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Document Ares(2017)1900557

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) …/… implementing Regulation (EU) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

Please be aware that this draft act does not constitute the final position of the institution.

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) …/…

of XXX

implementing Regulation (EU) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information 1 and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 and Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC 2 , and in particular Article 4(3) and Article 5(4)(e) thereof, 

Having regard to Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (Framework Directive), and in particular Article 39(7) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 is one of the separate regulatory acts under the type-approval procedure laid down by Directive 2007/46/EC.

(2)Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 requires that the Commission adopts measures to certify CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy duty vehicles. Therefore, the present Regulation aims at setting certification requirements for obtaining accurate information about new heavy-duty vehicles placed on EU market.

(3)Article 11 of the Directive 2007/46/EC allows for the performance of virtual testing instead of physical tests. In addition, it sets out the necessary requirements for the purpose of the whole vehicle type-approval, as well as, the content of the certificate of the conformity.

(4)Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 sets out requirements for the approval of vehicles with an approved engine system with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, as well as, for the approval of vehicles with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information. A licence to perform simulations to establish CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of a vehicle will be required to obtain metioned above approvals.

(5)Emissions from lorries, buses and coaches currently represent around 25% of road transport CO2 emissions and are set to increase by 2030. In order to reach the target of 60% reduction of CO2 emissions from transport by 2050, effective measures to curb emissions from heavy-duty sector need to be introduced.

(6)Until now, there has been no regulatory procedure to measure CO2 emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty vehicles, rendering it impossible to introduce additional measures be it on the European or national level that would encourage the introduction of more energy efficient vehicles. In addition, the transparency of the market has been hindered thus reducing the possibility for consumers to choose vehicles best suited for their needs.

(7)The heavy-duty sector is very diversified, with a significant number of different vehicle types and models as well as with a high degree of customisation. After perfoming an in-depth analysis of available options, the Comission concluded that the most cost efficient sollution to assess CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles would be by means of a simulation tool. This would permit obtaining unique data for each produced vehicle at the lowest cost.

(8)Since there was no software available on the market to meet the legislator requirements for the purpose of the assessment of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles, the Commission developed dedicated software which could be used for the regulatory purpose.

(9)That software consists of a simulation tool, which is a publically available, open source, downloadable and executable software, which can be used to calculate CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy duty vehicles. The tool uses input data of the components, separate technical units and systems which have a significant impact on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles – engine, gearbox and additional driveline components, axles, tyres, aerodynamics and auxiliaries.

(10)In order to enable a realistic assessment, the software has been equipped with a number of functionalities: test cycles specific for different vehicles classes, options to simulate vehicles with different payloads and fuels.

(11)In order to allow deriving CO2 emissions and fuel consumption emission related properties for the components, separate technical units and systems having an impact on the performance of heavy-duty vehicles, provisions for the certification of such properties should be set out.

(12)In parallel to the certification provisions, 'standard values' for several components, separate technical units and systems which can be used instead of deriving the CO2 and fuel consumption related properties by means of testing should also be set out. This is a viable alternative for companies manufacturing parts in small numbers in order to optimise costs related to testing. Standard values are set out in a conservative way so as to encourage component manufacturers to apply for certification.

(13)The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, separate technical units and systems should be used as input data for the simulation tool in order to simulate vehicle performance. The simulations should be performed by vehicle manufacturers at the moment of production of a vehicle.

(14)Provisions should also be put in place for the licence of the vehicle manufacturers' processes for calculation of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles. The process of handling and application of data by the vehicle manufacturers should be certified and closely monitored by the approval authorities in order to ensure that the simulations are conducted in a correct manner. In addition, a number of simulations should be repeated by the approval authorities in order to verify the correct use of the data and simulation tool.

(15)In order to ensure that the results declared by the suppliers of parts and vehicle manufacturers are correct, provisions for conformity of simulation tool operation as well as of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems should be set out.

(16)Recognizing the importance of the proper functioning of the simulation tool for a correct assessment of vehicles emissions, the Commission should maintain and update the software when necessary.

(17)In order to ensure sufficient lead time for the national authorities and the industry, the certification obligations should be implemented gradually starting with the vehicles which are the biggest contributors to CO2 emissions of the heavy-duty sector.

(18)Directive 2007/46/EC and Commission Regulation (EU) 582/2011 should therefore be amended accordingly.

(19)The measures provided for in this Regulation are in accordance with the opinion of the Technical Committee Motor Vehicles,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation complements the legal framework for the type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with regard to emissions and vehicle repair and maintenance information established by Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 by laying down the rules for issuing licences to operate a simulation tool with a view to determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles and for operating that simulation tool and declaring the emissions and consumption values thus determined.

Article 2

Scope

1.This Regulation shall apply to vehicles of categories M1, M2, N1 and N2 as defined in Annex II to Directive 2007/46/EC with a reference mass exceeding and to all vehicles of categories M3 and N3, as defined in that Annex.

It shall also apply to variants and versions in accordance with the fourth paragraphs of Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 595/2009.

2.In case of multi-stage type-approvals of vehicles referred to in paragraph 1, this Regulation shall apply only to base vehicles equipped at least with a chassis, engine, transmission, axles and tyres.

3.This Regulation shall not apply to vehicles to which Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council 3 applies pursuant to Article 2(2) of that Regulation.

4.This Regulation shall not apply to off-road vehicles, special purpose vehicles and off road special purpose vehicles as defined, respectively, in points 2.1., 2.2. and 2.3. of Part A of Annex II to Directive 2007/46/EC.

Article 3

Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)"pre-processing tools" means software, provided by the Commission, which compiles testing results of an engine and air-drag, verifies it consistency and, by additional calculations and formatting, transforms the data into a format appropriate for the simulation tool; 

(2)"CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties" means specific properties derived for a component, separate technical unit and system which determine the impact of the part on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of a vehicle;

(3)"input file" means a file containing information on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of a component family, separate technical unit family or system family which is used by the simulation tool for the purpose of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of a vehicle;

(4) “transmission” means a device consisting of at least of two shiftable gears, changing torque and speed with defined ratios;

(5)"torque converter” means a hydrodynamic start-up component as separate component of the driveline with serial power flow or transmission with included start-up component with serial or parallel power flow that adapts speed between engine and wheel and provides torque multiplication;

(6) “other torque transferring component" or "OTTC” means a rotating component attached to the driveline which produces torque losses dependent on its own rotational speed;

(7)"additional driveline component" or "ADC” means a rotating component of the driveline which transfers or distributes power to other driveline components and produces torque losses dependant on its own rotational speed;

(8)“axle” means a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear as drive axle of a vehicle;

(9)“air drag” means characteristic of a vehicle configuration regarding aerodynamic force acting on the vehicle opposite to the direction of air flow and determined as a product of the drag coefficient and the cross sectional area for zero crosswind conditions;

(10)"auxiliaries" means vehicle components including an engine fan, steering system, electric system, pneumatic system and air conditioning (AC) system whose CO2 emissions and fuel consumption properties have been defined in Annex VII;

(11)"component family", "separate technical unit family" or "system family" means a manufacturer’s grouping of components, separate technical units or systems, respectively, which through their design have similar CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties;

(12)"parent component", "parent separate technical unit" or "parent system" means a component, separate technical unit or system, respectively, selected from a component, separate technical unit or system family, respectively, in such a way that its CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties will be representative for that component family, separate technical unit family or system family.

Article 4

Vehicle groups

For the purpose of this Regulation, motor vehicles shall be classified in vehicle groups in accordance with Table 1 in Annex I.

Article 5

Electronic tools

1. For the purpose of this Regulation, the Commission shall provide free of charge the following electronic tools in the form of downloadable and executable software:

(a)a simulation tool;

(b)pre-processing tools;

(c)hashing tool. 

The Commission shall maintain the electronic tools and provide modifications and updates to those tools.

2. The Commission shall make the electronic tools referred to in paragraph 1 available through a publicly available dedicated electronic distribution platform.

3. The simulation tool shall be used for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles. It shall be designed to operate on the basis of input information relating to the characteristics of the vehicles concerned relevant for the purposes of determining their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, as specified in Annex IX, as well as information on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, separate technical units and systems of the vehicles concerned and referred to in Article 12(1).

4. The pre-processing tools shall be used for the purpose of verification of the testing results and performing additional calculations relating to simulation tool input information and converting the input information in a format used by the simulation tool.

A dedicated pre-processing tool shall be used by the manufacturer after performing the tests referred to in point 4 of Annex III for engines and in point 3 of Annex VI for air-drag.

5. The hashing tools shall be used for establishing an unequivocal association between certified CO2 emission and fuel consumption related properties of a component, separate technical unit or system and its certification document, as well as for establishing an unequivocal association between a vehicle and its manufacturer's records file as referred to in Appendix 1 to Annex I.

CHAPTER 2

LICENCE TO OPERATE THE SIMULATION TOOL FOR THE PURPOSES OF TYPE-APPROVAL WITH REGARD TO EMISSIONS AND VEHICLE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION

Article 6

Application for a licence to operate the simulation tool with a view to determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles

1. The vehicle manufacturer shall submit to the approval authority an application for a licence to operate the simulation tool referred to in Article 5(3) with a view to determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles belonging to one or more vehicle groups (‘licence’).

2. The application for a licence shall take the form of an information document drawn up in accordance with the model set out in Appendix 1 to Annex II.

3. The application for a licence shall be accompanied by a documentation package containing an adequate description of the processes set up by the manufacturer for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption with respect to all the vehicle groups concerned, as set out in point 1 of Annex II.

It shall also be accompanied by the technical report drafted by the technical service after performing an assessment in accordance with point 2 of Annex II.

4. The vehicle manufacturer shall submit the application for a licence drawn up in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 to the approval authority at the latest together with the application for an EC type-approval of a vehicle with an approved engine system with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information pursuant to Article 7 of Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011, or with the application for an EC type-approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information pursuant to Article 9 of that Regulation.

Article 7

Administrative provisions for the granting of the licence

1. The approval authority shall grant the licence if the manufacturer proves that the requirements laid down in Annex II are met with respect to the vehicle groups concerned.

Where the requirements laid down in Annex II are met only with respect to some of the vehicle groups specified in the application for a licence, the licence shall be granted only with respect to those vehicle groups.

2. The licence shall be issued in accordance with the model set out in Appendix 2 to Annex II.

Article 8

Subsequent changes to the licence

1. A licence shall be extended to vehicle groups other than those with respect to which concerned by the application for a licence has been granted, as referred to in Article 6(1) if the vehicle manufacturer proves that the processes set up by him for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of vehicle groups covered by the licence fully meet the requirements of Annex II also in respect of the other vehicle groups.

2. The vehicle manufacturer shall apply for an extension of the licence in accordance with Article 6 (1), (2) and (3).

3. The vehicle manufacturer shall notify the approval authority without delay of any changes to the processes set up by him for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption with respect to the vehicle groups covered by the licence that occur after the granting of the licence and may have a non-negligible effect on the accuracy, reliability and stability of those processes.

Any envisaged changes shall be notified to the approval authority without delay.

4. Upon receipt of the notification referred to in paragraph 3, the approval authority shall inform the vehicle manufacturer whether processes affected by the changes continue to be covered by the licence granted, whether the licence must be extended in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 or whether a new licence should be applied for in accordance with Article 6.

5. Where the changes are not covered by the licence, the manufacturer shall, within one month of receipt of the information referred to in paragraph 4, apply for an extension of the licence or for a new licence. If the manufacturer does not apply for an extension of the licence or a new licence within that deadline, or if the application is rejected, the licence shall be withdrawn.

CHAPTER 3

OPERATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL WITH A VIEW TO DETERMINING THE CO2 EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION FOR THE PURPOSES OF REGISTRATION, SALE AND ENTRY INTO SERVICE OF NEW VEHICLES

Article 9

Obligation to determine and declare CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles

1. A vehicle manufacturer shall determine the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of each new vehicle using the latest available version of the simulation tool referred to in Articles 5(3).

2. The vehicle manufacturer shall record the results of the simulation performed in accordance with paragraph 1 in the manufacturer's records file drawn up in accordance with the model set out in Appendix 1 to Annex I.

With the exception of the cases referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 20(3), and in the second subparagraph of Article 22(7), second subparagraph, any subsequent changes to the manufacturer's records file shall be prohibited.

3. The manufacturer shall create a cryptographic hash of the manufacturer's records file using the hashing tool referred to in Article 5(5).

4. Each vehicle to be registered, sold or to enter into service shall be accompanied by the customer information file drawn up by the manufacturer in accordance with the model set out in Appendix 2 to Annex I.

Each customer information file shall include an imprint of the cryptographic hash of the manufacturer's records file referred to in paragraph 3.

5. Each vehicle to be registered, sold or to enter into service shall be accompanied by a certificate of conformity including an imprint of the cryptographic hash of the manufacturer's records file referred to in paragraph 3.

The first subparagraph shall not apply in the case of vehicles approved in accordance with Article 24 of Directive 2007/46/EC.

Article 10

Malfunctioning of the simulation tool

1. In case of modifications or updates to the simulation tool, the vehicle manufacturer shall start using the modified or updated simulation tool no later than 3 months after the modifications and updates were made available on the dedicated electronic distribution platform.

2. If the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles cannot be determined in accordance with Article 9(1) due to a malfunction of the simulation tool, the vehicle manufacturer shall notify the Commission thereof without delay by means of the dedicated electronic distribution platform

3. If the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles cannot be determined in accordance with Article 9(1) due to a malfunction of the simulation tool, the vehicle manufacturer shall perform the simulation as soon as the modifications or updates of the tool have been released. Until the modifications or updates of the tool have been released the manufacturer shall be exempted from the obligations of Article 9 for the vehicles for which the determination of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions remains impossible.

Article 11

Accessibility of the simulation tool input and output information

1. The manufacturer's records file together with certificates on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, systems and separate technical units shall be stored by the vehicle manufacturer for at least 20 years after the production of the vehicle and shall be available to the approval authority and the Commission at their request.

2. Upon request by a competent authority of a Member State or by the Commission, the vehicle manufacturer shall provide, within 15 working days, the manufacturer's records file.

3. Upon request by a competent authority of a Member State or by the Commission, the approval authority which granted the licence in accordance with Article 7, or certified the simulation tool input information relating to a component, separate technical unit or system in accordance to Article 17 shall provide, within 10 working days, the information document referred to in Article 6(2) and in Article 16(2),

CHAPTER 4

CO2 EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION RELATED PROPERTIES OF COMPONENTS, SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNITS AND SYSTEMS

Article 12

Components, separate technical units and systems relevant for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption

1. The simulation tool input information referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 5(2) shall include information relating to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the following components, separate technical units and systems:

(a) engines;

(b) transmissions;

(c) torque converters;

(d) other torque transferring components;

(e) additional driveline components;

(f) axles;

(g) body or trailer air drag;

(h) auxiliaries;

(i) tyres.

2. The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, separate technical units and systems referred to in points (b) to (h) of paragraph 1 shall be based either on the certified values determined, for each component family, separate technical unit family or system family, in accordance with Article 14 or, in the absence of the certified values, on the standard values determined in accordance with Article 13.

3. The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of engines shall be based on the values certified for each engine family in accordance with Annex III. The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption emission related properties of tyres shall be based on the values certified in accordance with Annex VIII.

4.    In the case of a base vehicle referred to in Article 2(2), the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of components, separate technical units and systems referred to in points (g) and (h) of paragraph 1 with which the base vehicle is not equipped shall be based on the standard values.

Article 13

Standard values

1. The standard values for transmissions shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 10 of Annex IV.

2. The standard values for torque converters shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 11 of Annex IV.

3. The standard values for other torque-transferring components shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 12 of Annex IV.

4. The standard values for additional driveline components shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 13 of Annex IV.

5. The standard values for axles shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 3 of Annex V.

6. The standard values for a body or trailer air drag shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 8 of Annex V.

7. The standard values for auxiliaries shall be determined in accordance with Annex VII.

Article 14

Certified values

1. The values determined in accordance with paragraphs 2 to 9 may be used by the vehicle manufacturer as the basis for the simulation tool input information if they are certified in accordance with Article 17.

2. The certified values for engines shall be determined in accordance with point 4 of Annex IV.

3. The certified values for transmissions shall be determined in accordance with point 3 of Annex IV.

4. The certified values for torque converters shall be determined in accordance with point 4 of Annex IV.

5. The certified values for other torque-transferring component shall be determined in accordance with point 5 of Annex IV.

6. The certified values for additional driveline components shall be determined in accordance with point 6 of Annex IV.

7. The certified values for axles shall be determined in accordance with point 4 of Annex V.

8. The certified values for a body or trailer air drag shall be determined in accordance with point 3 of Annex VI.

9. The certified values for tyres shall be determined in accordance with point 4 of Annex VI

Article 15

Family concept regarding components, separate technical units and systems using certified values

1. Subject to paragraphs 2 to 5, the certified values determined for a parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system shall be valid, without further testing, for all family members in accordance with the family definition as set out in:

Appendix 3 to Annex III as regards the family concept of engines;

Appendix 6 to Annex IV as regards the family concept of transmissions, torque converters, other torque transferring component and additional driveline components;

Appendix 4 to Annex V as regards the family concept of axles;

Appendix 5 to Annex VI as regards the family concept of body.

For tyres, a family shall consist of one tyre type only.

2. The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system shall not be better than the properties of any member of the same family.

3. The manufacturer shall provide the approval authority with evidence that the parent component, separate technical units or system fully represents the component family, separate technical unit family or system family.

If, in the framework of testing for the purposes of the second subparagraph of Article 16(3) the technical service determines that the selected parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system does not fully represent the component family, separate technical unit family or system family, an alternative reference component, separate technical units or system may be selected by the technical service, tested and shall become a parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system.

4. Upon request of the manufacturer, and subject to the agreement by the approval authority, the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of a specific component, specific separate technical unit or specific system other than a parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system, respectively, may be indicated in the certificate on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the component family, separate technical unit family or system family.

The CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of that specific component, separate technical unit or system shall be determined in accordance with Article 14.

5. Where the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the specific component, specific separate technical unit or specific system, as determined in accordance with paragraph 4, are worse than those of the parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system, respectively, the manufacturer shall exclude it from the existing family and assign it to a different family, or create a new family and define it as a new parent component, parent separate technical unit or parent system for that family.

Article 16

Application for a certification of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of components, separate technical units or systems

1. The application for certification of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the component family, separate technical unit family or system family shall be submitted to the approval authority.

2. The application for certification shall take the form of an information document drawn up in accordance with the model set out in:

Appendix 2 to Annex III as regards engines;

Appendix 2 to Annex IV as regards transmissions;

Appendix 3 to Annex IV as regards torque converters;

Appendix 4 to Annex IV as regards other torque transferring component;

Appendix 5 to Annex IV as regards additional driveline components;

Appendix 2 to Annex V as regards axles;

Appendix 3 to Annex VI as regards air drag;

Appendix 2 to Annex VIII as regards tyres.

3. The application for certification shall be accompanied by an explanation of the elements of design of the component family, separate technical unit family or the system family concerned which have a non-negligible effect on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, separate technical units or systems concerned.

The application shall also be accompanied by the relevant test reports issued by a designated technical service and by a statement of compliance issued by an approval authority pursuant to point 1 of Annex X of Directive 2007/46/EC.

Article 17

Administrative provisions for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of components, separate technical units and systems

1. If all the applicable requirements are met, the approval authority shall certify the values relating to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the component family, separate technical unit family or system family concerned.

2. In the case referred to in paragraph 1, the approval authority shall issue a certificate on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties using the model set out in:

Appendix 1 to Annex III as regards engines;

Appendix 1 to Annex IV as regards transmissions, torque converters, other torque transferring component and additional driveline components;

Appendix 1 to Annex V as regards axles;

Appendix 1 to Annex VI as regards air drag;

Appendix 1 to Annex VIII as regards tyres.

3. The approval authority shall grant a certification number in accordance with the numbering system set out in:

Appendix 6 to Annex III as regards engines;

Appendix 8 to Annex IV as regards transmissions, torque converters, other torque transferring component and additional driveline components;

Appendix 5 to Annex V as regards axles;

Appendix 8 to Annex VI as regards air drag;

Appendix 1 to Annex VIII as regards tyres.

The approval authority shall not assign the same number to another component family, separate technical unit family or system family.

4. The approval authority shall create a cryptographic hash of the input file, by means of the hashing tool referred to in Article 5. The approval authority shall imprint that hash on the certificate on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties.

Article 18

Subsequent changes relevant for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of components, separate technical units and systems

1. The person who has lodged the application for certification shall notify the approval authority of any changes to the design or the manufacturing process of components, separate technical units or systems concerned which occur after the certification of the values relating to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the relevant component family, separate technical unit family or system family pursuant to Article 17 and which may have a non-negligible effect on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of those components, separate technical units and systems.

2. Upon receipt of the notification referred to in paragraph 1, the approval authority shall inform the manufacturer whether or not the components, separate technical units or systems affected by the changes continue to be covered by the certificate issued, or whether additional testing in accordance with Article 13 is necessary in order to verify the impact of the changes on the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the components, separate technical units or systems concerned.

3. Where the components, separate technical units or systems affected by the changes are not covered by the certificate, the manufacturer shall, within one month of receipt of that information from the approval authority, apply for a new certification. If the manufacturer does not apply for a new licence within that deadline, or if the application is rejected, the certificate shall be withdrawn..

CHAPTER 5

CONFORMITY OF SIMULATION TOOL OPERATION AND INPUT INFORMATION

Article 19

Responsibilities of the approval authority and the manufacturer with regard to the conformity of simulation tool operation

1. The person who has lodged the application for certification shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the application of the processes set up for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for all the vehicle groups covered by the licence granted pursuant to Article 7 or the extension to the licence pursuant to Article 8(1) continues to be adequate for that purpose. 

2. The approval authority shall perform, on an annual basis, an assessment as referred to in point 2 of Annex II in order to verify if the application of the processes set up by the manufacturer for the purposes of determining CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for all the vehicle groups covered by the licence granted pursuant to Article 7 or the extension to the licence pursuant to Article 8(1) continues to be adequate. 

3. The approval authority shall ensure that at least 1% of the simulations performed by the manufacturer is verified in the framework of the assessment referred to in paragraph 2. The verification shall include at least repetition of the simulations performed by the manufacturer.

4. Any approval authority may at any time perform verifications of the components, separate technical units and systems at any of the vehicle manufacturer's facilities. The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the approval authority within 15 working days with all the relevant documents, samples and other materials necessary to perform an assessment of the component, separate technical unit or system.

Article 20

Remedial measures for the conformity of simulation tool operation

1. Where the approval authority finds, pursuant to Article 19(2), that the processes set up by the manufacturer for the purposes of determining the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicle groups concerned are applied in a way which is not in accordance with the licence or with this Regulation and which may lead to an incorrect determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicles concerned, the approval authority shall request the manufacturer to submit a plan of remedial measures no later than 30 calendar days after receipt of the request from the approval authority.

Where the manufacturer demonstrates that further time is required to investigate the reason for the discrepancy in order to submit a plan of remedial measures, an extension of up to 30 days may be granted by the approval authority.

2. The remedial measures shall apply to all vehicle groups which have been covered by the licence. In addition, they shall be extended to vehicle groups which are not covered by the licence but have been covered by a different licence and are likely to be affected.

3. The approval authority shall within 30 calendar days of the receipt of the plan of remedial measures approve or reject the plan of remedial measures. The approval authority shall notify the manufacturer and all the other Member States of its decision to approve or reject the plan of remedial measures.

The approval authority may require the manufacturer to issue a new manufacturer's records file, a new customer information file and a new certificate of conformity reflecting the changes to the processes referred to in paragraph 1.

4. The manufacturer shall be responsible for the execution of the approved plan of remedial measures.

5. If the plan of the remedial measures has been rejected by the approval authority, or if the approval authority establishes that the remedial measures are not being correctly applied, it shall take the necessary measures, including the withdrawal of the licence, to ensure conformity of simulation tool operation.

Article 21

Responsibilities of the manufacturer and approval authority with regards to conformity of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems

1. The manufacturer shall take the necessary measures in accordance to Annex X to Directive 2007/46/EC to ensure that the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the produced components, separate technical units and systems listed in Article 13 do not deviate from the values certified pursuant to Article 17. 

Those measures shall also include the following procedures for the conformity of certification of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the following component, separate technical unit or system shall apply:

Appendix 4 to Annex III as regards engines;

point 7 of Annex IV as regards transmissions;

point 6 of Annex V as regards axles;

Appendix 7 to Annex VI as regards body or trailer air drag;

point 5 of Annex VIII as regards tyres.

Where a deviation from the values certified pursuant to Article 17 is identified as a result of the conformity of certification procedures, the manufacturer shall immediately inform the approval authority.

2. The manufacturer shall provide on an annual basis conformity of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties testing reports containing the results of the procedures referred to in paragraph 1 to the approval authority which certified the values relating to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the component family, separate technical unit family or system family concerned. The manufacturer shall make the test reports shall be made available to the Commission upon request.

3. The manufacturer shall ensure that at least one in every 25 procedures as referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1, or at least one procedure per year, relating to a component family, separate technical unit family or system family is supervised by a technical service designated by the approval authority. The designated technical service shall not be the same as the one which participated in the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of the component family, separate technical unit family or system family concerned pursuant to Article 16.

4. The approval authority which has certified the values relating to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties may perform verifications of the components, separate technical units and systems concerned at any of the manufacturer's facilities in order to verify whether the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems listed in Article 13 deviate from the values certified pursuant to Article 17.

The manufacturer shall provide the approval authority, within 15 working days of the request by the approval authority, with all the relevant documents and samples necessary to perform an assessment.

Article 22

Remedial measures for the conformity of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems

1. Where the approval authority finds, pursuant to Article 21, that the measures taken by the manufacturer to ensure that the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems listed in Article 13 do not deviate from the values certified pursuant to Article 17 are not adequate, the approval authority shall request the manufacturer to submit a plan of remedial measures no later than 30 calendar days after receipt of the request from the approval authority.

Where the manufacturer demonstrates that further time is required to investigate the reason for the discrepancy in order to submit a plan of remedial measures, an extension of up to 30 days may be granted by the approval authority.

3. The remedial measures shall be extended also to component families, separate technical unit families or system families which are also likely to be affected.

4. The approval authority shall within 30 calendar days of the receipt of the plan of remedial measures approve or reject the plan of remedial measures. The approval authority shall notify the manufacturer and all the other Member States of its decision to approve or reject the plan of remedial measures.

5. The manufacturer shall be responsible for the execution of the approved plan of remedial measures.

6. The manufacturer shall keep a record of every component, separate technical unit or system recalled and repaired or modified and of the workshop which performed the repair. The approval authority shall have access to those records on request during the execution of the plan of the remedial measures and for a period of 5 years after the completion of its execution.

7. If the plan of remedial measures has been rejected by the approval authority, or if the approval authority establishes that the remedial measures are not being correctly applied, it shall take the necessary measures, including the withdrawal of the certificate, to ensure conformity of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of all the components, separate technical units and systems.

If the plan of remedial measures has been rejected, the approval authority may require all the vehicle manufacturers who installed the components, separate technical units and systems affected to issue a new manufacturer's records file, a new customers information file and a new certificate of conformity reflecting the changes to the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of those components, separate technical units and systems.

