ISSN 1725-2555

Official Journal

of the European Union

L 70

European flag  

English edition

Legislation

Volume 50
9 March 2007


Contents

 

page

 

*

Notice to readers

1

 

 

Corrigenda

 

*

Corrigendum to Regulation No 49 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of compression-ignition (C.I.) and natural gas (NG) engines as well as positive-ignition (P.I.) engines fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and vehicles equipped with C.I. and NG engines and P.I. engines fuelled with lpg, with regard to the emissions of pollutants by the engine (OJ L 375, 27.12.2006)

3

 

*

Corrigendum to Regulation No 83 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the emission of pollutants according to engine fuel requirements (OJ L 375, 27.12.2006)

171

 

*

Corrigendum to Regulation No 123 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of adaptive front-lighting systems (AFS) for motor vehicles (OJ L 375, 27.12.2006)

355

 

*

Corrigendum to Regulation No 124 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of wheels for passenger cars and their trailers (OJ L 375, 27.12.2006)

413

EN

Acts whose titles are printed in light type are those relating to day-to-day management of agricultural matters, and are generally valid for a limited period.

The titles of all other Acts are printed in bold type and preceded by an asterisk.


9.3.2007   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 70/1


NOTICE TO READERS

BG

:

Настоящият брой на Официален вестник е публикуван на испански, чешки, датски, немски, естонски, гръцки, английски, френски, италиански, латвийски, литовски, унгарски, малтийски, нидерландски, полски, португалски, словашки, словенски, фински и шведски език.

Поправката, включена в него, се отнася до актове, публикувани преди разширяването на Европейския съюз от 1 януари 2007 г.

ES

:

El presente Diario Oficial se publica en español, checo, danés, alemán, estonio, griego, inglés, francés, italiano, letón, lituano, húngaro, maltés, neerlandés, polaco, portugués, eslovaco, esloveno, finés y sueco.

Las correcciones de errores que contiene se refieren a los actos publicados con anterioridad a la ampliación de la Unión Europea del 1 de enero de 2007.

CS

:

Tento Úřední věstník se vydává ve španělštině, češtině, dánštině, němčině, estonštině, řečtině, angličtině, francouzštině, italštině, lotyštině, litevštině, maďarštině, maltštině, nizozemštině, polštině, portugalštině, slovenštině, slovinštině, finštině a švédštině.

Oprava zde uvedená se vztahuje na akty uveřejněné před rozšířením Evropské unie dne 1. ledna 2007.

DA

:

Denne EU-Tidende offentliggøres på dansk, engelsk, estisk, finsk, fransk, græsk, italiensk, lettisk, litauisk, maltesisk, nederlandsk, polsk, portugisisk, slovakisk, slovensk, spansk, svensk, tjekkisk, tysk og ungarsk.

Berigtigelserne heri henviser til retsakter, som blev offentliggjort før udvidelsen af Den Europæiske Union den 1. januar 2007.

DE

:

Dieses Amtsblatt wird in Spanisch, Tschechisch, Dänisch, Deutsch, Estnisch, Griechisch, Englisch, Französisch, Italienisch, Lettisch, Litauisch, Ungarisch, Maltesisch, Niederländisch, Polnisch, Portugiesisch, Slowakisch, Slowenisch, Finnisch und Schwedisch veröffentlicht.

Die darin enthaltenen Berichtigungen beziehen sich auf Rechtsakte, die vor der Erweiterung der Europäischen Union am 1. Januar 2007 veröffentlicht wurden.

ET

:

Käesolev Euroopa Liidu Teataja ilmub hispaania, tšehhi, taani, saksa, eesti, kreeka, inglise, prantsuse, itaalia, läti, leedu, ungari, malta, hollandi, poola, portugali, slovaki, slovneeni, soome ja rootsi keeles.

Selle parandustega viidatakse aktidele, mis on avaldatud enne Euroopa Liidu laienemist 1. jaanuaril 2007.

EL

:

Η παρούσα Επίσημη Εφημερίδα δημοσιεύεται στην ισπανική, τσεχική, δανική, γερμανική, εσθονική, ελληνική, αγγλική, γαλλική, ιταλική, λεττονική, λιθουανική, ουγγρική, μαλτέζικη, ολλανδική, πολωνική, πορτογαλική, σλοβακική, σλοβενική, φινλανδική και σουηδική γλώσσα.

Τα διορθωτικά που περιλαμβάνει αναφέρονται σε πράξεις που δημοσιεύθηκαν πριν από τη διεύρυνση της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης την 1η Ιανουαρίου 2007.

EN

:

This Official Journal is published in Spanish, Czech, Danish, German, Estonian, Greek, English, French, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Maltese, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovenian, Finnish and Swedish.

The corrigenda contained herein refer to acts published prior to enlargement of the European Union on 1 January 2007.

FR

:

Le présent Journal officiel est publié dans les langues espagnole, tchèque, danoise, allemande, estonienne, grecque, anglaise, française, italienne, lettone, lituanienne, hongroise, maltaise, néerlandaise, polonaise, portugaise, slovaque, slovène, finnoise et suédoise.

Les rectificatifs qu'il contient se rapportent à des actes publiés antérieurement à l'élargissement de l'Union européenne du 1er janvier 2007.

IT

:

La presente Gazzetta ufficiale è pubblicata nelle lingue spagnola, ceca, danese, tedesca, estone, greca, inglese, francese, italiana, lettone, lituana, ungherese, maltese, olandese, polacca, portoghese, slovacca, slovena, finlandese e svedese.

Le rettifiche che essa contiene si riferiscono ad atti pubblicati anteriormente all'allargamento dell'Unione europea del 1o gennaio 2007.

LV

:

Šis Oficiālais Vēstnesis publicēts spāņu, čehu, dāņu, vācu, igauņu, grieķu, angļu, franču, itāļu, latviešu, lietuviešu, ungāru, maltiešu, holandiešu, poļu, portugāļu, slovāku, slovēņu, somu un zviedru valodā.

Šeit minētie labojumi attiecas uz tiesību aktiem, kas publicēti pirms Eiropas Savienības paplašināšanās 2007. gada 1. janvārī.

LT

:

Šis Oficialusis leidinys išleistas ispanų, čekų, danų, vokiečių, estų, graikų, anglų, prancūzų, italų, latvių, lietuvių, vengrų, maltiečių, olandų, lenkų, portugalų, slovakų, slovėnų, suomių ir švedų kalbomis.

Čia išspausdintas teisės aktų, paskelbtų iki Europos Sąjungos plėtros 2007 m. sausio 1 d., klaidų ištaisymas.

HU

:

Ez a Hivatalos Lap spanyol, cseh, dán, német, észt, görög, angol, francia, olasz, lett, litván, magyar, máltai, holland, lengyel, portugál, szlovák, szlovén, finn és svéd nyelven jelenik meg.

Az itt megjelent helyesbítések elsősorban a 2007. január 1-jei európai uniós bővítéssel kapcsolatos jogszabályokra vonatkoznak.

MT

:

Dan il-Ġurnal Uffiċjali hu ppubblikat fil-ligwa Spanjola, Ċeka, Daniża, Ġermaniża, Estonjana, Griega, Ingliża, Franċiża, Taljana, Latvjana, Litwana, Ungeriża, Maltija, Olandiża, Pollakka, Portugiża, Slovakka, Slovena, Finlandiża u Żvediża.

Il-corrigenda li tinstab hawnhekk tirreferi għal atti ppubblikati qabel it-tkabbir ta' l-Unjoni Ewropea fl-1 ta' Jannar 2007.

NL

:

Dit Publicatieblad wordt uitgegeven in de Spaanse, de Tsjechische, de Deense, de Duitse, de Estse, de Griekse, de Engelse, de Franse, de Italiaanse, de Letse, de Litouwse, de Hongaarse, de Maltese, de Nederlandse, de Poolse, de Portugese, de Slowaakse, de Sloveense, de Finse en de Zweedse taal.

De rectificaties in dit Publicatieblad hebben betrekking op besluiten die vóór de uitbreiding van de Europese Unie op 1 januari 2007 zijn gepubliceerd.

PL

:

Niniejszy Dziennik Urzędowy jest wydawany w językach: hiszpańskim, czeskim, duńskim, niemieckim, estońskim, greckim, angielskim, francuskim, włoskim, łotewskim, litewskim, węgierskim, maltańskim, niderlandzkim, polskim, portugalskim, słowackim, słoweńskim, fińskim i szwedzkim.

Sprostowania zawierają odniesienia do aktów opublikowanych przed rozszerzeniem Unii Europejskiej dnia 1 stycznia 2007 r.

PT

:

O presente Jornal Oficial é publicado nas línguas espanhola, checa, dinamarquesa, alemã, estónia, grega, inglesa, francesa, italiana, letã, lituana, húngara, maltesa, neerlandesa, polaca, portuguesa, eslovaca, eslovena, finlandesa e sueca.

As rectificações publicadas neste Jornal Oficial referem-se a actos publicados antes do alargamento da União Europeia de 1 de Janeiro de 2007.

RO

:

Prezentul Jurnal Oficial este publicat în limbile spaniolă, cehă, daneză, germană, estonă, greacă, engleză, franceză, italiană, letonă, lituaniană, maghiară, malteză, olandeză, polonă, portugheză, slovacă, slovenă, finlandeză şi suedeză.

Rectificările conţinute în acest Jurnal Oficial se referă la acte publicate anterior extinderii Uniunii Europene din 1 ianuarie 2007.

SK

:

Tento úradný vestník vychádza v španielskom, českom, dánskom, nemeckom, estónskom, gréckom, anglickom, francúzskom, talianskom, lotyšskom, litovskom, maďarskom, maltskom, holandskom, poľskom, portugalskom, slovenskom, slovinskom, fínskom a švédskom jazyku.

Korigendá, ktoré obsahuje, odkazujú na akty uverejnené pred rozšírením Európskej únie 1. januára 2007.

SL

:

Ta Uradni list je objavljen v španskem, češkem, danskem, nemškem, estonskem, grškem, angleškem, francoskem, italijanskem, latvijskem, litovskem, madžarskem, malteškem, nizozemskem, poljskem, portugalskem, slovaškem, slovenskem, finskem in švedskem jeziku.

Vsebovani popravki se nanašajo na akte objavljene pred širitvijo Evropske unije 1. januarja 2007.

FI

:

Tämä virallinen lehti on julkaistu espanjan, tšekin, tanskan, saksan, viron, kreikan, englannin, ranskan, italian, latvian, liettuan, unkarin, maltan, hollannin, puolan, portugalin, slovakin, sloveenin, suomen ja ruotsin kielellä.

Lehden sisältämät oikaisut liittyvät ennen Euroopan unionin laajentumista 1. tammikuuta 2007 julkaistuihin säädöksiin.

SV

:

Denna utgåva av Europeiska unionens officiella tidning publiceras på spanska, tjeckiska, danska, tyska, estniska, grekiska, engelska, franska, italienska, lettiska, litauiska, ungerska, maltesiska, nederländska, polska, portugisiska, slovakiska, slovenska, finska och svenska.

Rättelserna som den innehåller avser rättsakter som publicerades före utvidgningen av Europeiska unionen den 1 januari 2007.


Corrigenda

9.3.2007   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 70/3


Corrigendum to Regulation No 49 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of compression-ignition (C.I.) and natural gas (NG) engines as well as positive-ignition (P.I.) engines fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and vehicles equipped with C.I. and NG engines and P.I. engines fuelled with lpg, with regard to the emissions of pollutants by the engine

( Official Journal of the European Union L 375 of 27 December 2006 )

Regulation No 49 should read as follows:

Regulation No 49 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of compression-ignition (C.I.) and natural gas (NG) engines as well as positive-ignition (P.I.) engines fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and vehicles equipped with c.i. and ng engines and P.I. engines fuelled with lpg, with regard to the emissions of pollutants by the engine

Revision 3

Incorporating:

01 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 14 May 1990

02 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 30 December 1992

Corrigendum 1 to the 02 series of amendments subject of depositary notification

C.N.232.1992.TREATIES-32 dated 11 September 1992

Corrigendum 2 to the 02 series of amendments subject of depositary notification

C.N.353.1995.TREATIES-72 dated 13 November 1995

Corrigendum 1 to Revision 2 (Erratum — English only)

Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 18 May 1996

Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 28 August 1996

Corrigendum 1 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments subject of depositary notification

C.N.426.1997.TREATIES-96 dated 21 November 1997

Corrigendum 2 to Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments subject of depositary notification

C.N.272.1999.TREATIES-2 dated 12 April 1999

Corrigendum 1 to Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments subject of depositary notification

C.N.271.1999.TREATIES-1 dated 12 April 1999

03 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 27 December 2001

04 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 31 January 2003

1.   SCOPE

This Regulation applies to the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from C.I. and NG engines and P.I. engines fuelled with LPG, used for driving motor vehicles having a design speed exceeding 25 km/h of categories (1)  (2) M1 having a total mass exceeding 3,5 tonnes, M2, M3, N1, N2 and N3.

2.   DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

For the purposes of this Regulation:

2.1.   ‘test cycle’ means a sequence of test points each with a defined speed and torque to be followed by the engine under steady state (ESC test) or transient operating conditions (ETC, ELR test);

2.2.   ‘approval of an engine (engine family)’ means the approval of an engine type (engine family) with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants;

2.3.   ‘diesel engine’ means an engine which works on the compression-ignition principle;

‘gas engine’ means an engine, which is fuelled with natural gas (NG) or liquid petroleum gas (LPG);

2.4.   ‘engine type’ means a category of engines which do not differ in such essential respects as engine characteristics as defined in annex 1 to this Regulation;

2.5.   ‘engine family’ means a manufacturers grouping of engines which, through their design as defined in annex 1, appendix 2 to this Regulation, have similar exhaust emission characteristics; all members of the family must comply with the applicable emission limit values;

2.6.   ‘parent engine’ means an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that its emissions characteristics will be representative for that engine family;

2.7.   ‘gaseous pollutants’ means carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH1,85 for diesel, CH2,525 for LPG and an assumed molecule CH3O0,5 for ethanol-fuelled diesel engines), non-methane hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH1,85 for diesel fuel, CH2,525 for LPG and CH2,93 for NG), methane (assuming a ratio of CH4 for NG) and oxides of nitrogen, the last-named being expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) equivalent;

‘particulate pollutants’ means any material collected on a specified filter medium after diluting the exhaust with clean filtered air so that the temperature does not exceed 325 K (52 °C);

2.8.   ‘smoke’ means particles suspended in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine which absorb, reflect, or refract light;

2.9.   ‘net power’ means the power in ECE kW obtained on the test bench at the end of the crankshaft, or its equivalent, measured in accordance with the method of measuring power as set out in Regulation No 24.

