as of benefit to the seller. The costs of such activities shall not, therefore, be added to the price actually paid or payable in determining the customs value.

The customs value shall not include the following charges or costs, provided that they are distinguished from the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods: (a) charges for construction, erection, assembly, maintenance or technical assistance, undertaken after importation on imported goods such as industrial plant, machinery or equipment;

(b) the cost of transport after importation;

(c) duties and taxes of the country of importation.

The price actually paid or payable refers to the price for the imported goods. Thus the flow of dividends or other payments from the buyer to the seller that do not relate to the imported goods are not part of the customs value.

Paragraph 1 (a) (iii)

Among restrictions which would not render a price actually paid or payable unacceptable are restrictions which do not substantially affect the value of the goods. An example of such restrictions would be the case where a seller requires a buyer of automobiles not to sell or exhibit them prior to a fixed date which represents the beginning of a model year.

Paragraph 1 (b)

If the sale or price is subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued, the transaction value shall not be acceptable for customs purposes. Some examples of this include: (a) the seller establishes the price of the imported goods on condition that the buyer will also buy other goods in specified quantities;

(b) the price of the imported goods is dependent upon the price or prices at which the buyer of the imported goods sells other goods to the seller of the imported goods;

(c) the price is established on the basis of a form of payment extraneous to the imported goods, such as where the imported goods are semi-finished goods which have been provided by the seller on condition that he will receive a specified quantity of the finished goods.

However, conditions or considerations relating to the production or marketing of the imported goods shall not result in rejection of the transaction value. For example, the fact that the buyer furnishes the seller with engineering and plans undertaken in the country of importation shall not result in rejection of the transaction value for the purposes of Article 1. Likewise, if the buyer undertakes on his own account, even though by agreement with the seller, activities relating to the marketing of the imported goods, the value of these activities is not part of the customs value nor shall such activities result in rejection of the transaction value.

Paragraph 2

1. Paragraphs 2 (a) and (b) provide different means of establishing the acceptability of a transaction value.

2. Paragraph 2 (a) provides that where the buyer and the seller are related, the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted as the customs value provided that the relationship did not influence the price. It is not intended that there should be an examination of the circumstances in all cases where the buyer and the seller are related. Such examination will only be required where there are doubts about the acceptability of the price. Where the customs administration have no doubts about the acceptability of the price, it should be accepted without requesting further information from the importer. For example, the customs administration may have previously examined the relationship, or it may already have detailed information concerning the buyer and the seller, and may already be satisfied from such examination or information that the relationship did not influence the price.

3. Where the customs administration is unable to accept the transaction value without further inquiry, it should give the importer an opportunity to supply such further detailed information as may be necessary to enable it to examine the circumstances surrounding the sale. In this context, the customs administration should be prepared to examine relevant aspects of the transaction, including the way in which the buyer and seller organize their commercial relations and the way in which the price in question was arrived at, in order to determine whether the relationship influenced the price. Where it can be shown that the buyer and seller, although related under the provisions of Article 15, buy from and sell to each other as if they were not related, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As an example of this, if the price had been settled in a manner consistent with the normal pricing practices of the industry in question or with the way the seller settles prices for sales to buyers who are not related to him, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship. As a further example, where it is shown that the price is adequate to ensure recovery of all costs plus a profit which is representative of the firm's overall profit realized over a representative period of time (e.g. on an annual basis) in sales of goods of the same class or kind, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced.

4. Paragraph 2 (b) provides an opportunity for the importer to demonstrate that the transaction value closely approximates to a "test" value previously accepted by the customs administration and is therefore acceptable under the provisions of Article 1. Where a test under paragraph 2 (b) is met, it is not necessary to examine the question of influence under paragraph 2 (a). If the customs administration has already sufficient information to be satisfied, without further detailed inquiries, that one of the tests provided in paragraph 2 (b) has been met, there is no reason for it to require the importer to demonstrate that the test can be met. In paragraph 2 (b) the term "unrelated buyers" means buyers who are not related to the seller in any particular case.