CHAPTER 6

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 23

Transitional provisions

1. For new vehicles of vehicle groups 4, 5, 9 and 10, as defined in Table 1 of Annex I, the obligations referred to in Article 8 shall apply from 1 January 2019.

2. For new vehicles of vehicle groups 1, 2, and 3, as defined in Table 1 of Annex I, the obligations referred to in Article 8 shall apply from 1 September 2019.

3. For new vehicles of vehicle groups 11, 12 and 16, as defined in Table 1 of Annex I, the obligations referred to in Article 8 shall apply from 1 January 2020.

Article 24

Amendment to Directive 2007/46/EC

Annexes I, III, IV, IX and XV to Directive 2007/46/EC are amended in accordance with Annex X to this Regulation.

Article 25

Amendment to Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 is amended as follows:

(1)In Article 3(1), the following subparagraph is added:

„In order to receive an EC type-approval of a vehicle with an approved engine system with regard to emissions and vehicle repair and maintenance information, or an EC type-approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions and vehicle repair and maintenance information, the manufacturer shall also demonstrate that the requirements laid down in Article 6 and Annex II to Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/… [HDV CO2]** for the respective vehicle group in accordance with Article 23 of that Regulation are met.

___________________

**Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/… of … implementing Regulation (EU) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the certification of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 (OJ L …, …, p. …).“;

(2)Article 8 is amended as follows:

(a)in paragraph 1, the first subparagraph is replaced by the following:

„If all the relevant requirements pursuant to this Regulation and Regulation (EU) 2017/… [HDV CO2] are met, the approval authority shall grant an EC type-approval of a vehicle with an approved engine system with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and issue a type-approval number in accordance with the numbering system set out in Annex VII to Directive 2007/46/EC.“;

(b)in paragraph 1a, point (d) is replaced by the following:

„(d) all other exceptions set out in points 3.1 and 5.1 of Annex VII to this Regulation, points 2.1 and 6.1 of Annex X to this Regulation, points 2, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 10 of Annex XIII to this Regulation, and point 1 of Appendix 6 to Annex XIII to this Regulation apply;“;(c)    in paragraph 1a, the following point is added:

„(e)    the requirements laid down in Article 6 and Annex II to Regulation (EU) 2017/… [HDV CO2] for the respective vehicle group in accordance with Article 23 of that Regulation are met.“;

(3)Article 10 is amended as follows:

(a)in paragraph 1, the first subparagraph is replaced by the following:

„If all the relevant requirements pursuant to this Regulation and Regulation (EU) 2017/… [HDV CO2] are met, the approval authority shall grant an EC type-approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions and access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and issue a type-approval number in accordance with the numbering system set out in Annex VII to Directive 2007/46/EC.“;

(b)in paragraph 1a, point (d) is replaced by the following:

„(d) all other exceptions set out in points 3.1 and 5.1 of Annex VII to this Regulation, points 2.1 and 6.1 of Annex X to this Regulation, points 2, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 10 of Annex XIII to this Regulation, and point 1 of Appendix 6 to Annex XIII to this Regulation apply;“;

(c)in paragraph 1a, the following point is added:

„(e)    the requirements laid down in Article 6 and Annex II to Regulation (EU) 2017/… [HDV CO2] for the respective vehicle group in accordance with Article 23 of that Regulation are met.“.

Article 26

Entry into force

This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in the Member States in accordance with the Treaties.

Done at Brussels,

   For the Commission

   The President
   Jean-Claude Juncker

(1) REGULATION (EC) No 595/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCILof 18 June 2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 and Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC (OJ L 188, 18.7.2009, p. 1)
(2) DIRECTIVE 2007/46/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (OJ L 263, 9.10.2007, p. 1)
(3) Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information (OJ L 171, 29.6.2007, p. 1).
Top

ANNEXES

to the

Commission Regulation (EU) .../...

implementing Regulation (EU) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

ANNEXE I

CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES IN VEHICLE GROUPS

1.Classification of the vehicles for the purpose of this Regulation

1.1 Classification of vehicles of category N

Table 1

Vehicle groups for vehicles of category N

Description of elements relevant to the classification in vehicle groups

Vehicle group

Allocation of mission profile and vehicle configuration

Standard body allocation

Axle configuration

Chassis configuration

Technically permissible maximum laden mass (tons)

Long haul

Long haul (EMS)

Regional delivery

Regional delivery (EMS)

Urban delivery

Municipal utility

Construction

4x2

Rigid

>3.5 – <7.5

(0)

Rigid (or tractor)**

7.5 – 10

1

R

R

B1

Rigid (or tractor)**

>10 – 12

2

R+T1

R

R

B2

Rigid (or tractor)**

>12 – 16

3

R

R

B3

Rigid

7.5 – 16

4

R+T2

R

R

B4

Tractor

>16

5

T+ST

T+ST+T2

T+ST

T+ST+T2

 

4x4

Rigid

7.5 – 16

(6)

Rigid

>16

(7)

Tractor

>16

(8)

6x2

Rigid

all weights

9

R+T2

R+D+ST

R

R+D+ST

R

B5

Tractor

all weights

10

T+ST

T+ST+T2

T+ST

T+ST+T2

 

6x4

Rigid

all weights

11

R+T2

R+D+ST

R

R+D+ST

R

R

B5

Tractor

all weights

12

T+ST

T+ST+T2

T+ST

T+ST+T2

R

 

6x6

Rigid

all weights

(13)

Tractor

all weights

(14)

8x2

Rigid

all weights

(15)

8x4

Rigid

all weights

16

R

(generic weight+

CdxA)

8x6 8x8

Rigid

all weights

(17)

* EMS - European Modular System

** in these vehicle classes tractors are treated as rigids but with specific curb weight of tractor

R

=

Rigid & standard body

T1, T2

=

Standard trailers

ST

=

Standard semitrailer

D

=

Standard dolly

Appendix 1

Vehicle CO2 emissions and fuel consumption – manufacturer's records file

1.Vehicle, component, separate technical unit and systems data

1.1.Vehicle data

1.1.1.Vehicle identification number (VIN)………..

1.1.2.Vehicle category (N2, N3, M2, M3)……….

1.1.3.Axle configuration………..

1.1.4.Max. gross vehicle weight (t)………….

1.1.5.Vehicle group in accordance with Table 1  …………

1.1.6.Name and address of manufacturer…………….

1.1.7.Make (trade name of manufacturer)…………

1.1.8.Corrected actual curb mass (kg)………..

1.2.Main engine specifications

1.2.1.Engine certification number………….

1.2.2.Engine rated power (kW)…………….

1.2.2.1     Engine torque limit at gear 1 (% of max engine torque)……………

1.2.2.2     Engine torque limit at gear 2 (% of max engine torque)……………

1.2.2.3     Engine torque limit at gear 3 (% of max engine torque)……………

1.2.2…. Engine torque limit at gear … (% of max engine torque)……………

1.2.3.Engine idling speed (1/min)………..

1.2.4.Engine rated speed (1/min)………….

1.2.5.Engine capacity (ltr)…………….

1.2.6.Engine reference fuel type (diesel/LPG/CNG...)………….

1.2.7.Hash of the fuel map file/document…………….

1.3.Main transmission specifications

1.3.1.Certification option used for generation of a loss map (standard values/method 1/method 2)…………..:

1.3.2.Transmission certification number…………….

1.3.3.Transmission type (MT, AMT, AT, ...)…………………

1.3.4.Nr. of gears……………..

1.3.5.Transmission ratio final gear……………….

1.3.6.Retarder (yes/no)…………….

1.3.7.Power take off (yes/no)………………

1.3.8.Hash of the efficiency map file/document……………….

1.4.Retarder specifications

1.4.1.Certification option used for generation of a loss map (standard values/measurement)………………

1.4.2.Retarder certification number……………….

1.4.3.Hash of the efficiency map file/document…………….

1.5.Torque converter specification

1.5.1.Certification option used for generation of a loss map (standard values/measurement)………………

1.5.2.Torque converter certification number……………..

1.5.3.Torque converter type (serial/parallel)………………

1.5.4.Hash of the efficiency map file/document………………..

1.6.Angle drive specifications 

1.6.1.Certification option used for generation of a loss map (standard values/measurement)……………..

1.6.2.Angle drive ratio……………..

1.6.3.Hash of the efficiency map file/document…………….

1.7.Main axle specifications

1.7.1.Certification option used for generation of a loss map (standard values/measurement)……………

1.7.2.Axle certification number……………..

1.7.3.Axle type (e.g. standard single driven axle)……………….

1.7.4.Axle ratio……………

1.7.5.Hash of the efficiency map file/document………………

1.8.Aerodynamics

1.8.1.Certification option used for generation of CdxA (standard values /measurement)…

1.8.2.CdxA Certification number (if applicable)………….

1.8.3.CdxA value………………

1.9.Main tyre specifications

1.9.1.Tyre dimension axle 1…………..

1.9.2.Tyre certification number…………….

1.9.3.Specific RRC of all tyres on axle 1 (left/right)……..

1.9.4.Tyre dimension axle 2……………

1.9.5.Twin axle (yes/no) axle 2……………..

1.9.6.Tyre certification number…………….

1.9.7.Specific RRC of all tyres on axle 2 (left/right)……..

1.9.8.Tyre dimension axle 3………………

1.9.9.Twin axle (yes/no) axle 3………………

1.9.10.Tyre certification number…………………

1.9.11.Specific RRC of all tyres on axle 3 (left/right)……..

1.9.12.Tyre dimension axle ..……………….

1.9.13.Twin axle (yes/no) axle ..…………………

1.9.14.Tyre certification number…………………….

1.9.15.Specific RRC of all tyres on axle … (left/right)……..

1.10.Main auxiliary specifications

1.10.1.Engine cooling fan technology……………

1.10.2.Steering pump technology…………….

1.10.3.Electric system technology……………

1.10.4.Pneumatic system technology……………….

2.Mission profile and loading dependent values

2.1.Simulation parameters (for each profile/load/fuel combination)

2.1.1.Mission profile (long haul/regional/urban/construction)………………….

2.1.2.Load (as defined in Vehicle Energy calculation Tool) (kg)…………

2.1.3.Fuel (diesel/petrol/LPG/CNG/…)……………….

2.1.4.Total vehicle mass in simulation (kg)………………..

2.2.Vehicle driving performance and information for simulation quality check

2.2.1.Average speed (km/h)…………….

2.2.2.Minimum instantaneous speed (km/h)………………

2.2.3.Maximum instantaneous speed (km/h)……………….

2.2.4.Maximum deceleration (m/s²)……………..

2.2.5.Maximum acceleration (m/s²)………………

2.2.6.Full-load percentage on driving time………………….

2.2.7.Total number of gear shifts…………………

2.2.8.Total driven distance (km)…………….

2.3.Fuel and CO2 results

2.3.1.Fuel consumption (g/km)…………….

2.3.2.Fuel consumption (g/t-km)……………………

2.3.3.Fuel consumption (g/p-km)………………..

2.3.4.Fuel consumption (g/m³-km)…………………..

2.3.5.Fuel consumption (l/100km)………………….

2.3.6.Fuel consumption (l/t-km)…………………

2.3.7.Fuel consumption (l/p-km)…………………..

2.3.8.Fuel consumption (l/m³-km)……………..

2.3.9.Fuel consumption (MJ/km)…………………..

2.3.10.Fuel consumption (MJ/t-km)…………..

2.3.11.Fuel consumption (MJ/p-km)………………….

2.3.12.Fuel consumption (MJ/m³-km)………………..

2.3.13.CO2 (g/km)…………….

2.3.14.CO2 (g/t-km)……………….

2.3.15.CO2 (g/p-km)……………

2.3.16.CO2 (g/m³-km)……………..

3.Software and user information

3.1.Software and user information

3.1.1.Simulation tool version (X.X.X)…………….

3.1.2.Date and time of the simulation 

3.1.3.Simulation tool user/license reference……………….

3.1.4.Cryptographic hash…………….



Appendix 2

Vehicle CO2 emissions and fuel consumption - customer information file

1.Vehicle, component, separate technical unit and systems data

1.1.Vehicle data

1.1.1.Vehicle identification number (VIN)……………..

1.1.2.Vehicle category (N2, N3, M2, M3)……………….

1.1.3.Axle configuration………………..

1.1.4.Max. gross vehicle weight (t)………………….

1.1.5.Vehicle's group………………..

1.1.6.Name and address of manufacturer……………..

1.1.7.Make (trade name of manufacturer)………………….

1.1.8.Corrected actual curb mass (kg)……………………

1.2.Component, separate technical unit and systems data

1.2.1.Engine rated power (kW)………………..

1.2.2.Engine capacity (ltr)………………..

1.2.3.Engine reference fuel type (diesel/LPG/CNG...)………………….

1.2.4.Transmission values (measured/standard)……………….

1.2.5.Transmission type (MT, AMT, AT, ...)…………………

1.2.6.Nr. of gears………………….

1.2.7.Retarder (yes/no)……………….

1.2.8 Average rolling resistance coefficient (RRC) of all tyres:

2. CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicle (for each payload/fuel combination)

Payload 1 [kg]:

Fuel 1:

 

CO2 emissions

Fuel consumption

Long haul

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Long haul (EMS)

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Regional delivery

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Regional delivery (EMS)

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Urban delivery

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Municipal utility

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Construction

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Vehicle average speed [km/h]:

Payload 2 [kg]:

Fuel 2:

 

CO2 emissions

Fuel consumption

Long haul

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Long haul (EMS)

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Regional delivery

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Regional delivery (EMS)

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Urban delivery

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Municipal utility

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Construction

……g/km

……g/t-km

……g/m³-km

…...l/100km

……l/t-km

……l/m³-km

Vehicle average speed [km/h]:

Payload … [kg]:

Fuel …:

Software and user information

Simulation tool version

[X.X.X]

Date and time of the simulation

[-]

Cryptographic hash of the output file:

ANNEX II

REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES RELATED TO THE OPERATION OF THE SIMULATION TOOL

1.The processes to be set up by the vehicle manufacturer with a view to the operation of the simulation tool

1.1. The manufacturer shall set up at least the following processes:

1.1.1A data management system covering sourcing, storing, handling and retrieving of the input data for the simulation tool as well as for certificates of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of a component, separate technical unit and system. The system shall at least:

(a)ensure application of correct input data to specific vehicle configurations including the use of standard values;

(b) verify by means of comparing cryptographic hashes that the input file of components, separate technical units and systems which is used for the simulation corresponds to the digital file of the components, separate technical units and systems for which the certification has been granted;

(c) create a protected database for storing the input files and certificates of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of components, separate technical units or systems;

(d) create an unequivocal link between the input file of components, separate technical units and systems and the input file of the corresponding certificates of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption related properties of component family, separate technical unit family and system family;

(e) ensure correct management of the updates of components, separate technical units and systems;

(f) enable tracing of the components, separate technical units and systems on produced vehicles.

1.1.2A data management system covering retrieving of the input data and calculations by means of the simulation tool and storing of the output data. The system shall at least:

(a) ensure a correct application of cryptographic hashes;

(b) create a protected database for storing the output data;

1.1.3Process for consulting the dedicated electronic distribution platform referred to in Article 10, as well as downloading and installing the latest versions of the simulation tool.

1.1.4 Appropriate training of staff working with the simulation tool.

2. Assessment by the approval authority

2.1. The approval authority shall verify whether the processes set out in point 1 related to the operation of the simulation tool have been set up.

The approval authority shall also verify the following:

(a) the functioning of the processes set out in points 1.1.1. to 1.1.3 and the application of the requirement set out in 1.1.4. The verification shall include determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of one vehicle from each of the vehicle groups for which the license has been applied for;

(b) that the processes used during the demonstration are applied in the same manner in all the production facilities manufacturing the vehicle group concerned;

(c) the completeness of the description of the data and process flows of operations related to the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicles.

Appendix 1

MODEL OF AN INFORMATION DOCUMENT FOR THE PURPOSES OF OPERATING THE SIMULATION TOOL WITH A VIEW TO DETERMINING the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of NEW vehicles

SECTION I

1    Name and address of manufacturer:

2    Assembly plants for which the license will apply:

3    Vehicle groups covered:

4…….Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)

SECTION II

1.    Type Approval Authority or Technical Service which performed an assessment:

2.    Assessment report No.:    

3.    Remarks (if any):    

4.    Date of the assessment verification        

5.    Additional information    

5.1.    Data and process flow handling description (e.g. flow chart)

5.2    Description of quality management process

5.3    Additional quality management certificates (if any)

5.4    Description of simulation tool data sourcing, handling and storage

5.5    Additional documents (if any)

6.    Date: …………………………………………………………………………..

7.    Signature: ……………………………………………………………………...



Appendix 2

MODEL OF A LICENSE TO OPERATE THE SIMULATION TOOL WITH A VIEW TO determinING CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of NEW vehicles

Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm)

LICENSE TO OPERATE THE SIMULATION TOOL WITH A VIEW TO determinING CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of NEW vehicles

Stamp administration

Communication concerning:

granting (1)

extension(1)

refusal(1)

withdrawal(1)

of the licence to operate simulation tool with regard to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 as implemented by Regulation No XXX/2017. 

License number:

Reason for extension:.......................................................................................................

SECTION I

0.1    Name and address of manufacturer:

0.2    Assembly plants for which the license will apply:

0.3    Vehicle groups covered:

SECTION II

1.    Additional information

1.1    Report of the assessment performed by a technical service

1.2.    Data and process flow handling description (e.g. flow chart)

1.3.    Description of quality management process

1.4.    Additional quality management certificates (if any)

1.5.    Description of simulation tool data sourcing, handling and storage

1.6    Additional documents (if any)

2.    Technical service responsible for carrying out the assessment

3.    Date of the assessment report

4.    Number of assessment report report

5.    Remarks (if any): see Addendum

6.    Place

7.    Date

8.    Signature

(1) Delete where not applicable (there are cases where nothing needs to be deleted when more than one entry is applicable)



ANNEX III

VERIFYING ENGINE DATA

1.Introduction

The engine test procedure described in this Annex shall produce the input data for the simulation tool.

2.Definitions

For the purposes of this Annex the definitions according to UN/ECE R.49.06 and, in addition to these, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)“Engine CO2-family” means a manufacturer’s grouping of engines which through their design, as defined in paragraph 1 of Appendix 3 to this Annex, have similar fuel consumption characteristics;

(2)“CO2-parent engine” means an engine selected from an engine CO2-family as specified in Appendix 3 to this Annex so that its fuel consumption characteristics will be representative for that engine CO2-family;

(3)“NCV” means net calorific value of a fuel as specified in paragraph 3.2 of this Annex;

(4)“Specific emissions” means the total mass emissions divided by the total engine work over a defined period expressed in g/kWh;

(5)“Specific fuel consumption” means the total fuel consumption divided by the total engine work over a defined period expressed in g/kWh;

(6)“FCMC” means fuel consumption mapping cycle;

The definitions in paragraphs 3.1.5 and 3.1.6. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 shall not apply.

3.General requirements

The calibration laboratory facilities shall comply with the requirements of either ISO/TS 16949, ISO 9000 series or ISO/IEC 17025. All laboratory reference measurement equipment, used for calibration and/or verification, shall be traceable to national (international) standards.

Engines shall be grouped into engine CO2-families defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. Paragraph 4.1 of this Annex explains which testruns shall be performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2-family.

3.1 Test conditions

All testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex shall be conducted on the same physical engine and without any changes to the setup of the engine dynamometer and the engine system, apart from the exceptions defined in paragraph 4.2 of this Annex and Appendix 3 to this Annex.

3.1.1Laboratory test conditions

The tests shall be conducted under ambient conditions meeting the following conditions over the whole testrun:

(1)The parameter fa describing the laboratory test conditions, determined in accordance with paragraph 6.1 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, shall be within the following limits: 0.96 ≤ fa ≤ 1.04.

(2)The absolute temperature (Ta) of the engine intake air expressed in Kelvin, determined in accordance with paragraph 6.1 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 shall be within the following limits: 283 K ≤ Ta ≤ 303 K.

(3)The atmospheric pressure expressed in kPa, determined in accordance with paragraph 6.1 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 shall be within the following limits: 90 kPa ≤ ps ≤ 102 kPa.

If tests are performed in test cells that are able to simulate barometric conditions other than those existing in the atmosphere at the specific test site, the applicable fa value shall be determined with the simulated values of atmospheric pressure by the conditioning system. The simulated atmospheric pressure achieved shall be within the limits specified in point (3).

In cases where the ambient pressure in the atmosphere at the specific test site exceeds the upper limit of 102 kPa, tests in accordance with this Annex may still be performed. In this case tests shall be performed with the specific ambient air pressure in the atmosphere and no simulated increased atmospheric pressure by means of a pressure conditioning system shall be applied at the engine air intake.

In cases where the test cell has the ability to control temperature, pressure and/or humidity of engine intake air independent of the atmospheric conditions the same settings for those parameters shall be used for all testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex.

3.1.2Engine installation

The test engine shall be installed in accordance with paragraphs 6.3 to 6.6 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

If auxiliaries/equipment necessary for operating the engine system are not installed as required in accordance with paragraph 6.3 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, all measured engine torque values shall be corrected for the power required for driving these components for the purpose of this Annex in accordance with paragraph 6.3 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The power consumption of the following engine components resulting in the engine torque required for driving these engine components shall be determined in accordance with Appendix 5 to this Annex:

(1)fan

(2)electrically powered auxiliaries/equipment necessary for operating the engine system

3.1.3Crankcase emissions

In the case of a closed crankcase, the manufacturer shall ensure that the engine’s ventilation system does not permit the emission of any crankcase gases into the atmosphere. If the crankcase is of an open type, the emissions shall be measured and added to the tailpipe emissions, following the provisions set out in paragraph 6.10. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

3.1.4Engines with charge air-cooling

During all testruns the charge air cooling system used on the test bed shall be operated under conditions which are representative for in-vehicle application at reference ambient conditions. The reference ambient conditions are defined as 293 K for air temperature and 101.3 kPa for pressure.

The laboratory charge air cooling for tests according to this regulation should comply with the provisions specified in paragraph 6.2 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

3.1.5Engine cooling system

(1)During all testruns the engine cooling system used on the test bed shall be operated under conditions which are representative for in-vehicle application at reference ambient conditions. The reference ambient conditions are defined as 293 K for air temperature and 101.3 kPa for pressure.

(2)The engine cooling system should be equipped with thermostats according to the manufacturer specification for vehicle installation. If either a non-operational thermostat is installed or no thermostat is used, subpoint (3) shall apply. The setting of the cooling system shall be performed in accordance with subpoint (4).

(3)If no thermostat is used or a non-operational thermostat is installed, the test bed system shall reflect the behavior of the thermostat under all test conditions. The setting of the cooling system shall be performed in accordance with subpoint (4).

(4)The engine coolant flow rate or alternatively the pressure differential across the engine side of the heat exchanger and the engine coolant temperature shall be set to a value representative for in-vehicle application at reference ambient conditions when the engine is operated at rated speed and full load with the engine thermostat in fully open position. This setting defines the coolant reference temperature. For all testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine within one engine CO2-family, the cooling system setting shall not be changed, neither on the engine side nor on the test bed side of the cooling system. The temperature of the test bed side cooling medium should be kept resonably constant by good engineering judgement. The cooling medium on the test bed side of the heat exchanger shall not exeed the nominal termostat opening temperatur downstream of the heat exchanger.

(5)For all testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine within one engine CO2-family the engine coolant temperature shall be maintained between the nominal value of the thermostat opening temperature declared by the manufacturer and the coolant reference temperature in accordance with subpoint (iv) as soon as the engine coolant has reached the declared thermostat opening temperature after engine cold start.

(6)For the WHTC coldstart test performed in accordance with paragraph 4.3.3 of this Annex, the specific initial conditions are specified in paragraphs 7.6.1. and 7.6.2 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. If simulation of the thermostat behaviour in accordance with subpoint (3) is applied, there shall be no coolant flow across the heat exchanger as long as the engine coolant has not reached the declared nominal thermostat opening temperature after cold start.

3.2Fuels

The respective reference fuel for the engine under test shall be selected from the fuel types listed in Table 1 . The fuel properties of the reference fuels listed in Table 1 shall be those specified in Annex IX to Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011.

The fuel used for all testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2-family shall be from the same batch of fuel. The technical service shall ensure that the fuel sample used for determination of the NCV is taken from the batch of fuel used for all testruns.

For the used batch of fuel, the NCV shall be determined by two separate measurements in accordance with the respective standards for each fuel type defined in Table 1 . Each of the two separate measurements shall be performed by a lab independent from the engine manufacturer applying for certification. The lab performing the measurements shall comply with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025.

If the two separate values for the NCV are deviating by more than 440 Joule per gram fuel, the values determined shall be void and the measurement campaign shall be repeated.

The mean value of the two separate values that are not deviating by more than 440 Joule per gram fuel shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.



Table 1: Reference fuels for testing

Engine fuel technology

Reference fuel type

Standard used for determination of NCV

Diesel CI

B7

at least ASTM D240 or DIN 59100-1

(ASTM D4809 is recommended)

Ethanol CI

ED95

at least ASTM D240 or DIN 59100-1

(ASTM D4809 is recommended)

Petrol PI

E10

at least ASTM D240 or DIN 59100-1

(ASTM D4809 is recommended)

Ethanol PI

E85

at least ASTM D240 or DIN 59100-1

(ASTM D4809 is recommended)

LPG

LPG Fuel B

ASTM 3588 or DIN 51612

Natural Gas

G25

ISO 6976 or ASTM 3588

3.3Lubricants

The lubricating oil for all testruns performed in accordance with this Annex shall be a commercially available oil with unrestricted manufacturer approval under normal in-service conditions as defined in paragraph 4.2 of Annex 8 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. Lubricants for which the usage is restricted to certain special operation conditions of the engine system or unusual short oil change interval shall not be used for the purpose of testruns in accordance with this Annex.

All testruns performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2family shall be performed with the same type of lubricating oil.

3.4Fuel flow measurement system

All fuel flows consumed by the whole engine system shall be captured by the fuel flow measurement system. Additional fuel flows not directly supplied to the combustion process in the engine cylinders shall be included in the fuel flow signal for all testruns performed. Additional fuel injectors (e.g. cold start devices) not necessary for the operation of the engine system shall be disconnected from the fuel supply line during all testruns performed.

3.5Measurement equipment specifications

The measurement equipment shall meet the requirements of paragraph 9 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

Notwithstanding the requirements defined in paragraph 9 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, the measurement systems listed in Table 2 shall meet the limits defined in Table 2 .


Table 2: Requirements of measurement systems

Linearity

Measurement system

Intercept

∣ xmin ✕ (a1 - 1)+ a0 ∣

Slope
a
1

Standard error
of estimate
SEE

Coefficient of determination
r
2

Accuracy a)

Rise time b)

Engine speed

≤  0.2 % max
calibration
c)

0.999 - 1.001

≤  0.1 % max
calibration c)

≥  0.9985

0.2% of reading or 0.1% of max. calibration c) of speed whichever is larger

≤ 1 s

Engine torque

≤  0.5 % max
calibration c)

0.995 - 1.005

≤  0.5 % max calibration c)

≥  0.995

0.6% of reading or 0.3% of max. calibration c) of torque whichever is larger

≤ 1 s

Fuel mass flow for liquid fuels

≤  0.5 % max
calibration c)

0.995 - 1.005

≤  0.5 % max calibration c)

≥  0.995

0.6 % of reading or 0.3 % of max. calibration c) of flow whichever is larger

≤ 2 s

Fuel mass flow for gaseous fuels

≤  1 % max
calibration c)

0.99 - 1.01

≤  1 % max calibration c)

≥  0.995

1 % of reading or 0.5 % of max. calibration c) of flow whichever is larger

≤ 2 s

Electrical Power

≤  1 % max
calibration c)

0.98 - 1.02

≤  2 % max calibration c)

≥  0.990

n.a.

