Accept Refuse

EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Back to EUR-Lex homepage

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document 52014SC0121

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the document COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Report on the implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies

/* SWD/2014/0121 final */

52014SC0121

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the document COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Report on the implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies /* SWD/2014/0121 final */


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction.. 3

Austria. . 6

Belgium... 7

Bulgaria. 9

Cyprus 11

Croatia (assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategy) 12

Czech Republic. 14

Denmark. 16

Estonia.... 18

Finland. ……………………………………………………………………………………….19

France.... 21

Germany. 23

Greece 24

Hungary. 26

Ireland.... 26

Italy... 26

Latvia.... 26

Lithuania. 26

Luxembourg. 26

Netherlands. 26

Poland 26

Portugal 26

Romania. 26

Slovak Republic. 26

Slovenia. 26

Spain.... 26

Sweden.. 26

United Kingdom... 26

Introduction

In response to the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies adopted by the Commission on 5th April 2011, the Council Conclusions of 19th May 2011 and European Council Conclusions on 25th June 2011, all EU Member States have committed to implement national Roma integration strategies or sets of policy measures within their broader social inclusion policies. The objective is to improve the situation of the Roma, taking into account Member States' different starting points and the size of the Roma population living in their territories.

Since 2012, the Commission has been closely monitoring progress in each Member State. Despite the economic challenges, Member States' efforts for Roma inclusion in the past two years are starting to have an impact on the situation of the Roma on the ground.

Although positive steps have been taken in most Member States to address the situation of Roma in education, employment, health, housing as well as non-discrimination, further and more consolidated efforts are still needed to change the situation of Roma in Europe. The monitoring mechanism should have a stronger focus on assessing the impact and the conclusions of the monitoring should be channelled into policy development.

Regarding funding it should be underlined that data found in the country fiches hereafter are based on the financial allocation in the System for Fund management in the European Community 2007-2013. According to the EU financial regulations for 2007-2013 Member States are not obliged to report on EU funding for Roma or other ethnic minorities. Some even do not allow the collection of ethnic data for constitutional reasons.

In the 2007-2013 programming period, EU countries received almost €77 billion financial support from the European Social Fund (ESF). The ESF has not separately targeted Roma people. Marginalised Roma communities are expected to benefit from measures funded mainly under the objective of social inclusion, in particular from measures financed through the priority "integrating disadvantaged people" to which about €10 billion was allocated, i.e. 13% of the total ESF allocation. Moreover, disadvantaged Roma can also benefit from other priorities, such as the generic education and employment ones. It should be emphasised however that in most cases non Roma disadvantaged people can benefit from the same measures, so the amount specifically benefitting Roma is unknown.

Roma may also benefit from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), for example, from projects co-financed from cost categories such as housing as well as education, health and social infrastructure. However, such investments are not target-group based, but, in line with the core mission of ERDF, are aimed at contributing to territorial development, increasing attractiveness and the quality of life. Furthermore, there is no requirement for Member States to report on investments in support of marginalised groups.

On the basis of data received from national authorities, Member States had allocated an aggregate amount of € 17, 8 billion for the 2007-2013 period corresponding to the above-mentioned cost categories.

As far as targeted expenditures are concerned, following the 2010 modification of the ERDF regulation a total of € 80 million has been allocated to pilot housing schemes in favour of marginalised communities, including Roma in 8 MS (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy Romania and Slovakia). These have followed the Common Basic Principles on Roma Inclusion annexed to the Council Conclusions on Inclusion of the Roma[1] in June 2009. These principles do allow for explicit targeting, but this should not be exclusive in nature (i.e. targeting should cover other marginalised or poor groups).

Additionally, two Member States with significant Roma populations have followed comprehensive approaches by territorial means. Hungary has brought together funding totalling € 360 millions from separate ESF and ERDF mono-fund programmes which target the most disadvantaged micro-regions, including localities with a high density of Roma. In the case of Slovakia, indicative funding from various ESF and ERDF programmes for a total of €200 millions was identified in the National Strategic Reference Framework.

The subsequent country-specific summaries reflect the Commission's assessment of steps taken in the Member States. The Commission invites Member States to increase their efforts and convincingly address the remaining gaps.

For this report, Member States, civil society organisations and stakeholders had been invited to send information on steps taken since 2011. Those who have provided a contribution are listed below.

As Croatia joined the European Union only in July 2013, the Commission is assessing its national Roma integration strategy, using the same criteria as for the other Member States in 2012.

Finally, no assessment has been carried out for Malta as Roma presence in Malta is not relevant for the present report.

Progress report 2014 on Roma inclusion strategies - Contributions

Organisation || Geographical scope

European Network Against Racism || Transversal contribution

European Roma Information Office || Transversal contribution and BG, CZ, IR, EL, FR, IT, HU, PL, PT

Fundamental Rights Agency || All EU Member States

EU network of independent experts on social inclusion || All EU Member States (except Malta)

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising the Open Society Institute – Sofia, Indi-Roma 97 Foundation, Health of the Roma People Foundation, Roma Academy for Culture and Education Association, Roma Solidarity Foundation, Integro Association, Nov Pat Association, Centre for Intercultural Dialogue and Tolerance “Amalipe”, World Without Borders Association || BG

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising SPOT – Centre for Social Issues; Czech Society for Inclusive Education (ČOSIV); Counselling Centre for Citizenship, Civic and Human Rights (Poradna); Mezanin Association; Open Society Foundation Prague (OSF Prague) and Multicultural Centre Prague (MKC Prague) || CZ

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising Fundación Secretariado Gitano (FSG), ALTER Research Group of the Public University of Navarra (UPNA) Asociación de Enseñantes con Gitanos (AEcG) || ES

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising Partners Hungary Foundation, Autonómia Foundation, Chance for Children Foundation, Habitat for Humanity Hungary, Hungarian Women’s Lobby, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, Romaversitas Foundation and the Metropolitan Research Institute. || HU

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising Resource Center for Roma Communities Foundation; Soros Foundation Romania; Civil Society Development Foundation; Roma Center for Health Policies – SASTIPEN || RO

Coalition of organisations, coordinated by the Decade of Roma Inclusion Foundation in cooperation with the Open Society Foundations, comprising Roma Institute, Milan Šimečka Foundation (NMŠ) and Quo Vadis || SK

Eurodiaconia || Transversal contribution and FI, HU, NL, RO

Amalipe || BG

Niedersächsischer Verband deutscher Sinti e.V. || DE

Romnokher Association of Sinti and Roma, BAG der RAA, Madhouse Freudenberg Stiftung || DE

Fundación Secretariado Gitano (FSG) || ES

Amnesty International || FR

Romeurope || FR

Médecins du Monde || FR

Irish Immigrant Support Centre (NASC) || IE

MOVISIE Netherlands centre for social development || NL

Renovabis || RO

UN Association of Sweden || SE

2.           Findings from the Commission's assessment of progress on the implementation of the National Roma Integration Strategies in the 28 Member States

              Austria

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Measures under the general education reform, which Roma children could benefit from (e.g. the final year of kindergarten is free; support is provided in overcoming the language barrier). Roma school assistants. Focus on vocational training and transition from school to employment. || Assessing the impact of measures undertaken on the enrolment, participation and educational achievement of Roma children is necessary. ·

Employment || Counselling and training provided to support Roma employability e.g. through Thara project. Support is provided under active labour market policies. || The successful, but rather small-scale initiatives targeting Roma (e.g. Thara project) should be scaled up. Active labour market policies should better reach out to the Roma community. Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures on Roma is necessary.

Health || Support is provided under mainstream health policy measures. || Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures on Roma is necessary.

Housing || Support is provided under mainstream policy measures. || Fighting discriminatory practices in the property market needs to be addressed.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness raising activities, promoting inter-culture dialogue between Roma and non-Roma. || Roma empowerment in close cooperation with non-governmental organisations should be reinforced.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Austria has allocated 25,0 % (~€ 131 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on Roma should be considered.

              Belgium

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || A range of measures addressing the educational situation of Roma have been undertaken such as fighting early school leaving, encouraging Roma parental involvement, research on better understanding of the situation and needs of children from Eastern and Central Europe and addressing parents' illiteracy. Adoption of the National Child Poverty Reduction Plan (June 2013). || A series of good initiatives have been taken in the area of education, in particular in Brussels and Flanders. Special attention needs to be paid to increase school attendance and educational achievements of Roma children. Using Roma mediators could facilitate the process. More efforts are needed to put in place a comprehensive early school leaving strategy in the Walloon region (in cooperation with the French Community) and in the Brussels region (in cooperation with both the French and Flemish communities).

Employment || Amendment of the Law on work relations (strengthening the rules on self-employment). Action plan among the Public Employment Services to ensure registration and guidance of residents of Bulgarian and Romanian origin. Support to the Integration Centre "Le Foyer" for a project fostering entrepreneurship and skills of Romanian and Bulgarian newcomers. || More effective measures are necessary to ensure the integration of disadvantaged groups, including Roma, in the open labour market (e.g. personalised approach, job-search assistance, quality skills training in line with labour market needs). Measures to fight and monitor discrimination in the labour market should be considered, as well as policies for diversity in employment (including incentives for employers).