2.10.   ‘declared maximum power (Pmax)’ means the maximum power in ECE kW (net power) as declared by the manufacturer in his application for approval;

2.11.   ‘per cent load’ means the fraction of the maximum available torque at an engine speed;

2.12.   ‘ESC test’ means a test cycle consisting of 13 steady state modes to be applied in accordance with paragraph 5.2. of this Regulation;

2.13.   ‘ELR test’ means a test cycle consisting of a sequence of load steps at constant engine speeds to be applied in accordance with paragraph 5.2. of this Regulation;

2.14.   ‘ETC test’ means a test cycle consisting of 1 800 second-by-second transient modes to be applied in accordance with paragraph 5.2. of this Regulation;

2.15.   ‘engine operating speed range’ means the engine speed range, most frequently used during engine field operation, which lies between the low and high speeds, as set out in annex 4 to this Regulation;

2.16.   ‘low speed (nlo)’ means the lowest engine speed where 50 per cent of the declared maximum power occurs;

2.17.   ‘high speed (nhi)’ means the highest engine speed where 70 per cent of the declared maximum power occurs;

2.18.   ‘engine speeds A, B and C’ means the test speeds within the engine operating speed range to be used for the ESC test and the ELR test, as set out in annex 4, appendix 1 to this Regulation;

2.19.   ‘control area’ means the area between the engine speeds A and C and between 25 to 100 per cent load;

2.20.   ‘reference speed (nref)’ means the 100 per cent speed value to be used for denormalizing the relative speed values of the ETC test, as set out in annex 4, appendix 2 to this Regulation;

2.21.   ‘opacimeter’ means an instrument designed to measure the opacity of smoke particles by means of the light extinction principle;

2.22.   ‘NG gas range’ means one of the H or L range as defined in European Standard EN 437, dated November 1993;

2.23.   ‘self adaptability’ means any engine device allowing the air/fuel ratio to be kept constant;

2.24.   ‘recalibration’ means a fine-tuning of a NG engine in order to provide the same performance (power, fuel consumption) in a different range of natural gas;

2.25.   ‘Wobbe Index (lower Wl; or upper Wu)’ means the ratio of the corresponding calorific value of a gas per unit volume and the square root of its relative density under the same reference conditions:

Formula

2.26.   ‘λ-shift factor (Sλ)’ means an expression that describes the required flexibility of the engine management system regarding a change of the excess-air ratio λ if the engine is fuelled with a gas composition different from pure methane (see annex 8 for the calculation of Sλ).

2.27.   ‘EEV’ means Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle which is a type of vehicle propelled by an engine complying with the permissive emission limit values given in row C of the Tables in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation;

2.28.   ‘Defeat Device’ means a device which measures, senses or responds to operating variables (e.g. vehicle speed, engine speed, gear used, temperature, intake pressure or any other parameter) for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the operation of any component or function of the emission control system such that the effectiveness of the emission control system is reduced under conditions encountered during normal vehicle use unless the use of such a device is substantially included in the applied emission certification test procedures.

2.29.   ‘Auxiliary control device’ means a system, function or control strategy installed to an engine or on a vehicle, that is used to protect the engine and/or its ancillary equipment against operating conditions that could result in damage or failure, or is used to facilitate engine starting. An auxiliary control device may also be a strategy or measure that has been satisfactorily demonstrated not to be a defeat device.

2.30.   ‘Irrational emission control strategy’ means any strategy or measure that, when the vehicle is operated under normal conditions of use, reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system to a level below that expected on the applicable emission test procedures.

Image

2.31.   Symbols and Abbreviations

2.31.1.   Symbols for Test Parameters

Symbol

Unit

Term

AP

m2

Cross sectional area of the isokinetic sampling probe

AT

m2

Cross sectional area of the exhaust pipe

CEE

Ethane efficiency

CEM

Methane efficiency

C1

Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon

conc

ppm/vol%

Subscript denoting concentration

D0

m3/s

Intercept of PDP calibration function

DF

Dilution factor

D

Bessel function constant

E

Bessel function constant

EZ

g/kWh

Interpolated NOx emission of the control point

fa

Laboratory atmospheric factor

fc

s–1

Bessel filter cut-off frequency

FFH

Fuel specific factor for the calculation of wet concentration for dry concentration

FS

Stoichiometric factor

GAIRW

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis

GAIRD

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis

GDILW

kg/h

Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis

GEDFW

kg/h

Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GEXHW

kg/h

Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GFUEL

kg/h

Fuel mass flow rate

GTOTW

kg/h

Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

H

MJ/m3

Calorific value

HREF

g/kg

Reference value of absolute humidity (10,71 g/kg)

Ha

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the intake air

Hd

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the dilution air

HTCRAT

mol/mol

Hydrogen-to-Carbon ratio

I

Subscript denoting an individual mode

K

Bessel constant

K

m–1

Light absorption coefficient

KH,D

Humidity correction factor for NOx for diesel engines

KH,G

Humidity correction factor for NOx for gas engines

KV

 

CFV calibration function

KW,a

Dry to wet correction factor for the intake air

KW,d

Dry to wet correction factor for the dilution air

KW,e

Dry to wet correction factor for the diluted exhaust gas

KW,r

Dry to wet correction factor for the raw exhaust gas

L

%

Percent torque related to the maximum torque for the test engine

La

m

Effective optical path length

M

 

Slope of PDP calibration function

Mass

g/h or g

Subscript denoting emissions mass flow (rate)

MDIL

kg

Mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

Md

mg

Particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected

Mf

mg

Particulate sample mass collected

Mf,p

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on primary filter

Mf,b

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on back-up filter

MSAM

kg

Mass of the diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

MSEC

kg

Mass of secondary dilution air

MTOTW

kg

Total CVS mass over the cycle on wet basis

MTOTW,i

kg

Instantaneous CVS mass on wet basis

N

%

Opacity

NP

Total revolutions of PDP over the cycle

NP,i

Revolutions of PDP during a time interval

N

min–1

Engine speed

nP

s–1

PDP speed

nhi

min–1

High engine speed

nlo

min–1

Low engine speed

nref

min–1

Reference engine speed for ETC test

pa

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air

pA

kPa

Absolute pressure

pB

kPa

Total atmospheric pressure

pd

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air

ps

kPa

Dry atmospheric pressure

p1

kPa

Pressure depression at pump inlet

P(a)

kW

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted for test

P(b)

kW

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed for test

P(n)

kW

Net power non-corrected

P(m)

kW

Power measured on test bed

Ω

Bessel constant

Qs

m3/s

CVS volume flow rate

q

Dilution ratio

r

Ratio of cross sectional areas of isokinetic probe and exhaust pipe

Ra

%

Relative humidity of the intake air

Rd

%

Relative humidity of the dilution air

Rf

FID response factor

ρ

kg/m3

Density

S

kW

Dynamometer setting

Si

m–1

Instantaneous smoke value

Sλ

λ-shift factor

T

K

Absolute temperature

Ta

K

Absolute temperature of the intake air

t

s

Measuring time

te

s

Electrical response time

tf

s

Filter response time for Bessel function

tp

s

Physical response time

Δt

s

Time interval between successive smoke data (= 1/sampling rate)

Δti

s

Time interval for instantaneous CFV flow

τ

%

Smoke transmittance

V0

m3/rev

PDP volume flow rate at actual conditions

W

Wobbe index

Wact

kWh

Actual cycle work of ETC

Wref

kWh

Reference cycle work of ETC

WF

Weighting factor

WFE

Effective weighting factor

X0

m3/rev

Calibration function of PDP volume flow rate

Yi

m–1

1 s Bessel averaged smoke value

2.31.2.   Symbols for the Chemical Components

CH4

Methane

C2H6

Ethane

C2H5OH

Ethanol

C3H8

Propane

CO

Carbon monoxide

DOP

Di-octylphtalate

CO2

Carbon dioxide

HC

Hydrocarbons

NMHC

Non-methane hydrocarbons

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

NO

Nitric oxide

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

PT

Particulates

2.31.3.   Abbreviations

CFV

Critical flow venturi

CLD

Chemiluminescent detector

ELR

European Load Response Test

ESC

European Steady State Cycle

ETC

European Transient Cycle

FID

Flame Ionisation Detector

GC

Gas Chromatograph

HCLD

Heated Chemiluminescent Detector

HFID

Heated Flame Ionisation Detector

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

NDIR

Non-Dispersive Infrared Analyser

NG

Natural Gas

NMC

Non-Methane Cutter

3.   APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

3.1.   Application for approval of an engine as a separate technical unit

3.1.1.   The application for approval of an engine type with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants is submitted by the engine manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

3.1.2.   It shall be accompanied by the necessary documents in triplicate. It will at least include the essential characteristics of the engine as referred to in annex 1 to this Regulation.

3.1.3.   An engine conforming to the ‘engine type’ characteristics described in annex 1 shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests defined in paragraph 5.

3.2.   Application for approval of a vehicle type in respect of its engine

3.2.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by its engine is submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or his duly accredited representative.

It shall be accompanied by the necessary documents in triplicate. It will at least include:

3.2.2.1.   The essential characteristics of the engine as referred to in annex 1;

3.2.2.2.   A description of the engine related components as referred to in annex 1;

3.2.2.3.   A copy of the type approval communication form (annex 2A) for the engine type installed.

3.3.   Application for approval for a vehicle type with an approved engine

3.3.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle with regard to emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by its approved diesel engine or engine family and with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous pollutants by its approved gas engine or engine family must be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or a duly accredited representative.

It must be accompanied by the necessary documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.3.2.1.   a description of the vehicle type and of engine-related vehicle parts comprising the particulars referred to in annex 1, as applicable, and a copy of the approval communication form (annex 2a) for the engine or engine family, if applicable, as a separate technical unit which is installed in the vehicle type.

4.   APPROVAL

4.1.   Universal fuel approval

A universal fuel approval is granted subject to the following requirements:

4.1.1.   In the case of diesel fuel: if pursuant to paragraphs 3.1., 3.2. or 3.3. of this Regulation, the engine or vehicle meets the requirements of paragraphs 5, 6 and 7 below on the reference fuel specified in annex 5 of this Regulation, approval of that type of engine or vehicle must be granted.

In the case of natural gas the parent engine should demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the market. In the case of natural gas there are generally two types of fuel, high calorific fuel (H-gas) and low calorific fuel (L-gas), but with a significant spread within both ranges; they differ significantly in their energy content expressed by the Wobbe Index and in their λ-shift factor (Sλ). The formulae for the calculation of the Wobbe index and Sλ are given in paragraphs 2.25. and 2.26. Natural gases with a λ-shift factor between 0,89 and 1,08 (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,08) are considered to belong to H-range, while natural gases with a λ-shift factor between 1,08 and 1,19 (1,08 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19) are considered to belong to L-range. The composition of the reference fuels reflects the extreme variations of Sλ.

The parent engine must meet the requirements of this Regulation on the reference fuels GR (fuel 1) and G25 (fuel 2), as specified in annex 6, without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing, the parent engine must be run-in using the procedure given in paragraph 3 of appendix 2 to annex 4.

4.1.2.1.   On the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e. the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25), for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of production.

In the case of an engine fuelled with natural gas which is self-adaptive for the range of H-gases on the one hand and the range of L-gases on the other hand, and which switches between the H-range and the L-range by means of a switch, the parent engine must be tested at each position of the switch on the reference fuel relevant for the respective position as specified in annex 6 for each range. The fuels are GR (fuel 1) and G23 (fuel 3) for the H-range of gases and G25 (fuel 2) and G23 (fuel 3) for the L-range of gases. The parent engine must meet the requirements of this Regulation at both positions of the switch without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests at the respective position of the switch. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing the parent engine must be run-in using the procedure given in paragraph 3 of appendix 2 to annex 4.

4.1.3.1.   On the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of G23 (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25), for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.

4.1.4.   In the case of natural gas engines, the ratio of emission results ‘r’ shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

or,

Formula

and,

Formula

In the case of LPG the parent engine should demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the market. In the case of LPG there are variations in C3/C4 composition. These variations are reflected in the reference fuels. The parent engine should meet the emission requirements on the reference fuels A and B as specified in annex 7 without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted, after the change of the fuel. Before testing the parent engine must be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of appendix 2 to annex 4.

4.1.5.1.   The ratio of emission results ‘r’ must be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

4.2.   Granting of a fuel range restricted approval

Fuel range restricted approval is granted subject to the following requirements:

Exhaust emissions approval of an engine running on natural gas and laid out for operation on either the range of H-gases or on the range of L-gases.

The parent engine must be tested on the relevant reference fuel as specified in annex 6 for the relevant range. The fuels are GR (fuel 1) and G23 (fuel 3) for the H-range of gases and G25 (fuel 2) and G23 (fuel 3) for the L-range of gases. The parent engine must meet the requirements of this Regulation without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing the parent engine must be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of appendix 2 to annex 4.

4.2.1.1.   On the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of G23 (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e. the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25), for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.

4.2.1.2.   The ratio of emission results ‘r’ must be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

or,

Formula

and,

Formula

4.2.1.3.   Upon delivery to the customer the engine must bear a label (see paragraph 4.11.) stating for which range of gases the engine is approved.

Exhaust emissions approval of an engine running on natural gas or LPG and laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition.

4.2.2.1.   The parent engine must meet the emission requirements on the reference fuels GR and G25 in the case of natural gas, or the reference fuels A and B in the case of LPG, as specified in annex 7.

Between the tests fine-tuning of the fuelling system is allowed. This fine-tuning will consist of a recalibration of the fuelling database, without any alteration to either the basic control strategy or the basic structure of the database. If necessary the exchange of parts that are directly related to the amount of fuel flow (such as injector nozzles) is allowed.

4.2.2.2.   On the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on the reference fuels GR and G23, or on the reference fuels G25 and G23, in which case the approval is only valid for the H-range or the L-range of gases respectively.

4.2.2.3.   Upon delivery to the customer the engine must bear a label (see paragraph 4.11.) stating for which fuel composition the engine has been calibrated.

APPROVAL OF NG-FUELLED ENGINES

 

Para. 4.1.

Granting of a universal fuel approval

Number of test runs

Calculation of ‘r’

Para. 4.2.