≤ 1 s

Current

≤  1 % max
calibration c)

0.98 - 1.02

≤  2 % max calibration c)

≥  0.990

n.a.

≤ 1 s

Voltage

≤  1 % max
calibration c)

0.98 - 1.02

≤  2 % max calibration c)

≥  0.990

n.a.

≤ 1 s

(1)“Accuracy” means the deviation of the analyzer reading from a reference value which is traceable to a national or international standard.

(2)“Rise time” means the difference in time between the 10 percent and 90 percent response of the final analyzer reading (t90 – t10).

(3)The “max calibration” values shall be 1.1 times the maximum predicted value expected during all testruns for the respective measurement system.

“xmin”, used for calculation of the intercept value in Table 2, shall be 0.9 times the minimum predicted value expected during all testruns for the respective measurement system.

The signal delivery rate of the measurement systems listed in Table 2, except for the fuel mass flow measurement system, shall be at least 5 Hz (≥ 10 Hz recommended). The signal delivery rate of the fuel mass flow measurement system shall be at least 2 Hz.

All measurement data shall be recorded with a sample rate of at least 5 Hz (≥ 10 Hz recommended).

3.5.1Measurement equipment verification

A verification of the demanded requirements defined in Table 2 shall be performed for each measurement system. At least 10 reference values between xmin and the “max calibration” value defined in accordance with paragraph 3.5 of this Annex shall be introduced to the measurement system and the response of the measurement system shall be recorded as measured value.

For the linearity verification the measured values shall be compared to the reference values by using a least squares linear regression in accordance with paragraph A.3.2 of Appendix 3 to Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.Testing procedure

All measurement data shall be determined in accordance with Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, unless stated otherwise in this Annex.

4.1Overview of testruns to be performed

Table 3 gives an overview of all testruns to be performed for the purpose of certification of one specific engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex.

The fuel consumption mapping cycle in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5 of this Annex and the recording of the engine motoring curve in accordance with paragraph 4.3.2 shall be omitted for all other engines except the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex.

Table 3: Overview of testruns to be performed

Testrun

Reference to paragraph of this Annex

Required to be run for CO2-parent engine

Required to be run for other engines within CO2-family

Engine full-load curve

4.3.1

yes

yes

Engine motoring curve

4.3.2

yes

no

WHTC test

4.3.3

yes

yes

WHSC test

4.3.4

yes

yes

Fuel consumption mapping cycle

4.3.5

yes

no

4.2Allowed changes to the engine system

Changing of the target value for the engine idle speed controller to a lower value in the electronic control unit of the engine shall be allowed for all testruns in which idle operation occurs, in order to prevent interference between the engine idle speed controller and the test bed speed controller.

4.3Testruns

4.3.1Engine full-load curve

The engine full-load curve shall be recorded in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.1. to 7.4.5. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.3.2Engine motoring curve

The recording of the engine motoring curve in accordance with this paragraph shall be omitted for all other engines except the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. In accordance with paragraph 6.1.3 of this Annex the engine motoring curve recorded for the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex shall also be applicable to all engines within the same engine CO2-family.

The engine motoring curve shall be recorded in accordance with option (b) in paragraph 7.4.7. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. This test shall determine the negative torque required to motor the engine between maximum and minimum mapping speed with minimum operator demand.

The test shall be continued directly after the full-load curve mapping according to paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex. At the request of the manufacturer, the motoring curve may be recorded separately. In this case the engine oil temperature at the end of the full-load curve testrun performed in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be recorded and the manufacturer shall prove to the satisfaction of the a technical service, that the engine oil temperature at the starting point of the motoring curve meets the aforementioned temperature within ±2K.

At the start of the testrun for the engine motoring curve the engine shall be operated with minimum operator demand at maximum mapping speed defined in paragraph 7.4.3. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. As soon as the motoring torque value has stabilized within ±5% of its mean value for at least 10 seconds, the data recording shall start and the engine speed shall be decreased at an average rate of 8 ±1 min-1/s from maximum to minimum mapping speed, which are defined in paragraph 7.4.3. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.3.3WHTC test

The WHTC test shall be performed in accordance with Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. The weighted emission test results shall meet the applicable limits defined in Regulation (EC) No 595/2009.

The engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be used for the denormalization of the reference cycle and all calculations of reference values performed in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.6, 7.4.7 and 7.4.8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.3.3.1Measurement signals and data recording

In addition to the provisions defined in Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 the actual fuel mass flow consumed by the engine in accordance with paragraph 3.4 of this Annex shall be recorded.

4.3.4WHSC test

The WHSC test shall be performed in accordance with Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. The emission test results shall meet the applicable limits defined in Regulation (EC) No 595/2009.

The engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be used for the denormalization of the reference cycle and all calculations of reference values performed in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.6, 7.4.7 and 7.4.8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.3.4.1Measurement signals and data recording

In addition to the provisions defined in Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 the actual fuel mass flow consumed by the engine in accordance with paragraph 3.4 of this Annex shall be recorded.

4.3.5Fuel consumption mapping cycle (FCMC)

The fuel consumption mapping cycle (FCMC) in accordance with this paragraph shall be omitted for all other engines except the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. In accordance with paragraph 6.1.4 of this Annex the fuel map data recorded for the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex shall also be applicable to all engines within the same engine CO2-family.

The engine fuel map shall be measured in a series of steady state engine operation points, as defined according to paragraph 4.3.5.2 of this Annex. The metrics of this map are the fuel consumption in g/h depending on engine speed in rpm and engine torque in Nm.

4.3.5.1Handling of interruptions during the FCMC

If an after-treatment regeneration event occurs during the FCMC for engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a periodic basis defined in accordance with paragraph 6.6 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, all measurements at that engine speed mode shall be void. The regeneration event shall be completed and afterwards the procedure shall be continued as described in paragraph 4.3.5.1.1 of this Annex.

If an unexpected interruption, malfunction or error occurs during the FCMC, all measurements at that engine speed mode shall be void and one of the following options how to continue shall be chosen by the manufacturer:

(1)the procedure shall be continued as described in paragraph 4.3.5.1.1 of this Annex

(2)the whole FCMC shall be repeated in accordance with paragraphs 4.3.5.4 and 4.3.5.5 of this Annex

4.3.5.1.1Provisions for continuing the FCMC

The engine shall be started and warmed up in accordance with paragraph 7.4.1. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. After warm-up, the engine shall be preconditioned by operating the engine for 20 minutes at mode 9, as defined in Table 1 of paragraph 7.2.2. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be used for the denormalization of the reference values of mode 9 performed in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.6, 7.4.7 and 7.4.8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

Directly after completion of preconditioning, the target values for engine speed and torque shall be changed linearly within 20 to 46 seconds to the highest target torque setpoint at the next higher target engine speed setpoint than the particular target engine speed setpoint where the interruption of the FCMC occurred. If the target setpoint is reached within less than 46 seconds, the remaining time up to 46 seconds shall be used for stabilization.

For stabilization the engine operation shall continue from that point in accordance with the test sequence specified in paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex without recording of measurement values.

When the highest target torque setpoint at the particular target engine speed setpoint where the interruption occurred is reached, the recording of measurement values shall be continued from that point on in accordance with the test sequence specified in paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex.

4.3.5.2Grid of target setpoints

The grid of target setpoints is fixed in a normalized way and consists of 10 target engine speed setpoints and 11 target torque setpoints. Conversion of the normalized setpoint definition to the actual target values of engine speed and torque setpoints for the individual engine under test shall be based on the engine full-load curve of the CO2parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

4.3.5.2.1Definition of target engine speed setpoints

The 10 target engine speed setpoints are defined by 4 base target engine speed setpoints and 6 additional target engine speed setpoints.

The engine speeds nidle, nlo, npref, n95h and nhi shall be determined from the engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex by applying the definitions of characteristic engine speeds in accordance with paragraph 7.4.6. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The engine speed n57 shall be determined by the following equation:

n57 = 0.565 x (0.45 x nlo + 0.45 x npref + 0.1 x nhi − nidle) x 2.0327 + nidle

The 4 base target engine speed setpoints are defined as follows:

(1)Base engine speed 1: nidle

(2)Base engine speed 2: nA = n57 – 0.05 x (n95h – nidle)

(3)Base engine speed 3: nB = n57 + 0.08 x (n95h – nidle)

(4)Base engine speed 4: n95h

The potential distances between the speed setpoints shall be determined by the following equations:

(1)dnidleA_44 = (nA – nidle) / 4

(2)dnB95h_44 = (n95h – nB) / 4

(3)dnidleA_35 = (nA – nidle) / 3

(4)dnB95h_35 = (n95h – nB) / 5

(5)dnidleA_53 = (nA – nidle) / 5

(6)dnB95h_53 = (n95h – nB) / 3

The absolute values of potential deviations between the two sections shall be determined by the following equations:

(1)dn44 = ABS(dnidleA_44 – dnB95h_44)

(2)dn35 = ABS(dnidleA_35 – dnB95h_35)

(3)dn53 = ABS(dnidleA_53 – dnB95h_53)

The 6 additional target engine speed setpoints shall be determined based on the smallest of the three values dn44, dn35 and dn53 in accordance with the following provisions:

(1)If dn44 is the smallest of the three values, the 6 additional target engine speeds shall be determined by dividing each of the two ranges, one from nidle to nA and the other from nB to n95h, into 4 equidistant sections.

(2)If dn35 is the smallest of the three values, the 6 additional target engine speeds shall be determined by dividing the range from nidle to nA into 3 equidistant sections and the range from nB to n95h, into 5 equidistant sections.

(3)If dn53 is the smallest of the three values, the 6 additional target engine speeds shall be determined by dividing the range from nidle to nA into 5 equidistant sections and the range from nB to n95h, into 3 equidistant sections.

Figure 1 illustrates the definition of the target engine speed setpoints.


Figure 1: Definition of speed setpoints

4.3.5.2.2Definition of target torque setpoints

The 11 target torque setpoints are defined by 2 base target torque setpoints and 9 additional target torque setpoints. The 2 base target torque setpoints are defined by zero Nm torque and the overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, in Nm of the engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine. The 9 additional target torque setpoints are determined by dividing the range from zero torque to overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, into 10 equidistant sections.

All target torque setpoints at a particular target engine speed setpoint that exceed the limit value defined by the full-load torque value at this particular target engine speed setpoint minus 5 percent of Tmax_overall, shall be replaced with the full-load torque value at this particular target engine speed setpoint. Figure 2 illustrates the definition of the target torque setpoints.

Figure 2: Definition of torque setpoints

4.3.5.3Measurement signals and data recording

The following measurement data shall be recorded:

(1)    engine speed

(2)    engine torque corrected in accordance with paragraph 3.1.2 of this Annex

(3)fuel mass flow consumed by the whole engine system in accordance with paragraph 3.4 of this Annex

(4)    Gaseous pollutants according to the definitions in regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. Particulate pollutants are not required to be monitored during the FCMC testrun.

The measurement of gaseous pollutants shall be carried out in accordance with paragraphs 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 7.5.3, 7.5.5, 7.7.4, 7.8.1, 7.8.2, 7.8.4 and 7.8.5 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

For the purpose of paragraph 7.8.4 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, the term “test cycle” in the paragraph referred to shall be the complete sequence from preconditioning in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.4 of this Annex to ending of the test sequence in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex.

4.3.5.4Preconditioning of the engine system

The dilution system, if applicable, and the engine shall be started and warmed up in accordance with paragraph 7.4.1. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

After warm-up is completed, the engine and sampling system shall be preconditioned by operating the engine for 20 minutes at mode 9, as defined in Table 1 of paragraph 7.2.2. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, while simultaneously operating the dilution system.

The engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be used for the denormalization of the reference values of mode 9 performed in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.6, 7.4.7 and 7.4.8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

Directly after completion of preconditioning, the target values for engine speed and torque shall be changed linearly within 20 to 46 seconds to match the first target setpoint of the test sequence according to paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex. If the first target setpoint is reached within less than 46 seconds, the remaining time up to 46 seconds shall be used for stabilization.

4.3.5.5Test sequence

The test sequence consists of steady state target setpoints with defined engine speed and torque at each target setpoint in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.2 of this Annex and defined ramps to move from one target setpoint to the next.

The first target setpoint is defined at the highest target engine speed setpoint and highest target torque setpoint.

The following steps shall be performed to cover all target setpoints:

(1)    The engine shall be operated for 95±3 seconds at each target setpoint. The first 55±1 seconds at each target setpoint are considered as a stabilization period, during which the engine speed shall be held within ±20 rpm of the target engine speed setpoint and the torque shall be held at the target torque setpoint within a tolerance of ±30 Nm or ±2 percent of the overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, whichever is greater. During the following period of 30±1 seconds the engine speed shall be held within ±10 rpm of the target engine speed setpoint and the torque shall be held at the target torque setpoint within a tolerance of ±10 Nm or ±1 percent of the overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, whichever is greater, while the measurement signals in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.3 of this Annex shall be recorded. The recorded values shall be stored as averaged value over 30±1 seconds. The remaining period of 10±1 seconds may be used for data post-processing and storage if necessary. During this period the engine speed shall be held within ±20 rpm of the target engine speed setpoint and the torque shall be held at the target torque setpoint within a tolerance of ±30 Nm or ±2 percent of the overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, whichever is greater.

(2)After the measurement at one target setpoint is completed, the target value for engine speed shall be kept constant within ±20 rpm of the target engine speed setpoint and the target value for torque shall be decreased linearly within 20±1 seconds to match the next lower target torque setpoint. Then the measurement shall be performed according to subpoint (1).

(3)After the zero torque setpoint has been measured in subpoint (1), the target engine speed shall be decreased linearly to the next lower target engine speed setpoint while at the same time the target torque shall be increased linearly to the highest target torque setpoint at the next lower target engine speed setpoint within 20 to 46 seconds. If the next target setpoint is reached within less than 46 seconds, the remaining time up to 46 seconds shall be used for stabilization. Then the measurement shall be performed by starting the the stabilization procedure according to subpoint (1) and afterwards the target torque setpoints at constant target engine speed shall be adjusted according to subpoint (2).

Figure 3 illustrates the three different steps to be performed at each measurement setpoint for the test.

Figure 3: Steps to be performed at each measurement setpoint

Figure 4 illustrates the sequence of steady state measurement setpoints to be followed for the test.

Figure 4: Sequence of steady state measurement setpoints

4.3.5.6Data evaluation for emission monitoring

All gaseous pollutants, defined in accordance with regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, shall be monitored during the FCMC.

4.3.5.6.1Definition of control area

The control area for emission monitoring during the FCMC shall be determined in accordance with paragraphs 4.3.5.6.1.1 and 4.3.5.6.1.2 of this Annex.

4.3.5.6.1.1Engine speed range for the control area

(1)The engine speed range for the control area shall be defined based on the engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

(2)The control area shall include all engine speeds greater than or equal to the 30th percentile cumulative speed distribution, including idle speed, over the hotstart WHTC test cycle performed in accordance with paragraph 4.3.3 of this Annex (n30) for the engine full-load curve referred to in point (i).

(3)The control area shall include all engine speeds lower than or equal to 1.1 times n95h determined from the engine full-load curve referred to in point (i) by applying the definitions of characteristic engine speeds in accordance with paragraph 7.4.6. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

4.3.5.6.1.2Engine torque and power range for the control area

(1)The lower boundary of the engine torque range for the control area shall be defined based on the engine full-load curve of the engine with the lowest rating of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

(2)The control area shall include all engine load points with a torque value greater than or equal to 30 percent of the maximum torque value determined from the engine full-load curve referred to in point (1).

(3)Notwithstanding the provisions of point (2), speed and torque points below 30 percent of the maximum power value, determined from the engine full-load curve referred to in point (1), shall be excluded from the control area.

(4)Notwithstanding the provisions of subpoints (2) and (3), the upper boundary of the control area shall be based on the engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex. The torque value for each engine speed determined from the engine full-load curve of the CO2parent engine shall be increased by 5 percent of the overall maximum torque, Tmax_overall, defined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.2.2 of this Annex. The modified increased engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine shall be used as upper boundary of the control area.

Figure 5 illustrates the definition of the engine torque and power range for the control area.

Figure 5: Definition of the engine torque and power range for the control area

Figure still to be updated (also to editable format)

4.3.5.6.2Definition of the grid cells

The control area defined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.6.1 of this Annex shall be divided into a number of grid cells for emission monitoring during the FCMC.

The grid shall comprise of 9 cells for engines with a rated speed less than 3,000 min-1 and 12 cells for engines with a rated speed greater than or equal to 3,000 min-1. The grids shall be defined in accordance with the following provisions:

(1)The outer boundaries of the grids are aligned to the control area defined according to paragraph 4.3.5.6.1 of this Annex.

(2)2 vertical lines spaced at equal distance between engine speeds n30 and 1.1 times n95h for 9 cell grids, or 3 vertical lines spaced at equal distance between engine speeds n30 and 1.1 times n95h for 12 cell grids.

(3)2 lines spaced at equal distance of engine torque (i.e. 1/3) at each vertical line within the control area defined according to paragraph 4.3.5.6.1 of this Annex.

All engine speed values in min-1 and all torque values in Newtonmeters defining the boundaries of the grid cells shall be rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

Figure 6 illustrates the definition of the grid cells for the control area.

Figure 6: Definition of the grid cells for the control area

Figure still to be updated (also to editable format)

4.3.5.6.3Calculation of specific mass emissions

The specific mass emissions of the gaseous pollutants shall be determined as average value for each grid cell defined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.6.2 of this Annex. The average value for each grid cell shall be determined as arithmetical mean value of the specific mass emissions over all engine speed and torque points measured during the FCMC located within the same grid cell.

The specific mass emissions of the single engine speed and torque measured during the FCMC shall be determined as averaged value over the 30±1 seconds measurement period defined in accordance with subpoint (i) of paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex.

If an engine speed and torque point is located directly on a line that separates different grid cells from each other, this engine speed and load point shall be taken into account for the average values of all adjacent grid cells.

The calculation of the total mass emissions of each gaseous pollutant for each engine speed and torque point measured during the FCMC, mFCMC,i in grams, over the 30±1 seconds measurement period in accordance with point (i) of paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex shall be carried out in accordance with paragraph 8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The actual engine work for each engine speed and torque point measured during the FCMC, WFCMC,i in kWh, over the 30±1 seconds measurement period in accordance with point (i) of paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex shall be determined from the engine speed and torque values recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.3 of this Annex.

The specific mass emissions of gaseous pollutants in g/kWh for each engine speed and torque point measured during the FCMC shall be determined by the following equation:

eFCMC,i = mFCMC,i / WFCMC,i

4.3.5.7Validity of data

The data obtained from the FCMC tests is valid if the specific mass emissions of the regulated gaseous pollutants determined for each grid cell in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.6.3 of this Annex meet the applicable limits for gaseous pollutants defined in paragraph 5.2.2 of Annex 10 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. In case the number of engine speed and torque points within the same grid cell is less than 3, this paragraph shall not apply for that specific grid cell.

5.Post-processing of measurement data

All calculations defined in this paragraph shall be performed specifically for each engine within one engine CO2-family.

5.1Calculation of engine work

Total engine work over a cycle or a defined period shall be determined form the recorded values of engine power in accordance with paragraph 3.1.2 of this Annex and paragraphs 6.3.5. and 7.4.8. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The engine work over a complete testcycle or over each WHTC-sub-cycle shall be determined by integrating of recorded values of engine power in accordance with the following formula:

where:

Wact, i=total engine work over the time period from t0 to t1

t0=time at the start of the time period

t1=time at the end of the time period

n=number of recorded values over the time period from t0 to t1

Pk [0 … n]=recorded engine power values over the time period from t0 to t1 in chronological order, where k runs from 0 at t0 to n at t1

h=interval width between two adjacent recorded values defined by

5.2Calculation of integrated fuel consumption

Any recorded negative values for the fuel consumption shall be used directly and shall not be set equal to zero for the calculations of the integrated value.

The total fuel mass consumed by the engine over a complete testcycle or over each WHTC-sub-cycle shall be determined by integrating of recorded values of fuel massflow in accordance with the following formula:

 

where:

Σ FCmeas, i=total fuel mass consumed by the engine over the time period from t0 to t1

t0=time at the start of the time period

t1=time at the end of the time period

n=number of recorded values over the time period from t0 to t1

mffuel,k [0 … n]=recorded fuel massflow values over the time period from t0 to t1 in chronological order, where k runs from 0 at t0 to n at t1

h=interval width between two adjacent recorded values defined by

5.3Calculation of specific fuel consumption figures

The correction and balancing factors, which have to be provided as input values for the simulation tool, are calculated by the engine pre-processing tool based on the measured specific fuel consumption figures of the engine determined in accordance with paragraphs 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 of this Annex.

5.3.1Specific fuel consumption figures for WHTC correction factor

The specific fuel consumption figures needed for the WHTC correction factor shall be calculated from the actual measured values for the hotstart WHTC recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.3 of this Annex as follows:

SFCmeas, Urban = (Σ FCmeas, WHTC-Urban) / Wact, WHTC-Urban)

SFCmeas, Rural = (Σ FCmeas, WHTC- Rural) / (Wact, WHTC- Rural)

SFCmeas, MW = (Σ FCmeas, WHTC-MW) / (Wact, WHTC-MW)

where:

SFCmeas, i=Specific fuel consumption

over the WHTC-sub-cycle i [g/kWh]

Σ FCmeas, i=Total fuel mass consumed by the engine over the

WHTC-sub-cycle i [g] determined in accordance with

paragraph 5.2 of this Annex

Wact, i=Total engine work over the WHTC sub-cycle i [kWh]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.1 of this Annex

The 3 different sub-cycles of the WHTC – urban, rural and motorway – shall be defined as follows:

(1)urban: from cycle start to <= 900 seconds from cycle start

(2)rural: from > 900 seconds to <= 1380 seconds from cycle start

(3)motorway (MW): from > 1380 seconds from cycle start to cycle end

5.3.2Specific fuel consumption figures for cold-hot emission balancing factor

The specific fuel consumption figures needed for the cold-hot emission balancing factor shall be calculated from the actual measured values for both, the hotstart and coldstart WHTC test recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.3 of this Annex. The calculations shall be performed for both, the hotstart and coldstart WHTC separately as follows:

SFCmeas, hot = (Σ FCmeas, hot) / (Wact, hot)

SFCmeas, cold = (Σ FCmeas, cold) / (Wact, cold)

where:

SFCmeas, j=Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]

Σ FCmeas, j=Total fuel consumption over the WHTC [g]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of this

Annex

Wact, j=Total engine work over the WHTC [kWh]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.1 of this

Annex

5.3.3Specific fuel consumption figures over WHSC

The specific fuel consumption over the WHSC shall be calculated from the actual measured values for the WHSC recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.4 of this Annex as follows:

SFCWHSC = (Σ FCWHSC) / (WWHSC)

where:

SFCWHSC=Specific fuel consumption over WHSC [g/kWh]

Σ FCWHSC=Total fuel consumption over the WHSC [g]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of this

Annex

WWHSC=Total engine work over the WHSC [kWh]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.1 of this

Annex

5.3.3.1Corrected specific fuel consumption figures over WHSC

The calculated specific fuel consumption over the WHSC, SFCWHSC, determined in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3 shall be adjusted to a corrected value, SFCWHSC,corr, in order to account for the difference between the NCV of the fuel used during testing and the standard NCV for the respective engine fuel technology in accordance with the following equation:

where:

SFCWHSC,corr=Corrected specific fuel consumption over WHSC

[g/kWh]

SFCWHSC=Specific fuel consumption over WHSC [g/kWh]

NCVmeas=NCV of the fuel used during testing determined in

accordance with paragraph 3.2 of this Annex

[MJ/kg]

NCVstd = Standard NCV in accordance with

Table 4 of this Annex [MJ/kg]

Table 4: Standard net calorific values of fuel types

Engine fuel technology

Reference fuel type

Standard NCV [MJ/kg]

Diesel CI

B7

42.7

Ethanol CI

ED95

25.7

Petrol PI

E10

41.5

Ethanol PI

E85

29.1

LPG

LPG Fuel B

46.0

Natural Gas

G25

45.1

5.3.3.2Special provisions for reference fuels

In case reference fuel of the type Diesel (B7) in accordance with paragraph 3.2 of this Annex was used during testing, the standardization correction in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3.1 of this Annex shall not be performed and the corrected value, SFCWHSC,corr, shall be set to the uncorrected value SFCWHSC.

5.4Correction factor for engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a periodic basis

For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a periodic basis defined in accordance with paragraph 6.6 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, fuel consumption shall be adjusted to account for regeneration events by a correction factor.

This correction factor, CFRegPer, shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 6.6.2 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems with continuous regeneration, defined in accordance with paragraph 6.6 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, no correction factor shall be determined and the value of the factor CFRegPer shall be set to 1.

The engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex shall be used for the denormalization of the WHTC reference cycle and all calculations of reference values performed in accordance with paragraphs 7.4.6, 7.4.7 and 7.4.8 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

In addition to the provisions defined in Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06 the actual fuel mass flow consumed by the engine in accordance with paragraph 3.4 of this Annex shall be recorded for each WHTC hot start test performed in accordance with paragraph 6.6.2 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06.

The specific fuel consumption for each WHTC hot start test performed shall be calculated by the following equation:

SFCmeas, m = (Σ FCmeas, m) / (Wact, m)

where:

SFCmeas, m=Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]

Σ FCmeas,m=Total fuel consumption over the WHTC [g]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of this

Annex

Wact, m=Total engine work over the WHTC [kWh]

determined in accordance with paragraph 5.1 of this

Annex

The specific fuel consumption values for the individual WHTC tests shall be weighted by the following equation:

where:

n=the number of WHTC hot start tests without regeneration

nr=the number of WHTC hot start tests with regeneration

(minimum number is one test)

SFCavg=the average specific fuel consumption from all WHTC hot

start tests without regeneration [g/kWh]

SFCavg,r=the average specific fuel consumption from all WHTC hot

start tests with regeneration [g/kWh]

The correction factor, CFRegPer, shall be calculated by the following equation:

6.Application of engine pre-processing tool

The engine pre-processing tool shall be executed for each engine within one engine CO2-family using the input data defined in paragraph 6.1 of this Annex.

The output data of the engine pre-processing tool shall be the final result of the engine test procedure and shall be documented in the engine information document in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.

6.1Input data for the engine pre-processing tool

The following input data shall be generated by the test procedures specified in this Annex and shall be the input to the engine pre-processing tool which can be downloaded from the dedicated electronic distribution platform.