Health || Mobilisation of mediators in healthcare services (in over 50 Belgian hospitals). Specific action in the city of Sint-Niklaas, targeting Roma. || Additional attention should be paid to improve the access of Roma to preventive healthcare, such as vaccination. Furthermore, mediators should be used to overcome barriers and promote optimal use of healthcare services.

Housing || Priority given to access to housing in the federal poverty reduction plan and the Belgian National Roma integration Strategy. In July 2012, the Flemish government presented the strategic plan for caravan dwellers as part of the Flemish integration policy. || Supporting the access to social housing is a positive step. Attention needs to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the property market.

Anti-discrimination || Guidelines drafted by a working group for the police and judiciary in order to deal with discrimination in a coherent way. || The legal protection mechanism should be reinforced. Awareness raising campaigns to promote intercultural dialogue and to enhance mutual trust should be carried out. 

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Belgium has allocated 22,7 % of its total ESF budget (~€ 243 million) for integrating disadvantaged people || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || The promising initiatives in Flanders and Brussels should be scaled up and extended.  Monitoring the impact of mainstreaming measures and activities for Roma should be considered, and the conclusions of monitoring should be channelled back to policy development.

              Bulgaria

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Important measures in the mainstream education system: 2 year obligatory pre-school (with language training for children if needed), measures to reduce early school leaving, gradual introduction of all-day school. A wide number of small projects targeted at the most disadvantaged including the Roma (e.g. summer schools, school projects on tolerance, attention to disadvantaged families in kindergartens, work with parents and pupils to fight early school leaving, etc.). || Key mainstream measures in education have been adopted. However, stronger efforts and engagement at the local level are needed to promote inclusive education and ensure desegregation. More efforts are needed to effectively ensure access to good quality early childhood education and care to all Roma children, by creating the necessary capacities and ensuring qualified staff. Promising measures aimed at reducing early school leaving should be continued and scaled up, with a focus on second-chance education and teacher training. More targeted support schemes would be necessary in secondary vocational education and in higher education .

Employment || 80-95 Roma mediators appointed in local employment offices. Set up of several community development centres. Organisation of job fairs targeted at the most disadvantaged including the Roma. Meetings between labour offices and Roma NGOs in support of the participation of Roma in the labour market. || Most measures planned in the strategy have been followed up. However, Roma employment in rural areas is still not convincingly addressed. Targeted active labour market policies for Roma should be planned in order to ensure effective integration in the open labour market. Using social considerations in public procurement, promoting social enterprises and Roma entrepreneurship, reaching out to private employers, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee, training and employing Roma civil servants should be considered. Fighting and monitoring discrimination in the labour market needs to be ensured.

Health || Various activities from mobile medical units and mediators in areas where a majority population lacks health insurance (e.g. X-ray, immunisation of children, medical and gynaecological exams, screenings and prevention of HIV, TB and malaria). Health education and awareness-raising  actions (campaigns, trainings), increase in the number of Roma health mediators Availability of monitoring tools: quantified outcomes along with concrete indicators, detailed by region and programme/project. || The main challenge remains ensuring health insurance coverage for all. 

Housing || Launch of an important pilot EU co-financed housing initiative in 4 + 3 municipalities (Bourgas, Dupinitsa, Vidin, Devnya + Varna, Peshtera and Tundzha as reserves). || Housing interventions should be carried out within an integrated approach with participation in local Roma and non-Roma communities. Further efforts are needed to develop municipal action plans for improving housing conditions of Roma on a larger scale.

Anti-discrimination || Training police forces on human rights and minorities’ issues. A wide number and variety of local actions (e.g. celebration of 8th April; project to prevent human trafficking; legal support and information on rights; work on the collaboration between public bodies and civil society; specific activities on Roma women and children; etc.). || A systemic approach is needed when addressing discrimination. Effective measures should also be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech.  The practical enforcement of the Act on the Protection Against Discrimination should be enforced.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. The European Regional Development Fund for the pilot initiative on housing originally foreseen for € 8 million (so far € 5.3 million awarded to 3 municipalities). In the 2007-2013 financial period, Bulgaria has allocated 3,2 % (~€ 37 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people || Sufficient allocation of European Structural and Investment Funds, including in the specific investment priority for the integration of marginalised communities such as Roma, should be ensured in the 2014-2020 programming period. Furthermore, Roma inclusion should be mainstreamed into all relevant policy areas, including under the thematic objectives on social inclusion, education and employment. All existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion, including the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) should be considered  Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma integration, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered ||  Mainstream policy reforms particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Political leadership of the inter-ministerial working group on the use of EU funds for Roma integration should be reinforced. The overall mandate and resources allocated to the national Roma contact point should be reinforced. Re-establishing a constructive dialogue with Roma civil society is a necessary success factor for the implementation of the strategy. Anti-discrimination campaigns and communication activities on Roma integration as a benefit for everyone should be developed, targeting all groups of the population.

              Cyprus

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Most measures targeting Roma pupils along with other potentially vulnerable groups are carried out under the Zones of Education priority (since most Roma are concentrated in these areas). Measures include multicultural education and overcoming linguistic barriers, teacher training, provision of bilingual teachers and provision of special support to Roma students. || Government involvement in Roma integration is most prominent in the field of education. Given the strong concentration of Roma in some geographic areas, Zones of Education Priority seem to be appropriate to foster the inclusion of Roma and other children. The main challenges include: safeguarding the right to education of Roma students, especially non-Greek speaking Roma; persuading Roma families to enrol their children in school, establishing intercultural dialogue and respect between persons of different ethnic origins.

Employment || Social inclusion of Roma is part of the Cypriot government's overall strategy for the effective social inclusion of all vulnerable groups. Assistance, including vocational guidance, counselling and training programmes, is provided through public employment services. || The impact of policies should be measured in order to ensure that the needs of the Roma are met.

Health || Healthcare is offered free of charge to all Turkish Cypriots, including Roma, regardless of whether they reside in the government-controlled part of the island or the part occupied by Turkey. || The impact of health policy measures should be measured in order to ensure that the needs of the Roma are met.

Housing || Two housing projects, one in Limassol and one in Paphos, have been launched. || The implementation of the housing projects should be closely monitored.

Anti-discrimination || || Awareness raising campaigns should be considered to promote Roma integration.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Cyprus has allocated 11,4 % (~€ 13 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on Roma should be considered.

              Croatia (assessment of the National Roma Integration Strategy

Document sent to the Commission on: || 30. September 2013

Roma population || Estimate in the document || 9463

|| Council of Europe estimates || approximately 30-40 000 i.e. 0.1 % of the population

Approach || National strategy

|| KEY ELEMENTS || IDENTIFIED GAPS

Education || The strategy includes, in particular, the following positive elements: Focus on pre-school education; After-school programmes; Raising awareness among Roma parents and teachers; Roma assistants; Scholarships to support secondary education. || A focus on desegregation measures towards inclusive education at all levels would be needed. Measures to reduce early school leaving, including promotion of vocational training and education should be considered. The implementation timeframe could have been more detailed.

Employment || A range of employment policy measures specifically targeted at Roma are defined, aiming to increase their employability with due consideration to young Roma, Roma women and Roma long-term unemployed. || The proposed measures could be more precise and underpinned by clear budget allocations, a detailed timeframe and result indicators based on targets. Relevant labour market training to increase employability of Roma and reaching out to private employers would further improve the strategy. Attention needs to be paid to fighting discrimination in the labour market.

Health || Measures aiming to improve the health of the Roma, especially women and children. Roma health-care assistants. || More developed specific measures within an integrated approach are needed with expected outcomes and mechanisms to monitor progress.

Housing || Legalisation of current Roma settlements as the legal condition for the construction of basic infrastructure. Renovation and construction of houses for Roma. || Housing interventions should be part of an integrated approach with the long-term objective of desegregation. Supporting Roma access to social housing would further improve the strategy.

Structural requirements and funding || Representatives of the Roma civil society participated in the preparation of the strategy. Their participation in the implementation of measures and monitoring is planned. The implementation of the strategy will be monitored by the members of a Monitoring Commission composed of all relevant stakeholders, including representatives of Roma communities, in addition to civil servants. Under the IPA IV various no specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration but has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures including social inclusion measures. || The strategy would benefit from a detailed description of clear targets, responsibilities, budget allocations as well as from a robust result-oriented monitoring and evaluation system. The cooperation with local and regional self-government should be reinforced. The synergy between actions supported by EU funds and national funds and mainstream policies should be ensured.