Granting of a fuel restricted approval

Number of test runs

Calculation of ‘r’

Refer to para. 4.1.2. NG-engine adaptable to any fuel composition

GR (1) and G25 (2)

at manufacturer's request engine may be tested on an additional market fuel (3),

if Sλ = 0,89 – 1,19

2

(max. 3)

Formula

and, if tested with an additional fuel

Formula

and

Formula

 

 

 

Refer to para. 4.1.3. NG-engine which is self adaptive by a switch

GR (1) and G23 (3) for H

and

G25 (2) and G23 (3) for L

at manufacturer's request engine may be tested on a market fuel (3) instead of G23,

if Sλ = 0,89 – 1,19

2 for the H-range, and

2 for the L-range

at respective position of switch

4

Formula

and

Formula

 

 

 

Refer to para. 4.2.1. NG-engine laid out for operation on either H-range gas or L-range gas

 

 

 

GR (1) and G23 (3) for H

or

G25 (2) and G23 (3) for L

at manufacturer's request engine may be tested on a market fuel (3) instead of G23,

if Sλ = 0,89 – 1,19

2 for the H-range

or

2 for the L-range

2

Formula

for the H-range

or

Formula

for the L-range

Refer to para. 4.2.2. NG-engine laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition

 

 

 

GR (1) and G25 (2),

fine-tuning between the tests allowed

at manufacturer's request engine may be tested on

GR (1) and G23 (3) for H

or

G25 (2) and G23 (3) for L

2

or

2 for the H-range

or

2 for the L-range

2

 

APPROVAL OF LPG-FUELLED ENGINES

 

Para. 4.1.

Granting of a universal fuel approval

Number of test runs

Calculation of ‘r’

Para. 4.2.

Granting of a fuel restricted approval

Number of test runs

Calculation of ‘r’

refer to

para. 4.1.5

LPG-engine adaptable to any fuel composition

fuel A and fuel B

2

Formula

 

 

 

refer to

para. 4.2.2

LPG-engine laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition

 

 

 

fuel A and fuel B,

fine-tuning between the tests allowed

2

 

4.3.   Exhaust emissions approval of a member of a family

4.3.1.   With the exception of the case mentioned in paragraph 4.3.2., the approval of a parent engine must be extended to all family members without further testing, for any fuel composition within the range for which the parent engine has been approved (in the case of engines described in paragraph 4.2.2) or the same range of fuels (in the case of engines described in either paragraphs 4.1. or 4.2) for which the parent engine has been approved.

4.3.2.   Secondary test engine

In case of an application for approval of an engine, or a vehicle in respect of its engine, that engine belonging to an engine family, if the approval authority determines that, with regard to the selected parent engine the submitted application does not fully represent the engine family defined in the Regulation, appendix 1, an alternative and, if necessary, an additional reference test engine may be selected by the approval authority and tested.

4.4.   An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present 04, corresponding to 04 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another engine type or vehicle type.

4.5.   Notice of approval or of extension or of refusal of approval or production definitely discontinued of an engine type or vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in annexes 2A or 2B, as applicable, to this Regulation. Values measured during the type test shall also be shown.

There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place to every engine conforming to an engine type approved under this Regulation, or to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:

4.6.1.   a circle surrounding the letter ‘E’ followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval (3);

4.6.2.   the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter ‘R’, a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.

However, the approval mark must contain an additional character after the letter ‘R’, the purpose of which is to distinguish the emission limit values for which the approval has been granted. For those approvals issued to indicate compliance with the limits contained in Row A of the relevant table(s) in paragraph 5.2.1., the letter ‘R’ will be followed by the Roman number ‘I’. For those approvals issued to indicate compliance with the limits contained in Row B1 of the relevant table(s) in paragraph 5.2.1., the letter ‘R’ will be followed by the Roman number ‘II’. For those approvals issued to indicate compliance with the limits contained in Row B2 of the relevant table(s) in paragraph 5.2.1., the letter ‘R’ will be followed by the Roman number ‘III’. For those approvals issued to indicate compliance with the limits contained in Row C of the relevant table(s) in paragraph 5.2.1., the letter ‘R’ will be followed by the Roman number ‘IV’.

For NG fuelled engines the approval mark must contain a suffix after the national symbol, the purpose of which is to distinguish which range of gases the approval has been granted. This mark will be as follows;

4.6.3.1.1.   H in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for the H-range of gases;

4.6.3.1.2.   L in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for the L-range of gases;

4.6.3.1.3.   HL in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for both the H-range and L-range of gases;

4.6.3.1.4.   Ht in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in the H-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in the H-range of gases by fine tuning of the engine fuelling;

4.6.3.1.5.   Lt in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in the L-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in the L-range of gases after fine tuning of the engine fuelling;

4.6.3.1.6.   HLt in the case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in either the H-range or the L-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in either the H-range or the L-range of gases by fine tuning of the engine fuelling.

4.7.   If the vehicle or engine conforms to an approved type under one or more other Regulations annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.6.1. need not be repeated. In such a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.6.1.

4.8.   The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the data plate affixed by the manufacturer to the approved type.

4.9.   Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

The engine approved as a technical unit must bear, in addition to the approved mark:

4.10.1.   the trademark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;

4.10.2.   the manufacturer's commercial description.

4.11.   Labels

In the case of NG and LPG fuelled engines with a fuel range restricted type approval, the following labels are applicable:

4.11.1.   Content

The following information must be given:

In the case of paragraph 4.2.1.3, the label shall state ‘ONLY FOR USE WITH NATURAL GAS RANGE H’. If applicable, ‘H’ is replaced by ‘L’.

In the case of paragraph 4.2.2.3, the label shall state ‘ONLY FOR USE WITH NATURAL GAS SPECIFICATION …’ or ‘ONLY FOR USE WITH LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS SPECIFICATION …’, as applicable. All the information in the relevant table(s) in Annex 6 or 7 shall be given with the individual constituents and limits specified by the engine manufacturer.

The letters and figures must be at least 4 mm in height.

Note: If lack of space prevents such labelling, a simplified code may be used. In this event, explanatory notes containing all the above information must be easily accessible to any person filling the fuel tank or performing maintenance or repair on the engine and its accessories, as well as to the authorities concerned. The site and content of these explanatory notes will be determined by agreement between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

4.11.2.   Properties

Labels must be durable for the useful life of the engine. Labels must be clearly legible and their letters and figures must be indelible. Additionally, labels must be attached in such a manner that their fixing is durable for the useful life of the engine, and the labels cannot be removed without destroying or defacing them.

4.11.3.   Placing

Labels must be secured to an engine part necessary for normal engine operation and not normally requiring replacement during engine life. Additionally, these labels must be located so as to be readily visible to the average person after the engine has been completed with all the auxiliaries necessary for engine operation.

4.12.   In case of an application for type-approval for a vehicle type in respect of its engine, the marking specified in paragraph 4.11. must also be placed close to fuel filling aperture.

4.13.   In case of an application for type-approval for a vehicle type with an approved engine, the marking specified in paragraph 4.11. must also be placed close to the fuel filling aperture.

5.   SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS

5.1.   General

5.1.1.   Emission control equipment

5.1.1.1.   The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from diesel engines and the emission of gaseous pollutants from gas engines shall be so designed, constructed, assembled and installed as to enable the engine, in normal use, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

5.1.2.   Functions of emission control equipment

5.1.2.1.   The use of a defeat device and/or an irrational emission control strategy is forbidden.

An auxiliary control device may be installed to an engine, or on a vehicle, provided that the device:

5.1.2.2.1.   operates only outside the conditions specified in paragraph 5.1.2.4., or

5.1.2.2.2.   is activated only temporarily under the conditions specified in paragraph 5.1.2.4. for such purposes as engine damage protection, air-handling device protection, smoke management, cold start or warming-up, or

5.1.2.2.3.   is activated only by on-board signals for purposes such as operational safety and limp-home strategies;

5.1.2.3.   An engine control device, function, system or measure that operates during the conditions specified in paragraph 5.1.2.4. and which results in the use of a different or modified engine control strategy to that normally employed during the applicable emission test cycles will be permitted if, in complying with the requirements of paragraphs 5.1.3. and/or 5.1.4., it is fully demonstrated that the measure does not reduce the effectiveness of the emission control system. In all other cases, such devices shall be considered to be a defeat device.

5.1.2.4.   For the purposes of paragraph 5.1.2.2., the defined conditions of use under steady state and transient conditions are:

(i)

an altitude not exceeding 1 000 metres (or equivalent atmospheric pressure of 90 kPa),

(ii)

an ambient temperature within the range 283 to 303 K (10 to 30 °C),

(iii)

engine coolant temperature within the range 343 to 368 K (70 to 95 °C).

5.1.3.   Special requirements for electronic emission control systems

5.1.3.1.   Documentation requirements

The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that gives access to the basic design of the system and the means by which it controls its output variables, whether that control is direct or indirect.

The documentation shall be made available in two parts:

(a)

The formal documentation package, which shall be supplied to the technical service at the time of submission of the type-approval application, shall include a full description of the system. This documentation may be brief, provided that it exhibits evidence that all outputs permitted by a matrix obtained from the range of control of the individual unit inputs have been identified. This information shall be attached to the documentation required in paragraph 3 of this Regulation.

(b)

Additional material that shows the parameters that are modified by any auxiliary control device and the boundary conditions under which the device operates. The additional material shall include a description of the fuel system control logic, timing strategies and switch points during all modes of operation.

The additional material shall also contain a justification for the use of any auxiliary control device and include additional material and test data to demonstrate the effect on exhaust emissions of any auxiliary control device installed to the engine or on the vehicle.

This additional material shall remain strictly confidential and be retained by the manufacturer, but be made open for inspection at the time of type-approval or at any time during the validity of the type-approval.

To verify whether any strategy or measure should be considered a defeat device or an irrational emission control strategy according to the definitions given in paragraphs 2.28. and 2.30., the type-approval authority and/or the technical service may additionally request a NOx screening test using the ETC which may be carried out in combination with either the type-approval test or the procedures for checking the conformity of production.

5.1.4.1.   As an alternative to the requirements of appendix 4 to annex 4 to this Regulation, the emissions of NOx during the ETC screening test may be sampled using the raw exhaust gas and the technical prescriptions of ISO FDIS 16 183, dated 15 September 2001, shall be followed.

5.1.4.2.   In verifying whether any strategy or measure should be considered a defeat device or an irrational emission control strategy according to the definitions given in paragraphs 2.28. and 2.30., an additional margin of 10 per cent, related to the appropriate NOx limit value, shall be accepted.

For approval to row A of the tables in paragraph 5.2.1., the emissions must be determined on the ESC and ELR tests with conventional diesel engines including those fitted with electronic fuel injection equipment, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and/or oxidation catalysts. Diesel engines fitted with advanced exhaust after-treatment systems including deNOx catalysts and/or particulate traps, must additionally be tested on the ETC test.

For approval testing to either row B1 or B2 or row C of the tables in paragraph 5.2.1. the emissions must be determined on the ESC, ELR and ETC tests.

For gas engines, the gaseous emissions must be determined on the ETC test.

The ESC and ELR test procedures are described in annex 4, appendix 1, the ETC test procedure in annex 4, Appendices 2 and 3.

The emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate pollutants, by the engine submitted for testing, if applicable, must be measured by the method described in annex 4. Annex 4, appendix 4 describes the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous and particulate pollutants and the recommended particulate sampling systems. Other systems or analysers may be approved by the technical service if it is found that they yield equivalent results. For a single laboratory, equivalency is defined as the test results to fall within ± 5 per cent of the test results of one of the reference systems described herein. For particulate emissions only the full-flow dilution system is recognized as the reference system. For introduction of a new system into the Regulation, the determination of equivalency must be based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility by an inter-laboratory test, as described in ISO 5725.

5.2.1.   Limit Values

The specific mass of the carbon monoxide, of the total hydrocarbons, of the oxides of nitrogen and of the particulates, as determined on the ESC test, and of the smoke opacity, as determined on the ELR test, must not exceed the amounts shown in Table 1.

For diesel engines that are additionally tested on the ETC test, and specifically for gas engines, the specific masses of the carbon monoxide, of the non-methane hydrocarbons, of the methane (where applicable), of the oxides of nitrogen and of the particulates (where applicable) must not exceed the amounts shown in Table 2.

Table 1

Limit values — ESC and ELR tests

Row

Mass of carbon monoxide (CO) g/kWh

Mass of hydrocarbons (HC) g/kWh

Mass of nitrogen oxides (NOx) g/kWh

Mass of particulates (PT) g/kWh

Smoke

m–1

A (2000)

2,1

0,66

5,0

0,10

0,13 (4)

0,8

B1 (2005)

1,5

0,46

3,5

0,02

0,5

B2 (2008)

1,5

0,46

2,0

0,02

0,5

C (EEV)

1,5

0,25

2,0

0,02

0,15


Table 2

Limit values — ETC tests (6)

Row

Mass of carbon monoxide (CO) g/kWh

Mass of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) g/kWh

Mass of methane (CH4) (7) g/kWh

Mass of nitrogen oxides (NOx) g/kWh

Mass of particulates (PT) (8) g/kWh

A (2000)

5,45

0,78

1,6

5,0

0,16

0,21 (5)

B1 (2005)

4,0

0,55

1,1

3,5

0,03

B2 (2008)

4,0

0,55

1,1

2,0

0,03

C (EEV)

3,0

0,40

0,65

2,0

0,02

5.2.2.   Hydrocarbon measurement for diesel and gas fuelled engines

5.2.2.1.   A manufacturer may choose to measure the mass of total hydrocarbons (THC) on the ETC test instead of measuring the mass of non-methane hydrocarbons. In this case, the limit for the mass of total hydrocarbons is the same as shown in table 2 for the mass of non-methane hydrocarbons.

5.2.3.   Specific requirements for diesel engines

5.2.3.1.   The specific mass of the oxides of nitrogen measured at the random check points within the control area of the ESC test must not exceed by more than 10 per cent the values interpolated from the adjacent test modes (reference annex 4, appendix 1 paragraphs 4.6.2. and 4.6.3.).

5.2.3.2.   The smoke value on the random test speed of the ELR must not exceed the highest smoke value of the two adjacent test speeds by more than 20 per cent, or by more than 5 per cent of the limit value, whichever is greater.

6.   INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE

The engine installation on the vehicle shall comply with the following characteristics in respect to the type approval of the engine:

6.1.1.   Intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the type approved engine in annex 2A.

6.1.2.   Exhaust back-pressure shall not exceed that specified for the type approved engine in annex 2A.

6.1.3.   Power absorbed by the auxiliaries needed for operating the engine must not exceed that specified for the type-approved engine in annex 2A.

7.   ENGINE FAMILY

7.1.   Parameters defining the engine family

The engine family, as determined by the engine manufacturer, may be defined by basic characteristics, which must be common to engines within the family. In some cases there may be interaction of parameters. These effects must also be taken into consideration to ensure that only engines with similar exhaust emission characteristics are included within an engine family.

In order that engines may be considered to belong to the same engine family, the following list of basic parameters must be common:

7.1.1.   Combustion cycle:

2 cycle

4 cycle

7.1.2.   Cooling medium:

air

water

oil

7.1.3.   For gas engines and engines with after-treatment

Number of cylinders

(other diesel engines with fewer cylinders than the parent engine may be considered to belong to the same engine family provided the fuelling system meters fuel for each individual cylinder).