Paragraph 2 (b)

A number of factors must be taken into consideration in determining whether one value "closely approximates" to another value. These factors include the nature of the imported goods, the nature of the industry itself, the season in which the goods are imported, and, whether the difference in values is commercially significant. Since these factors may vary from case to case, it would be impossible to apply a uniform standard such as a fixed percentage, in each case. For example, a small difference in value in a case involving one type of goods could be unacceptable while a large difference in a case involving another type of goods might be acceptable in determining whether the transaction value closely approximates to the "test" values set forth in Article 1 (2) (b).

Note to Article 2

1. In applying Article 2, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of identical goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. Where no such sale is found, a sale of identical goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used: (a) a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

(b) a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities ; or

(c) a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

2. Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be for: (a) quantity factors only;

(b) commercial level factors only ; or

(c) both commercial level and quantity factors.

3. The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

4. For the purposes of Article 2, the transaction value of identical imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1 (b) and 2 of this Article, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

5. A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities. As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only identical imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units. This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities. In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 2 is not appropriate.

Note to Article 3

1. In applying Article 3, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of similar goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued. Where no such sale is found, a sale of similar goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used: (a) a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

(b) a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities ; or

(c) a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

2. Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be, for: (a) quantity factors only;

(b) commercial level factors only ; or

(c) both commercial level and quantity factors.

3. The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

4. For the purposes of Article 3, the transaction value of similar imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1 (b) and 2 of this Article, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

5. A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities. As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only similar imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units. This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities. In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 3 is not appropriate.

Note to Article 5

1. The term "unit price at which ... goods are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity" means the price at which the greatest number of units is sold in sales to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods at the first commercial level after importation at which such sales take place.

2. As an example of this, goods are sold from a price list which grants favourable unit prices for purchases made in larger quantities.

>PIC FILE= "T0012129">

The greatest number of units sold at a price is 80 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

3. As another example of this, two sales occur. In the first sale 500 units are sold at a price of 95 currency units each. In the second sale 400 units are sold at a price of 90 currency units each. In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 500 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 95.

4. A third example would be the following situation where various quantities are sold at various prices. >PIC FILE= "T0012156">

In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 65 ; therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

5. Any sale in the importing country, as described in paragraph 1 above, to a person who supplies directly or indirectly free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods any of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b), should not be taken into account in establishing the unit price for the purposes of Article 5.

6. It should be noted that "profit and general expenses" referred to in Article 5.1 should be taken as a whole. The figure for the purposes of this deduction should be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the importer unless his figures are inconsistent with those obtaining in sales in the country of importation of imported goods of the same class or kind. Where the importer's figures are inconsistent with such figures, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the importer.

7. The "general expenses" include the direct and indirect costs of marketing the goods in question.

8. Local taxes payable by reason of the sale of the goods for which a deduction is not made under the provisions of Article 5 (1) (a) (iv) shall be deducted under the provisions of Article 5 (1) (a) (i).

9. In determining either the Commissions or the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of Article 5 (1), the question whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis by reference to the circumstances involved. Sales in the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of imported goods of the same class or kind, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined. For the purposes of Article 5, "goods of the same class or kind" includes goods imported from the same country as the goods being valued as well as goods imported from other countries.

10. For the purposes of Article 5 (1) (b), the "earliest date" shall be the date by which sales of the imported goods or of identical or similar imported goods are made in sufficient quantity to establish the unit price.

11. Where the method in Article 5 (2) is used, deductions made for the value added by further processing shall be based on objective and quantifiable data relating to the cost of such work Accepted industry formulas, recipes, methods of construction, and other industry practices would form the basis of the calculations.

12. It is recognized that the method of valuation provided for in Article 5 (2) would normally not be applicable when, as a result of the further processing, the imported goods lose their identity. However, there can be instances where, although the, identity of the imported goods is lost, the value added by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable difficulty. On the other hand, there can also be instances where the imported goods maintain their identity but form such a minor element in the goods sold in the country of importation that the use of this valuation method would be unjustified. In view of the above, each situation of this type must be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Note to Article 6

1. As a general rule, customs value is determined under this Agreement on the basis of information readily available in the country of importation. In order to determine a computed value, however, it may be necessary to examine the costs of producing the goods being valued and other information which has to be obtained from outside the country of importation. Furthermore, in most cases the producer of the goods will be outside the jurisdiction of the authorities of the country of importation. The use of the computed value method will generally be limited to those cases where the buyer and seller are related, and the producer is prepared to supply to the authorities of the country of importation the necessary costings and to provide facilities for any subsequent verification which may be necessary.