6.1.1Full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine

The input data shall be the engine full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

The input data shall be provided in the file format of “comma separated values” with the separator character being the Unicode Character 'FULL STOP' (U+002E) (“.”). The first line of the file shall be used as a header and not contain any recorded data. The recorded data shall start from the second line of the file.

The first column of the file shall be the engine speed in rpm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. The second column shall be the torque in Nm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.2    Full-load curve

The input data shall be the engine full-load curve of the engine recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

The input data shall be provided in the file format of “comma separated values” with the separator character being the Unicode Character 'FULL STOP' (U+002E) (“.”). The first line of the file shall be used as a header and not contain any recorded data. The recorded data shall start from the second line of the file.

The first column of the file shall be the engine speed in rpm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. The second column shall be the torque in Nm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.3Motoring curve of the CO2-parent engine

The input data shall be the engine motoring curve of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.2 of this Annex.

The input data shall be provided in the file format of “comma separated values” with the separator character being the Unicode Character 'FULL STOP' (U+002E) (“.”). The first line of the file shall be used as a header and not contain any recorded data. The recorded data shall start from the second line of the file.

The first column of the file shall be the engine speed in rpm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. The second column shall be the torque in Nm rpm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.4Fuel consumption map of the CO2-parent engine

The input data shall be the values of engine speed, engine torque and fuel massflow determined for the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex and recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5 of this Annex.

The input data shall only consist of the average measurement values of engine speed, engine torque and fuel massflow over the 30±1 seconds measurement period determined in accordance with point (i) of paragraph 4.3.5.5 of this Annex.

The input data shall be provided in the file format of “comma separated values” with the separator character being the Unicode Character 'FULL STOP' (U+002E) (“.”). The first line of the file shall be used as a header and not contain any recorded data. The recorded data shall start from the second line of the file.

The first column of the file shall be the engine speed in rpm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. The second column shall be the torque in Nm rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06. The third column shall be the fuel massflow in g/h rounded to 2 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.5Specific fuel consumption figures for WHTC correction factor

The input data shall be the three values for specific fuel consumption over the different sub-cycles of the WHTC – urban, rural and motorway – in g/kWh determined in accordance with paragraph 5.3.1 of this Annex.

The values shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.6Specific fuel consumption figures for cold-hot emission balancing factor

The input data shall be the two values for specific fuel consumption over the hotstart and coldstart WHTC in g/kWh determined in accordance with paragraph 5.3.2 of this Annex.

The values shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.7Correction factor for engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems that are regenerated on a periodic basis

The input data shall be the correction factor CFRegPer determined in accordance with paragraph 5.4 of this Annex.

For engines equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems with continuous regeneration, defined in accordance with paragraph 6.6 of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, this factor shall be set to 1 in accordance with paragraph5.4 of this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.8NCV of test fuel

The input data shall be the NCV of the test fuel in MJ/kg determined in accordance with paragraph 3.2 of this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.9Type of test fuel

The input data shall be the type of the test fuel selected in accordance with paragraph 3.2 of this Annex.

6.1.10Engine idle speed of the CO2-parent engine

The input data shall be the engine idle speed, nidle, in rpm of the CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family defined in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex as declared by the manufacturer at the application for certification in the information document in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.11Engine idle speed

The input data shall be the engine idle speed, nidle, in rpm of the engine as declared by the manufacturer at the application for certification in the information document in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.12Specific fuel consumption over WHSC

The input data shall be the corrected specific fuel consumption over the WHSC, SFCWHSC,corr, in g/kWh determined in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3 of this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to 4 places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.

6.1.13Engine displacement

The input data shall be the displacement in ccm of the engine as declared by the manufacturer at the application for certification in the information document in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.

The value shall be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with ASTM E 29-06.



Appendix 1

MODEL OF A CERTIFICATE OF A COMPONENT, SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNIT, SYSTEM

Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm)

CERTIFICATE

Stamp administration

Communication concerning:

granting (1)

extension(1)

refusal(1)

withdrawal(1)

of a certificate with regard to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 as implemented by Regulation No … [this Regulation].

Regulation (EC) No XXXXX and Regulation No … [this Regulation] as last amended by ……………..

certification number:

Hash:

Reason for extension:

SECTION I (to be drafted for each component)

0.1.Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.2.Type:

0.3.Means of identification of type

0.3.1.Location of the marking:

0.4.Name and address of manufacturer:

0.5.In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the certification mark:

0.6.Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.7.Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)

SECTION II (to be drafted for each component)

1.Additional information (where applicable): see Addendum

2.Technical service responsible for carrying out the tests:

3.Date of test report:

4.Number of test report:

5.Remarks (if any): see Addendum

6.Place:

7.Date:

8.Signature:

Attachments:

Information package. Test report.



Appendix 2

Engine Information Document

Notes regarding filling in the tables

Letters A, B, C, D, E corresponding to engine CO2-family members shall be replaced by the actual engine CO2-family members’ names.

In case when for a certain engine characteristic same value/description applies for all engine CO2-family members the cells corresponding to A-E shall be merged.

In case the engine CO2-family consists of more than 5 members, new columns may be added.

The “Appendix to information document” shall be copied and filled in for each engine within an CO2-family separately.

Explanatory footnotes can be found at the very end of this Appendix.

 

CO2-parent engine

Engine CO2-family members

A

B

C

D

E

0.

General

0.l.

Make (trade name of manufacturer)

0.2.

Type

0.2.1.

Commercial name(s) (if available)

0.5.

Name and address of manufacturer

0.8.

Name(s) and address (es) of assembly plant(s)

0.9.

Name and address of the manufacturer’s representative (if any)



Part 1

Essential characteristics of the (parent) engine and the engine types within an engine family

Parent engine or engine type

Engine CO2-family members

A

B

C

D

E

3.2.

Internal combustion engine

3.2.1.

Specific engine information

3.2.1.1.

Working principle: positive ignition/compression ignition1 Cycle four stroke / two stroke/ rotary1

3.2.1.2.

Number and arrangement of cylinders

3.2.1.2.1.

Bore3 mm

3.2.1.2.2.

Stroke3 mm

3.2.1.2.3.

Firing order

3.2.1.3.

Engine capacity4 cm³

3.2.1.4.

Volumetric compression ratio5

3.2.1.5.

Drawings of combustion chamber, piston crown and, in the case of positive ignition engines, piston rings

3.2.1.6.

Normal engine idling speed5 min-1

3.2.1.6.1.

High engine idling speed5 min-1

3.2.1.7.

Carbon monoxide content by volume in the exhaust gas with the engine idling5: % as stated by the manufacturer (positive ignition engines only)

3.2.1.8.

Maximum net power6………….. kW at…….min-1 (manufacturer's declared value)

3.2.1.9.

Maximum permitted engine speed as prescribed by the manufacturer (min-1)

3.2.1.10.

Maximum net torque6 (Nm) at (min-1) (manufacturer's declared value)



Parent engine or engine type

Engine CO2-family members

A

B

C

D

E

3.2.1.11.

Manufacturer references of the documentation package required by paragraphs 3.1., 3.2. and 3.3. of this Regulation enabling the Type Approval Authority to evaluate the emission control strategies and the systems on-board the engine to ensure the correct operation of NOx control measures

3.2.2.

Fuel

3.2.2.2.

Heavy duty vehicles Diesel/Petrol/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol (ED95)/ Ethanol (E85)1

3.2.2.2.1.

Fuels compatible with use by the engine declared by the manufacturer in accordance with paragraph 4.6.2. of this Regulation (as applicable)

3.2.4.

Fuel feed

3.2.4.2.

By fuel injection (compression ignition only): Yes/No1

3.2.4.2.1.

System description

3.2.4.2.2.

Working principle: direct injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber1

3.2.4.2.3.

Injection pump

3.2.4.2.3.1.

Make(s)

3.2.4.2.3.2.

Type(s)

3.2.4.2.3.3.

Maximum fuel delivery1,5 …... mm3 /stroke or cycle at an engine speed of …… min-1 or, alternatively, a characteristic diagram

(When boost control is supplied, state the characteristic fuel delivery and boost pressure versus engine speed)

3.2.4.2.3.4.

Static injection timing5

3.2.4.2.3.5.

Injection advance curve5

3.2.4.2.3.6.

Calibration procedure: test bench/engine1

3.2.4.2.4.

Governor

3.2.4.2.4.1.

Type

3.2.4.2.4.2.

Cut-off point

3.2.4.2.4.2.1.

Speed at which cut-off starts under load (min-1)

3.2.4.2.4.2.2.

Maximum no-load speed (min-1)

3.2.4.2.4.2.3.

Idling speed (min-1)

3.2.4.2.5.

Injection piping

3.2.4.2.5.1.

Length (mm)

3.2.4.2.5.2.

Internal diameter (mm)

3.2.4.2.5.3.

Common rail, make and type

3.2.4.2.6.

Injector(s)

3.2.4.2.6.1.

Make(s)

3.2.4.2.6.2.

Type(s)

3.2.4.2.6.3.

Opening pressure5:    kPa or characteristic diagram

3.2.4.2.7.

Cold start system

3.2.4.2.7.1.

Make(s)

3.2.4.2.7.2.

Type(s)

3.2.4.2.7.3.

Description

3.2.4.2.8.

Auxiliary starting aid

3.2.4.2.8.1.

Make(s)

3.2.4.2.8.2.

Type(s)

3.2.4.2.8.3.

System description

3.2.4.2.9.

Electronic controlled injection: Yes/No1

3.2.4.2.9.1.

Make(s)

3.2.4.2.9.2.

Type(s)

3.2.4.2.9.3.

Description of the system (in the case of systems other than continuous injection give equivalent details)

3.2.4.2.9.3.1.

Make and type of the control unit (ECU)

3.2.4.2.9.3.2.

Make and type of the fuel regulator

3.2.4.2.9.3.3.

Make and type of the air-flow sensor

3.2.4.2.9.3.4.

Make and type of fuel distributor

3.2.4.2.9.3.5.

Make and type of the throttle housing

3.2.4.2.9.3.6.

Make and type of water temperature sensor

3.2.4.2.9.3.7.

Make and type of air temperature sensor

3.2.4.2.9.3.8.

Make and type of air pressure sensor

3.2.4.2.9.3.9.

Software calibration number(s)

3.2.4.3.

By fuel injection (positive ignition only): Yes/No1

3.2.4.3.1.

Working principle: intake manifold (single-/multi-point/direct injection1/other specify)

3.2.4.3.2.

Make(s)

3.2.4.3.3.

Type(s)

3.2.4.3.4.

System description (In the case of systems other than continuous injection give equivalent details)

3.2.4.3.4.1.

Make and type of the control unit (ECU)

3.2.4.3.4.2.

Make and type of fuel regulator

3.2.4.3.4.3.

Make and type of air-flow sensor

3.2.4.3.4.4.

Make and type of fuel distributor

3.2.4.3.4.5.

Make and type of pressure regulator

3.2.4.3.4.6.

Make and type of micro switch

3.2.4.3.4.7.

Make and type of idling adjustment screw

3.2.4.3.4.8.

Make and type of throttle housing

3.2.4.3.4.9.

Make and type of water temperature sensor

3.2.4.3.4.10.

Make and type of air temperature sensor

3.2.4.3.4.11.

Make and type of air pressure sensor

3.2.4.3.4.12.

Software calibration number(s)

3.2.4.3.5.

Injectors: opening pressure5 (kPa) or characteristic diagram5

3.2.4.3.5.1.

Make

3.2.4.3.5.2.

Type

3.2.4.3.6.

Injection timing

3.2.4.3.7.

Cold start system

3.2.4.3.7.1.

Operating principle(s)

3.2.4.3.7.2.

Operating limits/settings1,5

3.2.4.4.

Feed pump

3.2.4.4.1.

Pressure5 (kPa) or characteristic diagram5

3.2.5.

Electrical system

3.2.5.1.

Rated voltage (V), positive/negative ground (1)

3.2.5.2.

Generator

3.2.5.2.1.

Type

3.2.5.2.2.

Nominal output (VA)

3.2.6.

Ignition system (spark ignition engines only)

3.2.6.1.

Make(s)

3.2.6.2.

Type(s)

3.2.6.3.

Working principle

3.2.6.4.

Ignition advance curve or map5

3.2.6.5.

Static ignition timing5 (degrees before TDC)

3.2.6.6.

Spark plugs

3.2.6.6.1.

Make

3.2.6.6.2.

Type

3.2.6.6.3.

Gap setting (mm)

3.2.6.7.

Ignition coil(s)

3.2.6.7.1.

Make

3.2.6.7.2.

Type

3.2.7.

Cooling system: liquid/air1

3.2.7.2.

Liquid

3.2.7.2.1.

Nature of liquid

3.2.7.2.2.

Circulating pump(s): Yes/No1

3.2.7.2.3.

Characteristics

3.2.7.2.3.1.

Make(s)

3.2.7.2.3.2.

Type(s)

3.2.7.2.4.

Drive ratio(s)

3.2.7.3.

Air

3.2.7.3.1.

Fan: Yes/No1

3.2.7.3.2.

Characteristics

3.2.7.3.2.1.

Make(s)

3.2.7.3.2.2.

Type(s)

3.2.7.3.3.

Drive ratio(s)

3.2.8.

Intake system

3.2.8.1.

Pressure charger: Yes/No 1

3.2.8.1.1.

Make(s)

3.2.8.1.2.

Type(s)

3.2.8.1.3.

Description of the system (e.g. maximum charge pressure …... kPa, wastegate, if applicable)

3.2.8.2.

Intercooler: Yes/No1

3.2.8.2.1.

Type: air-air/air-water1

3.2.8.3.

Intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100 % load (compression ignition engines only)

3.2.8.3.1.

Minimum allowable (kPa)

3.2.8.3.2.

Maximum allowable (kPa)

3.2.8.4.

Description and drawings of inlet pipes and their accessories (plenum chamber, heating device, additional air intakes, etc.)

3.2.8.4.1.

Intake manifold description (include drawings and/or photos)

3.2.9.

Exhaust system

3.2.9.1.

Description and/or drawings of the exhaust manifold

3.2.9.2.

Description and/or drawing of the exhaust system

3.2.9.2.1.

Description and/or drawing of the elements of the exhaust system that are part of the engine system

3.2.9.3.

Maximum allowable exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed and at 100 % load (compression ignition engines only)(kPa)7

3.2.9.7.

Exhaust system volume (dm³)

3.2.9.7.1.

Acceptable Exhaust system volume: (dm³)

3.2.10.

Minimum cross-sectional areas of inlet and outlet ports

3.2.11.

Valve timing or equivalent data

3.2.11.1.

Maximum lift of valves, angles of opening and closing, or timing details of alternative distribution systems, in relation to dead centers. For variable timing system, minimum and maximum timing

3.2.11.2.

Reference and/or setting range7

3.2.12.

Measures taken against air pollution

3.2.12.1.1.

Device for recycling crankcase gases: Yes/No 1

If yes, description and drawings

If no, compliance with paragraph 6.10. of Annex 4 of this Regulation required

3.2.12.2.

Additional pollution control devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)

3.2.12.2.1.    

Catalytic converter: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.1.1.

Number of catalytic converters and elements (provide this information below for each separate unit)

3.2.12.2.1.2.

Dimensions, shape and volume of the catalytic converter(s)

3.2.12.2.1.3.

Type of catalytic action

3.2.12.2.1.4.

Total charge of precious metals

3.2.12.2.1.5.

Relative concentration

3.2.12.2.1.6.

Substrate (structure and material)

3.2.12.2.1.7.

Cell density

3.2.12.2.1.8.

Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s)

3.2.12.2.1.9.

Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust line)

3.2.12.2.1.10.

Heat shield: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.1.11.

Regeneration systems/method of exhaust after treatment systems, description

3.2.12.2.1.11.5.

Normal operating temperature range (K)

3.2.12.2.1.11.6.

Consumable reagents: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.1.11.7.    

Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic action

3.2.12.2.1.11.8.

Normal operational temperature range of reagent K

3.2.12.2.1.11.9.

International standard

3.2.12.2.1.11.10.

Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance1

3.2.12.2.1.12.

Make of catalytic converter

3.2.12.2.1.13.

Identifying part number

3.2.12.2.2.

Oxygen sensor: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.2.1.

Make

3.2.12.2.2.2.

Location

3.2.12.2.2.3.

Control range

3.2.12.2.2.4.

Type

3.2.12.2.2.5.

Indentifying part number

3.2.12.2.3.

Air injection: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.3.1.

Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.)

3.2.12.2.4.

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.4.1.

Characteristics (make, type, flow, etc)

3.2.12.2.6.

Particulate trap (PT): Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.6.1.

Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate trap

3.2.12.2.6.2.

Design of the particulate trap

3.2.12.2.6.3.

Location (reference distance in the exhaust line)

3.2.12.2.6.4.

Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing

3.2.12.2.6.5.

Make of particulate trap

3.2.12.2.6.6.

Indentifying part number

3.2.12.2.6.7.

Normal operating temperature (K) and pressure (kPa) ranges

3.2.12.2.6.8.

In the case of periodic regeneration

3.2.12.2.6.8.1.1.

Number of WHTC test cycles without regeneration (n)

3.2.12.2.6.8.2.1.

Number of WHTC test cycles with regeneration (nR)

3.2.12.2.6.9.

Other systems: Yes/No1

3.2.12.2.6.9.1.

Description and operation

3.2.12.2.7.

On-board-diagnostic (OBD) system

3.2.12.2.7.0.1.

Number of OBD engine families within the engine family

3.2.12.2.7.0.2.

List of the OBD engine families (when applicable)

OBD engine family 1: ………….

OBD engine family 2: ………….

etc…

3.2.12.2.7.0.3.

Number of the OBD engine family the parent engine / the engine member belongs to

3.2.12.2.7.0.4.

Manufacturer references of the OBD-Documentation required by paragraph 3.1.4. (c) and paragraph 3.3.4. of this Regulation and specified in Annex 9A of this Regulation for the purpose of approving the OBD system

3.2.12.2.7.0.5.

When appropriate, manufacturer reference of the Documentation for installing in a vehicle an OBD equipped engine system

3.2.12.2.7.2.

List and purpose of all components monitored by the OBD system8 

3.2.12.2.7.3.

Written description (general working principles) for

3.2.12.2.7.3.1.

Positive-ignition engines8

3.2.12.2.7.3.1.1.

Catalyst monitoring8 

3.2.12.2.7.3.1.2.

Misfire detection8

3.2.12.2.7.3.1.3.

Oxygen sensor monitoring8

3.2.12.2.7.3.1.4.

Other components monitored by the OBD system

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.

Compression-ignition engines8

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.1.

Catalyst monitoring8

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.2.

Particulate trap monitoring8

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.3.

Electronic fuelling system monitoring8

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.4.

DeNOx system monitoring8

3.2.12.2.7.3.2.5.

Other components monitored by the OBD system8

3.2.12.2.7.4.

Criteria for MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical method) 8

3.2.12.2.7.5.

List of all OBD output codes and formats used (with explanation of each) 8

3.2.12.2.7.6.5.

OBD Communication protocol standard8

3.2.12.2.7.7.

Manufacturer reference of the OBD related information required by of paragraphs 3.1.4. (d) and 3.3.4. this Regulation for the purpose of complying with the provisions on access to vehicle OBD, or

3.2.12.2.7.7.1.

As an alternative to a manufacturer reference provided in paragraph 3.2.12.2.7.7. reference of the attachment to this annex that contains the following table, once completed according to the given example:

Component - Fault code - Monitoring strategy - Fault detection criteria - MI activation criteria - Secondary parameters – Preconditioning - Demonstration test

SCR Catalyst - P20EE - NOx sensor 1 and 2 signals - Difference between sensor 1 and sensor 2 signals - 2nd cycle - Engine speed, engine load, catalyst temperature, reagent activity, exhaust mass flow - One OBD test cycle (WHTC, hot part) - OBD test cycle (WHTC, hot part)

3.2.12.2.8.

Other system (description and operation)

3.2.12.2.8.1.

Systems to ensure the correct operation of NOx control measures

3.2.12.2.8.2.

Engine with permanent deactivation of the driver inducement, for use by the rescue services or in vehicles designed and constructed for use by the armed services, civil defence, fire services and forces responsible for maintaining public order: Yes/No1 

3.2.12.2.8.3.

Number of OBD engine families within the engine family considered when ensuring the correct operation of NOx control measures

3.2.12.2.8.4.

List of the OBD engine families (when applicable)

OBD engine family 1: ………….

OBD engine family 2: ………….

etc…

3.2.12.2.8.5.

Number of the OBD engine family the parent engine / the engine member belongs to

3.2.12.2.8.6.

Lowest concentration of the active ingredient present in the reagent that does not activate the warning system (CDmin) (% vol)

3.2.12.2.8.7.

When appropriate, manufacturer reference of the Documentation for installing in a vehicle the systems to ensure the correct operation of NOx control measures

3.2.17.

Specific information related to gas fuelled engines for heavy-duty vehicles (in the case of systems laid out in a different manner, supply equivalent information)

3.2.17.1.

Fuel: LPG /NG-H/NG-L /NG-HL1

3.2.17.2.

Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s)1

3.2.17.2.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.2.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.2.3.

Number of pressure reduction stages

3.2.17.2.4.

Pressure in final stage minimum (kPa) – maximum. (kPa)

3.2.17.2.5.

Number of main adjustment points

3.2.17.2.6.

Number of idle adjustment points

3.2.17.2.7.

Type approval number

3.2.17.3.

Fuelling system: mixing unit / gas injection / liquid injection / direct injection1

3.2.17.3.1.

Mixture strength regulation

3.2.17.3.2.

System description and/or diagram and drawings

3.2.17.3.3.

Type approval number

3.2.17.4.

Mixing unit

3.2.17.4.1.

Number

3.2.17.4.2.

Make(s)

3.2.17.4.3.

Type(s)

3.2.17.4.4.

Location

3.2.17.4.5.

Adjustment possibilities

3.2.17.4.6.

Type approval number

3.2.17.5.

Inlet manifold injection

3.2.17.5.1.

Injection: single point/multipoint1

3.2.17.5.2.

Injection: continuous/simultaneously timed/sequentially timed1

3.2.17.5.3.

Injection equipment

3.2.17.5.3.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.5.3.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.5.3.3.

Adjustment possibilities

3.2.17.5.3.4.

Type approval number

3.2.17.5.4.

Supply pump (if applicable)

3.2.17.5.4.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.5.4.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.5.4.3.

Type approval number

3.2.17.5.5.

Injector(s)

3.2.17.5.5.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.5.5.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.5.5.3.

Type approval number

3.2.17.6.

Direct injection

3.2.17.6.1.

Injection pump/pressure regulator1

3.2.17.6.1.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.6.1.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.6.1.3.

Injection timing

3.2.17.6.1.4.

Type approval number

3.2.17.6.2.

Injector(s)

3.2.17.6.2.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.6.2.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.6.2.3.

Opening pressure or characteristic diagram1

3.2.17.6.2.4.

Type approval number

3.2.17.7.

Electronic control unit (ECU)

3.2.17.7.1.

Make(s)

3.2.17.7.2.

Type(s)

3.2.17.7.3.

Adjustment possibilities

3.2.17.7.4.

Software calibration number(s)

3.2.17.8.

NG fuel-specific equipment

3.2.17.8.1.

Variant 1 (only in the case of approvals of engines for several specific fuel compositions)

3.2.17.8.1.0.1.

Self-adaptive feature? Yes/No1

3.2.17.8.1.0.2.

Calibration for a specific gas composition NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL1

Transformation for a specific gas composition NG-Ht/NG-Lt/NG-HLt 1

3.2.17.8.1.1.

methane (CH4) basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

ethane (C2H6)basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

propane (C3H8)basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

butane (C4H10)basis (%mole)min (%mole) max (%mole)

C5/C5+:basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

oxygen (O2)basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

inert (N2, He etc)basis (%mole)min (%mole)max (%mole)

3.5.4.

CO2 emissions for heavy duty engines

3.5.4.1.

CO2 mass emissions WHSC test (g/kWh)

3.5.4.2.

CO2 mass emissions WHTC test (g/kWh)

3.5.5.

Fuel consumption for heavy duty engines

3.5.5.1.

Specific fuel consumption over WHSC “SFCWHSC” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.2.

Corrected specific fuel consumption over WHSC “SFCWHSC,corr” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3.1 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.3.

Specific fuel consumption over WHTC urban part “SFCmeas, Urban” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.1 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.4.

Specific fuel consumption over WHTC rural part “SFCmeas, Rural” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.1 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.5.

Specific fuel consumption over WHTC motorway part “SFCmeas, MW” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.1 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.6.

Specific fuel consumption over total coldstart WHTC “SFCmeas, cold” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.2 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.7.

Specific fuel consumption over total hotstart WHTC “SFCmeas, hot” in accordance with paragraph 5.3.2 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.8.

Average specific fuel consumption from all WHTC hotstart tests without regeneration “SFCavg” in accordance with paragraph 5.4 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.5.5.9.

Average specific fuel consumption from all WHTC hotstart tests with regeneration “SFCavg,r” in accordance with paragraph 5.4 of XXX: ... g/kWh

3.6.

Temperatures permitted by the manufacturer

3.6.1.

Cooling system

3.6.1.1.

Liquid cooling Maximum temperature at outlet (K)

3.6.1.2.

Air cooling

3.6.1.2.1.

Reference point

3.6.1.2.2.

Maximum temperature at reference point (K)

3.6.2.

Maximum outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler (K)

3.6.3.

Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s) or turbocharger(s) (K)

3.6.4.

Fuel temperature Minimum (K) – maximum (K)

For diesel engines at injection pump inlet, for gas fuelled engines at pressure regulator final stage

3.6.5.

Lubricant temperature

Minimum (K) – maximum (K)

3.8.

Lubrication system

3.8.1.

Description of the system

3.8.1.1.

Position of lubricant reservoir

3.8.1.2.

Feed system (by pump/injection into intake/mixing with fuel, etc.)1

3.8.2.

Lubricating pump

3.8.2.1.

Make(s)

3.8.2.2.

Type(s)

3.8.3.

Mixture with fuel

3.8.3.1.

Percentage

3.8.4.

Oil cooler: Yes/No1

3.8.4.1.

Drawing(s)

3.8.4.1.1.

Make(s)

3.8.4.1.2.

Type(s)

Notes:

1    Delete where not applicable (there are cases where nothing needs to be deleted when more than one entry is applicable).

2    If the means of identification of type contains characters not relevant to describe the vehicle, component or separate technical unit types covered by this information document, such characters shall be represented in the documentation by the symbol "?" (e.g. ABC?123??).

3    This figure shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a millimetre.

4    This value shall be calculated and rounded off to the nearest cm3.

5    Specify the tolerance.

6    Determined in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 85.

7    Please fill in here the upper and lower values for each variant.

8    To be documented in case of a single OBD engine family and if not already documented in the documentation package(s) referred to in line 3.2.12.2.7.0.4. of Part 1 to Annex 1.