7.1.4.   Individual cylinder displacement:

engines to be within a total spread of 15 per cent

7.1.5.   Method of air aspiration:

naturally aspirated

pressure charged

pressure charged with charge air cooler

7.1.6.   Combustion chamber type/design:

pre-chamber

swirl chamber

open chamber

7.1.7.   Valve and porting — configuration, size and number:

cylinder head

cylinder wall

crankcase

7.1.8.   Fuel injection system (diesel engines):

pump-line-injector

in-line pump

distributor pump

single element

unit injector

7.1.9.   Fuelling system (gas engines):

mixing unit

gas induction/injection (single point, multi-point)

liquid injection (single point, multi-point)

7.1.10.   Ignition system (gas engines)

7.1.11.   Miscellaneous features:

exhaust gas recirculation

water injection/emulsion

secondary air injection

charge cooling system

7.1.12.   Exhaust after treatment:

3-way-catalyst

oxidation catalyst

reduction catalyst

thermal reactor

particulate trap

7.2.   Choice of the parent engine

7.2.1.   Diesel engines

The parent engine of the family must be selected using the primary criteria of the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine must be selected using the secondary criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be characterised by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features, which indicate that it may have the highest emission level of the engines within that family.

If engines within the family incorporate other variable features, which could be considered to affect exhaust emissions, these features must also be identified and taken into account in the selection of the parent engine.

7.2.2.   Gas engines

The parent engine of the family must be selected using the primary criteria of the largest displacement. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine must be selected using the secondary criteria in the following order:

the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the speed of declared rated power;

the most advanced spark timing;

the lowest EGR rate;

no air pump or lowest actual air flow pump.

Under certain circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be characterised by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features, which indicate that it may have the highest emission level of the engines within that family.

8.   CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement, appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:

8.1.   Every engine or vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform, with regard to the description as given in the approval form and its annexes, to the approved type.

8.2.   As a general rule, conformity of production with regard to limitation of emissions is checked based on the description given in the communication form and its annexes.

If emissions of pollutants are to be measured and an engine approval has had one or several extensions, the tests will be carried out on the engine(s) described in the information package relating to the relevant extension.

Conformity of the engine subjected to a pollutant test:

After submission of the engine to the authorities, the manufacturer must not carry out any adjustment to the engines selected.

8.3.1.1.   Three engines are randomly taken in the series. Engines that are subject to testing only on the ESC and ELR tests or only on the ETC test for approval to row A of the tables in paragraph 5.2.1. are subject to those applicable tests for the checking of production conformity. With the agreement of the authority, all other engines approved to row A, B1 or B2, or C of the tables in paragraph 5.2.1. are subjected to testing either on the ESC and ELR cycles or on the ETC cycle for the checking of the production conformity. The limit values are given in paragraph 5.2.1. of the Regulation.

8.3.1.2.   The tests are carried out according to appendix 1 to this Regulation, where the competent authority is satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer.

The tests are carried out according to appendix 2 to this Regulation, where the competent authority is not satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer.

At the manufacturer's request, the tests may be carried out in accordance with appendix 3 to this Regulation.

8.3.1.3.   On the basis of a test of the engine by sampling, the production of a series is regarded as conforming where a pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and non conforming where a fail decision is reached for one pollutant, in accordance with the test criteria applied in the appropriate appendix.

When a pass decision has been reached for one pollutant, this decision may not be changed by any additional tests made in order to reach a decision for the other pollutants.

If no pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and if no fail decision is reached for one pollutant, a test is carried out on another engine (see figure 2).

If no decision is reached, the manufacturer may at any time decide to stop testing. In that case a fail decision is recorded.

The tests will be carried out on newly manufactured engines. Gas fuelled engines must be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of appendix 2 to annex 4.

8.3.2.1.   However, at the request of the manufacturer, the tests may be carried out on diesel or gas engines which have been run-in more than the period referred to in paragraph 8.4.2.2., up to a maximum of 100 hours. In this case, the running-in procedure will be conducted by the manufacturer who must undertake not to make any adjustments to those engines.

8.3.2.2.   When the manufacturer asks to conduct a running-in procedure in accordance with paragraph 8.4.2.2.1., it may be carried out on:

all the engines that are tested,

or,

the first engine tested, with the determination of an evolution coefficient as follows:

the pollutant emissions will be measured at zero and at ‘x’ hours on the first engine tested,

the evolution coefficient of the emissions between zero and ‘x’ hours will be calculated for each pollutant:

Formula

It may be less than one.

The subsequent test engines will not be subjected to the running-in procedure, but their zero hour emissions will be modified by the evolution coefficient.

In this case, the values to be taken will be:

the values at ‘x’ hours for the first engine,

the values at zero hour multiplied by the evolution coefficient for the other engines.

8.3.2.3.   For diesel and LPG fuelled engines, all these tests may be conducted with commercial fuel. However, at the manufacturer's request, the reference fuels described in annexes 5 or 7 may be used. This implies tests, as described in paragraph 4. of this Regulation, with at least two of the reference fuels for each gas engine.

8.3.2.4.   For NG fuelled engines, all these tests may be conducted with commercial fuel in the following way:

(i)

for H marked engines with a commercial fuel within the H range (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,00);

(ii)

for L marked engines with a commercial fuel within the L range (1,00 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19);

(iii)

for HL marked engines with a commercial fuel within the extreme range of the λ-shift factor (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19).

However, at the manufacturer's request, the reference fuels described in annex 6 may be used. This implies tests, as described in paragraph 4. of this Regulation.

8.3.2.5.   In the case of dispute caused by the non-compliance of gas fuelled engines when using a commercial fuel, the tests must be performed with a reference fuel on which the parent engine has been tested, or with the possible additional fuel 3 as referred to in paragraphs 4.1.3.1. and 4.2.1.1., on which the parent engine may have been tested. Then, the result has to be converted by a calculation applying the relevant factor(s) ‘r’, ‘ra’ or ‘rb’ as described in paragraphs 4.1.3.2., 4.1.5.1. and 4.2.1.2. If r, ra or rb are less than 1 no correction must take place. The measured results and the calculated results must demonstrate that the engine meets the limit values with all relevant fuels (fuels 1, 2 and, if applicable, fuel 3 in the case of natural gas engines and fuels A and B in the case of LPG engines).

8.3.2.6.   Tests for conformity of production of a gas fuelled engine laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition must be performed on the fuel for which the engine has been calibrated.

Image

9.   PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

9.1.   The approval granted in respect of an engine or vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1. are not complied with, or if the engine(s) or vehicle(s) taken fail to pass the tests prescribed in paragraph 8.3.

9.2.   If a Contracting Party to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in annexes 2A or 2B to this Regulation.

10.   MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF THE APPROVED TYPE

Every modification of the approved type shall be notified to the administrative department which approved the type. The department may then either:

10.1.1.   Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that in any case the modified type still complies with the requirement; or

10.1.2.   Require a further test report from the technical service conducting the tests.

10.2.   Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.5. to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation.

10.3.   The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in annexes 2A or 2B to this Regulation.

11.   PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED

If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture the type approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in annexes 2A or 2B to this Regulation.

12.   TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

12.1.   General

12.1.1.   As from the official date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation must refuse to grant ECE approval under this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.

12.1.2.   As from the date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation must grant ECE approvals only if the engine meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments.

The engine must be subject to the relevant tests set out in paragraph 5.2. to this Regulation and must, in accordance with paragraphs 12.2.1., 12.2.2. and 12.2.3. below, satisfy the relevant emission limits detailed in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

12.2.   New type approvals

12.2.1.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 12.4.1., Contracting Parties applying this Regulation must, from the date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments to this Regulation, grant an ECE approval to an engine only if that engine satisfies the relevant emission limits of Rows A, B1, B2 or C in the tables to paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

12.2.2.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 12.4.1., Contracting Parties applying this Regulation must, from 1 October 2005, grant an ECE approval to an engine only if that engine satisfies the relevant emission limits of Rows B1, B2 or C in the tables to paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

12.2.3.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 12.4.1., Contracting Parties applying this Regulation must, from 1 October 2008, grant an ECE approval to an engine only if that engine satisfies the relevant emission limits of Rows B2 or C in the tables to paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

12.3.   Limit of validity of old type approvals

12.3.1.   With the exception of the provisions of paragraphs 12.3.2. and 12.3.3., as from the official date of entry into force of the 04 series of amendments, type approvals granted to this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments must cease to be valid, unless the Contracting Party which granted the approval notifies the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation that the engine type approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments, in accordance with paragraph 12.2.1. above.

12.3.2.   Extension of type-approval

12.3.2.1.   Paragraphs 12.3.2.2. and 12.3.2.3. below shall only be applicable to new compression-ignition engines and new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition engine that have been approved to the requirements of row A of the tables in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

12.3.2.2.   As an alternative to paragraphs 5.1.3. and 5.1.4., the manufacturer may present to the technical service the results of a NOx screening test using the ETC on the engine conforming to the characteristics of the parent engine described in annex 1, and taking into account the provisions of paragraphs 5.1.4.1. and 5.1.4.2. The manufacturer shall also provide a written statement that the engine does not employ any defeat device or irrational emission control strategy as defined in paragraph 2. of this Regulation.

12.3.2.3.   The manufacturer shall also provide a written statement that the results of the NOx screening test and the declaration for the parent engine, as referred to in paragraph 5.1.4., are also applicable to all engine types within the engine family described in annex 1.

12.3.3.   Gas engines

As from the 1 October 2003, type approvals granted to gas engines to this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments must cease to be valid, unless the Contracting Party which granted the approval notifies the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation that the engine type approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments, in accordance with paragraph 12.2.1. above.

12.3.4.   As from 1 October 2006, type approvals granted to this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments must cease to be valid, unless the Contracting Party which granted the approval notifies the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation that the engine type approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments, in accordance with paragraph 12.2.2. above.

12.3.5.   As from 1 October 2009, type approvals granted to this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments must cease to be valid, unless the Contracting Party which granted the approval notifies the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation that the engine type approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments, in accordance with paragraph 12.2.3. above.

12.4.   Replacement parts for vehicles in use

12.4.1.   Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may continue to grant approvals to those engines which comply with the requirements of this Regulation as amended by any previous series of amendments, or to any level of the Regulation as amended by the 04 series of amendments, provided that the engine is intended as a replacement for a vehicle in-use and for which that earlier standard was applicable at the date of that vehicle's entry into service.

13.   NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS

The Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the technical services responsible for conducting approval tests and the administrative departments which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

Appendix 1

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING WHEN STANDARD DEVIATION IS SATISFACTORY

1.   This appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is satisfactory.

2.   With a minimum sample size of three engines, the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 per cent of the engines defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 per cent), while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 per cent of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 per cent).

3.   The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in paragraph 5.2.1. of the Regulation (see Figure 2):

Let:

L

=

the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant;

xi

=

the natural logarithm of the measurement for the i-th engine of the sample;

s

=

an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural logarithm of the measurements);

n

=

the current sample number.

4.   For each sample the sum of the standardised deviations to the limit is calculated using the following formula:

Formula

5.   Then:

if the test statistic result is greater than the pass decision number for the sample size given in table 3, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;

if the test statistic result is less than the fail decision number for the sample size given in table 3, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;

otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to paragraph 8.3.1. of the Regulation and the calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

Table 3

Pass and Fail decision numbers of appendix 1 Sampling Plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number An

Fail decision number Bn

3

3,327

–4,724

4

3,261

–4,790

5

3,195

–4,856

6

3,129

–4,922

7

3,063

–4,988

8

2,997

–5,054

9

2,931

–5,120

10

2,865

–5,185

11

2,799

–5,251

12

2,733

–5,317

13

2,667

–5,383

14

2,601

–5,449

15

2,535

–5,515

16

2,469

–5,581

17

2,403

–5,647

18

2,337

–5,713

19

2,271

–5,779

20

2,205

–5,845

21

2,139

–5,911

22

2,073

–5,977

23

2,007

–6,043

24

1,941

–6,109

25

1,875

–6,175

26

1,809

–6,241

27

1,743

–6,307

28

1,677

–6,373

29

1,611

–6,439

30

1,545

–6,505

31

1,479

–6,571

32

–2,112

–2,112

Appendix 2

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING WHEN STANDARD DEVIATION IS UNSATISFACTORY OR UNAVAILABLE

1.   This appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is either unsatisfactory or unavailable.

2.   With a minimum sample size of three engines, the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 per cent of the engines defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 per cent), while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 per cent of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 per cent).

3.   The values of the pollutants given in paragraph 5.2.1. of the Regulation are considered to be log normally distributed and should be transformed by taking their natural logarithms.

Let m0 and m denote the minimum and maximum sample size respectively (m0 = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the current sample number.

4.   If the natural logarithms of the values measured in the series are x1, x2, …, xi and L is the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant, then, define

and,

di = xi – L

Formula

Formula

5.   Table 4 shows values of the pass (An) and fail (Bn) decision numbers against current sample number. The test statistic result is the ratio Formula and must be used to determine whether the series has passed or failed as follows:

For m0 ≤ n ≤ m:

pass the series if Formula

fail the series if Formula

take another measurement if Formula

6.   Remarks:

The following recursive formulae are useful for calculating successive values of the test statistic:

Formula

Formula

Formula

Table 4

Pass and Fail decision numbers of appendix 2 Sampling Plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number An

Fail decision number Bn

3

–0,80381

16,64743

4

–0,76339

7,68627

5

–0,72982

4,67136

6

–0,69962

3,25573

7

–0,67129

2,45431

8

–0,64406

1,94369

9

–0,61750

1,59105

10

–0,59135

1,33295

11

–0,56542

1,13566

12

–0,53960

0,97970

13

–0,51379

0,85307

14

–0,48791

0,74801

15

–0,46191

0,65928

16

–0,43573

0,58321

17

–0,40933

0,51718

18

–0,38266

0,45922

19

–0,35570

0,40788

20

–0,32840

0,36203

21

–0,30072

0,32078

22

–0,27263

0,28343

23

–0,24410

0,24943

24

–0,21509

0,21831

25

–0,18557

0,18970

26

–0,15550

0,16328

27

–0,12483

0,13880

28

–0,09354

0,11603

29

–0,06159

0,09480

30

–0,02892

0,07493

31

–0,00449

0,05629

32

0,03876

0,03876

Appendix 3

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING AT MANUFACTURER'S REQUEST

1.   This appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify, at the manufacturer's request, production conformity for the emissions of pollutants.