2. The "cost or value" referred to in Article 6 (1) (a) is to be determined on the basis of information relating to the production of the goods being valued supplied by or on behalf of the producer. It is to be based upon the commercial accounts of the producer, provided that such accounts are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles applied in the country where the goods are produced.

3. The "cost or value" shall include the cost of elements specified in Article 8 (1) (a) (ii) and (iii). It shall also include the value, apportioned as appropriate under the provisions of the relevant note to Article 8, of any element specified in Article 8 (1) (b) which has been supplied directly or indirectly by the buyer for use in connection with the production of the imported goods. The value of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (iv) which are undertaken in the country of importation shall be included only to the extent that such elements are charged to the producer. It is to be understood that no cost or value of the elements referred to in this paragraph shall be counted twice in determining the computed value.

4. The "amount for profit and general expenses" referred to in Article 6 (1) (b) is to be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the producer unless his figures are inconsistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation.

5. It should be noted in this context that the "amount for profit and general expenses" has to be taken as a whole. It follows that if, in any particular case, the producer's profit figure is low and his general expenses are high, his profit and general expenses taken together may nevertheless be consistent with that usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind. Such a situation might occur, for example, if a product were being launched in the country of importation and the producer accepted a nil or low profit to offset high general expenses associated with the launch. Where the producer can demonstrate that he is taking a low profit on his sales of the imported goods because of particular commercial circumstances, his actual profit figures should be taken into account provided that he has valid commercial reasons to justify them and his pricing policy reflects usual pricing policies in the branch of industry concerned. Such a situation might occur, for example, where producers have been forced to lower prices temporarily because of an unforeseeable drop in demand, or where they sell goods to complement a range of goods being produced in the country of importation and accept a low profit to maintain competitivity. Where the producer's own figures for profit and general expenses are not consistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer of the goods.

6. Where information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer is used for the purposes of determining a computed value, the authorities of the importing country shall inform the importer, if the latter so requests, of the source of such information, the data used and the calculations based upon such data, subject to the provisions of Article 10.

7. The "general expenses" referred to in Article 6 (1) (b) covers the direct and indirect costs of producing and selling the goods for export which are not included under Article 6 (1) (a).

8. Whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis with reference to the circumstances involved. In determining the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6, sales for export to the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of goods, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined. For the purposes of Article 6, "goods of the same class or kind" must be from the same country as the goods being valued.

Note to Article 7

1. Customs values determined under the provisions of Article 7 should, to the greatest extent possible, be based on previously determined customs values.

2. The methods of valuation to be employed under Article 7 should be those laid down in Articles 1 to 6, inclusive, but a reasonable flexibility in the application of such methods would be in conformity with the aims and provisions of Article 7.

3. Some examples of reasonable flexibility are as follows: (a) Identical goods - the requirement that the identical goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted ; identical imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation ; customs values of identical imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

(b) Similar goods - the requirement that the similar goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted ; similar imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation ; customs values of similar imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

(c) Deductive method - the requirement that the goods shall have been sold in the "condition as imported" in Article 5 (1) (a) could be flexibly interpreted ; the "90 days" requirement could be administered flexibly.

Note to Article 8

Paragraph 1 (a) (i)

The term "buying Commissions" means fees paid by an importer to his agent for the service of representing him abroad in the purchase of the goods being valued.

Paragraph 1 (b) (ii)

1. There are two factors involved in the apportionment of the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (ii) to the imported goods - the value of the element itself and the way in which that value is to be apportioned to the imported goods. The apportionment of these elements should be made in a reasonable manner appropriate to the circumstances and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

2. Concerning the value of the element, if the importer acquires the element from a seller not related to him at a given cost, the value of the element is that cost. If the element was produced by the importer or by a person related to him, its value would be the cost of producing it. If the element had been previously used by the importer, regardless of whether it had been acquired or produced by such importer, the original cost of acquisition or production would have to be adjusted downward to reflect its use in order to arrive at the value of the element.