9    Fuel consumption for the combined WHTC including cold and hot part according to Annex 12.

10    To be documented if not already in the documentation referred to in line 3.2.12.2.7.2. of Part 2 to Annex 1.

11    Paragraph 2.1. of Annex 11 has been reserved for future alternative approvals.

12    Delete as appropriate.



Appendix to information document

Information on test conditions

1.Spark plugs

1.1.Make

1.2.Type

1.3.Spark-gap setting

2.Ignition coil

2.1.Make

2.2.Type

3.Lubricant used

3.1.Make

3.2.Type (state percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel mixed)

4.Engine-driven equipment

4.1.The power absorbed by the auxiliaries/equipment needs only be determined,

(a)If auxiliaries/equipment required are not fitted to the engine and/or

(b)If auxiliaries/equipment not required are fitted to the engine.

Note: Requirements for engine-driven equipment differ between emissions test and power test

4.2.Enumeration and identifying details

4.3.Power absorbed at engine speeds specific for emissions test

Table 1

Power absorbed at engine speeds specific for emissions test

Equipment

Idle

Low speed

High speed

Preferred speed2

n95h

Pa

Auxiliaries/equipment required according to Annex 4, Appendix 6

Pb

Auxiliaries/equipment not required according to Annex 4, Appendix 6

5.Engine performance (declared by manufacturer) 1

5.1.Engine test speeds for emissions test according to annex 4 2

Low speed (nlo)            …………………………..    rpm

High speed (nhi)            …………………………..    rpm

Idle speed                …………………………..    rpm

Preferred speed            …………………………..    rpm

n95h                    …………………………..    rpm

5.2.Declared values for power test according to Regulation No. 85

5.2.1.Idle speed …………………………..rpm

5.2.2.Speed at maximum power …………………………..rpm

5.2.3.Maximum power …………………………..kW

5.2.4.Speed at maximum torque…………………………..rpm

5.2.5.Maximum torque…………………………..Nm



Appendix 3

Engine CO2-Family

1.Parameters defining the engine CO2-family

The engine CO2-family, as determined by the engine manufacturer, shall comply with the membership criteria defined in accordance with paragraph 5.2.3. of Annex 4 to Regulation UN/ECE R.49.06. An engine CO2-family may consist of only one engine.

In addition to those membership criteria, the engine CO2-family, as determined by the engine manufacturer, shall comply with the membership criteria listed in paragraph 1.1 to 1.9.

In addition to the parameters listed below, the engine manufacturer may introduce additional criteria allowing the definition of families of more restricted size. These parameters are not necessarily parameters that have an influence on the level of fuel consumption.

1.1.Combustion relevant geometric data

1.1.1.Displacement per cylinder

1.1.2.Number of cylinders

1.1.3.Bore and stroke data

1.1.4.Combustion chamber geometry and compression ratio

1.1.5.Valve diameters and port geometry

1.1.6.Fuel injector position

1.1.7.Cylinder head design

1.1.8.Piston and piston ring design

1.2.Air management relevant components

1.2.1.Pressure charging equipment (ATL, waste gate, VTG, 2-stage, others, ...)

1.2.2.Charge air cooling concept

1.2.3.Valve timing concept (fixed, partly flexible, flexible, ...)

1.2.4.EGR concept (uncooled/cooled, high/low pressure, EGR-control, ...)

1.3.Injection system

1.4.Auxiliary/equipment propulsion concept (mechanically, electrically, other, …)

1.5.Waste heat recovery (yes/no; concept and system)

1.6.Aftertreatment system

1.6.1.AdBlue (and HC) dosing system

1.6.2.Catalyst and DPF (arrangement, material and coating)

1.7.Full-load curve

1.7.1.The torque values at each engine speed of the full-load curve of the CO2-parent engine determined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex shall be equal or higher than for all other engine within the same CO2-family at the same engine speed over the whole engine speed range recorded.

1.7.2.The torque values at each engine speed of the full-load curve of the engine with the lowest power rating of all engines within the engine CO2-family determined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1. of this Annex shall be equal or lower than for all other engines within the same CO2-family at the same engine speed over the whole engine speed range recorded.

1.8.Characteristic engine test speeds

1.8.1.The engine idle speed, nidle, of the CO2-parent engine as declared by the manufacturer at the application for certification in the information document in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex shall be equal or lower than for all other engines within the same CO2-family.

1.8.2.The engine speed n95h of all other engines than the CO2-parent engine within the same CO2-family, determined from the engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex by applying the definitions of characteristic engine speeds in accordance with paragraph 7.4.6. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, shall not deviate from the engine speed n95h of the CO2-parent engine by more than ±3 percent.

1.8.3.The engine speed n57 of all other engines than the CO2-parent engine within the same CO2-family, determined from the engine full-load curve recorded in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex by applying the definitions in accordance with paragraph 4.3.5.2.1 of this Annex, shall not deviate from the engine speed n57 of the CO2-parent engine by more than ±3 percent.

1.9.Minimum number of points in the fuel consumption map

1.9.1.All engines within the same CO2-family shall have a minimum number of 54 mapping points of the fuel consumption map located below their respective engine full-load curve determined in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 of this Annex.

2.Choice of the CO2-parent engine

The CO2-parent engine of the engine CO2-family shall be selected in accordance with the following criteria:

2.1.Highest power rating of all engines within the engine CO2-family.



Appendix 4

Conformity of production

1.General provisions

1.1Conformity of production shall be checked on the basis of the description in the certificates set out in Appendix 1 to this Annex and on the basis of the description in the information document set out in Appendix 2 to this Annex.

1.2If an engine certificate has had one or more extensions, the tests shall be carried out on the engines described in the information package relating to the relevant extension.

1.3All engines subject to tests shall be randomly taken from the series production.

1.4The tests may be conducted with the applicable market fuels. However, at the manufacturer’s request, the reference fuels specified in paragraph 3.2 of this Annex may be used.

2.Number of engine CO2-families to be tested

2.10.05 percent of all engines produced in the past production year within the scope of this regulation shall represent the basis to derive the number of engine CO2-families to be tested annually for verifying conformity of production.

2.2Notwithstanding the provisions in point 2.1 of this Appendix, a minimum number of 12 shall be used to represent the basis to derive the number of engine CO2-families to be tested annually for verifying conformity of production.

2.3The resulting figure determined in accordance with points 2.1 of this Appendix and 2.1 of this Appendix shall be divided by 4 and the result rounded to the next whole number in order to determine the number of engine CO2-families to be tested annually for verifying conformity of production.

2.4In case a manufacturer has less CO2-families than the number determined in accordance with point 2.3 of this Appendix, the number of CO2-families to be tested shall be defined by the total number of CO2-families of the manufacturer.

Extra rules for first year of legislation t.b.d. (same approach for all components)

3.Selection of engine CO2-families to be tested

From the number of engine CO2-families to be tested determined in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Appendix, the first two CO2-families shall be the CO2-families with the highest production volumes.

The remaining number of engine CO2-families to be tested shall be randomly selected from all existing engine CO2-families and shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

4.Testrun to be performed

For each of the engine CO2-families determined in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Appendix a minimum number of 4 engines within that family shall be tested in order to reach a pass decision in accordance with paragraph 9 of this Appendix.

The number of testruns to be performed within an engine CO2-family shall be randomly assigned to the different engines within that CO2-family and this assignment shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

Conformity of production shall be verified by testing the engines in the WHSC test in accordance with paragraph 4.3.4 of this Annex.

All boundary conditions as specified in this Annex for the certification testing shall apply, except for the laboratory test conditions according to paragraph 3.1.1 of this Annex. The conditions in accordance with paragraph 3.1.1 of this Annex are recommended. Deviations may occur under certain ambient conditions at the testing site and should be minimized by the use of good engineering judgment.

5.Run-in of newly manufactured engines

5.1The tests shall be carried out on newly manufactured engines taken from the series production which have a maximum run-in time of 15 hours before the testrun for the verification of conformity of production in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Appendix is started.

5.2At the request of the manufacturer, the tests may be carried out on engines which have been run-in up to a maximum of 125 hours. In this case, the running-in procedure shall be conducted by the manufacturer who shall undertake not to make any adjustments to those engines.

5.3When the manufacturer requests to conduct a running-in procedure in accordance with point 5.2 of this Appendix it may be carried out on either of the following:

a.all the engines that are tested

b.the first engine tested, with the determination of an evolution coefficient as follows:

A.The specific fuel consumption shall be measured over the WHSC test both on the newly manufactured engine with a maximum run-in time of 15 hours in accordance with point 5.1 of this Appendix and before the maximum of 125 hours set in point 5.2 of this Appendix on the first engine tested.

B.The evolution coefficient of the fuel consumption between the two tests shall be calculated by dividing the specific fuel consumption of the second test by the specific fuel consumption of the first test. The evolution coefficient may have a value less than one.

5.4If the provisions defined in point 5.3 (b) of this Appendix are applied, the subsequent test engines shall not be subjected to the running-in procedure, but their specific fuel consumption over the WHSC determined on the newly manufactured engine with a maximum run-in time of 15 hours in accordance with point 5.1 of this Appendix shall be modified by the evolution coefficient.

5.5In the case described in point 5.4 of this Appendix the values for the specific fuel consumption over the WHSC to be taken shall be the following:

a.for the first engine, the values from the second test

b.for the other engines, the values determined on the newly manufactured engine with a maximum run-in time of 15 hours in accordance with point 5.1 of this Appendix multiplied by the evolution coefficient determined in accordance with point 5.3 (b)(B) of this Appendix

5.6.Instead of using a running-in procedure in accordance with points 5.2 to 5.5 of this Appendix, a generic evolution coefficient of 0.99 may be used at the request of the manufacturer. In this case the specific fuel consumption over the WHSC determined on the newly manufactured engine with a maximum run-in time of 15 hours in accordance with point 5.1 of this Appendix shall be multiplied by the generic evolution coefficient of 0.99.

6.Target value for assessment of conformity of production

The target value to asses the conformity of production shall be the corrected specific fuel consumption over the WHSC, SFCWHSC,corr, in g/kWh determined in accordance with paragraph 6.1.13 of this Annex and documented in the information document as part of the certificates set out in Appendix 2 to this Annex for the specific engine tested.

7.Actual value for assessment of conformity of production

7.1The specific fuel consumption over the WHSC, SFCWHSC, shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3 of this Annex from the testruns performed in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Appendix. At the request of the manufacturer the specific fuel consumption value determined shall be modified by applying the provisions defined in points 5.3 to 5.6 of this Appendix.

7.2If market fuel was used during testing in accordance with point 1.4 of this Appendix, the specific fuel consumption over the WHSC, SFCWHSC, determined in point 7.1 of this Appendix shall be adjusted to a corrected value, SFCWHSC,corr, in accordance with paragraph 5.3.3.1 of this Annex.

7.3If reference fuel was used during testing in accordance with point 1.4 of this Appendix the special provisions defined in paragraph 5.3.3.2 of this Annex shall be applied to the value determined in point 7.1 of this Appendix.

7.4The measured emission of gaseous pollutants over the WHSC performed in accordance with paragraph 4 shall be adjusted by application of the appropriate deterioration factors (DF’s) for that engine as recorded in the Addendum to the EC type-approval certificate granted in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011.

8.Limit for conformity of one single test

The limit values for the assessment of conformity of one single engine tested shall be the target value determined in accordance with point (6) +3 percent.

9.Assessment of conformity of production

9.1The emission test results over the WHSC determined in accordance with point 7.4 of this Appendix shall meet the limits values defined in Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 for all gaseous pollutants except ammonia, otherwise the test shall be considered void for the assessment of conformity of production.

9.2A single test of one engine tested in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Appendix shall be considered as nonconforming if the actual value in accordance with paragraph 7 of this Appendix is outside the limit values defined in accordance with paragraph 8 of this Appendix.

9.3For the current sample size of engines tested within one CO2-family in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Appendix the test statistic quantifying the cumulative number of nonconforming tests in accordance with point 9.2 of this Appendix at the nth test shall be determined.

a.If the cumulative number of nonconforming tests at the nth test determined in accordance with point 9.3 of this Appendix is less than or equal to the pass decision number for the sample size given in Table 4 of Appendix 3 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, a pass decision is reached.

b.If the cumulative number of nonconforming tests at the nth test determined in accordance with point 9.3 of this Appendix is greater than or equal to the fail decision number for the sample size given in Table 4 of Appendix 3 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06, a fail decision is reached.

c.Otherwise, an additional engine is tested in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Appendix and the calculation procedure in accordance with point 9.3 of this Appendix is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

9.4If neither a pass nor a fail decision is reached, the manufacturer may at any time decide to stop testing. In that case a fail decision is recorded.



Appendix 5

Determination of power consumption of engine components

1.Fan

The engine torque shall be measured at engine motoring with and without fan engaged with the following procedure:

i.Install the fan according to product instruction before the test starts.

ii.Warmup The engine shall be warmed up according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering judgement (eg operating the engine for 20 minutes at mode 9, as defined in Table 1 of paragraph 7.2.2. of Annex 4 to regulation UN/ECE R.49.06).

iii.Stabilization After the warm-up or optional warmup step (v) is completed the engine shall be operated with minimum operator demand (motoring) at engine speed npref for 130±2 seconds with the fan disengaged (nfan_disengage < 0.25*nengine*rfan) The first 60±1 seconds of this period are considered as a stabilization period, during which the actual engine speed shall be held within ±5 rpm of npref.

iv.Measurement During the following period of 60±1 seconds the actual engine speed shall be held within ±2 rpm of npref and the coolant temperature within ±5oC while the 1) torque for motoring the engine with the fan disengaged, the 2) fan speed and the 3) engine speed shall be recorded as an average value over this period of 60±1 seconds. The remaining period of 10±1 seconds shall be used for data post-processing and storage if necessary.

v.Optional warmup on manufacturer request and according to good engineering judgement step (ii) can be repeated (e.g. if the temperature has dropped more than 5oC)

vi.Stabilization After the optional warm-up is completed the engine shall be operated with minimum operator demand (motoring) at engine speed npref for 130±2 seconds with the fan engaged (nfan_engage > 0.9*nengine*rfan) The first 60±1 seconds of this period are considered as a stabilization period, during which the actual engine speed shall be held within ±5 rpm of npref.

vii.Measurement During the following period of 60±1 seconds the actual engine speed shall be held within ±2 rpm of npref and the coolant temperature within ±5oC while the 1) torque for motoring the engine with the fan engaged, the 2) fan speed and the 3) engine speed shall be recorded as an average value over this period of 60±1 seconds. The remaining period of 10±1 seconds shall be used for data post-processing and storage if necessary.

viii.Steps (iii) to (vii) shall be repeated at engine speeds n95h and nhi instead of npref, with an optional warmup step (v) before each stabilization step if needed to maintain a stable coolant temperature (±5oC), according to good engineering judgement.

ix.If the standard deviation of all calculated Ci according to the equation below at the three speeds npref, n95h and nhi is equal or higher than 3 percent, the measurement shall be performed for all engine speeds defining the grid for the fuel mapping procedure (FCMC) according to paragraph 4.3.5.2.1 of this Annex.

The actual fan constant shall be calculated from the measurement data according to the following equation:

where:

Ci fan constant at certain engine speed

MDfan_disengagemeasured engine torque at motoring with fan disengaged (Nm)

MDfan_engagemeasured engine torque at motoring with fan engaged (Nm)

nfan_engagefan speed with fan engaged (rpm)

nfan_disengagefan speed with fan disengaged (rpm)

rfanfan ratio

If the standard deviation of all calculated Ci at the three speeds npref, n95h and nhi is less than 3%, an average value Cavg-fan determined over the three speeds npref, n95h and nhi shall be used for the fan constant.

If the standard deviation of all calculated Ci at the three speeds npref, n95h and nhi is equal or higher than 3%, individual values determined for all engine speeds according to point (ix) shall be used for the fan constant Cind-fan,i. The value of the fan constant for the actual engine speed in equation XXX shall be determined by linear interpolation between the individual values Cind-fan,i of the fan constant.

The engine torque for driving the fan shall be calculated according to the following equation:

 

where:

Mfanengine torque for driving fan (Nm)

Cfanfan constant Cavg-fan or Cind-fan,i corresponding to nengine

The mechanical power consumed by the fan shall be calculated from the engine torque for driving the fan and the actual engine speed. Mechanical power and engine torque shall be taken into account in accordance with paragraph 3.1.2 of this Annex.

2.Electric components/equipment

The electric power supplied externally to electric engine components shall be measured. This measured value shall be corrected to mechanical power by dividing it by a generic efficiency value of 0.65. This mechanical power and the corresponding engine torque shall be taken into account in accordance with paragraph 3.1.2 of this Annex.

Appendix 6

1.Markings 

In the case of an engine being certified accordant to this annex, the engine shall bear:

1.1The manufacturer’s name and trade mark

1.2The make and identifying type indication as recorded in the information referred to in point 0.1 and 0.2 of Appendix 2 to this Annex

1.3The certification mark as a rectangle surrounding the lower-case letter ‘e’ followed by the distinguishing number of the Member State which has granted the certificate:

1 for Germany;

2 for France;

3 for Italy;

4 for the Netherlands;

5 for Sweden;

6 for Belgium;

7 for Hungary;

8 for the Czech Republic;

9 for Spain;

11 for the United Kingdom;

12 for Austria;

13 for Luxembourg;

17 for Finland;

18 for Denmark;



19 for Romania;

20 for Poland;

21 for Portugal;

23 for Greece;

24 for Ireland;

25 for Croatia;

26 for Slovenia;

27 for Slovakia;

29 for Estonia;

32 for Latvia;

34 for Bulgaria;

36 for Lithuania;

49 for Cyprus;

50 for Malta

1.4 The certification mark shall also include in the vicinity of the rectangle the ‘base approval number’ as specified for Section 4 of the type-approval number set out in Annex VII to Directive 2007/46/EC, preceded by the two figures indicating the sequence number assigned to the latest technical amendment to this Regulation and by a character 'E' indicating that the approval has been granted for an engine.

For this Regulation, the sequence number shall be 00.

1.4.1 Example and dimensions of the certification mark (separate marking)

The above certification mark affixed to an engine shows that the type concerned has been certified in Poland (e20), pursuant to this Regulation. The first two digits (00) are indicating the sequence number assigned to the latest technical amendment to this Regulation. The following digit indicates that the certificate was granted for an engine (E). The last four digits (0004) are those allocated by the approval authority to the engine as the base approval number.

1.5In the case that the certification in accordance with this Regulation is granted at the same time as the type approval in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 582/2011, the marking requirements laid down in point 1.4 may follow, separated by '/', the marking requirements laid down in Appendix 8 to Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

1.5.1 Example of the certification mark (joined marking)

The above certification mark affixed to an engine shows that the type concerned has been certified in Poland (e20), pursuant to Regulation (EU) 582/2011 (Regulation (EU) No 133/2014). The “D” indicates Diesel followed by a “C” for the emission stage. The following two digits (00) are indicating the sequence number assigned to the latest technical amendment to the above mentioned regulation followed by four digits (0004) which are those allocated by the approval authority to the engine as the base approval number for Regulation (EU) 582/2011. After the dash the first two figures are indicating the sequence number assigned to the latest technical amendment to this Regulation, followed by a digit “E” for engine, followed by four digits allocated by the approval authority for the purpose of certification in accordance with this Regulation (‘base approval number` to this regulation).

1.6.On request of the applicant for certification and after prior agreement with the approval authority other type sizes than indicated in point 1.4.1 and 1.51 may be used. Those other type sizes shall remain clearly legible.

1.7.The markings, labels, plates or stickers must be durable for the useful life of the engine and must be clearly legible and indelible. The manufacturer shall ensure that the markings, labels, plates or sticker cannot be removed without destroying or defacing them.

2Numbering

2.1Certification number for engines shall comprise the following:

eX*YYY/YYYY*ZZZZ/ZZE*0000*00

section 1

section 2

section 3

Additional digit to section 3

section 4

section 5

Indication of country issuing the certification

Basic act (595/2009)

Latest version of the implementing act (2017/xx)

E - engine

Base certification number

0000

Extension

00



Appendix 7

Input parameters for the simulation tool

Introduction

This Appendix describes the list of parameters to be provided by the component manufacturer as input to the simulation tool. The applicable XML schema as well as example data are available at the dedicated electronic distribution platform.

The XML is automatically generated by the engine pre-processing tool.

Definitions

(1)“Parameter ID”: Unique identifier as used in “Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool” for a specific input parameter or set of input data

(2)“Type”: Data type of the parameter

string ……..sequence of characters in ISO8859-1 encoding

date ………date and time in UTC time in the format:
YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ with italic letters denoting fixed characters e.g. “2002-05-30T09:30:10Z”

integer …… value with an integral data type, no leading zeros, e.g. “1800”

double, X ....fractional number with exactly X digits after the decimal sign (“.”) and no leading zeros e.g. for “double, 2”: “2345.67”; for “double, 4”: “45.6780”

(3)“Unit” …    physical unit of the parameter



Set of input parameters

Table 1: Input parameters “Engine/General”

Parameter name

Parameter ID

Type

Unit

Description/Reference

Manufacturer

P200

string

 

 

Make

P201

string

 

Trade name of manufacturer

TypeID

P202

string

 

Identifier of the component as used in the certification process

Date

P203

date

 

Date and Time when the component file is created.

AppVersion

P204

string

 

VectoEngine version number

Displacement

P061

integer

[cm³]

 

IdlingSpeed

P063

integer

[1/min]

 

WHTCUrban

P109

double, 4

[-]

 

WHTCRural

P110

double, 4

[-]

 

WHTCMotorway

P111

double, 4

[-]

 

BFColdHot

P159

double, 4

[-]

 

CFRegPer

P192

double, 4

[-]

 

FuelType

P193

string

[-]

Allowed values are: "Diesel CI", "Ethanol CI", "Petrol PI", "Ethanol PI", "LPG", "NG"

Table 2: Input parameters “Engine/FullloadCurve” for each grid point in the full load curve

Parameter name

Parameter ID

Type

Unit

Description/Reference

EngineSpeed

P068

double, 2

[1/min]

 

MaxTorque

P069

double, 2

[Nm]

 

DragTorque

P070

double, 2

[Nm]

 

Table 3: Input parameters “Engine/FuelMap” for each grid point in the fuel map

Parameter name

Parameter ID

Type

Unit

Description/Reference

EngineSpeed

P072

double, 2

[1/min]

 

Torque

P073

double, 2

[Nm]

 

FuelConsumption

P074

double, 2

[g/h]

 

(1) Information concerning engine performance shall only be given for the parent engine.
(2) Specify the tolerance; to be within ±3 % of the values declared by the manufacturer.
Top

ANNEX

to the

Commission Regulation (EU) .../...

implementing Regulation (EU) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011

ANNEX IV

VERIFYING TRANSMISSION, TORQUE CONVERTER, OTHER TORQUE TRANSFERRING COMPONENT AND ADDITIONAL DRIVELINE COMPONENT DATA

1.Introduction

This annex describes the certification provisions regarding the torque losses of transmissions, torque converter (TC), other torque transferring components (OTTC) and additional driveline components (ADC) for heavy duty vehicles. In addition it defines calculation procedures for the standard torque losses.

Torque converter (TC), other torque transferring components (OTTC) and additional driveline components (ADC) can be tested in combination with a transmission or as a separate unit. In the case that those components are tested separately the provisions of section 4, 5 and 6 apply. Torque losses resulting from the drive mechanism between the transmission and those components can be neglected.

2.Definitions

For the purposes of this Annex the following definitions shall apply:

(1)“Transfer case” means a device that splits the engine power of a vehicle and directs it to the front and rear drive axles. It is mounted behind the transmission and both front and rear drive shafts connect to it. It comprises either a gearwheel set or a chain drive system in which the power is distributed from the transmission to the axles. The transfer case will typically have the ability to shift between standard drive mode (front or rear wheel drive), high range traction mode (front and rear wheel drive), low range traction mode and neutral;

(2)“Gear ratio” means the forward gear ratio of the speed of the input shaft (towards prime mover) to the speed of the output shaft (towards driven wheels) without slip (i = nin/nout);

(3)“Ratio coverage” means the ratio of the largest to the smallest forward gear ratios in a transmission: tot = imax/imin.

(4)“Compound transmission” means a transmission, with a large number of forward gears and/or large ratio coverage, composed of sub-transmissions, which are combined to use most power-transferring parts in several forward gears;

(5)“Main section” means the sub-transmission that has the largest number of forward gears in a compound transmission;

(6)“Range section” means a sub-transmission normally in series connection with the main section in a compound transmission. A range section usually has two shiftable forward gears. The lower forward gears of the complete transmission are embodied using the low range gear. The higher gears are embodied using the high range gear;

(7)“Splitter” means a design that splits the main section gears in two (usually) variants, low- and high split gears, whose gear ratios are close compared to the ratio coverage of the transmission. A splitter can be a separate sub-transmission, an add-on device, integrated with the main section or a combination thereof;

(8)“Tooth clutch” means a clutch where torque is transferred mainly by normal forces between mating teeth. A tooth clutch can either be engaged or disengaged. It is operated in load-free conditions, only (e.g., at gear shifts in a manual transmission);

(9)“Angle drive” means a device that transmits rotational power between non-parallel shafts, often used with transversely oriented engine and longitudinal input to driven axle;

(10)“Friction clutch” means clutch for transfer of propulsive torque, where torque is sustainably transferred by friction forces. A friction clutch can transmit torque while slipping, it can thereby (but does not have to) be operated at start-offs and at powershifts (retained power transfer during a gear shift);

(11)“Synchroniser” means a type of tooth clutch where a friction device is used to equalise the speeds of the rotating parts to be engaged;

(12)“Gear mesh efficiency” means the ratio of output power to input power when transmitted in a forward gear mesh with relative motion;

(13)“Crawler gear” means a low forward gear (with speed reduction ratio that is larger than for the non-crawler gears) that is designed to be used infrequently, e.g., at low-speed manoeuvres or occasional up-hill start-offs;

(14)“Power take-off (PTO)” means a device on a transmission or an engine to which an auxiliary driven device, e.g., a hydraulic pump, can be connected;

(15)“Power take-off drive mechanism” means a device in a transmission that allows the installation of a power take-off (PTO);

(16)“Lock-up clutch” means a friction clutch in a hydrodynamic torque converter; it can connect the input and output sides, thereby eliminating the slip;

(17)“Start-off clutch” means a clutch that adapts speed between engine and driven wheels when the vehicle starts off. The start-off clutch is usually located between engine and transmission.

(18)“Synchronised Manual Transmission (SMT)” means a manually operated transmission with two or more selectable speed ratios that are obtained using synchronisers. Ratio changing is normally achieved during a temporary disconnection of the transmission from the engine using a clutch (usually the vehicle start-off clutch),;

(19)“Automated Manual Transmission or Automatic Mechanically-engaged Transmission (AMT)” means an automatically shifting transmission with two or more selectable speed ratios that are obtained using tooth clutches (un-/synchronised). Ratio changing is achieved during a temporary disconnection of the transmission from the engine. The ratio shifts are performed by an electronically controlled system managing the timing of the shift, the operation of the clutch between engine and gearbox and the speed and torque of the engine. The system selects and engages the most suitable forward gear automatically, but can be overridden by the driver using a manual mode,

(20)“Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT)” means a automatically shifting transmission with two friction clutches and several selectable speed ratios that are obtained by the use of tooth clutches. The ratio shifts are performed by an electronically controlled system managing the timing of the shift, the operation of the clutches and the speed and torque of the engine. The system selects the most suitable gear automatically, but can be overridden by the driver using a manual mode.