              Czech Republic

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Announced amendment of Decree on education forbidding education of socially disadvantaged children according to the educational programmes for pupils with disabilities. Amendment of Decree obliging the school counselling facilities to periodically review the special educational needs of pupils. Adoption of the Action plan of measures to execute the Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the case D.H and others vs. the Czech Republic, setting up the legal guarantees to ensure objective placement of children in education programmes for the mentally disadvantaged, without discrimination. || Further legislative efforts combined with effective implementation and proper monitoring are needed to eliminate enrolment of Roma children from socially disadvantaged environments into special-needs education. Ensuring access to, and promoting participation of, Roma children in quality inclusive pre-school education needs to be reinforced. Promotion of vocational education and training should also be prioritised.

Employment || Standard active employment policy tools are provided, increased attention from the labour offices' staff is paid to persons defined as needing special attention. The specific employment support programmes for Roma are provided by NGOs and financed mostly by the ESF or ERDF. Municipal initiatives on including social considerations into public procurement. || Extending social considerations in public procurement by municipalities to increase employability of Roma is a positive step which should be scaled up. The capacity of public employment services should be further developed to allow for individualised/targeted services for Roma job seekers. In this connection, the capacity of the Agency for Social Inclusion should be also reinforced. Support services for improving employability within temporary public work schemes should be ensured with a view to effective integration of Roma into the open labour market. In addition, promoting social enterprises and Roma entrepreneurship, reaching out to private employers, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee, training and employing Roma civil servants should be considered. Fighting and monitoring discrimination in the labour market needs to be ensured.

Health || Preventive outreach measures targeting Roma are solely implemented by the programme of health and social assistants in excluded localities. The implementation of the programme is provided by the NGO. Notification to health insurance companies about discriminatory practices of some healthcare professionals. || Further improving the access of Roma to healthcare should be addressed more systematically. Measures towards healthcare professionals to avoid discriminatory practices should also be reinforced.

Housing || Approval of Concept of Homelessness until 2020. Use of European Regional Development Fund for housing interventions. || Improving access of Roma to quality social housing should be part of an integrated approach with a long-term objective of desegregation. EU structural funds should not be used for any kind of sub-standard housing, as is currently the case with social hostels ("ubytovny"). Attention needs to be paid to unlawful practices in the property market.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness raising activities. Support to victims of discrimination provided by the Ombudsman. Free legal assistance provided by the Czech Bar Association. || ·  The effective practical enforcement of Antidiscrimination laws needs to be ensured. · Effective measures should also be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech. · Desegregation measures need to be reinforced.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. Main support has been provided via: ERDF: €14 million for housing interventions In the 2007-2013 financial period, Czech Republic has allocated 9,7 % (~€ 365 million) of its total ESF budget  for integrating disadvantaged people. || Sufficient allocation of European Structural and Investment Funds including in the specific investment priority for the integration of marginalised communities such as Roma, should be ensured in the 2014-2020 programming period. Furthermore, Roma inclusion should be mainstreamed into all relevant policy areas, including under the thematic objectives on social inclusion, education and employment. All existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion, including under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) should be considered. Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma integration, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact. Funding should be mobilised to support capacity building of Roma NGOs.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Mainstream policy reforms particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Measures targeting Roma should be carried out within an integrated approach supported by adequate sustainable funding. The monitoring of the impact of these measures should be ensured.  Mapping and strengthening the territorial aspects of policy making should focus on the most disadvantaged regions. A constructive dialogue with the civil society, as well as close cooperation with local and regional authorities should be ensured.

              Denmark

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Mainstream measures to fight early school leaving (e.g. campaign, creation of a task force) and to integrate all pupils (e.g. language screening and support; replacing segregation with individual support in mainstream education). || The situation and the impact of mainstreaming measures on the Roma should be monitored systematically.

Employment || Various initiatives aimed at supporting vulnerable groups’ employment:  DKK 45 million campaign to reach out to highly marginalised immigrants from which Roma can benefit; DKK 115 million campaign “We need everyone”; guidance provided to job centres on ethnic minorities. || Monitoring the impact of active labour market policies on marginalised groups, including the Roma, is recommended.

Health || Various measures have been taken to increase access to and use of healthcare among ethnic minorities, including the training of health professionals. || Monitoring the impact of health policy measures on Roma is recommended.

Housing || Initiatives (supported by an increase of the National Building Fund) to improve living conditions in deprived residential areas (DKK 220 million annually earmarked to disadvantaged housing areas in 2011-2014), to reduce the number of disadvantaged housing (between DKK 25-30 million annually, for the renovation of social housing, strengthened cooperation of stakeholders, etc.), to  support the development of emergency shelters (DKK 7.5 million allocated in 2012 and 2013) and to prevent the formation of ghettos and of segregation between various communities. || Monitoring the impact of housing policy measures on Roma is recommended.

Anti-discrimination || Support provided to victims by the Danish Institute for Human Rights. || Awareness raising campaigns to tackle prejudices and stereotypes on Roma should be carried out.  Training activities focusing on administrative staff working closely with Roma communities should be reinforced.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. Main support has been provided via the Social Reserve allocated to projects aiming at improving the situation of vulnerable groups. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Denmark has allocated no ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Efforts have been undertaken in 2013 to facilitate the work of municipalities facing challenges in Roma integration, to stimulate dialogue among local authorities on this issue. However, the lack of more precise knowledge on the situation of Roma makes it difficult to evaluate the social and economic effects of the policy measures taken. Therefore evidence-gathering as a basis for systematic monitoring should be developed.

              Estonia

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Mapping the situation on minorities in education. Exchange of best practices among schools and regional communities. || Equal access to inclusive education (starting with quality inclusive early childhood education and care as well as pre-school education) should be reinforced within a systematic approach. Roma children with learning difficulties should be offered pedagogical and linguistic support in order to avoid early school leaving as well as to improve their performance in basic skills. Teacher training and awareness-raising among parents and pupils should be reinforced.

Employment || Support based on an individual approach is provided within the mainstream active labour market policies. Study on the impact of equal treatment in the labour market. || The conclusions from the study on the equal treatment approach are expected to be followed up and translated into practice.

Health || Support provided under mainstream health policy measures. || Access to healthcare needs to be reinforced. Monitoring the impact of health policy measures on Roma is recommended

Housing || Support provided under mainstream housing policy measures. || Improving access of Roma to quality housing should be part of an integrated approach. Monitoring the impact of housing policy measures on Roma is recommended.

Anti-discrimination || Recognition of Roma Holocaust. Promotion of inter-cultural dialogue between Roma and non-Roma., || The effective practical enforcement of Antidiscrimination laws needs to be ensured.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Estonia has allocated 0,8 % (~€ 3 million) of its total ESF budget  for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Evidence-gathering as a basis for systematic monitoring should be developed to measure the impact of mainstream policy measures on Roma. A constructive dialogue with civil society and close cooperation with local and regional authorities need to be ensured.    

              Finland

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Compulsory pre-primary education for all children, not only Roma, is planned, starting from 2015. A number of local pilot projects (e.g. teacher training and involvement of Roma professionals). Support for transition between schools and labour market.  Annual €75 000 funding for the “Romani language nest”. Teaching of Romani language and culture at Helsinki University and possible graduation as certified Romani language teachers. || The increased participation of Roma pupils in early childhood education and care as well as the new compulsory pre-school year are signs of progress. The employment of Roma school assistants and/or Romani language teachers should be considered. Assessing the impact of the pilot projects and of other measures is necessary.

Employment || Wide range of mainstream interventions aimed at increasing the employability of disadvantaged groups, including Roma. 15 projects funded by the European Social Fund related to Roma integration: e.g. “UusiTaito” on training Roma employment mediators and Kaleet kouluun! for creating a model for employment and education of Roma. Various national funded projects promoting Roma employment (e.g. Tempo). Training and employment of Roma professionals in employment services targeting Roma. || Assessing the impact of mainstream and targeted measures is necessary. Attention needs to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the public employment scheme.

Health || Research on the health situation of Roma, related in particular to preventive healthcare for children, youth and Roma women, conducted by the National Institute for Health and Welfare. || Drawing lessons from the research project and assessing the impact of mainstream measures is necessary.

Housing || Research on the health situation of the Roma conducted by the National Institute for Health and Welfare with aspects related to the housing situation. || Drawing lessons from the research project and assessing the impact of mainstream measures is necessary. Discriminatory practices in the property market need to be addressed.

Anti-discrimination || Study carried out in 2013 by the Ombudsman for Minorities on discrimination of the Roma in employment and housing. Official acknowledgement that the fight against discrimination is a precondition to improve Roma school attainment and effective equal access to the labour market. Website www.romanit.fi, offering information on Finnish Roma and Romani culture (including articles and teaching material. || The effective practical enforcement of Antidiscrimination laws needs to be ensured. Tools to enable Roma empowerment in close cooperation with non-governmental organisations should be developed.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Finland has allocated 13,6 % (~€ 84.2 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Assessing the impact of mainstream and targeted measures is necessary.