3. Once a value has been determined for the element, it is necessary to apportion that value to the imported goods. Various possibilities exist. For example, the value might be apportioned to the first shipment if the importer wishes to pay duty on the entire value at one time. As another example, the importer may request that the value be apportioned over the number of units produced up to the time of the fist shipment. As a further example, he may request that the value be apportioned over the entire anticipated production where contracts or firm commitments exist for that production. The method of apportionment used will depend upon the documentation provided by the importer.

4. As an illustration of the above, an importer provides the producer with a mould to be used in the production of the imported goods and contracts with him to buy 10 000 units. By the time of arrival of the first shipment of 1 000 units, the producer has already produced 4 000 units. The importer may request the customs administration to apportion the value of the mould over 1 000 units, 4 000 units or 10 000 units.

Paragraph 1 (b) (iv)

1. Additions for the elements specified in Article 8 (1) (b) (iv) should be based on objective and quantifiable data. In order to minimize the burden for both the importer and customs administration in determining the values to be added, data readily available in the buyer's commercial record system should be used in so far as possible.

2. For those elements supplied by the buyer which were purchased or leased by the buyer, the addition would be the cost of the purchase or the lease. No addition shall be made for those elements available in the public domain, other than the cost of obtaining copies of them.

3. The case with which it may be possible to calculate the values to be added will depend on a particular fim's structure and management practice, as well as its accounting methods.

4. For example, it is possible that a firm which imports a variety of products from several countries maintains the records of its design centre outside the country of importation in such a way as to show accurately the costs attributable to a given product. In such cases, a direct adjustment may appropriately be made under the provisions of Article 8.

5. In another case, a firm may carry the cost of the design centre outside the country of importation as a general overhead expense without allocation to specific products. In this instance, an appropriate adjustment could be made under the provisions of Article 8 with respect to the imported goods by apportioning total design centre costs over total production benefiting from the design centre and adding such apportioned cost on a unit basis to imports.

6. Variations in the above circumstances will, of course, require different factors to be considered in determining the proper method of allocation.

7. In cases where the production of the element in question involves a number of countries and over a period of time, the adjustment should be limited to the value actually added to that element outside the country of importation.

Paragraph 1 (c)

1. The royalties and licence fees referred to in Article 8 (1) (c) may include, among other things, payments in respect to patents, trademarks and copyrights. However, the charges for the right to reproduce the imported goods in the country of importation shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods in determining the customs value.

2. Payments made by the buyer for the right to distribute or resell the imported goods shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods if such payments are not a condition of the sale for export to the country of importation of the imported goods.

Paragraph 3

Where objective and quantifiable data do not exist with regard to the additions required to be made under the provisions of Article 8, the transaction value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1. As an illustration of this, a royalty is paid on the basis of the price in a sale in the importing country of a litre of a particular product that was imported by the kilogram and made up into a solution after importation. If the royalty is based partially on the imported goods and partially on other factors which have nothing to do with the imported goods (such as when the imported goods are mixed with domestic ingredients and are no longer separately identifiable, or when the royalty cannot be distinguished from special financial arrangements between the buyer and the seller), it would be inappropriate to attempt to make an addition for the royalty. However, if the amount of this royalty is based only on the imported goods and can be readily quantified, an addition to the price actually paid or payable can be made.

Note to Article 9

For the purposes of Article 9, "time of importation" may include the time of entry for customs purposes.

Note to Article 11

1. Article 11 provides the importer with the right to appeal against a valuation determination made by the customs administration for the goods being valued. Appeal may first be to a higher level in the customs administration, but the importer shall have the right in the final instance to appeal to the judiciary.

2. "Without penalty" means that the importer shall not be subject to a fine or threat of fine merely because he chose to exercise his right of appeal. Payment of normal court costs and lawyers' fees shall not be considered to be a fine.

3. However, nothing in Article 11 shall prevent a Party from requiring full payment of assessed customs duties prior to an appeal.