2.   With a minimum sample size of three engines, the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 30 per cent of the engines defective is 0,90 (producer's risk = 10 per cent), while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 per cent of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 per cent).

3.   The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in paragraph 5.2.1. of the Regulation (see figure 2):

Let:

L

=

the limit value for the pollutant,

xi

=

the value of the measurement for the i-th engine of the sample,

n

=

the current sample number.

4.   Calculate for the sample the test statistic quantifying the number of non-conforming engines, i.e. xi ≥ L:

5.   Then:

if the test statistic is less than or equal to the pass decision number for the sample size given in table 5, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;

if the test statistic is greater than or equal to the fail decision number for the sample size given in table 5, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;

otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to paragraph 8.3.1. of the Regulation and the calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

In table 5 the pass and fail decision numbers are calculated by means of the International Standard ISO 8422:1991.

Table 5

Pass and Fail decision numbers of appendix 3 Sampling Plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number

Fail decision number

3

3

4

0

4

5

0

4

6

1

5

7

1

5

8

2

6

9

2

6

10

3

7

11

3

7

12

4

8

13

4

8

14

5

9

15

5

9

16

6

10

17

6

10

18

7

11

19

8

9

ANNEX 1

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE (PARENT) ENGINE AND INFORMATION CONCERNING THE CONDUCT OF TEST (9)

1.   DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE

1.1.   Manufacturer: …

1.2.   Manufacturer's engine code: …

1.3.   Cycle: four stroke/two stroke (10)

Number and arrangement of cylinders: …

1.4.1.   Bore: … mm

1.4.2.   Stroke: … mm

1.4.3.   Firing order: …

1.5.   Engine capacity: … cm3

1.6.   Volumetric compression ratio (11): …

1.7.   Drawing(s) of combustion chamber and piston crown: …

1.8.   Minimum cross-sectional area of inlet and outlet ports: … cm2

1.9.   Idling speed: … min–1

1.10.   Maximum net power: … kW at … min–1

1.11.   Maximum permitted engine speed: … min–1

1.12.   Maximum net torque: … Nm at … min–1

1.13.   Combustion system: compression ignition/positive ignition (10)

1.14.   Fuel: Diesel/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol (9)

Cooling system

Liquid

1.15.1.1.   Nature of liquid: …

1.15.1.2.   Circulating pump(s): yes/no (10)

1.15.1.3.   Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): …

1.15.1.4.   Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): …

Air

1.15.2.1.   Blower: yes/no (10)

1.15.2.2.   Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): …

1.15.2.3.   Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): …

Temperature permitted by the manufacturer

1.16.1.   Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: … K

1.16.2.   Air cooling: … Reference point: …

Maximum temperature at reference point: … K

1.16.3.   Maximum temperature of the air at the outlet of the intake intercooler (if applicable) … K

1.16.4.   Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s)

or turbocharger(s): … K

1.16.5.   Fuel temperature: min. … K, max. … K

for diesel engines at injection pump inlet, for gas fuelled engines at pressure regulator final stage.

1.16.6.   Fuel pressure: min. … kPa, max. … kPa

at pressure regulator final stage, NG fuelled gas engines only.

1.16.7.   Lubricant temperature: min. … K, max. … K

Pressure charger: yes/no (10)

1.17.1.   Make: …

1.17.2.   Type: …

1.17.3.   Description of the system

(e.g. max. charge pressure, wastegate, if applicable): …

1.17.4.   Intercooler: yes/no (10)

1.18.   Intake system

Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100 per cent load as specified in and under the operating conditions

of Regulation No 24 … kPa

1.19.   Exhaust system

Maximum allowable exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed and at 100 per cent load as specified in and under the operating conditions

of Regulation No 24 … kPa

Exhaust system volume: … dm3

2.   MEASURES TAKEN AGAINST AIR POLLUTION

2.1.   Device for recycling crankcase gases (description and drawings): …

Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)

Catalytic converter: yes/no (10)

2.2.1.1.   Make(s): …

2.2.1.2.   Type(s): …

2.2.1.3.   Number of catalytic converters and elements: …

2.2.1.4.   Dimensions, shape and volume of the catalytic converter(s): …

2.2.1.5.   Type of catalytic action: …

2.2.1.6.   Total charge of precious metals: …

2.2.1.7.   Relative concentration: …

2.2.1.8.   Substrate (structure and material): …

2.2.1.9.   Cell density: …

2.2.1.10.   Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s): …

2.2.1.11.   Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust line): …

Oxygen sensor: yes/no (10)

2.2.2.1.   Make(s): …

2.2.2.2.   Type: …

2.2.2.3.   Location: …

Air injection: yes/no (10)

2.2.3.1.   Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.): …

EGR: yes/no (10)

2.2.4.1.   Characteristics (flow rate, etc.): …

Particulate trap: yes/no (10)

2.2.5.1.   Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate trap: …

2.2.5.2.   Type and design of the particulate trap: …

2.2.5.3.   Location (reference distance in the exhaust line): …

2.2.5.4.   Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: …

Other systems: yes/no (10)

2.2.6.1.   Description and operation: …

3.   FUEL FEED

Diesel engines

3.1.1.   Feed pump

Pressure (11): … kPa or characteristic diagram (10): …

Injection system

Pump

3.1.2.1.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.1.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.1.3.   Delivery: … mm3  (11) per stroke at engine speed of … min–1 at full injection, or characteristic diagram (10)  (11): …

Mention the method used: On engine/on pump bench (10)

If boost control is supplied, state the characteristic fuel delivery and boost pressure versus engine speed.

Injection advance

3.1.2.1.4.1.   Injection advance curve (11): …

3.1.2.1.4.2.   Static injection timing (11): …

Injection piping

3.1.2.2.1.   Length: … mm

3.1.2.2.2.   Internal diameter: … mm

Injector(s)

3.1.2.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.3.3.   ‘Opening pressure’: … kPa (11)

or characteristic diagram (10)  (11): …

Governor

3.1.2.4.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.4.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.4.3.   Speed at which cut-off starts under full load: … min–1

3.1.2.4.4.   Maximum no-load speed: … min–1

3.1.2.4.5.   Idling speed: … min–1

Cold start system

3.1.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.3.3.   Description: …

Auxiliary starting aid: …

3.1.3.4.1.   Make: …

3.1.3.4.2.   Type: …

Gas fuelled engines (12)

3.2.1.   Fuel: Natural gas/LPG (10)

Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s) (11)

3.2.2.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.2.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.2.3.   Number of pressure reduction stages: …

3.2.2.4.   Pressure in final stage: min … kPa, max. … kPa

3.2.2.5.   Number of main adjustment points: …

3.2.2.6.   Number of idle adjustment points: …

3.2.2.7.   Approval number according to Reg. No: …

Fuelling system: mixing unit/gas injection/liquid injection/direct injection (10)

3.2.3.1.   Mixture strength regulation: …

3.2.3.2.   System description and/or diagram and drawings: …

3.2.3.3.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Mixing unit

3.2.4.1.   Number: …

3.2.4.2.   Make(s): …

3.2.4.3.   Type(s): …

3.2.4.4.   Location: …

3.2.4.5.   Adjustment possibilities: …

3.2.4.6.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Inlet manifold injection

3.2.5.1.   Injection: single point/multi-point (10)

3.2.5.2.   Injection: continuous/simultaneously timed/sequentially timed (10)

Injection equipment

3.2.5.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.3.3.   Adjustment possibilities: …

3.2.5.3.4.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Supply pump (if applicable): …

3.2.5.4.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.4.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.4.3.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Injector(s): …

3.2.5.5.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.5.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.5.3.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Direct injection

Injection pump/pressure regulator (10)

3.2.6.1.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.6.1.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.6.1.3.   Injection timing: …

3.2.6.1.4.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Injector(s)

3.2.6.2.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.6.2.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.6.2.3.   Opening pressure or characteristic diagram (11): …

3.2.6.2.4.   Approval number according to Regulation No …

Electronic control unit (ECU)

3.2.7.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.7.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.7.3.   Adjustment possibilities: …

NG fuel-specific equipment

Variant 1 (only in the case of approvals of engines for several specific fuel compositions)

3.2.8.1.1.   Fuel composition:

methane (CH4):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

ethane (C2H6):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

propane (C3H8):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

butane (C4H10):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

C5/C5+:

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

oxygen (O2):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

inert (N2, He etc):

basis: … %mole

min … %mole

max … %mole

Injector(s)

3.2.8.1.2.1.   Make(s):

3.2.8.1.2.2.   Type(s):

3.2.8.1.3.   Others (if applicable)

3.2.8.2.   Variant 2 (only in the case of approvals for several specific fuel compositions)

4.   VALVE TIMING

4.1.   Maximum lift of valves and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres or equivalent data …

4.2.   Reference and/or setting ranges (10): …

5.   IGNITION SYSTEM (SPARK IGNITION ENGINES ONLY)

5.1.   Ignition system type:

common coil and plugs/individual coil and plugs/coil on plug/other (specify) (10)

Ignition control unit

5.2.1.   Make(s): …

5.2.2.   Type(s): …

5.3.   Ignition advance curve/advance map (10)  (11): …

5.4.   Ignition timing (11): … degrees before TDC at a speed of … min–1 and a MAP of … kPa

Spark plugs

5.5.1.   Make(s): …

5.5.2.   Type(s): …

5.5.3.   Gap setting: … mm

Ignition coil(s)

5.6.1.   Make(s): …

5.6.2.   Type(s): …

6.   ENGINE-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT

The engine must be submitted for testing with the auxiliaries needed for operating the engine (e.g. fan, water pump, etc.), as specified in and under the operating conditions of Regulation No 24.

6.1.   Auxiliaries to be fitted for the test

If it is impossible or inappropriate to install the auxiliaries on the test bench, the power absorbed by them must be determined and subtracted from the measured engine power over the whole operating area of the test cycle(s).

6.2.   Auxiliaries to be removed for the test

Auxiliaries needed only for the operation of the vehicle (e.g. air compressor, air-conditioning system etc.) must be removed for the test. Where the auxiliaries cannot be removed, the power absorbed by them may be determined and added to the measured engine power over the whole operating area of the test cycle(s).

7.   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON TEST CONDITIONS

Lubricant used

7.1.1.   Make: …

7.1.2.   Type: …

(State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel are mixed): …

Engine-driven equipment (if applicable)

The power absorbed by the auxiliaries needs only be determined,

if auxiliaries needed for operating the engine, are not fitted to the engine

and/or

if auxiliaries not needed for operating the engine, are fitted to the engine.

7.2.1.   Enumeration and identifying details: …

7.2.2.   Power absorbed at various indicated engine speeds:

Equipment

Power absorbed (kW) at various engine speeds

Idle

Low Speed

High Speed

Speed A (13)

Speed B (13)

Speed C (13)

Ref. Speed (14)

P(a)

Auxiliaries needed for operating the engine

(to be subtracted from measured engine power)

see item 6.1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P(b)

Auxiliaries not needed for operating the engine

(to be added to measured engine power)

see item 6.2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.   ENGINE PERFORMANCE

8.1.   Engine speeds (15)

Low speed (nlo): … min–1

High speed (nhi): … min–1

for ESC and ELR Cycles

Idle: … min–1

Speed A: … min–1

Speed B: … min–1

Speed C: … min–1

for ETC cycle

Reference speed: … min–1

8.2.   Engine power (measured in accordance with the provisions of Regulation No 24) in kW

 

Engine speed

Idle

Speed A (13)

Speed B (13)

Speed C (13)

Ref. Speed (14)

P(m)

Power measured on test bed

 

 

 

 

 

P(a)

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted for test (item 6.1)

if fitted

if not fitted

0

0

0

0

0

P(b)

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed for test (item 6.2)

if fitted

if not fitted

0

0

0

0

0

P(n)

Net engine power

= P(m) – P(a) + P(b)

 

 

 

 

 

Dynamometer settings (kW)

The dynamometer settings for the ESC and ELR tests and for the reference cycle of the ETC test must be based upon the net engine power P(n) of paragraph 8.2. It is recommended to install the engine on the test bed in the net condition. In this case, P(m) and P(n) are identical. If it is impossible or inappropriate to operate the engine under net conditions, the dynamometer settings must be corrected to net conditions using the above formula.

8.3.1.   ESC and ELR Tests

The dynamometer settings must be calculated according to the formula in annex 4, appendix 1, paragraph 1.2.

Per cent load

Engine speed

Idle

Speed A

Speed B

Speed C

10

 

 

 

25

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

75

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

8.3.2.   ETC Test

If the engine is not tested under net conditions, the correction formula for converting the measured power or measured cycle work, as determined according to annex 4, appendix 2, paragraph 2., to net power or net cycle work must be submitted by the engine manufacturer for the whole operating area of the cycle, and approved by the Technical Service.