              France

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Restatement of the principle of compulsory education and measures foreseen in the circulaire of 26th August 2012[2]. Adoption of 3 major circulaires on education of Roma and Travellers[3]. National working group on Roma and travellers' education and network of CASNAV[4]. Adoption of circulaire of 26th August 2012 on anticipating and preparing evictions from illegal settlements. || Decisive steps forward have been taken, both in terms of policy and governance on Roma education. The circulaire of 26th August 2012 needs to be fully implemented at the local level. Evidence gathering should be further developed to measure the impact of activities undertaken on Roma and Travellers. An adequate strategy for Travellers, including measures to fight illiteracy and early school leaving should be developed. Measures promoting the access of Roma and Travellers to early childhood education and care need to be carried out. 

Employment || Vocational training measures foreseen in the circulaire of 26th August 2012. Cancellation of the employers' tax to Office français de l'Immigration et de l'Intégration, from which Roma could have benefitted. Limited-scale projects to support travellers' employment (e.g. in agriculture). || The successful, but rather small-scale initiatives targeting Roma and Travellers should be scaled up and integrated into a more coherent approach. The circulaire needs to be fully implemented at local level. Evidence gathering should be further developed to support an adequate strategy for Travellers and to measure the impact of activities undertaken. Attention needs to be paid to monitoring and eliminating discriminatory practices at the workplace.

Health || Health measures foreseen in the circulaire of 26th August 2012. Cancellation of the registration tax for State Medical Aid (AME) and increase in the universal health coverage level (CMU). || Initiatives have been taken to step up the access for disadvantaged groups to healthcare and health insurance. The circulaire needs to be fully implemented at local level, in particular as conditions for Roma living in illegal settlements are of concern. Evidence gathering should be further developed to support an adequate strategy for Travellers and to measure the impact of activities undertaken on Roma and Travellers.

Housing || Adoption of circulaire of 26th August 2012 on anticipating and preparing evictions from illegal settlements. Dialogue and support (including financial - € 4 million annually) provided to all local authorities in charge of implementing the circulaire. Proactive data collection and regular monitoring of all illegal settlements. Effective use of the ERDF by regions to build housing solutions for Roma. Allocation of € 5 million in the national budget for halting sites. || The circulaire of 26th August 2012, welcomed by all stakeholders, fills a gap regarding the conditions under which evictions from illegal settlements used to take place. However, implementation is a challenge. Further efforts in terms of governance are needed to monitor the follow-up of the circulaire as well as population fluxes. The development of an adequate strategy for Travellers is necessary, so as to develop quality halting sites and to meet the challenges raised by important gatherings (grands passages).

Anti-discrimination || Amendment of the 1969 law. 2012-2014 Action Plan against Racism. National working group on discrimination and effective dialogue between the national Roma contact point and civil society / local actors. || Proactive steps are being taken to tackle misconceptions and would need to be consolidated. Recommendations from the Défenseur des droits and from the Commission Nationale Consultative aux Droits de l'Homme are expected to be followed up, so as to ensure access and continuity of rights to education, healthcare and services essential to people's dignity.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various mainstream policy measures, including social inclusion measures. - Effective use in 2007-2013 of the European Regional Development Fund (€ 7 million programmed focusing on housing for disadvantaged groups). In the 2007-2013 financial period, France has allocated 34,6 % (~€ 1 861 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered. .

Structural priorities that should be considered || The policy framework is in place for Roma integration but is not fully implemented in practice. Implementation could be more effective through a stronger coordination between territories and the central level. A strategy for Travellers' integration still has to be developed. The capacities and mandate of the National Roma Contact Point should be further reinforced. Full implementation of the strategy at local level should be ensured via more systematic efforts in order to build a culture of social inclusion with awareness raising activities and mediation.

              Germany

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Federal Working Group on Roma education, involving Ministries, Roma NGOs, foundations, researchers and activists set up. A series of state and municipal level projects supporting German Sinti and Roma, and Roma   from other EU Member States (e.g. in learning German language, after-school activities, supporting transition between school and the labour market etc.). || Several positive steps have been taken, in particular at local level (e.g. Berlin Action Plan). Evidence gathering should be developed to assess the situation and the impact of measures on the Roma. Early school leaving should be carefully tackled, particularly in Vocational Education and Training.

Employment || Support based on an individual approach provided within the mainstream active labour market policies. || Using the individual approach bringing Roma to the open labour market is positive. Evidence gathering should be developed to assess the situation and the impact of measures on the Roma.

Health || Roma can benefit from mainstream policy measures. || Evidence gathering should be developed to assess the situation and the impact of measures on the Roma.

Housing || Social housing provided at state and municipal level. || Attention needs to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the property market.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness-raising activities against racism and all kinds of discrimination, promoting inter-cultural dialogue, in particular in schools. || Developing tools to enable Roma empowerment in close cooperation with non-governmental organisations is necessary.

Funding || In many cases no specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Germany has allocated 20% (~€ 1 878 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || The coordination role of the National Roma Contact Point should be reinforced. The development of local action plans should be supported. Evidence gathering should be developed to enable assessment of the situation and the impact of mainstream measures and targeted activities undertaken on the Roma. The involvement of civil society in Roma-related activities should be reinforced.

              Greece

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Implementation of policy incentives to increase school attendance via two programmes – "Education of Roma Children" and "Roma Children in Macedonia and Thrace". || Systematic measures are needed to reinforce inclusion in compulsory education, starting with ensuring access to quality-inclusive early childhood education and care, as well as pre-school education. Proper monitoring of enrolment and attendance is necessary. Desegregation measures need to be reinforced.

Employment || Implementation of Local Integrated Programmes for Vulnerable Social Groups (TOPEKO). Continuation of 29 Support Centres for vulnerable groups, including Roma. || Targeted measures within the active inclusion policies with increased focus on the effective integration into the open labour market are needed. Promoting Roma entrepreneurship under the Youth Guarantee should be considered. Proper operation of 29 Support Centres for vulnerable groups, including Roma, should be secured by adequate and sustainable funding.

Health || Focus on preventive healthcare, mainly on vaccination. || Improving access of Roma to healthcare should be addressed by more systematic measures. Training of healthcare professionals should be reinforced.

Housing || Three regional integrated pilot programmes with infrastructure component. || The implementation of well-designed regional programmes needs to be supported by adequate and sustainable funding. Mapping of socio-economic and living conditions in Roma settlements should be considered.

Anti-discrimination || The Greek Ombudsman has created a separate office for Roma issues. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured. Effective measures should be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech. Desegregation measures should be accompanied by awareness-raising activities among both Roma and non-Roma.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. Main support has been provided via: - European Regional Development Fund: € 18.9 Million in Thrace (Operational Programmes “Central Macedonia, Western Macedonia and Eastern Macedonia - Thrace”) and Thessaly € 3.7 Million in Thessaly (Operational Programme “Thessalia - Sterea Ellada – Ipiros”). In the 2007-2013 financial period, Greece has allocated 9,2 % (~€ 397 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma integration, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Mainstream policy reforms particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Measures targeting Roma should be carried out within an integrated approach supported by adequate sustainable funding. The monitoring of the impact of these measures should be ensured.  Mapping and strengthening the territorial aspects of policy making should focus on the most disadvantaged regions. A constructive dialogue with the civil society, as well as close cooperation with local and regional authorities should be ensured.

              Hungary

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Broad range of measures to ensure equal access to quality education for the disadvantaged (integrated pedagogical system, Sure Start houses, scholarship programmes, etc.). School centralisation including harmonisation of curriculum, centralised textbook publishing, professional services, financing and aspects of human resource management Reduction of mandatory age limit in compulsory education (to the age of 16) accompanied with shortening of vocational cycle and the introduction of a dual system. Planned introduction of compulsory pre-school attendance from age three with measures .to encourage participation in including cash incentives and the extension of Sure Start Children Centres. || The integrated Pedagogical System contributes positively to Roma pupils' education, nevertheless, more efforts are needed to promote their access to the mainstream education system.. The impact of recent reforms needs to be closely monitored in this regard. A systematic approach to desegregation needs to be put in place, building on the opportunities presented by the school centralisation. Early school leaving should be carefully tackled, particularly in Vocational Education and Training. Focus on basic skills and key competences should be reinforced in general and vocational schools. Increased participation of Roma pupils in pre-school should be accompanied by qualified staff, necessary infrastructure and sustainable funding.

Employment || Wide range of mainstream actions aimed at increasing the employability of disadvantaged groups with due consideration to gender aspects. Roma mentors in Public Employment Services. || Continuous and individualised supporting services of temporary public work schemes should be reinforced with a view to effective integration in the open labour market. A comprehensive package of measures targeting private employers including extending social considerations in public procurement, promoting diversity in the workplace, coupled by job trials, recruitment subsidies, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee should be considered. Fighting and monitoring discrimination in the labour market needs to be ensured.