Note to Article 15

Paragraph 4

For the purposes of this Article, the term "persons" includes legal persons, where appropriate.

Paragraph 4 (e)

For the purposes of this Agreement, one person shall be deemed to control another when the former is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the latter.

ANNEX II TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ON CUSTOMS VALUATION

1. In accordance with Article 18 of this Agreement, the Technical Committee shall be established under the auspices of the Customs Cooperation Council with a view, at the technical level, towards uniformity in interpretation and application of this Agreement.

2. The responsibilities of the Technical Committee shall include the following: (a) to examine specific technical problems arising in the day-to-day administration of the customs valuation systems of Parties and to give advisory opinions on appropriate solutions based upon the facts presented;

(b) to study, as requested, valuation laws, procedures and practices as they relate to this Agreement and to prepare reports on the results of such studies;

(c) to prepare and circulate annual reports on the technical aspects of the operation and status of this Agreement;

(d) to furnish such information and advice on any matters concerning the valuation of imported goods for customs purposes as may be requested by any Party or the Committee. Such information and advice may take the form of advisory opinions, commentaries or explanatory notes;

(e) to facilitate, as requested, technical assistance to Parties with a view to furthering the international acceptance of this Agreement ; and

(f) to exercise such other responsibilities as the Committee may assign to it.

General

3. The Technical Committee shall attempt to conclude its work on specific matters, especially those referred to it by Parties or the Committee, in a reasonably short period of time.

4. The Technical Committee shall be assisted as appropriate in its activities by the Secretariat of the Customs Cooperation Council.

Representation

5. Each Party shall have the right to be represented on the Technical Committee. Each Party may nominate one delegate and one or more alternates to be its representatives on the Technical Committee. Such a Party so represented on the Technical Committee is hereinafter referred to as a member of the Technical Committee. Representatives of members of the Technical Committee may be assisted by advisers. The GATT secretariat may also attend such meetings with observer status.

6. Members of the Customs Cooperation Council who are not Parties may be represented at meetings of the Technical Committee by one delegate and one or more alternates. Such representatives shall attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

7. Subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Technical Committee, the Secretary-General of the Customs Cooperation Council (hereinafter referred to as "the Secretary-General") may invite representatives of governments which are neither Parties nor members of the Customs Cooperation Council and representatives of international governmental and trade organizations to attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

8. Nominations of delegates, alternates and advisers to meetings of the Technical Committee shall be made to the Secretary-General.

Technical Committee meetings

9. The Technical Committee shall meet as necessary but at least two times a year. The date of each meeting shall be fixed by the Technical Committee at its preceding session. The date of the meeting may be varied either at the request of any member of the Technical Committee concurred in by a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee or, in cases requiring urgent attention, at the request of the Chairman.

10. The meetings of the Technical Committee shall be held at the headquarters of the Customs Cooperation Council unless otherwise decided.

11. The Secretary-General shall inform all members of the Technical Committee and those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance, except in urgent cases, of the opening date of each session of the Technical Committee.

Agenda

12. A provisional agenda for each session shall be drawn up by the Secretary-General and circulated to the members of the Technical Committee and to those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance of the session, except in urgent cases. This agenda shall comprise all items whose inclusion has been approved by the Technical Committee during its preceding sessions, all items included by the chairman on his own initiative, and all items whose inclusion has been requested by the Secretary-General, by the Committee or by any member of the Technical Committee.

13. The Technical Committee shall determine its agenda at the opening of each session. During the session the agenda may be altered at any time by the technical Committee.

Officers and conduct of business

14. The Technical Committee shall elect from among the delegates of its members a chairman and one or more vice-chairmen. The chairman and vice-chairmen shall each hold office for a period of one year. The retiring chairman and vice-chairmen are eligible for re-election. A chairman or vice-chairman who ceases to represent a member of the Technical Committee shall automatically lose his mandate.

15. If the chairman is absent from any meeting or part thereof, a vice-chairman shall preside. In that event, the latter shall have the same powers and duties as the chairman.

16. The chairman of the meeting shall participate in the proceedings of the Technical Committee as such and not as the representative of a member of the Technical Committee.