ANNEX 1

Appendix 1

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE-RELATED VEHICLE PARTS

1.   Intake system depression at rated engine speed and

at 100 per cent load: … kPa

2.   Exhaust system back pressure at rated engine speed and

at 100 per cent load: … kPa

3.   Volume of exhaust system: … cm3

4.   Power absorbed by the auxiliaries needed for operating the engine as specified in and under the operation conditions of Regulation No 24

Equipment

Power absorbed (kW) at various engine speeds

Idle

Low Speed

High Speed

Speed A (16)

Speed B (16)

Speed C (16)

Ref. Speed (17)

P(a)

Auxiliaries needed for operating the engine

(to be subtracted from measured engine power)

see annex 1, item 6.1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEX 1

Appendix 2

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE FAMILY

1.   COMMON PARAMETERS

1.1.   Combustion cycle: …

1.2.   Cooling medium: …

1.3.   Number of cylinders (18): …

1.4.   Individual cylinder displacement: …

1.5.   Method of air aspiration: …

1.6.   Combustion chamber type/design: …

1.7.   Valve and porting — configuration, size and number: …

1.8.   Fuel system: …

1.9.   Ignition system (gas engines): …

1.10.   Miscellaneous features:

charge cooling system (18): …

exhaust gas recirculation (18): …

water injection/emulsion (18): …

air injection (18): …

1.11.   Exhaust after-treatment (18): …

Proof of identical (or lowest for the parent engine) ratio:

system capacity/fuel delivery per stroke, pursuant to diagram number(s): …

2.   ENGINE FAMILY LISTING

Name of diesel engine family: …

2.1.1.   Specification of engines within this family:

 

 

 

 

 

Parent Engine

Engine Type

 

 

 

 

 

No of cylinders

 

 

 

 

 

Rated speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel delivery per stroke (mm3)

 

 

 

 

 

Rated net power (kW)

 

 

 

 

 

Maximum torque speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel delivery per stroke (mm3)

 

 

 

 

 

Maximum torque (Nm)

 

 

 

 

 

Low idle speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Cylinder displacement

(in % of parent engine)

 

 

 

 

100

Name of gas engine family: …

2.2.1.   Specification of engines within this family:

 

 

 

 

 

Parent Engine

Engine Type

 

 

 

 

 

No of cylinders

 

 

 

 

 

Rated speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel delivery per stroke (mm3)

 

 

 

 

 

Rated net power (kW)

 

 

 

 

 

Maximum torque speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel delivery per stroke (mm3)

 

 

 

 

 

Maximum torque (Nm)

 

 

 

 

 

Low idle speed (min–1)

 

 

 

 

 

Cylinder displacement (in % of parent engine)

 

 

 

 

100

Spark timing

 

 

 

 

 

EGR flow

 

 

 

 

 

Air pump yes/no

 

 

 

 

 

Air pump actual flow

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEX 1

Appendix 3

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE TYPE WITHIN THE FAMILY (19)

1.   DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE

1.1.   Manufacturer: …

1.2.   Manufacturer's engine code: …

1.3.   Cycle: four stroke/two stroke (20)

Number and arrangement of cylinders: …

1.4.1.   Bore: … mm

1.4.2.   Stroke: … mm

1.4.3.   Firing order: …

1.5.   Engine capacity: … cm3

1.6.   Volumetric compression ratio (21): …

1.7.   Drawing(s) of combustion chamber and piston crown: …

1.8.   Minimum cross-sectional area of inlet and outlet ports: … cm2

1.9.   Idling speed: … min–1

1.10.   Maximum net power: … kW at … min–1

1.11.   Maximum permitted engine speed: … min–1

1.12.   Maximum net torque: … Nm at … min–1

1.13.   Combustion system: compression ignition/positive ignition (20)

1.14.   Fuel: Diesel/LPG/NG-H/NG-L/NG-HL/Ethanol (19)

Cooling system

Liquid

1.15.1.1.   Nature of liquid: …

1.15.1.2.   Circulating pump(s): yes/no (20)

1.15.1.3.   Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): …

1.15.1.4.   Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): …

Air

1.15.2.1.   Blower: yes/no (20)

1.15.2.2.   Characteristics or make(s) and type(s) (if applicable): …

1.15.2.3.   Drive ratio(s) (if applicable): …

Temperature permitted by the manufacturer

1.16.1.   Liquid cooling: Maximum temperature at outlet: … K

1.16.2.   Air cooling: Reference point: …

Maximum temperature at reference point: … K

1.16.3.   Maximum temperature of the air at the outlet of the intake intercooler (if applicable): … K

1.16.4.   Maximum exhaust temperature at the point in the exhaust pipe(s) adjacent to the outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold(s) or turbocharger(s): … K

1.16.5.   Fuel temperature: min. … K, max. … K

for diesel engines at injection pump inlet, for gas fuelled engines at pressure regulator final stage

1.16.6.   Fuel pressure: min. … kPa, max. … kPa

at pressure regulator final stage, NG fuelled gas engines only

1.16.7.   Lubricant temperature: min. … K, max … K

Pressure charger: yes/no (20)

1.17.1.   Make: …

1.17.2.   Type: …

1.17.3.   Description of the system (e.g. max. charge pressure, wastegate, if applicable): …

1.17.4.   Intercooler: yes/no (20)

1.18.   Intake system

Maximum allowable intake depression at rated engine speed and at 100 per cent load as specified in and under the operating conditions of Regulation No 24: … kPa

1.19.   Exhaust system

Maximum allowable exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed and at 100 per cent load as specified in and under the operating conditions of Regulation No 24: … kPa

Exhaust system volume: … cm3

2.   MEASURES TAKEN AGAINST AIR POLLUTION

2.1.   Device for recycling crankcase gases (description and drawings): …

Additional anti-pollution devices (if any, and if not covered by another heading)

Catalytic converter: yes/no (20)

2.2.1.1.   Number of catalytic converters and elements: …

2.2.1.2.   Dimensions, shape and volume of the catalytic converter(s): …

2.2.1.3.   Type of catalytic action: …

2.2.1.4.   Total charge of precious metals: …

2.2.1.5.   Relative concentration: …

2.2.1.6.   Substrate (structure and material): …

2.2.1.7.   Cell density: …

2.2.1.8.   Type of casing for the catalytic converter(s): …

2.2.1.9.   Location of the catalytic converter(s) (place and reference distance in the exhaust line): …

Oxygen sensor: yes/no (20)

2.2.2.1.   Type: …

Air injection: yes/no (20)

2.2.3.1.   Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.): …

EGR: yes/no (20)

2.2.4.1.   Characteristics (flow rate etc.): …

Particulate trap: yes/no (20)

2.2.5.1.   Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate trap: …

2.2.5.2.   Type and design of the particulate trap: …

2.2.5.3.   Location (reference distance in the exhaust line): …

2.2.5.4.   Method or system of regeneration, description and/or drawing: …

Other systems: yes/no (20)

2.2.6.1.   Description and operation: …

3.   FUEL FEED

Diesel engines

3.1.1.   Feed pump

Pressure (21): … kPa or characteristic diagram (20): …

Injection system

Pump

3.1.2.1.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.1.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.1.3.   Delivery: … mm3  (21) per stroke at engine speed of … min–1 at full injection, or characteristic diagram (20)  (21): …

Mention the method used: On engine/on pump bench (20)

If boost control is supplied, state the characteristic fuel delivery and boost pressure versus engine speed.

Injection advance

3.1.2.1.4.1.   Injection advance curve (21): …

3.1.2.1.4.2.   Static injection timing (21): …

Injection piping

3.1.2.2.1.   Length: … mm

3.1.2.2.2.   Internal diameter: … mm

Injector(s)

3.1.2.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.3.3.   ‘Opening pressure’: … kPa (21)

or characteristic diagram (20)  (21): …

Governor

3.1.2.4.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.2.4.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.2.4.3.   Speed at which cut-off starts under full load: … min–1

3.1.2.4.4.   Maximum no-load speed: … min–1

3.1.2.4.5.   Idling speed: … min–1

Cold start system

3.1.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.1.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.1.3.3.   Description: …

Auxiliary starting aid: …

3.1.3.4.1.   Make: …

3.1.3.4.2.   Type: …

Gas fuelled engines

3.2.1.   Fuel: Natural gas/LPG (20)

Pressure regulator(s) or vaporiser/pressure regulator(s) (20)

3.2.2.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.2.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.2.3.   Number of pressure reduction stages: …

3.2.2.4.   Pressure in final stage: min. … kPa, max. … kPa

3.2.2.5.   Number of main adjustment points: …

3.2.2.6.   Number of idle adjustment points: …

3.2.2.7.   Approval number: …

Fuelling system: mixing unit/gas injection/liquid injection/direct injection (20)

3.2.3.1.   Mixture strength regulation: …

3.2.3.2.   System description and/or diagram and drawings: …

3.2.3.3.   Approval number: …

Mixing unit

3.2.4.1.   Number: …

3.2.4.2.   Make(s): …

3.2.4.3.   Type(s): …

3.2.4.4.   Location: …

3.2.4.5.   Adjustment possibilities: …

3.2.4.6.   Approval number: …

Inlet manifold injection

3.2.5.1.   Injection: single point/multi-point (20)

3.2.5.2.   Injection: continuous/simultaneously timed/sequentially timed (20)

Injection equipment

3.2.5.3.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.3.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.3.3.   Adjustment possibilities: …

3.2.5.3.4.   Approval number: …

Supply pump (if applicable): …

3.2.5.4.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.4.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.4.3.   Approval number: …

Injector(s): …

3.2.5.5.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.5.5.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.5.5.3.   Approval number: …

Direct injection

Injection pump/pressure regulator (20)

3.2.6.1.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.6.1.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.6.1.3.   Injection timing: …

3.2.6.1.4.   Approval number: …

Injector(s)

3.2.6.2.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.6.2.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.6.2.3.   Opening pressure or characteristic diagram (21): …

3.2.6.2.4.   Approval number: …

Electronic control unit (ECU)

3.2.7.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.7.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.7.3.   Adjustment possibilities: …

NG fuel-specific equipment

Variant 1 (only in the case of approvals of engines for several specific fuel compositions)

3.2.8.1.1.   Fuel composition:

methane (CH4):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

ethane (C2H6):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

propane (C3H8):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

butane (C4H10):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

C5/C5+:

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

oxygen (O2):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

inert (N2, He etc):

basis: … %mole

min. … %mole

max. … %mole

Injector(s)

3.2.8.1.2.1.   Make(s): …

3.2.8.1.2.2.   Type(s): …

3.2.8.1.3.   Others (if applicable)

3.2.8.2.   Variant 2 (only in the case of approvals for several specific fuel compositions)

4.   VALVE TIMING

4.1.   Maximum lift of valves and angles of opening and closing in relation to dead centres of equivalent data: …

4.2.   Reference and/or setting ranges (20): …

5.   IGNITION SYSTEM (SPARK IGNITION ENGINES ONLY)

5.1.   Ignition system type: common coil and plugs/individual coil and plugs/coil on plug/other (specify) (20)

Ignition control unit

5.2.1.   Make(s): …

5.2.2.   Type(s): …

5.3.   Ignition advance curve/advance map (20)  (21): …

5.4.   Ignition timing (21): … degrees before TDC at a speed of … min–1 and a MAP of … kPa

Spark plugs

5.5.1.   Make(s): …

5.5.2.   Type(s): …

5.5.3.   Gap setting: … mm

Ignition coil(s)

5.6.1.   Make(s): …

5.6.2.   Type(s): …

ANNEX 2A

Image

Image

ANNEX 2B

Image

Image

ANNEX 3

ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS

(See paragraph 4.6. of this Regulation)

APPROVAL ‘I’ (Row A).

(See paragraph 4.6.3. of this Regulation)

Model A

Engines approved to Row A emission limits and operating on diesel or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel.

Image

Model B

Engines approved to Row A emission limits and operating on natural gas (NG) fuel. The suffix after the national symbol indicates the fuel qualification determined in accordance with paragraph 4.6.3.1. of this Regulation.

Image

The above approval marks affixed to an engine/vehicle show that the engine/vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No 49 and under approval number 042439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No 49 with the 04 series of amendments incorporated and satisfying the relevant limits detailed in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

APPROVAL ‘II’ (Row B1).

(See paragraph 4.6.3. of this Regulation)

Model C

Engines approved to Row B1 emission limits and operating on diesel or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel.

Image

Model D

Engines approved to Row B1 emission limits and operating on natural gas (NG) fuel. The suffix after the national symbol indicates the fuel qualification determined in accordance with paragraph 4.6.3.1. of this Regulation.

Image

The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No 49 and under approval number 042439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No 49 with the 04 series of amendments incorporated and satisfying the relevant limits detailed in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

APPROVAL ‘III’ (Row B2).

(See paragraph 4.6.3. of this Regulation)

Model E

Engines approved to Row B2 emission limits and operating on diesel or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel.

Image

Model F

Engines approved to Row B2 emission limits and operating on natural gas (NG) fuel. The suffix after the national symbol indicates the fuel qualification determined in accordance with paragraph 4.6.3.1. of this Regulation.

Image

The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No 49 and under approval number 042439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No 49 with the 04 series of amendments incorporated and satisfying the relevant limits detailed in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

APPROVAL ‘IV’ (Row C).

(See paragraph 4.6.3. of this Regulation)

Model G

Engines approved to Row C emission limits and operating on diesel or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel.

Image

Model H

Engines approved to Row C emission limits and operating on natural gas (NG) fuel. The suffix after the national symbol indicates the fuel qualification determined in accordance with paragraph 4.6.3.1. of this Regulation.

Image

The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No 49 and under approval number 042439. This approval indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No 49 with the 04 series of amendments incorporated and satisfying the relevant limits detailed in paragraph 5.2.1. of this Regulation.

ENGINE/VEHICLE APPROVED TO ONE OR MORE REGULATIONS

(See paragraph 4.7. of this Regulation)

Model I

Image

The above approval mark affixed to an engine/vehicle shows that the engine/vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No 49 (emission level IV) and Regulation No 24 (22). The first two digits of the approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No 49 included the 04 series of amendments, and Regulation No 24 the 03 series of amendments.

ANNEX 4

TEST PROCEDURE

1.   INTRODUCTION

This annex describes the methods of determining emissions of gaseous components, particulates and smoke from the engines to be tested. Three test cycles are described that must be applied according to the provisions of the Regulation, paragraph 5.2:

1.1.1.   the ESC which consists of a steady state 13-mode cycle,

1.1.2.   the ELR which consists of transient load steps at different speeds, which are integral parts of one test procedure, and are run concurrently;

1.1.3.   the ETC which consists of a second-by-second sequence of transient modes.

1.2.   The test must be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a dynamometer.

1.3.   Measurement principle

The emissions to be measured from the exhaust of the engine include the gaseous components (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons for diesel engines on the ESC test only; non-methane hydrocarbons for diesel and gas engines on the ETC test only; methane for gas engines on the ETC test only and oxides of nitrogen), the particulates (diesel engines, gas engines at stage C only) and smoke (diesel engines on the ELR test only). Additionally, carbon dioxide is often used as a tracer gas for determining the dilution ratio of partial and full flow dilution systems. Good engineering practice recommends the general measurement of carbon dioxide as an excellent tool for the detection of measurement problems during the test run.

1.3.1.   ESC test

During a prescribed sequence of warmed-up engine operating conditions the amounts of the above exhaust emissions must be examined continuously by taking a sample from the raw exhaust gas. The test cycle consists of a number of speed and power modes, which cover the typical operating range of diesel engines. During each mode the concentration of each gaseous pollutant, exhaust flow and power output must be determined, and the measured values weighted. The particulate sample must be diluted with conditioned ambient air. One sample over the complete test procedure must be taken, and collected on suitable filters. The grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour (kWh) must be calculated as described in appendix 1 to this annex. Additionally, NOx must be measured at three test points within the control area selected by the Technical Service (23) and the measured values compared to the values calculated from those modes of the test cycle enveloping the selected test points. The NOx control check ensures the effectiveness of the emission control of the engine within the typical engine operating range.

1.3.2.   ELR test

During a prescribed load response test, the smoke of a warmed-up engine must be determined by means of an opacimeter. The test consists of loading the engine at constant speed from 10 per cent to 100 per cent load at three different engine speeds. Additionally, a fourth load step selected by the Technical Service (23) must be run, and the value compared to the values of the previous load steps. The smoke peak must be determined using an averaging algorithm, as described in appendix 1 to this annex.