Health || Healthcare measures aimed at reducing inequalities, including preventive health care. Special focus on early childhood development (screening tests), youth and Roma women. Incentives for paediatricians, general practitioners to fill empty practices in most disadvantaged regions. Training of healthcare professionals. Awareness-rising campaigns among Roma. || Evidence gathering should be developed to measure the situation and the impact of measures on the Roma.

Housing || Systematic and integrated approach with the long-term objective of desegregation. In the Programme Trust and Work as well as in the Complex estate programme housing interventions complementary to employment, training, health care and social work activities. Additional pilot housing measures launched. || Evidence gathering should be developed to enable measuring the situation and the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on the Roma. Spatial desegregation should be strengthened.

Anti-discrimination || Financial support to municipalities provided under the condition that they observe the principles of equal treatment and long term desegregation. Amendment of the penal law related to violence against the members of ethnic communities. A range of measures have been launched to contribute to the empowerment of Roma (such as the establishment of the Roma Public Life Academy of Politics, promoting Roma journalists). || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination legislation needs to be ensured. Effective measures should also be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech. Desegregation measures should be accompanied by awareness-raising activities for both Roma and non-Roma. Attention need to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the public work scheme. Close cooperation with the media is recommended.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. Main support has been provided via: - European Regional Development Fund: Housing supported by € 8.6 million + €3.46 Million (Operation Programme housing projects) = € 12.06 million EUR.  In the 2007-2013 financial period, Hungary has allocated 8,8 % (~€ 319 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Sufficient allocation of European Structural and Investment Funds, including in the specific investment priority for integration of marginalised communities such as Roma should be ensured in the 2014-2020 programming period. Roma inclusion should be mainstreamed into all relevant policy areas including under the thematic objectives on social inclusion, education and employment. All existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion, including under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), should be considered.  The synergy between actions supported by EU funds and national funds and mainstream policies should be ensured. Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma integration, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered || The monitoring mechanism should have a stronger focus on assessing the impact.  The conclusions of the monitoring should be channelled into policy developments. Cooperation with all segments of Roma civil society and local and regional authorities should be reinforced. Mainstream policy reforms should be more coordinated to support Roma inclusion. Anti-discrimination campaigns and targeted actions should be developed.

              Ireland

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Mainstream measures, e.g. to fight early school leaving (School Completion Programme), support at-risk pupils (Home School Community Liaison), support the transition from primary to post-primary education (education passport) and provide English language support. Closing of all segregated schools/ pre-schools for Travellers. || A number of mainstream measures have been taken to support disadvantaged pupils. The impact of mainstream policies and measures on Travellers and Roma should be monitored. Measures addressing education should be better coordinated with other policies, in particular employment and housing.

Employment || National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2007-2016. Review of the Special Initiative for Travellers to improve its effectiveness. A number of local projects (e.g. Community development projects; support to Travellers' entrepreneurship in Galway). || Local initiatives promoting Roma employability should be scaled up. Providing relevant labour market training and assistance for entrepreneurship among Travellers and Roma should be considered.

Health || Mainstream measures have been accompanied by a number of local initiatives aimed at supporting access of Travellers and Roma to healthcare. Mainstream measures (Future Health 2012-2015; Healthy Ireland 2013-2025). A wide range of specific health services and initiatives (e.g. GP Roma Mobile Clinic, vaccination campaigns, development of training on healthcare and Travellers, various initiatives from the Health Service Executive). || Local initiatives have been taken to specifically support the access of Roma and Travellers to healthcare. The impact of mainstream measures and local initiatives aimed at improving access of Travellers and Roma to healthcare should be monitored. The health policy measures should be better coordinated with other policies, in particular housing. Awareness-raising on health issues among Travellers and Roma should be carried out in close cooperation with civil society organisations.

Housing || Implementation of the 2009-2013 Traveller Accommodation Programmes by local authorities and development of new 2014-2018 Traveller Accommodation Programmes. || The housing actions should be carried out as part of an integrated approach, paying attention to education, employment and health challenges. Adequate funding needs to be secured for local authorities to deal with higher risk of homelessness among Travellers and Roma.

Anti-discrimination || Various local initiatives (e.g. factsheet on travellers for enterprises in Galway) and activities from the Equality Authority (e.g. workshop promoting Traveller Employment in the Private sector). Work on building positive relations between the police and the Travellers / Roma. Publication of anti-bullying procedures to be adopted and implemented by all primary and post-primary schools. || A systematic approach to tackle prejudices against the Traveller and Roma communities, including working with the media should be developed.

Funding || Roma and Travellers' inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Ireland has allocated 28,6 % (~€ 107,5 million) of its total ESF budget  for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Mechanisms to ensure a constructive dialogue, better communication and coordination between public authorities, Travellers and Roma communities and local and regional authorities should be reinforced. The role of the National Roma Contact Point needs to be reinforced. Travellers' and Roma integration should be addressed across all relevant policy areas. Measuring the impact of mainstream measures on Travellers and Roma remains necessary.

              Italy

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Measures planned to decrease the early school leaving rate in four regions. National project launched in 2013 with the aim to increase participation of Roma children in primary and secondary schools involving 13 large municipalities. || Adequate funding to secure effective and sustainable implementation of the planned measures is necessary.  

Employment || Promoting vocational training, job orientation to support inclusion of Roma and other vulnerable groups in the labour market. The national working group on labour has been developing projects which include Roma people as targets on such issues as; prevention of early school leaving; integration of migrants; fight against undeclared work; access to services; self-employment; creation of a national Integration Website focusing on migrants' needs. || Positive steps have been taken in designing and implementing policies and actions for the Roma by local authorities. Promising initiatives need to be scaled up.  Further attention is needed to fight discriminatory practices in the labour market.

Health || Additional financial allocations in 2012 and 2013 to a national institute created to promote health among migrant population and to fight diseases due to poverty, Roma persons included. A project "TroVARSI" (Vaccinations Roma and Sinti) which began in 2013, aims at increasing the level of protection of Roma children from diseases that can be prevented by ordinary vaccination. || The national health system provides universal access to healthcare (including Roma people), prevention and uniform criteria for quality services throughout the country. However, measuring the impact of mainstream health policies on Roma and the possibility of further targeted measures should be considered. 

Housing || Efforts to overcome the “camps-system” were made in various areas of the country. || Overcoming the camps-system should be carried out within an integrated approach addressing simultaneously challenges in the areas of education, employment and health.

Anti-discrimination || The "Campaign Dosta! 2012-2013" is aimed at raising awareness and combating anti-Roma prejudice. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination legislation needs to be ensured. A systematic approach to tackle prejudices against the Roma, including working with the media should be developed. Effective measures should also be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Italy has allocated 8,7 % (~€ 602 million) of its total ESF budget  for integrating disadvantaged people. || Sustainable financing including from national funds should be secured for the implementation of the strategy. Further use of existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion under the EU funds should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || The effective implementation of measures to step up Roma integration should be ensured by securing adequate and sustainable funding, efficient coordination between the national and local level and a constructive dialogue with civil society.

              Latvia

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Mapping the situation and participation of Roma in education. Measures focusing on early-childhood education, primary and secondary education. Roma teachers' assistants. Support centres for Roma parents. Training of professionals. || Systematic measures to reinforce desegregation and inclusion into mainstream education are needed, starting with ensuring access to quality-inclusive early childhood education and care as well as pre-school education. Evidence gathering should be developed to assess the situation and the impact of measures on the Roma. Training and employment of Roma teachers’ assistants should be continued. Proper monitoring of enrolment and attendance is necessary in order to effectively fight early school leaving. Further attention should be paid to tackling illiteracy.

Employment || Active labour market policy measures envisaging support for Roma as a vulnerable group among other unemployed, socially inactive or ethnic minorities. || More efforts should be placed in active inclusion labour market policies providing individualised support to Roma. The promotion of employment through training and reskilling relevant to labour market should be addressed.

Health || Support provided within the mainstream health policy measures. || A more systematic and integrated approach is necessary to improve access of Roma to healthcare, including health insurance coverage. Training of healthcare professionals should also be promoted.

Housing || Support provided within the mainstream housing policy measures. || A more systematic and integrated approach is necessary to improve access of Roma to quality housing.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness-raising activities (including from the Ombudsman) promoting inter-cultural dialogue. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Latvia has allocated 7,3 % (~€ 42 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || The implementation of effective Roma inclusion measures in education, housing, healthcare and employment should be secured, together with the allocation of adequate funding. Evidence gathering should be developed to measure the situation and the impact of activities on the Roma. A constructive dialogue with civil society and close cooperation with local and regional authorities need to be ensured. This is necessary for the successful implementation of mainstream social inclusion measures for all disadvantaged groups.   

              Lithuania

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Amendments to the 2012 Law on Education; provision of assistants where needed. Review of Roma children integration into educational system. Education for Roma children (pre-school age group) and adults provided in the Roma Community Centre. Teaching material prepared on Roma history and culture. || The outcome of the education review on Roma children needs to be taken into consideration in the implementation of the policies. Measures towards inclusive education and desegregation need to be reinforced. Awareness-raising measures among Roma parents and youth on the benefits of education are necessary. Attention should be paid to tackling illiteracy and offering second chance education to adult Roma.