(21)"Retarder” means an auxiliary braking device in a vehicle powertrain; aimed for permanent braking;

(22)“Case S” means the serial arrangement of a torque converter and the connected mechanical parts of the transmission;

(23)“Case P” means the parallel arrangement of a torque converter and the connected mechanical parts of the transmission (e.g. in power split installations);

(24)“Automatic Powershifting Transmission (APT)” means an automatically shifting transmission with more than two friction clutches and several selectable speed ratios that are obtained mainly by the use of those friction clutches. The ratio shifts are performed by an electronically controlled system managing the timing of the shift, the operation of the clutches and the speed and torque of the engine. The system selects the most suitable gear automatically, but can be overridden by the driver using a manual mode. Shifts are normally performed without traction interruption (friction clutch to friction clutch);

(25)”Oil conditioning system” means an external system that conditions the oil of a transmission at testing. The system circulates oil to and from the transmission. The oil is thereby filtered and/or temperature conditioned;

(26)”Smart lubrication system” means a system that will affect the load independent losses (also called spin losses or drag losses) of the transmission depending on the input torque and/or power flow through the transmission. Examples are controlled hydraulic pressure pumps for brakes and clutches in an APT, controlled variable oil level in the transmission, controlled variable oil flow/pressure for lubrication and cooling in the transmission. Smart lubrication can also include control of the oil temperature of the transmission, but smart lubrication systems that are designed only for controlling the temperature are not considered here, since the transmission testing procedure has fixed testing temperatures;

(27)“Transmission unique electric auxiliary” means an electric auxiliary used for the function of the transmission during running steady state operation. A typical example is an electric cooling/lubrication pump (but not electric gear shift actuators and electronic control systems including electric solenoid valves, since they are low energy consumers, especially at steady state operation);

(28)“Oil type viscosity grade” means a viscosity grade as defined by SAE J306;

(29)“Factory fill oil” means the oil type viscosity grade that is used for the oil fill in the factory and which is intended to stay in the transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring component or in an additional driveline component for the first service interval;

(30)”Gearscheme” means the arrangement of shafts, gearwheels and clutches in a transmission;

(31)“Powerflow” means the transfer path of power from input to output in a transmission via shafts, gearwheels and clutches;

3.Testing procedure for transmissions

For testing the losses of a transmission the torque loss map for each individual transmission type shall be measured. Transmissions may be grouped into families with similar or equal CO2-relevant data following the provisions of Appendix 6 to this Annex.

For the determination of the transmission torque losses, the applicant for a certificate shall apply one of the following methods for each single forward gear (crawler gears excluded).

(1)    Option 1:    Measurement of the torque independent losses, calculation of the torque dependent losses.

(2)    Option 2:    Measurement of the torque independent losses, measurement of the torque loss at maximum torque and interpolation of the torque dependent losses based on a linear model

(3)    Option 3:    Measurement of the total torque loss.

3.1Option 1: Measurement of the torque independent losses, calculation of the torque dependent losses.

The torque loss Tl,in on the input shaft of the transmission shall be calculated by



The correction factor for the torque dependent hydraulic torque losses shall be calculated by

The correction factor for the torque dependent electric torque losses shall be calculated by

The torque loss at the input shaft of the transmission caused by the power consumption of transmission unique electric auxiliary shall be calculated by

where:

Tl,in=Torque loss related to input shaft [Nm]

Tl,in,min_loss=Torque independent torque loss at minimum hydraulic loss level (minimum main pressure, cooling/lubrication flows etc.), measured with free rotating output shaft from testing without load [Nm]

Tl,in,max_loss=Torque independent torque loss at maximum hydraulic loss level (maximum main pressure, cooling/lubrication flows etc.), measured with free rotating output shaft from testing without load [Nm]

floss_corr=Loss correction for hydraulic loss level depending on input torque [-]

nin=Speed at the transmission input shaft (downstream of torque converter, if applicable) [rpm]

fT=Torque loss coefficient = 1-ηT

Tin=Torque at the input shaft [Nm]

ηT=Torque dependent efficiency (to be calculated);
for a direct gear fT = 0.007 (ηT=0.993) [-]

fel_corr=Loss correction for electric power loss level depending on input torque [-]

Tl,in, el=Additional torque loss on input shaft by electric consumers [Nm]

Tl,in,min_el=Additional torque loss on input shaft by electric consumers corresponding to minimum electric power [Nm]

Tl,in,max_el=Additional torque loss on input shaft by electric consumers corresponding to maximum electric power [Nm]

Pel=Electric power consumption of electric consumers in transmission measured during transmission loss testing [W]

Tmax,in=Maximum allowed input torque for any forward gear in the transmission [Nm]

3.1.1.The torque dependent torque losses of a transmission system shall be determined as described in the following:

In case of multiple parallel and nominally equal power flows, e.g., twin countershafts or several planet gearwheels in a planetary gear set, that can be treated as one power flow in this section.

3.1.1.1.For each indirect gear g of common transmissions with a non-split power flow and ordinary, non-planetary gear sets, the following steps shall be performed:

3.1.1.2.For each active gear mesh, the torque dependent efficiency shall be set to constant values of m:

external – external gear meshes:    ηm = 0.986

external – internal gear meshes:    ηm = 0.993

angle drive gear meshes:        ηm = 0.97

(Angle drive losses may alternatively be determined by separate testing as described in paragraph 6. of this Annex)

3.1.1.3.The product of these torque dependent efficiencies in active gear meshes shall be multiplied with a torque dependent bearing efficiency b = 99.5%.

3.1.1.4.The total torque dependent efficiency  for the gear g shall be calculated by:

3.1.1.5.The torque dependent loss coefficient  for the gear g shall be calculated by:

3.1.1.6.The torque dependent torque loss  on the input shaft for gear g shall be calculated by:

3.1.1.7.The torque dependent efficiency of the planetary range section in low range state for the special case of transmissions consisting of a countershaft-type main section in series with a planetary range section (with non-rotating ring gearwheel and the planet carrier connected to the output shaft) may, alternatively to the procedure described in 3.1.1.8., be calculated by:

where:

ηm,ring=Torque dependent efficiency of the ring-to-planet gear mesh
= 99.3% [-]

ηm,sun=Torque dependent efficiency of the planet-to-sun gear mesh
= 98.6% [-]

zsun=Number of teeth of the sun gearwheel of the range section [-]

zring=Number of teeth of the ring gearwheel of the range section [-]

The planetary range section shall be regarded as an additional gear mesh within the countershaft main section, and its torque dependent efficiency ηlowrange shall be included in the determination of the total torque dependent efficiencies ηTg for the low-range gears in the calculation in 3.1.1.4.

3.1.1.8.For all other transmission types with more complex split power flows and/or planetary gear sets (e.g. a conventional automatic planetary transmission), the following simplified method shall be used to determine the torque dependent efficiency. The method covers transmission systems composed of ordinary, non-planetary gear sets and/or planetary gear sets of ring-planet-sun type. Alternatively the torque dependent efficiency may be calculated based on VDI Regulation No. 2157. Both calculations shall use the same constant gear mesh efficiency values defined in 3.1.1.2.

In this case, for each indirect gear g, the following steps shall be performed:

3.1.1.9.Assuming 1 rad/s of input speed and 1 Nm of input torque, a table of speed (Ni) and torque (Ti) values for all gearwheels with a fix rotational axis (sun gearwheels, ring gearwheels and ordinary gearwheels) and planet carriers shall be created. Speed and torque values shall follow the right-hand rule, with engine rotation as the positive direction.

3.1.1.10.For each planetary gear set, the relative speeds sun-to-carrier and ring-to-carrier shall be calculated by:

where:

Nsun=Rotational speed of sun gearwheel [rad/s]

Nring=Rotational speed of ring gearwheel [rad/s]

Ncarrier=Rotational speed of carrier [rad/s]

3.1.1.11.The loss-producing powers in the gear meshes shall be computed in the following way:

For each ordinary, non-planetary gear set, the power P shall be calculated by:

where:

P=Power of gear mesh [W]

N=Rotational speed of gearwheel [rad/s]

T=Torque of gearwheel [Nm]

For each planetary gear set, the virtual power of sun Pv,sun and ring gearwheels Pv,ring shall be calculated by:

where:

Pv,sun=Virtual power of sun gearwheel [W]

Pv,ring=Virtual power of ring gearwheel [W]

Tsun=Torque of sun gearwheel [Nm]

Tcarrier=Torque of carrier [Nm]

Tring=Torque of ring gearwheel [Nm]

Negative virtual power results shall indicate power leaving the gear set, positive virtual power results shall indicate power going into the gear set.

The loss-adjusted powers Padj of the gear meshes shall be computed in the following way:

For each ordinary, non-planetary gear set, the negative power shall be multiplied by the appropriate torque dependent efficiency ηm:

where:

Padj=Loss-adjusted powers of the gear meshes [W]

m=Torque dependent efficiency (appropriate to gear mesh; see 3.1.1.2.) [-]

For each planetary gear set, the negative virtual power shall be multiplied by the torque-dependent efficiencies of sun-to-planet ηmsun and ring-to-planet ηmring:

where:

msun=Torque dependent efficiency of sun-to-planet [-]

mring=Torque dependent efficiency of ring-to-planet [-]

3.1.1.12.All loss-adjusted power values shall be added up to the torque dependent gear mesh power loss Pm,loss of the transmission system referring to the input power:

where:

i=All gearwheels with a fix rotational axis [-]

Pm,loss=Torque dependent gear mesh power loss of the transmission system [W]

3.1.1.13.The torque dependent loss coefficient for bearings,

and the torque dependent loss coefficient for the gear mesh

shall be added to receive the total torque dependent loss coefficient fT for the transmission system:

where:

fT=Total torque dependent loss coefficient for the transmission system [-]

fT,bear=Torque dependent loss coefficient for the bearings [-]

fT,gearmesh=Torque dependent loss coefficient for the gear meshes [-]

Pin=Fixed input power of the transmission; Pin = (1 Nm * 1 rad/s) [W]

3.1.1.14.The torque dependent torque losses on the input shaft for the specific gear shall be calculated by:

where:

Tl,inT=Torque dependent torque loss related to input shaft [Nm]

Tin=Torque at the input shaft [Nm]

3.1.2.The torque independent losses shall be measured in accordance with the procedure described in the following.

3.1.2.1.General requirements

The transmission used for the measurements shall be in accordance with the drawing specifications for series production transmissions and shall be new.

Modifications to the transmission to meet the testing requirements of this Annex, e.g. for the inclusion of measurement sensors or adaption of an external oil conditioning system are permitted.

The tolerance limits in this paragraph refer to measurement values without sensor uncertainty.

Total tested time per transmission individual and gear shall not exceed 2.5 times the actual testing time per gear (allowing re-testing of transmission if needed due to measuring or rig error).

The same transmission individual may be used for a maximum of 10 different tests, e.g. for tests of transmission torque losses for variants with and without retarder (with different temperature requirements) or with different oils. If the same transmission individual is used for tests of different oils, the recommended factory fill oil shall be tested first.

It is not permitted to run a certain test multiple times to choose a test series with the lowest results.

Upon request of the approval authority or the technical service the applicant for a certificate shall specify and prove the conformity with the requirements defined in this Annex.

3.1.2.2.Differential measurements

To subtract influences caused by the test rig setup (e.g. bearings, clutches) from the measured torque losses, differential measurements are permitted to determine these parasitic torques. The measurements shall be performed at the same speed steps and same test rig bearing temperature(s) ±3 K used for the testing. The torque sensor measurement uncertainty shall be below 0.3 Nm.

3.1.2.3.Run-in

On request of the applicant a run-in procedure may be applied to the transmission. The following provisions shall apply for a run-in procedure.

3.1.2.3.1.The procedure shall not exceed 30 hours per gear and 100 hours in total.

3.1.2.3.2.The application of the input torque shall be limited to 100% of maximum input torque.

3.1.2.3.3.The maximum input speed shall be limited by the specified maximum speed for the transmission.

3.1.2.3.4.The speed and torque profile for the run-in procedure shall be specified by the manufacturer.

3.1.2.3.5.The run-in procedure shall be documented by the manufacturer with regard to run-time, speed, torque and oil temperature and reported to the Approval authority.

3.1.2.3.6.The requirements for the ambient temperature (3.1.2.5.1.), measurement accuracy (3.1.4.), test set-up (3.1.8.) and installation angle (3.1.3.2) shall not apply for the run-in procedure.

3.1.2.4.Pre-conditioning

3.1.2.4.1.Pre-conditioning of the transmission and the test rig equipment to achieve correct and stable temperatures before the run-in and testing procedures is allowed.

3.1.2.4.2.The pre-conditioning shall be performed on the direct drive gear without applied torque to the output shaft. If the transmission is not equipped with a direct drive gear, the gear with the ratio closest to 1:1 shall be used.

3.1.2.4.3.The maximum input speed shall be limited by the specified maximum speed for the transmission.

3.1.2.4.4.The maximum combined time for the pre-conditioning shall not exceed 50 hours in total for one transmission. Since the complete testing of a transmission may be divided into multiple test sequences (e.g. each gear tested with a separate sequence), the pre-conditioning may be split into several sequences. Each of the single pre-conditioning sequences shall not exceed 60 minutes.

3.1.2.4.5.The pre-conditioning time shall not be accounted to the time span allocated for the run-in or test procedures.

3.1.2.5.Test conditions

3.1.2.5.1.Ambient temperature

The ambient temperature during the test shall be in a range of 25 °C ± 10 K.

The ambient temperature shall be measured 1 m laterally from the transmission.

The ambient temperature limit shall not apply for the run-in procedure.

3.1.2.5.2.Oil temperature

Except for the oil, no external heating is allowed.

During measurement (except stabilization) the following temperature limits shall apply:

For SMT/AMT/DCT transmissions, the drain plug oil temperature shall not exceed 83°C when measuring without retarder and 87°C with retarder mounted to the transmission. If measurements of a transmission without retarder are to be combined with separate measurements of a retarder, the lower temperature limit shall apply to compensate for the retarder drive mechanism and step-up gear and for the clutch in case of a disengageable retarder.

For torque converter planetary transmissions and for transmissions having more than two friction clutches, the drain plug oil temperature shall not exceed 93 °C without retarder and 97 °C with retarder.

To apply the above defined increased temperature limits for testing with retarder, the retarder shall be integrated in the transmission or have an integrated cooling or oil system with the transmission.

During the run-in, the same oil temperature specifications as for regular testing shall apply.

Exceptional oil temperature peaks up to 110 °C are allowed for the following conditions:

(1)during run-in procedure up to maximum of 10% of the applied run-in time,

(2)during stabilization time.

The oil temperature shall be measured at the drain plug or in the oil sump.

3.1.2.5.3.Oil quality

New, recommended first fill oil for the European market shall be used in the test. The same oil fill may be used for run-in and torque measurement.

3.1.2.5.4.Oil viscosity

If multiple oils are recommended for first fill, they are considered to be equal if the oils have a kinematic viscosity within 10% of each other at the same temperature (within the specified tolerance band for KV100). Any oil with lower viscosity than the oil used in the test shall be considered to result in lower losses for the tests performed within this option. Any additional first fill oil must fall either in the 10% tolerance band or have lower viscosity than the oil in the test to be covered by the same certificate.

3.1.2.5.5.Oil level and conditioning

The oil level shall meet the nominal specifications for the transmission.

If an external oil conditioning system is used, the oil inside the transmission shall be kept to the specified volume that corresponds to the specified oil level.

To guarantee that the external oil conditioning system is not influencing the test, one test point shall be measured with the conditioning system both on and off. The deviation between the two measurements of the torque loss (=input torque) shall be less than 5%. The test point is specified as follows:

(1)gear = highest indirect gear,

(2)input speed = 1600 rpm,

(3)temperatures as specified under 3.1.2.5.

For transmissions with hydraulic pressure control or a smart lubrication system, the measurement of torque independent losses shall be performed with two different settings: first with the transmission system pressure set to at least the minimum value for conditions with engaged gear and a second time with the maximum possible hydraulic pressure (see 3.1.6.3.1).

3.1.3.Installation

3.1.3.1.The electric machine and the torque sensor shall be mounted to the input side of the transmission. The output shaft shall rotate freely.

3.1.3.2.The installation of the transmission shall be done with an angle of inclination as for installation in the vehicle according to the homologation drawing ±1° or at 0°±1°.

3.1.3.3.The internal oil pump shall be included in the transmission.

3.1.3.4.If an oil cooler is either optional or required with the transmission, the oil cooler may be excluded in the test or any oil cooler may be used in the test.

3.1.3.5Transmission testing can be done with or without power take-off drive mechanism and/or power take-off. For establishing the power losses of power take-offs and /or power take-off drive mechanism, the values in Annex VII to this regulation are applied. These values assume that the transmission is tested without power take-off drive mechanism and /or power take-off.

3.1.3.6.Measuring the transmission may be performed with or without single dry clutch (with one or two plates) installed. Clutches of any other type shall be installed during the test.

3.1.3.7.The individual influence of parasitic loads shall be calculated for each specific test rig setup and torque sensor as described in 3.1.8.

3.1.4.Measurement equipment

The calibration laboratory facilities shall comply with the requirements of either ISO/TS 16949, ISO 9000 series or ISO/IEC 17025. All laboratory reference measurement equipment, used for calibration and/or verification, shall be traceable to national (international) standards.

3.1.4.1.Torque

The torque sensor measurement uncertainty shall be below 0.3 Nm.

The use of torque sensors with higher measurement uncertainties is allowed if the part of the uncertainty exceeding 0.3 Nm can be calculated and is added to the measured torque loss as described in 3.1.8. Measurement uncertainty.

3.1.4.2.Speed

The uncertainty of the speed sensors shall not exceed ± 1 rpm.

3.1.4.3.Temperature

The uncertainty of the temperature sensors for the measurement of the ambient temperature shall not exceed ± 1.5 K.

The uncertainty of the temperature sensors for the measurement of the oil temperature shall not exceed ± 1.5 K.

3.1.4.4.Pressure

The uncertainty of the pressure sensors shall not exceed 1% of the maximum measured pressure.

3.1.4.5.Voltage

The uncertainty of the voltmeter shall not exceed 1% of the maximum measured voltage.

3.1.4.6.Electric current

The uncertainty of the amperemeter shall not exceed 1% of the maximum measured current.

3.1.5.Measurement signals and data recording

At least the following signals shall be recorded during the measurement:

(1)Input torques [Nm]

(2)Input rotational speeds [rpm]

(3)Ambient temperature [°C]

(4)Oil temperature [°C]

If the transmission is equipped with a shift and/or clutch system that is controlled by hydraulic pressure or with a mechanically driven smart lubrication system, additionally to be recorded:

(5)Oil pressure [kPa]

If the transmission is equipped with transmission unique electric auxiliary, additionally to be recorded:

(6)Voltage of transmission unique electric auxiliary [V]

(7)Current of transmission unique electric auxiliary [A]

For differential measurements for the compensation of influences caused by the test rig setup, additionally shall be recorded:

(8)Test rig bearing temperature [°C]

The sampling and recording rate shall be 100 Hz or higher.

A low pass filter shall be applied to reduce measurement errors.

3.1.6.Test procedure

3.1.6.1.Zero torque signal compensation:

The zero-signal of the torque sensor(s) shall be measured. For the measurement the sensor(s) shall be installed in the test rig. The drivetrain of the test rig (input & output) shall be free of load. The measured signal deviation from zero shall be compensated.

3.1.6.2.Speed range:

The torque loss shall be measured for the following speed steps (speed of the input shaft): 600, 900, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, […] rpm up to the maximum speed per gear according to the specifications of the transmission or the last speed step before the defined maximum speed.

The speed ramp (time for the change between two speed steps) shall not extend 20 seconds.

3.1.6.3.Measurement sequence:

3.1.6.3.1.If the transmission is equipped with smart lubrication systems and/or transmission unique electric auxiliaries, the measurement shall be conducted with two measurement settings of of these systems:

A first measurement sequence (3.1.6.3.2. to 3.1.6.3.4.) shall be performed with the lowest power consumption by hydraulical and electrical systems when operated in the vehicle (low loss level).

The second measurement sequence shall be performed with the systems set to work with the highest possible power consumption when operated in the vehicle (high loss level).

3.1.6.3.2.The measurements shall be performed beginning with the lowest up to the highest speed.

3.1.6.3.3. For each speed step a minimum of 5 seconds stabilization time within the temperature limits defined in 3.1.2.5 is required. If needed, the stabilization time may be extended by the manufacturer to maximum 60 seconds. Oil and ambient temperatures shall be recorded during the stabilization.

3.1.6.3.4. After the stabilization time, the measurement signals listed in 3.1.5. shall be recorded for the test point for 05-15 seconds.

3.1.6.3.5.Each measurement shall be performed two times per measurement setting.

3.1.7.Measurement validation

3.1.7.1.The arithmetic mean values of torque, speed, (if applicable) voltage and current for the 05-15 seconds measurement shall be calculated for each of the measurements.

3.1.7.2.The averaged speed deviation shall be below ± 5 rpm of the speed set point for each measured point for the complete torque loss series.

3.1.7.3.The mechanical torque losses and (if applicable) electrical power consumption shall be calculated for each of the measurements as followed:

It is allowed to subtract influences caused by the test rig setup from the torque losses (3.1.2.2.).

3.1.7.4.The mechanical torque losses and (if applicable) electrical power consumption from the two sets shall be averaged (arithmetic mean values). 

3.1.7.5.The deviation between the averaged torque losses of the two measurement points for each setting shall be below ± 5% of the average or ± 1 Nm, whichever value is larger.

3.1.7.6.If the deviation is higher, the worst measurement value shall be taken or the test shall be repeated for the gear.

3.1.7.7.The deviation between the averaged electric power consumption (voltage*current) values of the two measurements for each measurement setting shall be below ± 10% of the average or ± 5 W, whichever value is larger. Then, the arithmetic average of the two averaged power values shall be taken.

3.1.7.8.If the deviation is higher, the set of averaged voltage and current values giving the largest averaged power consumption shall be taken, or the test shall be repeated for the gear.

3.1.8.Measurement uncertainty

The part of the calculated total uncertainty UT,loss exceeding 0.3 Nm shall be added to Tloss for the reported torque loss Tloss,rep. If UT,loss is smaller than 0.3 Nm, then Tloss,rep = Tloss.

Tloss,rep = Tloss + MAX (0 , (UT,loss – 0.3 Nm))

The total uncertainty UT,loss of the torque loss shall be calculated based on the following parameters:

(1)Temperature effect

(2)Parasitic loads

(3)Calibration error (incl. sensitivity tolerance, linearity, hysteresis and repeatability)

The total uncertainty of the torque loss (UT,loss) is based on the uncertainties of the sensors at 95% confidence level. The calculation shall be done as the square root of the sum of squares (“Gaussian law of error propagation”).

where:

Tloss=Measured torque loss (uncorrected) [Nm]

Tloss,rep=Reported torque loss (after uncertainty correction) [Nm]

UT,loss=Total expanded uncertainty of torque loss measurement at 95% confidence level [Nm]

UT,in=Uncertainty of input torque loss measurement [Nm]

uTKC=Uncertainty by temperature influence on current torque signal [Nm]

wtkc=Temperature influence on current torque signal per Kref, declared by sensor manufacturer [%]

uTK0=Uncertainty by temperature influence on zero torque signal (related to nominal torque) [Nm]

wtk0=Temperature influence on zero torque signal per Kref (related to nominal torque), declared by sensor manufacturer [%]

Kref=Reference temperature span for uTKC and uTK0, wtk0 and wtkc, declared by sensor manufacturer [K]

∆K=Difference in sensor temperature between calibration and measurement [K]. If the sensor temperature cannot be measured, a default value of ∆K = 15 K shall be used.

Tc=Current / measured torque value at torque sensor [Nm]

Tn=Nominal torque value of torque sensor [Nm]

ucal=Uncertainty by torque sensor calibration [Nm]

Wcal=Relative calibration uncertainty (related to nominal torque) [%]

kcal=Calibration advancement factor (if declared by sensor manufacturer, otherwise = 1)

upara=Uncertainty by parasitic loads [Nm]

wpara=senspara * ipara

Relative influence of forces and bending torques caused by misalignment

senspara=Maximum influence of parasitic loads for specific torque sensor declared by sensor manufacturer [%]; if no specific value for parasitic loads is declared by the sensor manufacturer, the value shall be set to 1.0%

ipara=Maximum influence of parasitic loads for specific torque sensor depending on test setup (A/B/C, as defined below).

=A) 10% in case of bearings isolating the parasitic forces in front of and behind the sensor and a flexible coupling (or cardan shaft) installed functionally next to the sensor (downstream or upstream); furthermore, these bearings can be integrated in a driving/braking machine (e.g. electric machine) and/or in the transmission as long as the forces in the machine and/or transmission are isolated from the sensor. See figure 1.

Figure 1 Test setup A for Option 1

=B) 50% in case of bearings isolating the parasitic forces in front of and behind the sensor and no flexible coupling installed functionally next to the sensor; furthermore, these bearings can be integrated in a driving/braking machine (e.g. electric machine) and/or in the transmission as long as the forces in the machine and/or transmission are isolated from the sensor. See figure 2.

Figure 2 Test setup B for Option 1

=C) 100% for other setups

3.2.Option 2: Measurement of the torque independent losses, measurement of the torque loss at maximum torque and interpolation of the torque dependent losses based on a linear model

Option 2 describes the determination of the torque loss by a combination of measurements and linear interpolation. Measurements shall be performed for the torque independent losses of the transmission and for one load point of the torque dependent losses (maximum input torque). Based on the torque losses at no load and at maximum input torque, the torque losses for the input torques in between shall be calculated with the torque loss coefficient fTlimo.

The torque loss Tl,in on the input shaft of the transmission shall be calculated by

The torque loss coefficient based on the linear model fTlimo shall be calculated by

where:

Tl,in=Torque loss related to input shaft [Nm]

Tl,in,min_loss=Drag torque loss at transmission input, measured with free rotating output shaft from testing without load [Nm]

nin=Speed at the input shaft [rpm]

fTlimo=Torque loss coefficient based on linear model [-]

Tin=Torque at the input shaft [Nm]

Tin,maxT=Maximum tested torque at the input shaft (100% input torque) [Nm]

Tl,maxT=Torque loss related to input shaft with Tin = Tin,maxT

fel_corr=Loss correction for electric power loss level depending on input torque [-]

Tl,in,el=Additional torque loss on input shaft by electric consumers [Nm]

Tl,in,min_el=Additional torque loss on input shaft by electric consumers corresponding to minimum electric power [Nm]

The correction factor for the torque dependent electric torque losses fel_corr and the torque loss at the input shaft of the transmission caused by the power consumption of transmission unique electric auxiliary Tl,in,el shall be calculated as described in paragraph 3.1.

3.2.1.The torque losses shall be measured in accordance with the procedure described in the following.

3.2.1.1.General requirements:

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.1.

3.2.1.2.Differential measurements:

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.2.

3.2.1.3.Run-in

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.3.

3.2.1.4.Pre-conditioning

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.2.1.

3.2.1.5.Test conditions

3.2.1.5.1. Ambient temperature

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.1.

3.2.1.5.2. Oil temperature

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.2.

3.2.1.5.3. Oil quality / Oil viscosity

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.3 and 3.1.2.5.4.

3.2.1.5.4. Oil level and conditioning

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.5.