17. In addition to exercising the powers conferred upon him elsewhere by these rules, the chairman shall declare the opening and closing of each meeting, direct the discussion, accord the right to speak, and, pursuant to these rules, have control of the proceedings. The chairman may also call a speaker to order if his remarks are not relevant.

18. During discussion of any matter a delegation may raise a point of order. In this event, the chairman shall immediately state his ruling. If this ruling is challenged, the chairman shall submit it to the meeting for decisions and it shall stand unless overruled.

19. The Secretary-General ; or officers of the Secretariat designated by him, shall perform the secretarial work of meetings of the Technical Committee.

Quorum and voting

20. Representatives of a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee shall constitute a quorum.

21. Each member of the Technical Committee shall have one vote. A decision of the Technical Committee shall be taken by a majority comprising at least two-thirds of the members present. Regardless of the outcome of the vote on a particular matter, the Technical Committee shall be free to make a full report to the Committee and to the Customs Cooperation Council on that matter indicating the different views expressed in the relevant discussions.

Languages and records

22. The official languages of the Technical Committee shall be English, French and Spanish. Speeches or statements made in any of these three languages shall be immediately translated into the other official languages unless all delegations agree to dispense with translation. Speeches or statements made in any other language shall be translated into English, French and Spanish, subject to the same conditions, but in that event the delegation concerned shall provide the translation into English, French or Spanish. Only English, French and Spanish shall be used for the official documents of the Technical Committee. Memoranda and correspondence for the consideration of the Technical Committee must be presented in one of the official languages.

23. The Technical Committee shall draw up a report of all its sessions and, if the chairman considers it necessary, minutes or summary records of its meetings. The chairman or his designee shall report on the work of the Technical Committee at each meeting of the Committee and at each meeting of the Customs Cooperation Council.

ANNEX III "Ad hoc" panels

1. Ad hoc panels established by the Committee under this Agreement shall have the following responsibilities: (a) to examine the matter referred to it by the Committee;

(b) to consult with the parties to the dispute and give full opportunity for them to develop a mutually satisfactory solution ; and

(c) to make a statement concerning the facts of the matter as they relate to the application of the provisions of this Agreement and, make such findings as will assist the Committee in making recommendations or giving rulings on the matter.

2. In order to facilitate the constitution of panels, the chairman of the Committee shall maintain an informal indicative list of government officials knowledgeable in the area of customs valuation and experienced in the field of trade relations and economic development. This list may also include persons other than government officials. In this connection, each Party shall be invited to indicate at the beginning of every year to the chairman of the Committee the name(s) of the one or two governmental experts whom the Parties would be willing to make available for such work. When a panel is established, the chairman, after consultation with the Parties concerned, shall, within seven days of such establishment propose the composition of the panel consisting of three or five members and preferably government officials. The Parties directly concerned shall react within seven working days to nominations of panel members by the chairman and shall not oppose nominations except for compelling reasons.

Citizens of countries whose governments are parties to a dispute shall not be eligible for membership of the panel concerned with that dispute. Panel members shall serve in their individual capacities and not as government representatives, nor as representatives of any organization. Governments or organizations shall therefore not give them instructions with regard to matters before a panel.

3. Each panel shall develop its own working procedures. All Parties having a substantial interest in the matter and having notified this to the Committee shall have an opportunity to be heard. Each panel may consult and seek information and technical advice from any source it deems appropriate. Before a panel seeks such information or technical advice from a source within the jurisdiction of a Party, it shall inform the government of that Party. Any Party shall respond promptly and fully to any request by a panel for such information as the panel considers necessary and appropriate. Confidential information provided to the panel shall not be disclosed without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information. Where such information is requested from the panel but release of such information by the panel is not authorized, a non-confidential summary of the information, authorized by the person or government providing the information, will be provided.

4. Where the parties to the dispute have failed to reach a satisfactory solution, the panel shall submit its findings in writing. The report of a panel should normally set out the rationale behind its findings. Where a settlement of the matter is reached between the parties, the report of the panel may be confined to a brief description of the dispute and to a statement that a solution has been reached.