Employment || Support provided within the mainstream employment policy measures. Continuation of the project ‘European Roma culture and business park Bahtalo Drom’, funded by EU structural funds in the Vilnius region. || Measuring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on employment of Roma is necessary. Labour market relevant training to increase employability of Roma should be considered.

Health || Support provided within the mainstream health policy measures. Actions such as combatting HIV and other illnesses among Roma have been taken and awareness raising lectures have been given. The Roma Action Plan for 2012 -2014 has estimated the healthcare and awareness raising financing needs for one local Roma settlement. || Measuring the impact of mainstream health policies on Roma is necessary.  Awareness-raising activities on preventive healthcare should be developed. Training of healthcare professionals on the health needs of vulnerable groups, such as Roma, could be considered.

Housing || Support provided within the mainstream housing policy measures. || Housing policies to improve access of Roma to quality housing should be part of a systematic and integrated approach.

Anti-discrimination || Adoption of inter-institutional Action Plan to Promote Non-discrimination for 2012–2014. Activities of Equal Opportunities Ombudsman on complaints lodged by Roma. Launch of the Dosta! Campaign. Concert and exhibition of Roma artworks, organised for the celebration of International Roma Day on 8 April 2013. Brochure about Roma victims of the Holocaust (printed, it will be distributed to history teachers). || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Lithuania has allocated 5,8 % (~€ 59 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Measuring the impact of mainstream policies on Roma is necessary. A constructive dialogue with civil society and close cooperation with local and regional authorities need to be ensured. 

              Luxembourg

|| Steps taken since 2011 ||

Education || Roma can benefit from mainstream educational policies. Reforms to improve educational quality and performance, including the participation of (migrant) youth, are on the policy agenda. Training on the reception and integration of Roma children at school was organised for teachers during the school year 2011-2012 and welcoming classes (separated: “classes étatiques” or integrated: “cours d’accueil”) exist for newcomers. Intercultural mediation is offered in several languages. || Measuring the impact of mainstream educational policies on Roma should be considered.

Employment || Roma can benefit from mainstream employment measures. Many initiatives have been taken to increase the employability of jobless people, including through job integration programmes and subsidised employment. || Measuring the impact of mainstream employment policies on Roma should be considered.

Health || Roma can benefit from mainstream health policy measures. Two measures could be of specific importance for Roma youth – preventing early pregnancy and promoting sexual health, facilitating access to dental services. || Measuring the impact of mainstream health policy measures on Roma should be considered. Awareness-raising measures aimed both at Roma and health professionals could be considered.

Housing || Early 2013 Luxembourg government adopted a national strategy against homelessness and housing exclusion. || Measuring the impact of planned mainstream housing measures on Roma should be considered.

Anti-discrimination || Newly established Welcome and Integration Contract (Contrat d’Accueil et d’Intégration – CAI). || A systematic approach to tackle prejudices against the Roma, including working with the media should be developed.

FFunding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Luxembourg has allocated 9,6 % (~€ 2 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Measuring the impact of mainstream measures on Roma should be considered.

              Netherlands

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || A series of local level projects organised by local municipalities to fight school absenteeism and reducing school drop-out rates. The individual approach used in improving the school attendance of Roma children (one family-one plan-one case manager). Employing school attendance officers and Roma school assistants at primary schools. || Using the individual approach in improving the school attendance of Roma children and close cooperation with Roma families are steps in the right direction. The awareness-raising activities to enhance mutual trust between Roma parents, Roma pupils, in particular Roma girls and schools should be considered. A stronger attention should be paid to the fight against adult illiteracy.

Employment || Support provided within the mainstream active labour market policies || Measuring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on employment of Roma is necessary. Vocational training among young Roma could be considered. Fighting discriminatory practices in the labour market needs to be addressed.

Health || Support provided within the mainstream health policy measures. || Awareness-raising campaigns on preventive healthcare targeting Roma families should be considered.

Housing || Access to social housing and subsidised rented houses provided within the mainstream housing policy measures. Municipalities provide for halting sites. || Fighting discriminatory practices in the property market needs to be addressed.

Anti-discrimination || No specific step to support anti-discrimination regarding the Roma, beyond mainstream policy measures. || Awareness-raising campaigns to tackle prejudices and stereotyping against Roma and Sinti, to enhance mutual trust between both Roma and non-Roma should be carried out.  The training activities focusing on administrative staff working closely with Roma communities should be reinforced.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. Main support has been provided via: -national and municipal budgets. - EU Labour Plus project running in nine countries and funded by INTERREG IVC in cooperation with the European Towns and Pilot cities Platform. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Netherlands has allocated 8% (~€ 66 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || An interconnected activity between municipalities facilitated by the creation of the Platform of Roma municipalities is an important step to support Roma integration at the local level. Representation and active participation of Roma into the planning, implementation and evaluation of measures/ activities related to them should be encouraged. Evidence from the "Roma monitor" survey could inspire measures reflecting the complexity of the situation of Roma. Measuring the situation and the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on the Roma should be reinforced.

              Poland

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Implementation of the Programme for the Roma community including a number of incentives to enforce pre-school and compulsory education. || In spite of positive incentives, a more systematic approach towards inclusive education and effective implementation of desegregation measures need to be ensured. Reducing secondary school dropout rates, promoting vocational training and increasing participation in tertiary education should be prioritised.

Employment || Implementation of the Programme for the Roma community supporting subsidised jobs, trainings and internships. || Targeted measures within the active labour market policies with increased focus on effective integration to open labour market need to be taken. Promoting social enterprises and Roma entrepreneurship, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee should be considered.

Health || Preventive health measures focusing on Roma women and children, vaccination, co-financing medicines, supporting community nurses. || A more systematic and integrated approach is necessary so as to improve access of Roma to healthcare.

Housing || Implementation of the Programme for the Roma community supporting the improvement of Roma housing conditions. || Housing interventions to improve access of Roma to social housing should be part of a systematic and integrated approach underpinned by sustainable and adequate funding.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness raising activities promoting cultural dialogue among Roma and non-Roma. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures In the 2007-2013 financial period, Poland has allocated 11,2 % (~€ 1 089 million) of its total ESF budget  for integrating disadvantaged people. || Efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact should be ensured. Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Better-targeted, result-oriented interventions across all relevant policy areas supported by adequate and sustainable funding, efficient monitoring, and constructive dialogue with the civil society and close cooperation with local and regional authorities need to be ensured.

              Portugal

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Improving access to early childhood education and care through awareness-raising activities targeting Roma mothers and by using the mediators. Vocational training courses. Implementation of programme (Choices) aiming at promotion of social inclusion among children and young people from disadvantaged backgrounds. || Measuring the impact of mainstream activities on the situation of Roma children is necessary. Further attention should be paid to the situation of Roma girls. Desegregation measures need to be reinforced.

Employment || Measures focusing mainly on tailored training to facilitate access to employment and to enhance self-employment. || The focus needs to be put on an integrated approach and active labour market policies with tailor-made interventions for the Roma. Targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee should be considered.

Health || Mobile units of the National Health Service. || Further work on monitoring the health outcomes should be considered.

Housing || Mapping the housing situation of Roma communities in 308 municipalities through a survey. || Housing interventions to provide non-discriminatory access of Roma to quality housing should be part of systematic and integrated approach with long-term objective of desegregation.

Anti-discrimination || Creation of a Consultative Group for Roma communities' integration. Launching of National Study on Roma communities. Programme for Municipal Roma mediators. Awareness raising campaigns. Organisation of first Roma Women seminar. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Portugal has allocated 6 % (~€ 381 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Measuring the impact of mainstream policies on Roma people is necessary. An integrated approach, supported by adequate sustainable funding is needed. A constructive dialogue with Roma NGOs and local and regional municipalities as necessary needs to be reinforced.

              Romania

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Continuation of on-going programmes (second chance education and early childhood education). Increasing use of Romani language in education at all levels (Romani being taught in over 300 schools). Extensive training of Roma mediators (a total of 1,010 school mediators have received training, from which every year 420-460 work in the education system). In higher education, places for young Roma secured in all public universities (564 in 2012-13). Summer kindergartens to prepare Roma children for a successful start in primary school. || Initiatives undertaken should be scaled up and secured by adequate and sustainable funding. In particular, programmes aimed at providing access to good quality early childhood education and care and second chance education should be expanded. Further efforts are needed towards inclusive education and desegregation, including through the enforcement of legislation in place and active desegregation measures. All new measures in education should be carefully assessed and monitored for their potential impact on sustaining segregation. A comprehensive strategy for early school leaving needs to be put in place, focusing on better access of Roma to quality early childhood education and supporting Roma children to complete primary and secondary education. Measures need to be taken to ensure paid employment of trained mediators.