3.2.2.Installation

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.3. for the measurement of the torque independent torque losses.

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.4. for the measurement of the torque dependent torque losses.

3.2.3.Measurement equipment

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.4. for the measurement of the torque independent torque losses.

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.5. for the measurement of the torque dependent torque losses.

3.2.4.Measurement signals and data recording

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.5 for the measurement of the torque independent torque losses.

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.7 for the measurement of the torque dependent torque losses.

3.2.5.Test procedure

The torque loss map to be applied to the simulation tool contains the torque loss values of a transmission depending on rotational input speed and input torque.

To determine the torque loss map for a transmission, the basic torque loss map data shall be measured and calculated as specified in this paragraph. The torque loss results shall be complemented in accordance with 3.4 and formatted in accordance with Appendix 9 for the further processing by the simulation tool.

3.2.5.1.The torque independent losses shall be determined by the procedure described in 3.1.1. for the torque independent losses for Option 1 only for the low loss level setting of electric and hydraulic consumers.

3.2.5.2.Determine the torque dependent torque losses for each of the gears using the procedure described for Option 3 in 3.3.6., diverging in the applicable torque range:

Torque range:

The torque losses for each gear shall be measured at 100% of the maximum transmission input torque per gear.

In the case the output torque exceeds 10 kNm (for a theoretical loss free transmission) or the input power exceeds the specified maximum input power, point 3.4.4. shall apply.

3.2.6.Measurement validation

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.8.

3.2.7.Measurement uncertainty

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.8. for the measurement of the torque independent losses.

As specified for Option 3 in 3.3.9. for the measurement of the torque dependent torque loss.

3.3.Option 3: Measurement of the total torque loss.

Option 3 describes the determination of the torque loss by full measurement of the torque dependent losses including the torque independent losses of the transmission.

3.3.1.General requirements

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.1.

3.3.1.1Differential measurements:

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.2.

3.3.2.Run-in 

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.3.

3.3.2.1    Pre-conditioning

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.4. with an exception for the following:

The pre-conditioning shall be performed on the direct drive gear without applied torque to the output shaft or target torque on the output shaft set to zero. If the transmission is not equipped with a direct drive gear, the gear with the ratio closest to 1:1 shall be used.

or

The requirements as specified in 3.1.2.4. shall apply, with an exception for the following:

The pre-conditioning shall be performed on the direct drive gear without applied torque to the output shaft or the torque on the output shaft being within +/- 50 Nm. If the transmission is not equipped with a direct drive gear, the gear with the ratio closest to 1:1 shall be used.

or, if the test rig includes a (master friction) clutch at the input shaft:

The requirements as specified in 3.1.2.4. shall apply, with an exception for the following:

The pre-conditioning shall be performed on the direct drive gear without applied torque to the output shaft or without applied torque to the input shaft. If the transmission is not equipped with a direct drive gear, the gear with the ratio closest to 1:1 shall be used.

The transmission would then be driven from the output side. Those proposals could also be combined.

3.3.3.Test conditions

3.3.3.1.Ambient temperature

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.1.

3.3.3.2.Oil temperature

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.2.

3.3.3.3.Oil quality / Oil viscosity

As specified for Option 1 in 3.1.2.5.3 and 3.1.2.5.4.

3.3.3.4.Oil level and conditioning

The requirements as specified in 3.1.2.5.5. shall apply, diverging in the following:

The test point for the external oil conditioning system is specified as follows:

(1)highest indirect gear,

(2)input speed = 1600 rpm,

(3)input torque = maximum input torque for the highest indirect gear

3.3.4.Installation

The test rig shall be driven by electric machines (input and output).

Torque sensors shall be installed at the input and output side of the transmission.

Other requirements as specified in 3.1.3. shall apply.

3.3.5.Measurement equipment

For the measurement of the torque independent losses, the measurement equipment requirements as specified for Option 1 in 3.1.4. shall apply.

For the measurement of the torque dependent losses, the following requirements shall apply:

The torque sensor measurement uncertainty shall be below 5% of the measured torque loss or 1 Nm (whichever value is larger).

The use of torque sensors with higher measurement uncertainties is allowed if the parts of the uncertainty exceeding 5% or 1 Nm can be calculated and the smaller of those parts is added to the measured torque loss.

The torque measurement uncertainty shall be calculated and included as described under 3.3.9.

Other measurement equipment requirements as specified for Option 1 in 3.1.4. shall apply.

3.3.6.Test procedure

3.3.6.1.Zero torque signal compensation:

As specified in 3.1.6.1.

3.3.6.2.Speed range

The torque loss shall be measured for the following speed steps (speed of the input shaft): 600, 900, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, […] rpm up to the maximum speed per gear according to the specifications of the transmission or the last speed step before the defined maximum speed.

The speed ramp (time for the change between two speed steps) shall not exceed 20 seconds.

3.3.6.3.Torque range

For each speed step the torque loss shall be measured for the following input torques: 0 (free rotating output shaft), 200, 400, 600, 900, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, […] Nm up to the maximum input torque per gear according to the specifications of the transmission or the last torque step before the defined maximum torque and / or the last torque step before the output torque of 10 kNm.

In the case the output torque exceeds 10 kNm (for a theoretical loss free transmission) or the input power exceeds the specified maximum input power, point 3.4.4. shall apply.

The torque ramp (time for the change between two torque steps) shall not exceed 15 seconds (180 seconds for option 2).

To cover the complete torque range of a transmission in the above defined map, different torque sensors with limited measurement ranges may be used on the input/output side. Therefore the measurement may be divided into sections using the same set of torque sensors. The overall torque loss map shall be composed of these measurement sections.

3.3.6.4.Measurement sequence

3.3.6.4.1. The measurements shall be performed beginning with the lowest up to the highest speed.

3.3.6.4.2. The input torque shall be varied according to the above defined torque steps from the lowest to the highest torque which is covered by the current torque sensors for each speed step.

3.3.6.4.3. For each speed and torque step a minimum of 5 seconds stabilization time within the temperature limits defined in 3.3.3. is required. If needed, the stabilization time may be extended by the manufacturer to maximum 60 seconds (maximum 180 seconds for option 2). Oil and ambient temperatures shall be recorded during the stabilization.

3.3.6.4.4. The measurement set shall be performed two times in total. For that purpose, sequenced repetition of sections using the same set of torque sensors is allowed. 

3.3.7.Measurement signals and data recording

At least the following signals shall be recorded during the measurement:

(1)Input and output torques [Nm]

(2)Input and output rotational speeds [rpm]

(3)Ambient temperature [°C]

(4)Oil temperature [°C]

If the transmission is equipped with a shift and/or clutch system that is controlled by hydraulic pressure or with a mechanically driven smart lubrication system, additionally to be recorded:

(5)Oil pressure [kPa]

If the transmission is equipped with transmission unique electric auxiliary, additionally to be recorded:

(6)Voltage of transmission unique electric auxiliary [V]

(7)Current of transmission unique electric auxiliary [A]

For differential measurements for compensation of influences by test rig setup, additionally to be recorded:

(8)Test rig bearing temperature [°C]

The sampling and recording rate shall be 100 Hz or higher.

A low pass filter shall be applied to avoid measurement errors.

3.3.8.Measurement validation

3.3.8.1.The arithmetic mean values of torque, speed, if applicable voltage and current for the 05-15 seconds measurement shall be calculated for each of the two measurements.

3.3.8.2.The measured and averaged speed at the input shaft shall be below ± 5 rpm of the speed set point for each measured operating point for the complete torque loss series. The measured and averaged torque at the input shaft shall be below ± 5 Nm or ± 5 % of the torque set point whichever value is larger for each measured operating point for the complete torque loss series.

3.3.8.3.The mechanical torque losses and (if applicable) electrical power consumption shall be calculated for each of the measurements as followed:

It is allowed to subtract influences caused by the test rig setup from the torque losses (3.3.2.2.).

3.3.8.4.The mechanical torque losses and (if applicable) electrical power consumption from the two sets shall be averaged (arithmetic mean values). 

3.3.8.5.The deviation between the averaged torque losses of the two measurement sets shall be below ± 5% of the average or ± 1 Nm (whichever value is larger). If the deviation is higher, the worst measurement value shall be taken or the test shall be repeated for the gear.

3.3.8.6.The deviation between the averaged electric power consumption (voltage*current) values of the two measurement sets shall be below ± 10% of the average or ± 5 W, whichever value is larger. Then, the arithmetic average of the two averaged power values shall be taken.

3.3.8.7.If the deviation is higher, the set of averaged voltage and current values giving the largest averaged power consumption shall be taken, or the test shall be repeated for the gear.

3.3.9.Measurement uncertainty

The part of the calculated total uncertainty UT,loss exceeding 5% of Tloss or 1 Nm (ΔUT,loss), whichever value of ΔUT,loss is smaller, shall be added to Tloss for the reported torque loss Tloss,rep. If UT,loss is smaller than 5% of Tloss or 1 Nm, than Tloss,rep = Tloss.

Tloss,rep = Tloss +MAX (0 , ΔUT,loss)

ΔUT,loss = MIN ((UT,loss - 5% * Tloss), (UT,loss – 1 Nm))

For each measurement set, the total uncertainty UT,loss of the torque loss shall be calculated based on the following parameters:

(1)Temperature effect

(2)Parasitic loads

(3)Calibration error (incl. sensitivity tolerance, linearity, hysteresis and repeatability)

The total uncertainty of the torque loss (UT,loss) is based on the uncertainties of the sensors at 95% confidence level. The calculation shall be done as the square root of the sum of squares (“Gaussian law of error propagation”).

where:

Tloss=Measured torque loss (uncorrected) [Nm]

Tloss,rep=Reported torque loss (after uncertainty correction) [Nm]

UT,loss=Total expanded uncertainty of torque loss measurement at 95% confidence level [Nm]

uT,in/out=Uncertainty of input / output torque loss measurement separately for input and output torque sensor[Nm]

igear=Gear ratio [-]

uTKC=Uncertainty by temperature influence on current torque signal [Nm]

wtkc=Temperature influence on current torque signal per Kref, declared by sensor manufacturer [%]

uTK0=Uncertainty by temperature influence on zero torque signal (related to nominal torque) [Nm]

wtk0=Temperature influence on zero torque signal per Kref (related to nominal torque), declared by sensor manufacturer [%]

Kref=Reference temperature span for uTKC and uTK0, wtk0 and wtkc, declared by sensor manufacturer [K]

∆K=Difference in sensor temperature between calibration and measurement [K]. If the sensor temperature cannot be measured, a default value of ∆K = 15 K shall be used.

Tc=Current / measured torque value at torque sensor [Nm]

Tn=Nominal torque value of torque sensor [Nm]

ucal=Uncertainty by torque sensor calibration [Nm]

Wcal=Relative calibration uncertainty (related to nominal torque) [%]

kcal=calibration advancement factor (if declared by sensor manufacturer, otherwise = 1)

upara=Uncertainty by parasitic loads [Nm]

wpara=senspara * ipara

Relative influence of forces and bending torques caused by misalignment [%]

senspara=Maximum influence of parasitic loads for specific torque sensor declared by sensor manufacturer [%]; if no specific value for parasitic loads is declared by the sensor manufacturer, the value shall be set to 1.0%

ipara=Maximum influence of parasitic loads for specific torque sensor depending on test setup (A/B/C, as defined below).

=A) 10% in case of bearings isolating the parasitic forces in front of and behind the sensor and a flexible coupling (or cardan shaft) installed functionally next to the sensor (downstream or upstream); furthermore, these bearings can be integrated in a driving/braking machine (e.g. electric machine) and/or in the transmission as long as the forces in the machine and/or transmission are isolated from the sensor. See figure 3.

Figure 3 Test setup A for Option 3

=B) 50% in case of bearings isolating the parasitic forces in front of and behind the sensor and no flexible coupling installed functionally next to the sensor; furthermore, these bearings can be integrated in a driving/braking machine (e.g. electric machine) and/or in the transmission as long as the forces in the machine and/or transmission are isolated from the sensor. See figure 4.

Figure 4 Test setup B for Option 3

=C) 100% for other setups

3.4.Complement of input files for the simulation tool

For each gear a torque loss map covering the defined input speed and input torque steps shall be determined with one of the specified testing options or standard torque loss values. For the input file for the simulation tool, this basic torque loss map shall be complemented as described in the following:

3.4.1.In the cases the highest tested input speed was the last speed step below the defined maximum permissible transmission speed, an extrapolation of the torque loss shall be applied up to the maximum speed with linear regression based on the two last measured speed steps.

3.4.2.In the cases the highest tested input torque was the last torque step below the defined maximum permissible transmission torque, an extrapolation of the torque loss shall be applied up to the maximum torque with linear regression based on the two last measured torque steps for the corresponding speed step. In order to handle engine torque tolerances, etc., the simulation tool will, if required, perform an extrapolation of the torque loss for input torques up to 10% above said defined maximum permissible transmission torque.

3.4.3.In the case of extrapolation of the torque loss values for maximum input speed and maximum input torque at the same time, the torque loss for the combined point of highest speed and highest torque shall be calculated with two-dimensional linear extrapolation.

3.4.4.If the maximum output torque exceeds 10 kNm (for a theoretical loss free transmission), and/or for all speed and torque points with input power higher than the specified maximum input power, the manufacturer may choose to take the torque loss values for all torques higher than 10 kNm, and/or for all speed and torque points with input power higher than the specified maximum input power, respectively, from one, and only one, of:

(1)Calculated fallback values (Appendix 10)

(2)Option 1

(3)Option 2 or 3 in combination with a torque sensor for higher output torques
(if required)

For cases (i) and (ii) in Option 2, the torque losses at load shall be measured at the input torque that corresponds to output torque 10 kNm and/or the specified maximum input power.

3.4.5.For speeds below the defined minimum speed and the additional input speed step of 0 rpm, the reported torque losses determined for the minimum speed step shall be copied.

3.4.6.To cover the range of negative input torques during vehicle coasting conditions, the torque loss values for positive input torques shall be copied for the related negative input torques.

3.4.7.In agreement with the Technical Service or approval authority, the torque losses for the input speeds below 1000 rpm may be replaced by the torque losses at 1000 rpm when the measurement is technically not possible.

3.4.8.If the measurement of speed points is technically not possible (e.g. due to natural frequency), the manufacturer may, in agreement with the Technical Service or Approval authority, calculate the torque losses by interpolation or extrapolation (limited to max. 1 speed step per gear).

3.4.9.The torque loss map data shall be formatted and saved as specified in Appendix 9 to this Annex.

4.Torque converter (TC)

The torque converter characteristics to be determined for the simulation tool input consist of Tpum1000 (the reference torque at 1000 rpm input speed) and µ (the torque ratio of the torque converter). Both are depending on the speed ratio v (= output (turbine) speed / input (pump) speed for the torque converter) of the torque converter.

For determination of the characteristics of the TC, the applicant for a certificate shall apply the following method, irrespective of the chosen option for the assessment of the transmission torque losses.

To take the two possible arrangements of the TC and the mechanical transmission parts into account, the following differentiation between case S and P shall apply:

Case S:TC and mechanical transmission parts in serial arrangement

Case P:TC and mechanical transmission parts in parallel arrangement (power split installation)

For case S arrangements the TC characteristics may be evaluated either separate from the mechanical transmission or in combination with the mechanical transmission. For case P arrangements the evaluation of TC characteristic is only possible in combination with the mechanical transmission. However, in this case and for the hydromechanical gears subject to measurement the whole arrangement, torque converter and mechanical transmission, is considered as a TC with similar characteristic curves as a sole torque converter.

For the determination of the torque converter characteristics two measurement options may be applied:

(i)Option A: measurement at constant input speed

(ii)Option B: measurement at constant input torque according to SAE J643

The manufacturer may choose option A or B for case S and case P arrangements.

For the input to the simulation tool, the torque ratio µ and reference torque Tpum of the torque converter shall be measured for a range of v ≤ 0.95 (= vehicle propulsion mode). The range of v ≥ 1.00 (= vehicle coasting mode) may either be measured or covered by using the standard values of Table 1.

In case of measurements together with a mechanical transmission the overrun point may be different from v = 1.00 and therefor the range of measured speed ratios shall be adjusted accordingly.

In case of use of standard values the data on torque converter characteristics provided to the simulation tool shall only cover the range of v ≤ 0.95 (or the adjusted speed ratio). The simulation tool automatically adds the standard values for overrun conditions.

Table 1 Default values for v ≥ 1.00

v

µ

Tpum1000

1.000

1.0000

0.00

1.100

0.9999

-40.34

1.222

0.9998

-80.34

1.375

0.9997

-136.11

1.571

0.9996

-216.52

1.833

0.9995

-335.19

2.200

0.9994

-528.77

2.500

0.9993

-721.00

3.000

0.9992

-1122.00

3.500

0.9991

-1648.00

4.000

0.9990

-2326.00

4.500

0.9989

-3182.00

5.000

0.9988

-4242.00

4.1.Option A: Measured torque converter characteristics at constant speed

4.1.1.General requirements

The torque converter used for the measurements shall be in accordance with the drawing specifications for series production torque converters.

Modifications to the TC to meet the testing requirements of this Annex, e.g. for the inclusion of measurement sensors are permitted.

Upon request of the approval authority or the technical service the applicant for a certificate shall specify and prove the conformity with the requirements defined in this Annex.

4.1.2.Oil temperature

The input oil temperature to the TC shall meet the following requirements:

The oil temperature for measurements of the TC separate from the transmission shall be 90 °C +7 / -3 K.

The oil temperature for measurements of the TC together with the transmission (case S and case P) shall be 90 °C +20 / -3 K.

The oil temperature shall be measured at the drain plug or in the oil sump.

4.1.3.Oil flow rate and pressure

The input TC oil flow rate and output oil pressure of the TC shall be kept within the specified operational limits for the torque converter, depending on the related transmission type and the tested maximum input speed.

4.1.4.Oil quality / Oil viscosity

As specified for transmission testing in 3.1.2.5.3 and 3.1.2.5.4.

4.1.5.Installation

The torque converter shall be installed on a testbed with a torque sensor, speed sensor and an electric machine installed at the input and output shaft of the TC.

4.1.6.Measurement equipment

The calibration laboratory facilities shall comply with the requirements of either ISO/TS 16949, ISO 9000 series or ISO/IEC 17025. All laboratory reference measurement equipment, used for calibration and/or verification, shall be traceable to national (international) standards.

4.1.6.1.Torque

The torque sensor measurement uncertainty shall be below 1% of the measured torque value.

The use of torque sensors with higher measurement uncertainties is allowed if the part of the uncertainty exceeding 1% of the measured torque can be calculated and is added to the measured torque loss as described in 4.1.7.

4.1.6.2.Speed

The uncertainty of the speed sensors shall not exceed ± 1 rpm.

4.1.6.3.Temperature

The uncertainty of the temperature sensors for the measurement of the ambient temperature shall not exceed ± 1.5 K.

The uncertainty of the temperature sensors for the measurement of the oil temperature shall not exceed ± 1.5 K.

4.1.7.Test procedure

4.1.7.1.Zero torque signal compensation

As specified in 3.1.6.1.

4.1.7.2. Measurement sequence

4.1.7.2.1. The input speed npum of the TC shall be fixed to a constant speed within the range of:

1000 rpm ≤ npum ≤ 2000 rpm

4.1.7.2.2. The speed ratio v shall be adjusted by increasing the output speed ntur from 0 rpm up to the set value of npum.

4.1.7.2.3. The step width shall be 0.1 for the speed ratio range of 0 to 0.6 and 0.05 for the range of 0.6 to 0.95.

4.1.7.2.4. The upper limit of the speed ratio may be limited to a value below 0.95 by the manufacturer. In this case at least seven evenly distributed points between v = 0 and a value of v < 0.95 have to be covered by the measurement.

4.1.7.2.5. For each step a minimum of 3 seconds stabilization time within the temperature limits defined in 4.1.2. is required. If needed, the stabilization time may be extended by the manufacturer to maximum 60 seconds. The oil temperature shall be recorded during the stabilization.

4.1.7.2.6. For each step the signals specified in 4.1.8. shall be recorded for the test point for 3-15 seconds.

4.1.7.2.7. The measurement sequence (4.1.7.2.1. to 4.1.7.2.6.) shall be performed two times in total.

4.1.8.Measurement signals and data recording

At least the following signals shall be recorded during the measurement:

(1)Input (pump) torque Tc,pum [Nm]

(2)Output (turbine) torque Tc,tur [Nm]

(3)Input rotational (pump) speed npum [rpm]

(4)Output rotational (turbine) speed ntur [rpm]

(5)TC input oil temperature KTCin [°C]

The sampling and recording rate shall be 100 Hz or higher.

A low pass filter shall be applied to avoid measurement errors.

4.1.9.Measurement validation

4.1.9.1.The arithmetic mean values of torque and speed for the 03-15 seconds measurement shall be calculated for each of the two measurements.

4.1.9.2.The measured torques and speeds from the two sets shall be averaged (arithmetic mean values).

4.1.9.3.The deviation between the averaged torque of the two measurement sets shall be below ± 5% of the average or ± 1 Nm (whichever value is larger). If the deviation is higher, the worst measurement value shall be taken or the test shall be repeated for the TC.

4.1.9.4.The measured and averaged speed and torque at the input shaft shall be below ± 5 rpm and ± 5 Nm of the speed and torque set point for each measured operating point for the complete speed ratio series.

4.1.10.Measurement uncertainty

The part of the calculated measurement uncertainty UT,pum/tur exceeding 1% of the measured torque Tc,pum/tur shall be used to correct the characteristic value of the TC as defined below.

∆UT,pum/tur = MAX ( 0 , (UT,pum/tur - 0.01 * Tc,pum/tur))

The uncertainty UT,pum/tur of the torque measurement shall be calculated based on the following parameter:

(i)    Calibration error (incl. sensitivity tolerance, linearity, hysteresis and repeatability)

The uncertainty UT,pum/tur of the torque measurement is based on the uncertainties of the sensors at 95% confidence level.

where:

Tc,pum/tur=Current / measured torque value at input/output torque sensor (uncorrected) [Nm]

Tpum=Input (pump) torque (after uncertainty correction) [Nm]

UT,pum/tur=Uncertainty of input / output torque measurement at 95% confidence level separately for input and output torque sensor[Nm]

Tn=Nominal torque value of torque sensor [Nm]

ucal=Uncertainty by torque sensor calibration [Nm]

Wcal=Relative calibration uncertainty (related to nominal torque) [%]

kcal=Calibration advancement factor (if declared by sensor manufacturer, otherwise = 1)

4.1.11.Calculation of TC characteristics

For each measurement point, the following calculations shall be applied to the measurement data:

The torque ratio of the TC shall be calculated by

The speed ratio of the TC shall be calculated by

The reference torque at 1000 rpm shall be calculated by

where:

µ=Torque ratio of the TC [-]

v=Speed ratio of the TC [-]

Tc, pum=Input (pump) torque (corrected) [Nm]

npum=Input rotational (pump) speed [rpm]

ntur=Output rotational (turbine) speed [rpm]

Tpum1000=Reference torque at 1000 rpm [Nm]

4.2.Option B: Measurement at constant input torque (in accordance with SAE J643)

4.2.1.General requirements

As specified in 4.1.1.

4.2.2.Oil temperature

As specified in 4.1.2.

4.2.3.Oil flow rate and pressure

As specified in 4.1.3.

4.2.4.Oil quality

As specified in 4.1.4.

4.2.5.Installation

As specified in 4.1.5.

4.2.6.Measurement equipment

As specified in 4.1.6.

4.2.7.Test procedure

4.2.7.1.Zero torque signal compensation

As specified in 3.1.6.1.

4.1.7.2.Measurement sequence

4.2.7.2.1. The input torque Tpum shall be set to a positive level at npum = 1000 rpm with the output shaft of the TC held non-rotating (output speed ntur = 0 rpm).

4.2.7.2.2. The speed ratio v shall be adjusted by increasing the output speed ntur from 0 rpm up to a value of ntur covering the usable range of v with at least seven evenly distributed speed points.

4.2.7.2.3. The step width shall be 0.1 for the speed ratio range of 0 to 0.6 and 0.05 for the range of 0.6 to 0.95.

4.2.7.2.4. The upper limit of the speed ratio may be limited to a value below 0.95 by the manufacturer.

4.2.7.2.5. For each step a minimum of 5 seconds stabilization time within the temperature limits defined in 4.2.2. is required. If needed, the stabilization time may be extended by the manufacturer to maximum 60 seconds. The oil temperature shall be recorded during the stabilization.

4.2.7.2.6. For each step the values specified in 4.2.8. shall be shall be recorded for the test point for 05-15 seconds.

4.2.7.2.7. The measurement sequence (4.2.7.2.1. to 4.1.7.2.6.) shall be performed two times in total.

4.2.8.Measurement signals and data recording

As specified in 4.1.8.

4.2.9.Measurement validation

As specified in 4.1.9.

4.2.10.Measurement uncertainty

As specified in 4.1.9.

4.2.11.Calculation of TC characteristics

As specified in 4.1.11.

5.Other torque transferring components (OTTC)

The scope of this section includes engine retarders, transmission retarders, driveline retarders, and components that are treated in the simulation tool as a retarder. These components include vehicle starting devices like a single wet transmission input clutch or hydro-dynamic clutch.

5.1.Methods for establishing retarder drag losses

The retarder drag torque loss is a function of the retarder rotor speed. Since the retarder can be integrated in different parts of the vehicle driveline, the retarder rotor speed depends on the drive part (= speed reference) and step-up ratio between drive part and retarder rotor as shown in table 2.

Table 2 Retarder rotor speeds

Configuration

Speed reference

Retarder rotor speed calculation

A.    Engine Retarder

Engine Speed

nretarder    = nengine * istep-up

B.    Transmission Input Retarder

Transmission
Input Shaft Speed

nretarder    = ntransm.input * istep-up

= ntransm.output * itransm * istep-up

C.    Transmission Output Retarder or Propshaft Retarder

Transmission
Output Shaft Speed

nretarder    = ntransm.output * istep-up

where:

istep-up=step-up ratio = retarder rotor speed / drive part speed

itransm=transmission ratio = transmission input speed/ transmission output speed

Retarder configurations that are integrated in the engine and cannot be separated from the engine shall be tested in combination with the engine. This section does not cover these non-separable engine integrated retarders.

Retarders that can be disconnected from the driveline or the engine by any kind of clutch are considered to have zero rotor speed in disconnected condition and therefore have no power losses.

The retarder drag losses shall be measured with one of the following two methods:

(1)Measurement on the retarder as a stand-alone unit

(2)Measurement in combination with the transmission

5.1.1.General requirements

In case the losses are measured on the retarder as stand-alone unit, the results are affected by the torque losses in the bearings of the test setup. It is permitted to measure these bearing losses and subtract them from the retarder drag loss measurements.

The manufacturer shall guarantee that the retarder used for the measurements is in accordance with the drawing specifications for series production retarders.

Modifications to the retarder to meet the testing requirements of this Annex, e.g. for the inclusion of measurement sensors or the adaption of an external oil conditioning systems are permitted.

Based on the family described in described in Appendix 6 to this Annex, measured drag losses for transmissions with retarder can be used for the same (equivalent) transmission without retarder.

The use of the same transmission unit for measuring the torque losses of variants with and without retarder is permitted.