5. Panels shall use such report of the Technical Committee as may have been issued under Article 20 (4) of this Agreement as the basis for their consideration of issues that involve questions of a technical nature.

6. The time required by panels will vary with the particular case. They should aim to deliver their findings, and where appropriate, recommendations, to the Committee without undue delay, normally within a period of three months from the date that the panel was established.

7. To encourage development of mutually satisfactory solutions between the parties to a dispute and with a view to obtaining their comments, each panel should first submit the descriptive part of its report to the Parties concerned, and should subsequently submit to the parties to the dispute its conclusions, or an outline thereof, a reasonable period of time before they are circulated to the Parties.

PROTOCOL TO THE AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VII OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE

The Parties to the Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade (hereinafter referred to as "the Agreement"),

Having regard to the multilateral trade negotiations and to the desire expressed by the Trade Negotiations Committee at its meeting of 11 and 12 April 1979 to arrive at a single text of an Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement of tariffs and trade;

Recognizing that developing countries may have particular problems in applying the Agreement;

Considering that the provisions of Article 27 of the Agreement relating to amendments have not yet entered into force;

Hereby:

I

1. Agree to the deletion of the provision of Article 1 (2) (b) (iv) of the Agreement;

2. Recognize that the five-year delay in the application of the provisions of the Agreement by developing countries provided for in Article 21 (1) may, in practice, be insufficient for certain developing countries. In such cases a developing country Party to the Agreement may request before the end of the period referred to in Article 21 (1) an extension of such period, it being understood that the Parties to the Agreement will give sympathetic consideration to such a request in cases where the developing country in question can show good cause;

3. Recognize that developing countries which currently value goods on the basis of officially established minimum values may wish to make a reservation to enable them to retain such values on a limited and transitional basis under such terms and conditions as may be agreed to by the Parties to the Agreement;

4. Recognize that developing countries which consider that the reversal of the sequential order at the request of the importer provided for in Article 4 of the Agreement may give rise to real difficulties for them may wish to make a reservation to Article 4 in the following terms:

"The Government of ... reserves the right to provide that the relevant provision of Article 4 of the Agreement shall apply only when the customs authorities agree to the request to reverse the order of Articles 5 and 6."

If developing countries make such a reservation, the Parties to the Agreement shall consent to it under Article 23 of the Agreement;

5. Recognize that developing countries may wish to make a reservation with respect to Article 5 (2) of the Agreement in the following terms:

"The Government of ... reserves the right to provide that Article 5 (2) of the Agreement shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of the relevant note thereto whether or not the importer so requests."

If developing countries make such a reservation, the Parties to the Agreement shall consent to it under Article 23 of the Agreement;

6. Recognize that certain developing countries have expressed concern that there may be problems in the implementation of Article 1 of the Agreement in so far as it relates to importations into their countries by sole agents, sole distributors and sole concessionaires. The Parties to the Agreement agree that, if such problems arise in practice in developing countries applying the Agreement, a study of this question shall be made, at the request of such countries, with a view to finding appropriate solutions;

7. Agree that Article 17 recognizes that in applying the Agreement, customs administrations may need to make enquiries concerning the truth or accuracy of any statement, document or declaration presented to them for customs valuation purposes. They further agree that the Article thus acknowledges that enquiries may be made which are, for example, aimed at verifying that the elements of value declared or presented to customs in connection with a determination of customs value are complete and correct. They recognize that Parties to the Agreement, subject to their national laws and procedures, have the right to expect the full cooperation of importers in these enquiries;

8. Agree that the price actually paid or payable includes all payments actually made or to be made as a condition of sale of the imported goods, by the buyer to the seller, or by the buyer to a third party to satisfy an obligation of the seller.

II

1. Upon the entry into force of the Agreement the provisions of this Protocol shall be deemed to be part of the Agreement.

2. This Protocol shall be deposited with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT. It is open for acceptance, by signature or otherwise, by signatories of the Agreement on implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade and by other governments accepting or acceding to the Agreement pursuant to the provisions of Article 22 thereof.

Done at Geneva this first day of November nineteen hundred and seventy-nine in a single copy in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

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