Employment || Mainstream employment policies. Project Romano-Cher ("The House of Roma") attempting to create small cooperative /associative structures. Projects mostly implemented by NGOs providing tailored job search assistance combined with training courses and support for the social economy (several targeted Roma communities). || · While measuring the impact of mainstream policies on Roma remains necessary, more targeted active labour market policies for Roma are needed. · Relevant labour market training to increase employability of Roma should be reinforced. Using social considerations in public procurement, promoting social enterprises and Roma entrepreneurship, reaching out to private employers, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee, training and employing Roma civil servants should be considered. · Fighting and monitoring discrimination in the labour market needs to be ensured.

Health || · Health mediators (HM) program. · Implementation of 35 projects funded from the state budget (following an initiative taken by the National Agency for Roma). || · Improving the access of Roma to health insurance coverage should be reinforced. · Measures improving the effective access of Roma to medical services should be taken. · Awareness-raising campaigns about preventive health targeting the Roma should be carried out.  Employing Roma mediators could help to facilitate the process. · Training of health professionals should be also considered. Measures to employ trained health professionals should be taken

Housing || Mainstream housing policies. || · Housing interventions should be part of the integrated approach with the long-term objective of desegregation, secured by adequate and sustainable funding. Regularisation of Roma settlements as the legal precondition for the construction of basic infrastructure should be prioritised.  · Housing conditions and access of Roma to social housing should be reinforced.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness raising activities (e.g. project "See me as I am!"), with due consideration to gender aspects. || The effective practical enforcement of antidiscrimination law needs to be ensured. Effective measures should be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech. Desegregation measures should be reinforced. Strong attention needs to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the employment and housing areas.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures as well as under education and employment Priority Axes. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Romania has allocated 11,8% (~€ 433 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || · Efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact should be ensured. Sufficient allocation of European Structural and Investment Funds, including in the specific investment priority for the integration of marginalised communities such as Roma, should be ensured in the 2014-2020 programming period. Furthermore, Roma inclusion should be mainstreamed into all relevant policy areas, including under the thematic objectives on social inclusion, education and employment. In addition, measures to support Roma inclusion should also increasingly rely on national funds. All existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion, including under the European l Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) should be considered. Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma integration, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Implementation and mainstreaming of many legally adopted policies and programs in the field of social inclusion have been delayed, due to a lack of implementation capacity and funding and the absence of strong commitment by public authorities. Mainstream policy reforms particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Measures targeting Roma should be carried out within an integrated approach supported by adequate sustainable funding. The monitoring of the impact of these measures should be ensured.  Mapping and strengthening the territorial aspects of policy making should focus on the most disadvantaged regions. A constructive dialogue with civil society, as well as close cooperation with local and regional authorities should be ensured.

              Slovak republic

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Introduction of premium for teachers teaching in normal classes at primary schools with "individually incorporated disadvantaged pupils". Pedagogical Guidelines for 2013/2014 explicitly called for the prohibition of all forms of discrimination and segregation. New Recommendations to the Centres of Pedagogical and Psychological Counselling and Prevention to improve diagnosis of school abilities of children from socially disadvantaged environment. All day programmes tested in 200 elementary schools. Building of prefabricated, modular elementary schools where needed. Implementation of programmes towards inclusive education "Investment into Early Childhood – Support of Social Innovations and Integration of the Roma". Adding of Culture and Roma language and Literature to subjects of the school-leaving exam. || In spite of positive incentives a systematic approach combined with effective implementation and proper monitoring are needed to eliminate the enrolment of Roma children from socially disadvantaged environments into special-needs education for mentally impaired pupils. Ensuring access and promoting participation of Roma children to quality inclusive pre-school education needs to be reinforced. Alternative options to building new school facilities in predominantly Roma-populated areas (such as providing school bus for children above a certain age) should be considered to avoid segregation. Reducing secondary school dropout rates, promoting vocational training should be prioritised.

Employment || Amendment of the Act on Employment Services reforming the active labour market policies. Amendment of the Act on Social insurance facilitating the employment of long-term unemployed by exempting the employers and employees from paying social security and health insurance contributions for 12 months. Amendment of the Act on Assistance in Material Need. Implementation of the social field work projects. || Measuring the impact of the amendments of existing law on the situation of marginalised Roma is necessary. Targeted active labour market policies for Roma focusing on personalised services, and quality training in line with labour market demand should be planned in order to ensure effective integration in the open labour market. Using social considerations in public procurement, promoting social enterprises and Roma entrepreneurship, reaching out to private employers, targeting Roma under the Youth Guarantee, training and employing Roma civil servants as more efficient alternatives to public work schemes should be considered. Fighting and monitoring discrimination in the labour market needs to be ensured.

Health || Preventive outreach measures targeting marginalised Roma are solely implemented by the program of health mediators. || A more systematic integrated approach with clear measurable targets, a timeframe for implementation, appropriate financial allocation and effective monitoring should be taken. Measures towards healthcare professionals could also be considered.

Housing || The Housing Development Programme provides grants to villages and towns for the construction of rental flats of normal and lower standard. Within the programme a grant for technical equipment to enhance the socio-cultural level of Roma settlements is provided up to 80% of the acquisition cost. The new Construction Act is being prepared. In order to increase affordability of housing the state offers a housing allowance for those in material need amounting to €55.80 a month for an individual and €89.20 for a household with more than one member. || Housing interventions should be part of an integrated approach with the long-term objective of desegregation. An adequate system of supervising and monitoring the construction, maintenance and upgrading of existing low-standard flats should be put in place. Abolishment of informal dwellings in the Roma settlements should be accompanied by adequate accompanying measures Legalisation of the land as the legal precondition for the construction of basic infrastructure is necessary.

Anti-discrimination || Amendment of the Antidiscrimination Act which introduces temporary equalising measures (positive action) which can be adopted on the grounds of ethnicity in all areas protected by the Act, i.e. employment, education, healthcare, social security and access to goods and services. Efforts to mainstream antidiscrimination in gender equality policies. Promoting cultural activities. || Temporary equalising measures are   welcome. However, in order to be effective, they need to be well promoted. The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination law needs to be ensured. Effective measures should also be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech. Desegregation measures should be accompanied by awareness-raising activities and appropriate training.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Slovakia has allocated 10,9% (~€ 162 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Sufficient allocation of European Structural and Investment Funds, including in the specific investment priority for the integration of marginalised communities such as should be ensured in the 2014-2020 programming period.  Furthermore, Roma inclusion should be mainstreamed into all relevant policy areas, including under the thematic objectives on social inclusion, education and employment. All existing possibilities to support Roma inclusion, including under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) should be considered. Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of European Structural and Investment Funds  is necessary to ensure the successful mobilisation of EU funds for Roma inclusion, efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Mainstream policy reforms, particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Measures targeting Roma should be carried out within an integrated approach supported by adequate sustainable funding. The monitoring of the impact of these measures should be ensured.  Mapping and strengthening the territorial aspects of policy making should focus on the most disadvantaged regions. A constructive dialogue with the civil society, as well as close cooperation with local and regional authorities should be ensured. Anti-discrimination campaigns and actions presenting  Roma integration as a benefit for everyone should be developed

              Slovenia

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Implementation of the programme "Raising social and cultural capital". || Implementation of the programme has resulted in an increased participation of Roma in early childhood education. Access to high quality inclusive pre-school education could still be further reinforced. Existing efforts to help children overcome language barriers should be maintained and reinforced.

Employment || Mainstream measures under active labour market policies. Workshops for life-long career guidance and counselling. || Measuring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on employment of Roma is necessary. Targeted measures to improve the employability of Roma should be considered. Vocational training among Roma youth could be considered.

Health || A series of workshops and projects to promote preventive healthcare with special attention to women and children.  || Further attention needs to be paid to ensure the vaccination of all Roma children.

Housing || Legalisation of current Roma settlements as the legal precondition for the construction of basic infrastructure. || The on-going process of legalisation of the land is a positive step forward. Housing interventions should be part of an integrated approach with the long-term objective of desegregation.

Anti-discrimination || Awareness-raising activities. Training of Roma on their rights. Training of public servants and judiciary. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination legislation needs to be ensured. A systematic approach to tackle prejudices against the Roma, including working with the media should be developed.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Slovenia has allocated 5,9 % (~€ 41 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.  Strong cooperation and coordination between the National Roma Contact Point and the authorities responsible for the management of EU funds is necessary to ensure efficiency and sustainability of measures as well as proper monitoring of their impact.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Mainstream policy reforms particularly in the fields of education, employment, health and housing should contribute to support Roma inclusion. Measures targeting Roma should be carried out within an integrated approach supported by adequate sustainable funding. The monitoring of the impact of these measures should be ensured.  A constructive dialogue with the civil society, as well as close cooperation with local and regional authorities should be ensured.