1.3.3.   ETC test

During a prescribed transient cycle of warmed-up engine operating conditions, which is based closely on road-type-specific driving patterns of heavy-duty engines installed in trucks and buses, the above pollutants must be examined after diluting the total exhaust gas with conditioned ambient air. Using the engine torque and speed feedback signals of the engine dynamometer, the power must be integrated with respect to time of the cycle resulting in the work produced by the engine over the cycle. The concentration of NOx and HC must be determined over the cycle by integration of the analyser signal. The concentration of CO, CO2, and NMHC may be determined by integration of the analyser signal or by bag sampling. For particulates, a proportional sample must be collected on suitable filters. The diluted exhaust gas flow rate must be determined over the cycle to calculate the mass emission values of the pollutants. The mass emission values must be related to the engine work to get the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour (kWh), as described in appendix 2 to this annex.

2.   TEST CONDITIONS

2.1.   Engine test conditions

2.1.1.   The absolute temperature (Ta) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine expressed in Kelvins, and the dry atmospheric pressure (ps), expressed in kPa must be measured and the parameter F must be determined according to the following provisions:

(a)

for diesel engines:

Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:

Formula

Turbocharged engines with or without cooling of the intake air:

Formula

(b)

for gas engines:

Formula

2.1.2.   Test validity

For a test to be recognised as valid, the parameter F must be such that:

0,96 ≤ F ≤ 1,06

2.2.   Engines with charge air cooling

The charge air temperature must be recorded and must be, at the speed of the declared maximum power and full load, within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 1.16.3. The temperature of the cooling medium must be at least 293 K (20 °C).

If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature must be within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified in annex 1, paragraph 1.16.3. at the speed of the declared maximum power and full load. The setting of the charge air cooler for meeting the above conditions must be used for the whole test cycle.

2.3.   Engine air intake system

An engine air intake system must be used presenting an air intake restriction within ± 100 Pa of the upper limit of the engine operating at the speed at the declared maximum power and full load.

2.4.   Engine exhaust system

An exhaust system must be used presenting an exhaust back pressure within ±1 000 Pa of the upper limit of the engine operating at the speed of declared maximum power and full load and a volume within ± 40 per cent of that specified by the manufacturer. A test shop system may be used, provided it represents actual engine operating conditions. The exhaust system must conform to the requirements for exhaust gas sampling, as set out in annex 4, appendix 4, paragraph 3.4. and in annex 4, appendix 6, paragraph 2.2.1., EP and paragraph 2.3.1., EP.

If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment device, the exhaust pipe must have the same diameter as found in-use for at least 4 pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the beginning of the expansion paragraph containing the after-treatment device. The distance from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust after-treatment device must be the same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications of the manufacturer. The exhaust back-pressure or restriction must follow the same criteria as above, and may be set with a valve. The after-treatment container may be removed during dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.

2.5.   Cooling system

An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer must be used.

2.6.   Lubricating oil

Specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test must be recorded and presented with the results of the test, as specified in annex 1, paragraph 7.1.

2.7.   Fuel

The fuel must be the reference fuel specified in annexes 5, 6 or 7.

The fuel temperature and measuring point must be specified by the manufacturer within the limits given in annex 1, paragraph 1.16.5. The fuel temperature must not be lower than 306 K (33 °C). If not specified, it must be 311 K ± 5 K (38 °C ± 5 °C) at the inlet to the fuel supply.

For NG and LPG fuelled engines, the fuel temperature and measuring point must be within the limits given in annex 1, paragraph 1.16.5. or in annex 1, appendix 3, paragraph 1.16.5. in cases where the engine is not a parent engine.

2.8.   Testing of exhaust after-treatment systems

If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system, the emissions measured on the test cycle(s) must be representative of the emissions in the field. If this cannot be achieved with one single test cycle (e.g. for particulate filters with periodic regeneration), several test cycles must be conducted and the test results averaged and/or weighted. The exact procedure must be agreed by the engine manufacturer and the Technical Service based upon good engineering judgement.

ANNEX 4

Appendix 1

ESC AND ELR TEST CYCLES

1.   ENGINE AND DYNAMOMETER SETTINGS

1.1.   Determination of engine speeds A, B and C

The engine speeds A, B and C must be declared by the manufacturer in accordance with the following provisions:

The high speed nhi must be determined by calculating 70 per cent of the declared maximum net power P(n), as determined in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 8.2. The highest engine speed where this power value occurs on the power curve is defined as nhi.

The low speed nlo must be determined by calculating 50 per cent of the declared maximum net power P(n), as determined in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 8.2. The lowest engine speed where this power value occurs on the power curve is defined as nlo.

The engine speeds A, B and C must be calculated as follows:

Speed A

=

nlo + 25 % (nhi – nlo)

Speed B

=

nlo + 50 % (nhi – nlo)

Speed C

=

nlo + 75 % (nhi – nlo)

The engine speeds A, B and C may be verified by either of the following methods:

(a)

Additional test points must be measured during engine power approval according to Regulation No 24 for an accurate determination of nhi and nlo. The maximum power, nhi and nlo must be determined from the power curve, and engine speeds A, B and C must be calculated according to the above provisions.

(b)

The engine must be mapped along the full load curve, from maximum no load speed to idle speed, using at least 5 measurement points per 1 000 min–1 intervals and measurement points within ± 50 min–1 of the speed at declared maximum power. The maximum power, nhi and nlo must be determined from this mapping curve, and engine speeds A, B and C must be calculated according to the above provisions.

If the measured engine speeds A, B and C are within ± 3 per cent of the engine speeds as declared by the manufacturer, the declared engine speeds must be used for the emissions test. If the tolerance is exceeded for any of the engine speeds, the measured engine speeds must be used for the emissions test.

1.2.   Determination of dynamometer settings

The torque curve at full load must be determined by experimentation to calculate the torque values for the specified test modes under net conditions, as specified in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 8.2. The power absorbed by engine-driven equipment, if applicable, must be taken into account. The dynamometer setting for each test mode except idle must be calculated using the formula:

Formula

if tested under net conditions

Formula

if not tested under net conditions

where:

s

=

dynamometer setting, kW

P(n)

=

net engine power as indicated in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 8.2., kW

L

=

per cent load as indicated in paragraph 2.7.1.,

P(a)

=

power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted as indicated in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 6.1.

P(b)

=

power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed as indicated in annex 1, appendix 1, paragraph 6.2.

2.   ESC TEST RUN

At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and exhaust system before the measurement cycle.

2.1.   Preparation of the sampling filters

At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) must be placed in a closed, but unsealed petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter (pair) must be weighed and the tare weight must be recorded. The filter (pair) must then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder until needed for testing. If the filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be conditioned and reweighed before use.

2.2.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes must be installed as required. When using a full flow dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe must be connected to the system.

2.3.   Starting the dilution system and the engine

The dilution system and the engine must be started and warmed up until all temperatures and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice.

2.4.   Starting the particulate sampling system

The particulate sampling system must be started and running on by-pass. The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements at the beginning and at the end of the cycle, may be done, and the values averaged.

2.5.   Adjustment of the dilution ratio

The dilution air must be set such that the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas measured immediately prior to the primary filter must not exceed 325 K (52 °C) at any mode. The dilution ratio (q) must not be less than 4.

For systems that use CO2 or NOx concentration measurement for dilution ratio control, the CO2 or NOx content of the dilution air must be measured at the beginning and at the end of each test. The pre- and post test background CO2 or NOx concentration measurements of the dilution air must be within 100 ppm or 5 ppm of each other, respectively.

2.6.   Checking the analysers

The emission analysers must be set at zero and spanned.

2.7.   Test cycle

2.7.1.   The following 13-mode cycle must be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine:

Mode Number

Engine Speed

Percent Load

Weighting Factor

Mode Length

1

idle

0,15

4 minutes

2

A

100

0,08

2 minutes

3

B

50

0,10

2 minutes

4

B

75

0,10

2 minutes

5

A

50

0,05

2 minutes

6

A

75

0,05

2 minutes

7

A

25

0,05

2 minutes

8

B

100

0,09

2 minutes

9

B

25

0,10

2 minutes

10

C

100

0,08

2 minutes

11

C

25

0,05

2 minutes

12

C

75

0,05

2 minutes

13

C

50

0,05

2 minutes

2.7.2.   Test sequence

The test sequence must be started. The test must be performed in the order of the mode numbers as set out in paragraph 2.7.1.

The engine must be operated for the prescribed time in each mode, completing engine speed and load changes in the first 20 seconds. The specified speed must be held to within ± 50 min–1 and the specified torque must be held to within ± 2 per cent of the maximum torque at the test speed.

At the manufacturers request, the test sequence may be repeated a sufficient number of times for sampling more particulate mass on the filter. The manufacturer must supply a detailed description of the data evaluation and calculation procedures. The gaseous emissions must only be determined on the first cycle.

2.7.3.   Analyser response

The output of the analysers must be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured with an equivalent data acquisition system with the exhaust gas flowing through the analysers throughout the test cycle.

2.7.4.   Particulate sampling

One pair of filters (primary and back-up filters, see annex 4, appendix 4) must be used for the complete test procedure. The modal weighting factors specified in the test cycle procedure must be taken into account by taking a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow during each individual mode of the cycle. This can be achieved by adjusting sample flow rate, sampling time, and/or dilution ratio, accordingly, so that the criterion for the effective weighting factors in paragraph 5.6. is met.

The sampling time per mode must be at least 4 seconds per 0,01 weighting factor. Sampling must be conducted as late as possible within each mode. Particulate sampling must be completed no earlier than 5 seconds before the end of each mode.

2.7.5.   Engine conditions

The engine speed and load, intake air temperature and depression, exhaust temperature and back pressure, fuel flow and air or exhaust flow, charge air temperature, fuel temperature and humidity must be recorded during each mode, with the speed and load requirements (see paragraph 2.7.2) being met during the time of particulate sampling, but in any case during the last minute of each mode.

Any additional data required for calculation must be recorded (see paragraphs 4 and 5).

2.7.6.   NOx check within the control area

The NOx check within the control area must be performed immediately upon completion of mode 13. The engine must be conditioned at mode 13 for a period of three minutes before the start of the measurements. Three measurements must be made at different locations within the control area, selected by the Technical Service (24). The time for each measurement must be 2 minutes.

The measurement procedure is identical to the NOx measurement on the 13-mode cycle, and must be carried out in accordance with paragraphs 2.7.3., 2.7.5., and 4.1. of this appendix, and annex 4, appendix 4, paragraph 3.

The calculation must be carried out in accordance with paragraph 4.

2.7.7.   Rechecking the analysers

After the emission test a zero gas and the same span gas must be used for rechecking. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2 per cent of the span gas value.

3.   ELR TEST RUN

3.1.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The opacimeter and sample probes, if applicable, must be installed after the exhaust silencer or any after-treatment device, if fitted, according to the general installation procedures specified by the instrument manufacturer. Additionally, the requirements of paragraph 10 of ISO 11614 must be observed, where appropriate.

Prior to any zero and full scale checks, the opacimeter must be warmed up and stabilised according to the instrument manufacturer's recommendations. If the opacimeter is equipped with a purge air system to prevent sooting of the meter optics, this system must also be activated and adjusted according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

3.2.   Checking of the opacimeter

The zero and full scale checks must be made in the opacity readout mode, since the opacity scale offers two truly definable calibration points, namely 0 per cent opacity and 100 per cent opacity. The light absorption coefficient is then correctly calculated based upon the measured opacity and the LA, as submitted by the opacimeter manufacturer, when the instrument is returned to the k readout mode for testing.

With no blockage of the opacimeter light beam, the readout must be adjusted to 0,0 % ± 1,0 % opacity. With the light being prevented from reaching the receiver, the readout must be adjusted to 100,0 % ± 1,0 % opacity.

3.3.   Test cycle

3.3.1.   Conditioning of the engine

Warming up of the engine and the system must be at maximum power in order to stabilise the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer. The preconditioning phase should also protect the actual measurement against the influence of deposits in the exhaust system from a former test.

When the engine is stabilised, the cycle must be started within 20 ± 2 s after the preconditioning phase. At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for additional conditioning before the measurement cycle.

3.3.2.   Test sequence

The test consists of a sequence of three load steps at each of the three engine speeds A (cycle 1), B (cycle 2) and C (cycle 3) determined in accordance with annex 4, paragraph 1.1., followed by cycle 4 at a speed within the control area and a load between 10 per cent and 100 per cent, selected by the Technical Service (24). The following sequence must be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine, as shown in Figure 3.

Image

(a)

The engine must be operated at engine speed A and 10 per cent load for 20 ± 2 s. The specified speed must be held to within ± 20 min–1 and the specified torque must be held to within ± 2 per cent of the maximum torque at the test speed.

(b)

At the end of the previous segment, the speed control lever must be moved rapidly to, and held in, the wide open position for 10 ± 1 s. The necessary dynamometer load must be applied to keep the engine speed within ± 150 min–1 during the first 3 s, and within ± 20 min–1 during the rest of the segment.

(c)

The sequence described in (a) and (b) must be repeated two times.

(d)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine must be adjusted to engine speed B and 10 per cent load within 20 ± 2 s.

(e)

The sequence (a) to (c) must be run with the engine operating at engine speed B.

(f)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine must be adjusted to engine speed C and 10 per cent load within 20 ± 2 s.

(g)

The sequence (a) to (c) must be run with the engine operating at engine speed C.

(h)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine must be adjusted to the selected engine speed and any load above 10 per cent within 20 ± 2 s.

(i)

The sequence (a) to (c) must be run with the engine operating at the selected engine speed.

3.4.   Cycle validation

The relative standard deviations of the mean smoke values at each test speed (SVA, SVB, SVC, as calculated in accordance with paragraph 6.3.3. of this appendix from the three successive load steps at each test speed) must be lower than 15 per cent of the mean value, or 10 per cent of the limit value shown in Table 1 of the Regulation, whichever is greater. If the difference is greater, the sequence must be repeated until 3 successive load steps meet the validation criteria.

3.5.   Rechecking of the opacimeter

The post-test opacimeter zero drift value must not exceed ± 5,0 per cent of the limit value shown in Table 1 of the Regulation.

4.   CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS

4.1.   Data evaluation

For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 30 seconds of each mode must be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO and NOx during each mode must be determined from the average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording can be used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.

For the NOx check within the control area, the above requirements apply for NOx, only.

The exhaust gas flow GEXHW or the diluted exhaust gas flow GTOTW, if used optionally, must be determined in accordance with annex 4, appendix 4, paragraph 2.3.