Upon request of the Approval authority or the Technical Service the applicant for a certificate shall specify and prove the conformity with the requirements defined in this Annex.

5.1.2.Run-in

On request of the applicant a run-in procedure may be applied to the retarder. The following provisions shall apply for a run-in procedure.

5.1.2.1If the manufacturer applies a run-in procedure to the retarder, the run-in time for the retarder shall not exceed 100 hours at zero retarder apply torque. Optionally a share of a maximum of 6 hours with retarder apply torque may be included.

5.1.3.Test conditions

5.1.3.1.Ambient temperature

The ambient temperature during the test shall be in a range of 25°C ± 10 K.

The ambient temperature shall be measured 1 m laterally from the retarder.

5.1.3.2.Ambient pressure

For magnetic retarders the minimum ambient pressure shall be 899 hPa according to International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) ISO 2533.

5.1.3.3.Oil or water temperature

For hydrodynamic retarders:

Except for the fluid, no external heating is allowed.

In case of testing as stand-alone unit, the retarder fluid temperature (oil or water) shall not exceed 87°C.

In case of testing in combination with transmission, the oil temperature limits for transmission testing shall apply.

5.1.3.4.Oil or water quality

New, recommended first fill oil for the European market shall be used in the test.

For water retarders the water quality shall meet the specifications set out by the manufacturer for the retarder. The water pressure shall be set to a fixed value close to vehicle condition (1 ± 0.2 bar relative pressure at retarder input hose).

5.1.3.5.Oil viscosity

If several oils are recommended for first fill, they are considered to be equal if the oils have a kinematic viscosity within 50% of each other at the same temperature (within the specified tolerance band for KV100).

5.1.3.6.Oil or water level

The oil/water level shall meet the nominal specifications for the retarder.

5.1.4.Installation

The electric machine, the torque sensor, and speed sensor shall be mounted at the input side of the retarder or transmission.

The installation of the retarder (and transmission) shall be done with an inclination angle as for installation in the vehicle according to the homologation drawing ± 1° or at 0° ± 1°.

5.1.5.Measurement equipment

As specified for transmission testing in 3.1.4.

5.1.6.Test procedure

5.1.6.1.Zero torque signal compensation:

As specified for transmission testing in 3.1.6.1.

5.1.6.2.Measurement sequence

The torque loss measurement sequence for the retarder testing shall follow the provisions for the transmission testing defined in 3.1.6.3.2. to 3.1.6.3.5.

5.1.6.2.1. Measurement on the retarder as stand-alone unit

When the retarder is tested as stand-alone unit, torque loss measurements shall be conducted using the following speed points:

200, 400, 600, 900, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, continued up to the maximum retarder rotor speed.

5.1.6.2.2. Measurement in combination with the transmission

5.1.6.2.2.1. In case the retarder is tested in combination with a transmission, the selected transmission gear shall allow the retarder to operate at its maximum rotor speed.

5.1.6.2.2. The torque loss shall be measured at the operating speeds as indicated for the related transmission testing.

5.1.6.2.2.3. Measurement points may be added for transmission input speeds below 600 rpm if requested by the manufacturer.

5.1.6.2.2.4. The manufacturer may separate the retarder losses from the total transmission losses by testing in the order as described below:

(1)The load-independent torque loss for the complete transmission including retarder shall be measured as defined in point 3.1.2. for transmission testing in one of the higher transmission gears

= Tl,in,withret

(2)The retarder and related parts shall be replaced with parts required for the equivalent transmission variant without retarder. The measurement of point (1) shall be repeated.

= Tl,in,withoutret

(3)The load-independent torque loss for the retarder system shall be determined by calculating the differences between the two test data sets

= Tl,in,retsys = Tl,in,withret – Tl,in,withoutret

5.1.7.Measurement signals and data recording

As specified for transmission testing in 3.1.5.

5.1.8.Measurement validation

All recorded data shall be checked and processed as defined for transmission testing in 3.1.7.

5.2.Complement of input files for the simulation tool

5.2.1Retarder torque losses for speeds below the lowest measurement speed shall be set equal to the measured torque loss at this lowest measurement speed.

5.2.2In case the retarder losses were separated out from the total losses by calculating the difference in data sets of testing with and without a retarder (see 5.1.6.2.2.4.), the actual retarder rotor speeds depend on the retarder location, and/or selected gear ratio and retarder step-up ratio and thereby may differ from the measured transmission input shaft speeds. The actual retarder rotor speeds relative to the measured drag loss data shall be calculated as described in 5.1. table 2.

5.2.3The torque loss map data shall be formatted and saved as specified in Appendix 9 to this Annex.

6.Additional driveline components (ADC) / angle drive

6.1.Methods for establishing angle drive losses

The angle drive losses shall be determined using one of the following cases:

6.1.1.Case A: Measurement on a separate angle drive

For the torque loss measurement of a separate angle drive, the three options as defined for the determination of the transmission losses shall apply:

Option 1:Measured torque independent losses and calculated load dependent losses (Transmission test option 1)

Option 2:Measured torque independent losses and measured torque dependent losses at full load (Transmission test option 2)

Option 3: Measurement under full load points (Transmission test option 3)

The measurement of the angle drive losses shall follow the procedure described for the related transmission test option in paragraph 3 diverging in the following requirements:

6.1.1.1Applicable speed range:

From 200 rpm (at the shaft to which the angle drive is connected) up to the maximum speed according to specifications of the angle drive or the last speed step before the defined maximum speed.

6.1.1.2Speed step size: 200 rpm

6.1.2.Case B: Individual measurement of an angle drive connected to a transmission

In case the angle drive is tested in combination with a transmission, the testing shall follow one of the defined options for transmission testing:

Option 1:Measured torque independent losses and calculated load dependent losses (Transmission test option 1)

Option 2:Measured torque independent losses and measured torque dependent losses at full load (Transmission test option 2)

Option 3: Measurement under full load points (Transmission test option 3)

6.1.2.1The manufacturer may separate the angle drive losses from the total transmission losses by testing in the order as described below:

(1)The torque loss for the complete transmission including angle drive shall be measured as defined for the applicable transmission testing option

= Tl,in,withad

(2)The angle drive and related parts shall be replaced with parts required for the equivalent transmission variant without angle drive. The measurement of point (1) shall be repeated.

= Tl,in,withoutad

(3)The torque loss for the angle drive system shall be determined by calculating the differences between the two test data sets

= Tl,in,adsys = Tl,in,withad – Tl,in,withoutad

6.2.Complement of input files for the simulation tool

6.2.1.Torque losses for speeds below the above defined minimum speed shall be set equal to the torque loss at the minimum speed. 6.2.2. In the cases the highest tested angle drive input speed was the last speed step below the defined maximum permissible angle drive speed, an extrapolation of the torque loss shall be applied up to the maximum speed with linear regression based on the two last measured speed steps.

6.2.3.To calculate the torque loss data for the input shaft of the transmission the angle drive is to be combined with, linear interpolation and extrapolation shall be used.

7.Conformity of production 

7.1.Every transmission, torque converter (TC), other torque transferring components (OTTC) and additional driveline components (ADC) shall be so manufactured as to conform to the approved type with regard to the description as given in the certificate and its annexes. The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in Article 12 of Directive 2007/46/EC.

7.2Torque converter (TC), other torque transferring components (OTTC) and additional driveline components (ADC) shall be excluded from the production conformity testing provisions of section 8 to this annex.

7.3Conformity of production shall be checked on the basis of the description in the certificates set out in Appendix 1 to this Annex.

7.4Conformity of production shall be assessed in accordance with the specific conditions laid down in this paragraph.

7.5The manufacturer shall test annually at least the number of transmission indicated in Table 3 based on the total annual production numbers of transmissions of the manufacturer. For the purpose of establishing the production numbers, only transmissions which fall under the requirements of this Regulation shall be considered.

7.6Each transmission which is tested by the manufacturer shall be representative for a specific family. Notwithstanding provisions of the point 7.10., only one transmission per family shall be tested.

7.7For the total annual production volumes between 1001 and 10,000 transmissions, the choice of the family for which the tests shall be performed shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

7.8For the total annual production volumes above 10,000 transmissions, the transmission family with the highest production volume shall always be tested. The manufacturer shall justify (ex. by showing sales numbers) to the approval authority the number of tests which has been performed and the choice of the families. The remaining families for which the tests are to be performed shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

Table 3 Sample size conformity testing

Total annual production of transmissions

Number of tests

0 – 1000

0

>1000-10.000

1

>10.000 – 30.000

2

>30.000

3

>100.000

4

7.9.For the purpose of the conformity of production testing the Technical Service shall identify together with the manufacturer the transmission type(s) to be tested. The selected transmission type(s) shall be manufactured under the supervision of the Technical Service in order to ensure that the same standards as for serial production apply.

7.10If the result of a test performed in accordance with point 8 is higher than the one specified in point 8.1.3., 3 additional transmissions from the same family shall be tested. If at least one of them fails, provisions of Article 22 shall apply.

8.Production conformity testing

For conformity of production testing the following method shall apply upon prior agreement between the Approval authority and the applicant for a certificate:

8.1Conformity testing of Transmissions

8.1.1The transmission efficiency shall be determined following the simplified procedure described in this paragraph.

8.1.2.1All boundary conditions as specified in this Annex for the certificateion testing shall apply.

If other boundary conditions for oil type, oil temperature and inclination angle are used, the manufacturer shall clearly show the influence between these conditions and those used for certification regarding efficiency.

8.1.2.2For the measurement the same testing option shall be used as for the certification testing, limited to the operating points specified in this paragraph.

8.1.2.2.1. In the case Option 1 was used for certification testing, the torque independent losses for the two speeds defined in 8.1.2.2.2. (3) shall be measured and used for the calculation of the torque losses at the three highest torque steps.

In the case Option 2 was used for certification testing, the torque independent losses for the two speeds defined in 8.1.2.2.2. (3) shall be measured. The torque dependent losses at maximum torque shall be measured at the same two speeds. The torque losses at the three highest torque steps shall be interpolated as described by the certification procedure.

In the case Option 3 was used for certification testing, the torque losses for the 18 operating points defined in 8.1.2.2.2. shall be measured.

8.1.2.2.2. The efficiency of the transmission shall be determined for 18 operating points defined by the following requirements:

(1)Gears to use:

The 3 highest gears of the transmission shall be used for testing.

(2)Torque range:

The 3 highest torque steps as reported for certification shall be tested.

(3)Speed range:

The two transmission input speeds of 1200 rpm and 1600 rpm shall be tested.

8.1.2.3For each of the 18 operating points, the efficiency of the transmission shall be calculated with:

where:

=Efficiency of each operation point 1 to 18

=Output torque [Nm]

=Input torque [Nm]

nin=Input speed [rpm]

nout=Output speed [rpm]

8.1.2.4The total efficiency during conformity of production testing ηA,CoP shall be calculated by the arithmetic mean value of the efficiency of all 18 operating points.

8.1.3The conformity of production test is passed when the following condition applies:

The efficiency of the tested transmission during conformity of production test ηA,CoP shall not be lower than X% of the type approved transmission efficiency ηA,TA.

X shall be replaced by 1,5% for MT/AMT/DCT transmissions and 3% for AT transmissions or transmission with more than 2 friction shift clutches.



Appendix 1

MODEL OF CERTIFICATE OF A COMPONENT, SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNIT AND SYSTEM

Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm)

CERTIFICATE

Stamp administration

Communication concerning:

granting (1)

extension(1)

refusal(1)

withdrawal(1)

of a certificate with regard to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 as implemented by Regulation No … [this Regulation].

Regulation (EC) No XXXXX and Regulation No … [this Regulation] as last amended by ……………..

certification number:

Hash:

Reason for extension:

________

(1) Delete where not applicable (there are cases where nothing needs to be deleted when more than one entry is applicable)


SECTION I

0.1Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.2Type:

0.3Means of identification of type, if marked on the component

0.3.1Location of the marking:

0.4Name and address of manufacturer:

0.5In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the EC approval mark:

0.6Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.7Name and address of the manufacturer's representative (if any)

SECTION II

1.Additional information (where applicable): see Addendum

1.1.Option used for the determination of the torque losses

1.1.1In case of transmission: Specifiy for both output torque ranges 0-10 kNm and >10 kNm separately for each transmission gear

2.Technical service responsible for carrying out the tests:

3.Date of test report

4.Number of test report

5. Remarks (if any): see Addendum

6.Place

7.Date

8.Signature

Attachments:

1.Information document

2.Test report

Appendix 2

Transmission information document

Information document no.:                Issue:

                           Date of issue:

                           Date of Amendment:

pursuant to …

   

Transmission type:

0.GENERAL

0.1.Name and address of manufacturer

0.2.Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.3.Transmission type:

0.4.Transmission family:

0.5.Transmission type as separate technical unit / Transmission family as separate technical unit

0.6.Commercial name(s) (if available):

0.7.Means of identification of model, if marked on the transmission:

0.8.In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the EC approval mark:

0.9.Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.10.Name and address of the manufacturer's representative:

PART 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) TRANSMISSION AND THE TRANSMISSION

TYPES WITHIN A TRANSMISSION FAMILY

                           |Parent transmission    |Family members

                           |or transmission type    |

                           |            | #1 | #2 | #3 |

0.0GENERAL

0.1Make (trade name of manufacturer)

0.2Type

0.3Commercial name(s) (if available)

0.4Means of identification of type

0.5Location and of that marking

0.6Name and address of manufacturer

0.7Location and method of affixing of the approval mark

0.8.Name(s) and address (es) of assembly plant(s)

0.9.Name and address of the manufacturer’s representative (if any)

1.0SPECIFIC TRANSMISSION / TRANSMISSION FAMILY INFORMATION

1.1Gear ratio. Gearscheme and powerflow

1.2Center distance for counterschaft transmissions

1.3Type of bearings at corresponding positions (if fitted) 1.4Type of shift elements (tooth clutches, including synchronisers 

or friction clutches) at corresponding positions (where fitted)

1.5Single gear width for Option 1 or Single gear

width ± 1 mm for Option 2 or Option 3

1.6Total number of forward gears

1.7Number of tooth shift clutches

1.8Number of synchronizers

1.9Number of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates)

1.10Outer diameter of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates)

1.11Surface roughness of the teeth (incl. drawings)

1.12Number of dynamic shaft seals

1.13Oil flow for lubrication and cooling per transmission input shaft revolution

1.14Oil viscosity at 100°C (± 10%)

1.15System pressure for hydraulically controlled gearboxes

1.16Specified oil level in reference to central axis and in accordance with the drawing specification (based on average value between lower and upper tolerance) in static or running condition. The oil level is considered as equal if all rotating transmission parts (except for the oil pump and the drive thereof) are located above the specified oil level

1.17Specified oil level (± 1mm)

1.18Gear ratios [-] and maximum input torque [Nm], maximum input power (kW) and maximum input speed [rpm]

1.gear

2.gear

3.gear

4.gear

5.gear

6.gear

7.gear

8.gear

9.gear

10.gear

11.gear

12.gear

n.gear



LIST OF ATTACHMENTS

No.:    Description:                    Date of issue:

1Information on Transmission test conditions…

2



Attachment 1 to Transmission information document

Information on test conditions (if applicable)

1.1Measurement with retarderyes / no

1.2Measurement with angle driveyes / no

1.3Maximum tested input speed [rpm]

1.4Maximum tested input torque [Nm]

Appendix 3

Hydrodynamic torque converter (TC) information document

Information document no.:                Issue:

                           Date of issue:

                           Date of Amendment:

pursuant to …

TC type:

0.GENERAL

0.1Name and address of manufacturer

0.2Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.3TC type:

0.4TC family:

0.5TC type as separate technical unit /
TC family as separate technical unit

0.6Commercial name(s) (if available):

0.7Means of identification of model, if marked on the TC:

0.8In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the EC approval mark:

0.9Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.10Name and address of the manufacturer's representative:

PART 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) TC

AND THE TC TYPES WITHIN A TC FAMILY

                               |Parent TC or    |Family members |

                               |TC type    | #1 | #2 | #3 |

                               |        | | | |

0.0GENERAL

0.1Make (trade name of manufacturer)

0.2Type

0.3Commercial name(s) (if available)

0.4Means of identification of type

0.5Location and of that marking

0.6Name and address of manufacturer

0.7Location and method of affixing of the approval mark

0.8.Name(s) and address (es) of assembly plant(s)

0.9.Name and address of the manufacturer’s representative (if any)

1.0SPECIFIC TORQUE CONVERTER / TORQUE CONVERTER FAMILY INFORMATION

1.1For hydrodynamic torque converter without mechanical transmission (serial arrangement).

1.1.1Outer torus diameter

1.1.2Inner torus diameter

1.1.3Arrangement of pump (P), turbine (T) and stator (S) in flow direction

1.1.4Torus width

1.1.5Oil type according to test specification

1.1.6Blade design

1.2For hydrodynamic torque converter with mechanical transmission (parallel arrangement).

1.2.1Outer torus diameter

1.2.2Inner torus diameter

1.2.3Arrangement of pump (P), turbine (T) and stator (S) in flow direction

1.2.4Torus width

1.2.5Oil type according to test specification

1.2.6Blade design

1.2.7Gear scheme and power flow in torque converter mode

1.2.8Type of bearings at corresponding positions (if fitted)

1.2.9Type of cooling/lubrication pump (referring to parts list)

1.2.10Type of shift elements (tooth clutches (including synchronisers) OR friction clutches) at corresponding positions where fitted

1.2.11Oil level according to drawing in reference to central axis

LIST OF ATTACHMENTS

No.:    Description:                    Date of issue:

1Information on Torque Converter test conditions…

2



Attachment 1 to Torque Converter information document

   Information on test conditions (if applicable)

1.Method of measurement

1.1TC with mechanical transmissionyes /no

1.2TC as separate unityes / no

Appendix 4

Other torque transferring components (OTTC) information document

Information document no.:                Issue:

                           Date of issue:

                           Date of Amendment:

pursuant to …

OTTC type:

0.GENERAL

0.1Name and address of manufacturer

0.2Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.3OTTC type:

0.4OTTC family:

0.5OTTC type as separate technical unit /
OTTC family as separate technical unit

0.6Commercial name(s) (if available):

0.7Means of identification of model, if marked on the OTTC:

0.8In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the EC approval mark:

0.9Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.10Name and address of the manufacturer's representative:

PART 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) OTTC

AND THE OTTC TYPES WITHIN AN OTTC FAMILY

                               |Parent OTTC|Family member|

                               |        | #1 | #2 | #3 |

0.0GENERAL

0.1Make (trade name of manufacturer)

0.2Type

0.3Commercial name(s) (if available)

0.4Means of identification of type

0.5Location and of that marking

0.6Name and address of manufacturer

0.7Location and method of affixing of the approval mark

0.8.Name(s) and address (es) of assembly plant(s)

0.9.Name and address of the manufacturer’s representative (if any)

1.0SPECIFIC OTTC INFORMATION

1.1For hydrodynamic torque transferring components (OTTC) / Retarder

1.1.1Outer torus diameter

1.1.2Torus width

1.1.3Blade design

1.1.4Operating fluid

1.1.5Outer torus diameter - inner torus diameter (OD-ID)

1.1.6Number of blades

1.1.7Operating fluid viscosity

1.2For magnetic torque transferring components (OTTC) / Retarder

1.2.1Drum design (electro magnetic retarder or permanent magnetic retarder)

1.2.2Outer rotor diameter

1.2.3Cooling blade design

1.2.4Blade design

1.2.5Operating fluid

1.2.6Outer rotor diameter - inner rotor diameter (OD-ID)

1.2.7Number of rotors

1.2.8Number of cooling blades / blades

1.2.9Operating fluid viscosity

1.2.10Number of arms

1.3For torque transferring components (OTTC) / Hydrodynamic clutch

1.3.1Outer torus diameter

1.3.2Torus width

1.3.3Blade design.

1.3.4Operating fluid viscosity

1.3.5Outer torus diameter - inner torus diameter (OD-ID)

1.3.6Number of blades

LIST OF ATTACHMENTS

No.:    Description:                    Date of issue:

1Information on OTTC test conditions…

2



Attachment 1 to OTTC information document

Information on test conditions (if applicable)

1.Method of measurement

with transmission    yes / no

with engine    yes / no

drive mechanism    yes / no

direct    yes / no

2.Maximum test speed of OTTC main torque absorber e.g. retarder rotor [rpm]

 

Appendix 5

Additional driveline components (ADC) information document

Information document no.:                Issue:

                           Date of issue:

                           Date of Amendment:

pursuant to …

ADC type:

0.GENERAL

0.1Name and address of manufacturer

0.2Make (trade name of manufacturer):

0.3ADC type:

0.4ADC family:

0.5ADC type as separate technical unit /
ADC family as separate technical unit

0.6Commercial name(s) (if available):

0.7Means of identification of model, if marked on the ADC:

0.8In the case of components and separate technical units, location and method of affixing of the EC approval mark:

0.9Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s):

0.10Name and address of the manufacturer's representative:

PART 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) ADC

AND THE ADC TYPES WITHIN AN ADC FAMILY

                               |Parent-ADC    |Family member|

                               |        | #1 | #2 | #3  |

0.0GENERAL

0.1Make (trade name of manufacturer)

0.2Type

0.3Commercial name(s) (if available)

0.4Means of identification of type

0.5Location and of that marking

0.6Name and address of manufacturer

0.7Location and method of affixing of the approval mark

0.8.Name(s) and address (es) of assembly plant(s)

0.9.Name and address of the manufacturer’s representative (if any)

1.0SPECIFIC ADC / angle drive INFORMATION

1.1Gear ratio and gearscheme

1.2Angle between input/output shaft

1.3Type of bearings at corresponding positions

1.4Number of teeth per gearwheel

1.5Single gear width

1.6Number of dynamic shaft seals

1.7Oil viscosity (± 10%)

1.8Surface roughness of the teeth

1.9Oil level in reference to central axis and in accordance with the drawing specification (based on average value between lower and upper tolerance) in static or running condition; The oil level is considered as equal if all rotating transmission parts (except for the oil pump and the drive thereof) are located above the specified oil level

1.10Oil level within(± 1mm).



LIST OF ATTACHMENTS

No.:    Description:                    Date of issue:

1Information on ADC test conditions…

2



Attachment 1 to ADC information document

Information on test conditions (if applicable)

1.Method of measurement

with transmission     yes / no

drive mechanism    yes / no

direct    yes / no

2.Maximum test speed at ADC input[rpm]



Appendix 6

Family Concept

1.General

A transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components family is characterized by design and performance parameters. These shall be common to all members within the family. The manufacturer may decide which transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components belong to a family, as long as the membership criteria listed in paragraph 9. are respected. The related family shall be approved by the Approval Authority. The manufacturer shall provide to the Approval Authority the appropriate information relating to the components of the members of the family.

1.1Special cases

In some cases there may be interaction between parameters. This shall be taken into consideration to ensure that only transmissions, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components with similar characteristics are included within the same family. These cases shall be identified by the manufacturer and notified to the Approval Authority. It shall then be taken into account as a criterion for creating a new transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components family.

In case of devices or features, which are not listed in paragraph 9. and which have a strong influence on the level of performance, this equipment shall be identified by the manufacturer on the basis of good engineering practice, and shall be notified to the Approval Authority. It shall then be taken into account as a criterion for creating a new transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components family.

1.2The family concept defines criteria and parameters enabling the manufacturer to group transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components into families and types with similar or equal CO2-relevant data.

2.The Approval Authority may conclude that the highest torque loss of the transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components family can best be characterized by additional testing. In this case, the manufacturer shall submit the appropriate information to determine the transmission, torque converter, other torque transferring components or additional driveline components within the family likely to have the highest torque loss level.

If members within a family incorporate other features which may be considered to affect the torque losses, these features shall also be identified and taken into account in the selection of the parent.

3. Parameters defining the transmission family

3.1The following criteria shall be the same to all members within a transmission family.

(a) Gear ratio, gearscheme and powerflow (for forward gears only, crawler gears excluded);

(b) Center distance for countershaft transmissions;

(c) Type of bearings at corresponding positions (if fitted);

(d) Type of shift elements (tooth clutches, including synchronisers or friction clutches) at corresponding positions (where fitted).

3.2The following criteria shall be common to all members within a transmission family. The application of a specific range to the parameters listed below is permitted after approval of the Approval Authority

(a) Single gear width for Option 1 or Single gear width ± 1 mm for Option 2 or Option 3;

(b) Total number of forward gears;

(c) Number of tooth shift clutches;

(d) Number of synchronizers;

(e) Number of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates);

(f) Outer diameter of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates);

(g) Surface roughness of the teeth;

(h) Number of dynamic shaft seals;

(i) Oil flow for lubrication and cooling per input shaft revolution;

(j) Oil viscosity (± 10%); 

(k) System pressure for hydraulically controlled gearboxes;

(l) Specified oil level in reference to central axis and in accordance with the drawing specification (based on average value between lower and upper tolerance) in static or running condition. The oil level is considered as equal if all rotating transmission parts (except for the oil pump and the drive thereof) are located above the specified oil level;

(m) Specified oil level (± 1mm).

4.Choice of the parent transmission

The parent transmission shall be selected using the following criteria listed below.

(a) Highest single gear width for Option 1 or highest Single gear width ± 1 mm for Option 2 or Option 3;

(b) Highest total number of gears;

(c) Highest number of tooth shift clutches;

(d) Highest number of synchronizers;

(e) Highest number of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates);

(f) Highest value of the outer diameter of friction clutch plates (except for single dry clutch with 1 or 2 plates);

(g) Highest value for the surface roughness of the teeth (for Option 2 and Option 3 only);

(h) Highest number of dynamic shaft seals;

(i) Highest oil flow for lubrication and cooling per input shaft revolution;

(j) Highest oil viscosity;

(k) Highest system pressure for hydraulically controlled gearboxes;

(l) Highest specified oil level in reference to central axis and in accordance with the drawing specification (based on average value between lower and upper tolerance) in static or running condition. The oil level is considered as equal if all rotating transmission parts (except for the oil pump and the drive thereof) are located above the specified oil level;

(m) Highest specified oil level (± 1mm).

4.1. Power take-off drive mechanism

In the case a family consists of transmissions without power take-off drive mechanism and those with power take-off drive mechanism, the transmission with a power take-off drive mechanism shall be considered as a parent transmission unless the power take-off drive mechanism has no gear meshes and the gear runs above oil level. In the latter case, selection criteria of point 4 apply.

5. Parameters defining the torque converter family

5.1The following criteria shall be the same to all members within a torque converter (TC) family.

5.1.1For hydrodynamic torque converter without mechanical transmission (serial arrangement).

(a) Outer torus diameter;

(b) Inner torus diameter;

(c) Arrangement of pump (P), turbine (T) and stator (S) in flow direction;

(d) Torus width;

(e) Oil type according to test specification;

(f) Blade design;

5.1.2For hydrodynamic torque converter with mechanical transmission (parallel arrangement).

(a) Outer torus diameter;

(b) Inner torus diameter;

(c) Arrangement of pump (P), turbine (T) and stator (S) in flow direction;

(d) Torus width;

(e) Oil type according to test specification;

(f) Blade design

(g) Gear scheme and power flow in torque converter mode

(h) Type of bearings at corresponding positions (if fitted)

(i) Type of cooling/lubrication pump (referr