              Spain

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || A series of specific measures (e.g. granting subsidies to Roma associations or organisations that assist Roma students and activities to develop intercultural education and compilation of school material). Measures addressing vulnerable groups including the Roma, in particular to: - increase their educational opportunities in the first 3 years of primary education (Educa3 Plan) - develop support plans (Programme of Educational Support and Guidance PROA) - reduce early school leaving. Adult schools. || Significant progress regarding Roma education has been made.  Further attention needs to be paid to high rates of early school leaving, absenteeism and the lack of continuity in formal education and training. Second chance education could be further encouraged. The impact of mainstream policies on Roma should be monitored.

Employment || Reinforcement of Roma targeted programmes (e.g. Acceder) through the reallocation of additional ESF funds. Targeted and mainstream measures included in the National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016. Mainstream measures to step up employment of disadvantaged groups, such as the Strategy for Entrepreneurship and Youth Employment 2013-2016. || Further attention needs to be paid to ensure access for Roma to mainstream employment programmes.  Effective implementation of the strategy at local level needs to be secured. Evidence gathering should be more consistently developed to enable measuring progress.

Health || Development and implementation of mainstream measures with a possible impact on the Roma such as the National Strategy for Health Equality and health measures in the strategic plan on children and young people 2013-2016. Creation of the inter-university Institute supporting the capacity of the national authorities regarding heath equality among the Roma. Monitoring and support of the Roma health network gathering 16 NGOs on Roma health (Equi sastipen Network). Preparation for the next national health survey on the Roma. Continued activities from the Spanish Network of Healthy Cities (RECS) targeting disadvantaged groups. Roma targeted measures included in the National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 aimed at facilitating the access to health services for vulnerable groups. || Positive steps forward have been made, both via mainstream measures and targeted activities to improve the Roma health situation. More targeted programmes, including preventive healthcare, could be developed.

Housing || Adoption of a number of mainstream measures expected to have an impact on the Roma, in particular the State Plan for the Promotion of Rental, Rehabilitation, Urban Regeneration and Renovation 2013-1016 and the related Law of June 2013. Various housing initiatives taken at the regional and municipal levels (e.g. Andalusia, Catalonia). || Mainstream measures have been adopted with a possible impact on the Roma. Further attention needs to be paid to the situation of Roma in illegal settlements. The impact of measures and progress should be monitored.

Anti-discrimination || Comprehensive Strategy against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and other related forms of Intolerance. Training among security forces and creation of the Platform for the Police and management of diversity. Re-launch of the centres assisting victims of discrimination. Annual report on discrimination and the Roma population. Awareness-raising activities (funded by the government and carried out by NGOs; Dosta! Campaign; etc.). Hate attorneys in 50 Provinces. || The effective practical enforcement of anti-discrimination legislation needs to be ensured. Additional activities aimed at fighting prejudices in the media and addressing multiple discriminations should be undertaken.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Spain has allocated 6,7 % (~€ 536 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion, should be f considered. The European Regional Development Fund could be further mobilised to develop housing solutions for Roma.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Efforts need to be maintained to ensure the effective implementation of the National Roma Integration Strategy. The conclusions from the 2013 internal evaluation of the Action Plan (including strengthening data collection and improving coordination and governance) should be followed-up.

              Sweden

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || Government program initiated to allow all Roma children to receive education in Romani language; development of teaching materials in Romani language. Mapping the situation of Roma children in school and pre-school and training mediators in five pilot municipalities ("bridge-builders" programme). Production of teaching supplement about national minorities with special focus on Roma distributed in schools. || Steps have been taken in order to assess the situation of Roma children in school and to provide teaching on the Romani language. The provision of teaching on the Romani language should be accompanied by the allocation of appropriate funding and administrative capacity. Evidence gathering should be further developed to enable measuring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on the Roma. Prioritising further efforts on promoting vocational training and increasing participation in secondary and tertiary education would be relevant. Awareness raising campaigns among Roma (in particular focusing on parents) are also needed.

Employment || Mapping the situation of Roma employment in five pilot municipalities ("bridge-builders" programme) Focus on training Roma women so as to step up their employability. || Steps have been taken in order to assess the situation of Roma employment; adult vocational training possibilities have also been provided. However, evidence gathering should be further developed to enable measuring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on the Roma. Reaching out to private employers (via antidiscrimination campaign, or fiscal incentives) to support employment of Roma could be considered.

Health || Roma mediators within healthcare services (with special focus on Roma women and girls). Various programs: to assess the situation of Roma women, dedicated to reproductive health with particular attention on Roma girls or on health communicators. || Important progress in the attention paid to Roma health and to women's rights. More awareness-raising campaigns on healthcare issues targeting Roma mothers, girls and youth would be necessary.

Housing || Mapping the situation of Roma housing in five pilot municipalities ("bridge-builders" programme). || Access of Roma to social housing could be supported by EU funds in a more extensive manner. Attention needs to be paid to eliminating discriminatory practices in the property market.

Anti-discrimination || Report from the Equality Ombudsman on discrimination of Roma. Awareness-raising activities (including for Roma victims on their rights and possibilities of seeking redress) and promotion of inter-cultural dialogue between Roma and non-Roma. || As highlighted in the Swedish Ombudsman's report, ensuring equality and non-discriminatory practices, in particular on the property market, is still a challenge. The effective practical enforcement of discrimination legislation needs to be effectively ensured.

Funding || Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, Sweden has allocated 3,4 % (~€ 23 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || A constructive dialogue with civil society and close cooperation with local and regional authorities need to be reinforced. Measuring the impact of mainstreaming measures and activities for Roma should be considered.

              United Kingdom

|| Key steps since 2011 || Assessment

Education || A number of provisions for Roma: Roma educational support programme, Roma education welfare officer, support for the purchase of the school uniform, inclusion and diversity service and newcomer scheme- and Travellers (Northern Ireland). Annual Welsh specific Grant for the Education of gypsy and Traveller children (Wales). Foreseen seminar and online curriculum on Roma culture (Wales). || Various mainstream and targeted measures have been taken. Monitoring their impact should be ensured.

Employment || A Government strategy for increasing ethnic minority employment and participation in the labour market based on mainstream measures through locally delivered flexible provisions. || Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on Roma should be considered.

Health || Roma health project and health mediators, and regional minority ethnic health and social wellbeing steering group; a number of measures for Travellers: a strategy for improving Traveller health and wellbeing, dedicated health support staff and many projects (Traveller health improvement programme, Traveller health DVD, etc.) (Northern Ireland). Revision of health and homelessness standards; plans to publish guidance for healthcare providers (Wales). Access for newly arrived Roma communities to the national health services, including with the help of Roma women health mediators (Yorkshire). || Initiatives targeting the needs of newly arrived Roma communities should be continued. Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on Roma should be considered.

Housing || Mediation on housing issues from Roma advocates (Northern Ireland). Traveller Accommodation Programme (revised annually) (Northern Ireland). Implementation of the Mobile Homes Act on travellers’ sites (Wales). Proposal for a statutory duty upon local authorities to provide Traveller sites where there is a need and support for the development of new sites (Wales). Housing strategy with the help of EU funds (Scotland). || Halting sites for Gypsies and Travellers and housing for Roma remain a challenge all over the UK. Housing initiatives should be scaled up and implemented as part of an integrated approach.

Anti-discrimination || Comprehensive study on hate crime (launched by the University of Leicester, it will include attention to potential and actual victims of hate crime, community groups, including Roma, police, local authorities, non-governmental organisations). Awareness raising activities and promotion of inter-cultural dialogue. || Hostile attitudes and negative stereotyping of Gypsies and Travellers and newly arrived Roma should be carefully addressed. Effective measures should be taken to combat anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speech.

Funding || No specific amount has been allocated exclusively for Roma integration. However, Roma inclusion has been supported by national and EU funds under various types of mainstream measures, including social inclusion measures. In the 2007-2013 financial period, the United Kingdom has allocated 24,2 % (~€ 1 082 million) of its total ESF budget for integrating disadvantaged people. || Further use of existing possibilities under the EU funds to support Roma inclusion should be considered.

Structural priorities that should be considered || Monitoring the impact of mainstream measures and activities undertaken on Roma should be considered. Dialogue between Travellers and Gypsies and local and regional authorities should be reinforced.

[1]The 10 Common Basic Principles on Roma Inclusion were presented at the first Platform meeting on 24

April 2009. They were annexed to the EPSCO Council Conclusions of 8 June 2009. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/lsa/108377.pdf

[2] NOR INTK1233053C

[3] Circulaires du 2 octobre 2012 sur: l'Organisation de la scolarité des élèves allophones nouvellement arrivés du 2 octobre 2012 (NOR REDE1236612C); l'organisation des Casnav (NOR REDE1236614C) ; la scolarisation et scolarité des enfants issus de familles itinérantes et de voyageurs (NOR REDE1236611C).

[4] Centre académique pour la scolarisation des enfants allophones nouvellement arrivés et des enfants issues des familles itinérantes et de voyageurs.

Top