4.2.   Dry/Wet correction

The measured concentration must be converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae, if not already measured on a wet basis.

conc (wet) = KW × conc (dry)

For the raw exhaust gas:

Formula

and

Formula

For the diluted exhaust gas:

Formula

or

Formula

For the dilution air:

For the intake air:

(if different from the dilution air)

KW,d = 1 – KW1

KW,a = 1 – KW2

Formula

Formula

Formula

Formula

where:

Ha, Hd

=

g water per kg dry air

Rd, Ra

=

relative humidity of the dilution/intake air, %

pd, pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the dilution/intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.3.   Nox Correction for humidity and temperature

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration must be corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity with the factors given in the following formulae:

Formula

with:

A

=

0,309 GFUEL/GAIRD – 0,0266

B

=

–0,209 GFUEL/GAIRD + 0,00954

Ta

=

temperature of the air, K

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air, g water per kg dry air in which:

Formula

Ra

=

relative humidity of the intake air, %

pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.4.   Calculation of the emission mass flow rates

The emission mass flow rates (g/h) for each mode must be calculated as follows, assuming the exhaust gas density to be 1,293 kg/m3 at 273 K (0 °C) and 101,3 kPa:

(1)

=

NOx mass

=

0,001587 × NOx conc × KH,D × GEXHW

(2)

=

COmass

=

0,000966 × COconc × GEXHW

(3)

=

HCmass

=

0,000479 × HCconc × GEXHW

where NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (25) are the average concentrations (ppm) in the raw exhaust gas, as determined in paragraph 4.1.

If, optionally, the gaseous emissions are determined with a full flow dilution system, the following formulae must be applied:

(1)

=

NOx mass

=

0,001587 × NOx conc × KH,D × GTOTW

(2)

=

COmass

=

0,000966 × COconc × GTOTW

(3)

=

HCmass

=

0,000479 × HCconc × GTOTW

where NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (25) are the average background corrected concentrations (ppm) of each mode in the diluted exhaust gas, as determined in annex 4, appendix 2, paragraph 4.3.1.1.

4.5.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The emissions (g/kWh) must be calculated for all individual components in the following way:

Formula

Formula

Formula

The weighting factors (WF) used in the above calculation are according to paragraph 2.7.1.

4.6.   Calculation of the area control values

For the three control points selected according to paragraph 2.7.6., the NOx emission must be measured and calculated according to paragraph 4.6.1. and also determined by interpolation from the modes of the test cycle closest to the respective control point acording to paragraph 4.6.2. The measured values are then compared to the interpolated values according to paragraph 4.6.3.

4.6.1.   Calculation of the specific emission

The NOx emission for each of the control points (Z) must be calculated as follows:

NOx mass,Z

=

0,001587 × NOx conc,Z × KH,D × GEXHW

NOx,Z

=

NOx mass,Z / P(n)Z

4.6.2.   Determination of the emission value from the test cycle

The NOx emission for each of the control points must be interpolated from the four closest modes of the test cycle that envelop the selected control point Z as shown in Figure 4. For these modes (R, S, T, U), the following definitions apply:

Speed(R) = Speed(T) = nRT

Speed(S) = Speed(U) = nSU

Per cent load(R) = Per cent load(S)

Per cent load(T) = Per cent load(U).

The NOx emission of the selected control point Z must be calculated as follows:

EZ

=

ERS + (ETU – ERS) · (MZ – MRS) / (MTU – MRS)

and:

ETU

=

ET + (EU – ET) · (nZ – nRT) / (nSU – nRT)

ERS

=

ER + (ES – ER) · (nZ – nRT) / (nSU – nRT)

MTU

=

MT + (MU – MT) · (nZ – nRT) / (nSU – nRT)

MRS

=

MR + (MS – MR) · (nZ – nRT) / (nSU – nRT)

where:

ER, ES, ET, EU

=

specific NOx emission of the enveloping modes calculated in accordance with paragraph 4.6.1.

MR, MS, MT, MU

=

engine torque of the enveloping modes

Image

4.6.3.   Comparison of NOx emission values

The measured specific NOx emission of the control point Z (NOx,Z) is compared to the interpolated value (EZ) as follows:

NOx,diff = 100 × (NOx,z – Ez) / Ez

5.   CALCULATION OF THE PARTICULATE EMISSION

5.1.   Data evaluation

For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (MSAM,i) through the filters must be recorded for each mode.

The filters must be returned to the weighing chamber and conditioned for at least one hour, but not more than 80 hours, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters must be recorded and the tare weight (see paragraph 1 of this appendix) subtracted. The particulate mass Mf is the sum of the particulate masses collected on the primary and back-up filters.

If background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (MDIL) through the filters and the particulate mass (Md) must be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the quotient Md/MDIL must be calculated for each single measurement and the values averaged.

5.2.   Partial flow dilution system

The final reported test results of the particulate emission must be determined through the following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation methods for GEDFW apply. All calculations must be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

5.2.1.   Isokinetic systems

GEDFW,i = GEXHW,i × qI

Formula

where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic probe and the exhaust pipe:

Formula

5.2.2.   Systems with measurement of CO2 or NOx concentration

GEDFW,i = GEXHW,i × qi

Formula

where:

concE

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the raw exhaust

concD

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the diluted exhaust

concA

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the dilution air

Concentrations measured on a dry basis must be converted to a wet basis according to paragraph 4.2. of this appendix.

5.2.3.   Systems with CO2 measurement and carbon balance method (26)

Formula

where:

CO2D

=

CO2 concentration of the diluted exhaust

CO2A

=

CO2 concentration of the dilution air

(concentrations in Vol % on wet basis)

This equation is based upon the carbon balance assumption (carbon atoms supplied to the engine are emitted as CO2) and determined through the following steps:

GEDFW,i = GEXHW,i × qi

Formula

and,

5.2.4.   Systems with flow measurement

GEDFW,i = GEXHW,i × qi

Formula

5.3.   Full flow dilution system

The reported test results of the particulate emission must be determined through the following steps. All calculations must be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

GEDFW,i = GTOTW,i

5.4.   Calculation of the particulate mass flow rate

The particulate mass flow rate must be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Formula

Formula

i = 1,…n

determined over the test cycle by summation of the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:

Formula

If more than one measurement is made, (Md/MDIL) must be replaced with the average value of (Md/MDIL).

DFi = 13,4 / (conc CO2 + (conc CO + conc HC) × 10–4)) for the individual modes

or,

DFi = 13,4 / concCO2 for the individual modes

5.5.   Calculation of the specific emission

The particulate emission must be calculated in the following way:

Formula

5.6.   Effective weighting factor

The effective weighting factor WFE,i for each mode must be calculated in the following way:

Formula

The value of the effective weighting factors must be within ± 0,003 (0,005 for the idle mode) of the weighting factors listed in paragraph 2.7.1.

6.   CALCULATION OF THE SMOKE VALUES

6.1.   Bessel algorithm

The Bessel algorithm must be used to compute the 1 s average values from the instantaneous smoke readings, converted in accordance with paragraph 6.3.1. The algorithm emulates a low pass second order filter, and its use requires iterative calculations to determine the coefficients. These coefficients are a function of the response time of the opacimeter system and the sampling rate. Therefore, paragraph 6.1.1. must be repeated whenever the system response time and/or sampling rate changes.

6.1.1.   Calculation of filter response time and Bessel constants

The required Bessel response time (tf) is a function of the physical and electrical response times of the opacimeter system, as specified in annex 4, appendix 4, paragraph 5.2.4., and must be calculated by the following equation:

Formula

where:

tp

=

physical response time, s

te

=

electrical response time, s

The calculations for estimating the filter cut-off frequency (fc) are based on a step input of 0 to 1 in ≤ 0.01s (see annex 8). The response time is defined as the time between when the Bessel output reaches 10 per cent (t10) and when it reaches 90 per cent (t90) of this step function. This must be obtained by iterating on fc until t90 – t10 ≈ tf. The first iteration for fc is given by the following formula:

fc = π / (10 × tf)

The Bessel constants E and K must be calculated by the following equations:

Formula

K = 2 × E × (D × Ω2 – 1) – 1

where:

D

=

0,618034

Δt

=

1 / sampling rate

Ω

=

1 / [tan(π × Δt × fc)]

6.1.2.   Calculation of the Bessel Algorithm

Using the values of E and K, the 1 s Bessel averaged response to a step input Si must be calculated as follows:

Yi

=

Yi–1 + E × (Si + 2 × Si–1 + Si–2 – 4 × Yi–2) + K × (Yi–1 – Yi–2)

where:

Si–2 = Si–1 = 0

Si = 1

Yi–2 = Yi–1 = 0

The times t10 and t90 must be interpolated. The difference in time between t90 and t10 defines the response time tf for that value of fc. If this response time is not close enough to the required response time, iteration must be continued until the actual response time is within 1 per cent of the required response as follows:

Formula

6.2.   Data evaluation

The smoke measurement values must be sampled with a minimum rate of 20 Hz.

6.3.   Determination of smoke

6.3.1.   Data conversion

Since the basic measurement unit of all opacimeters is transmittance, the smoke values must be converted from transmittance (τ) to the light absorption coefficient (k) as follows:

Formula

and: N = 100 – τ

where:

k

=

light absorption coefficient, m–1

LA

=

effective optical path length, as submitted by instrument manufacturer, m

N

=

opacity, %

τ

=

transmittance, %

The conversion must be applied, before any further data processing is made.

6.3.2.   Calculation of Bessel averaged smoke

The proper cut-off frequency fc is the one that produces the required filter response time tf. Once this frequency has been determined through the iterative process of paragraph 6.1.1., the proper Bessel algorithm constants E and K must be calculated. The Bessel algorithm must then be applied to the instantaneous smoke trace (k-value), as described in paragraph 6.1.2:

Yi

=

Yi–1 + E × (Si + 2 × Si–1 + Si–2 – 4 × Yi–2) + K × (Yi–1 – Yi–2)

The Bessel algorithm is recursive in nature. Thus, it needs some initial input values of Si–1 and Si–2 and initial output values Yi–1 and Yi–2 to get the algorithm started. These may be assumed to be 0.

For each load step of the three speeds A, B and C, the maximum 1s value Ymax must be selected from the individual Yi values of each smoke trace.

6.3.3.   Final result

The mean smoke values (SV) from each cycle (test speed) must be calculated as follows:

For test speed A:

=

SVA

=

(Ymax1,A + Ymax2,A + Ymax3,A) / 3

For test speed B:

=

SVB

=

(Ymax1,B + Ymax2,B + Ymax3,B) / 3

For test speed C:

=

SVC

=

(Ymax1,C + Ymax2,C + Ymax3,C) / 3

where:

Ymax1, Ymax2, Ymax3

=

highest 1 s Bessel averaged smoke value at each of the three load steps

The final value must be calculated as follows:

SV

=

(0,43 × SVA) + (0,56 × SVB) + (0,01 × SVC)

ANNEX 4

Appendix 2

ETC TEST CYCLE

1.   ENGINE MAPPING PROCEDURE

1.1.   Determination of the mapping speed range

For generating the ETC on the test cell, the engine needs to be mapped prior to the test cycle for determining the speed vs. torque curve. The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:

Minimum mapping speed

=

idle speed

Maximum mapping speed

=

nhi × 1,02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero, whichever is lower

1.2.   Performing the engine power map

The engine must be warmed up at maximum power in order to stabilise the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice. When the engine is stabilised, the engine map must be performed as follows:

The engine must be unloaded and operated at idle speed.

The engine must be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum mapping speed.

The engine speed must be increased at an average rate of 8 ± 1 min–1/s from minimum to maximum mapping speed. Engine speed and torque points must be recorded at a sample rate of a least one point per second.

1.3.   Mapping curve generation

All data points recorded under paragraph 1.2. must be connected using linear interpolation between points. The resulting torque curve is the mapping curve and must be used to convert the normalised torque values of the engine cycle into actual torque values for the test cycle, as described in paragraph 2.

1.4.   Alternate mapping

If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These alternate techniques must satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this paragraph for reasons of safety or representativeness must be approved by the Technical Service along with the justification for their use. In no case, however, must descending continual sweeps of engine speed be used for governed or turbocharged engines.

1.5.   Replicate tests

An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine must be remapped prior to a test cycle if:

an unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by engineering judgement,

or,

physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine, which may potentially affect engine performance.

2.   GENERATION OF THE REFERENCE TEST CYCLE

The transient test cycle is described in appendix 3 to this annex. The normalised values for torque and speed must be changed to the actual values, as follows, resulting in the reference cycle.

2.1.   Actual speed

The speed must be unnormalised using the following equation:

Formula

The reference speed (nref) corresponds to the 100 per cent speed values specified in the engine dynamometer schedule of appendix 3. It is defined as follows (see Figure 1 of the Regulation):

nref = nlo + 95 % × (nhi – nlo)

where nhi and nlo are either specified according to the Regulation, paragraph 2 or determined according to annex 4, appendix 1, paragraph 1.1.

2.2.   Actual torque

The torque is normalised to the maximum torque at the respective speed. The torque values of the reference cycle must be unnormalised, using the mapping curve determined according to section 1.3, as follows:

Formula

for the respective actual speed as determined in paragraph 2.1.

The negative torque values of the motoring points (‘m’) must take on, for purposes of reference cycle generation, unnormalised values determined in either of the following ways:

negative 40 per cent of the positive torque available at the associated speed point;

mapping of the negative torque required to motor the engine from minimum to maximum mapping speed;

determination of the negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and reference speeds and linear interpolation between these two points.

2.3.   Example of the unnormalisation procedure

As an example, the following test point must be unnormalised:

% speed

=

43

% torque

=

82

Given the following values:

reference speed

=

2 200 min–1

idle speed

=

600 min–1

results in,

actual speed

=

Formula

actual torque

=

Formula

where the maximum torque observed from the mapping curve at 1 288 min–1 is 700 Nm.

3.   EMISSIONS TEST RUN

At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and exhaust system before the measurement cycle.

NG and LPG fuelled engines must be run-in using the ETC test. The engine must be run over a minimum of two ETC cycles and until the CO emission measured over one ETC cycle does not exceed by more than 10 per cent the CO emission measured over the previous ETC cycle.

3.1.   Preparation of the sampling filters (if applicable)

At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) must be placed in a closed, but unsealed petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter (pair) must be weighed and the tare weight must be recorded. The filter (pair) must then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder until needed for testing. If the filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be conditioned and reweighed before use.

3.2.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes must be installed as required. The tailpipe must be connected to the full flow dilution system.

3.3.   Starting the dilution system and the engine

The dilution system and the engine must be started and warmed up until all temperatures and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice.

3.4.   Starting the particulate sampling system (if applicable)

The particulate sampling system must be started and running on by-pass. The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements at the beginning and at the end of the cycle, may be done, and the values averaged.

3.5.   Adjustment of the full flow dilution system

The total diluted exhaust gas flow must be set to eliminate water condensation in the system, and to obtain a maximum filter face temperature of 325 K (52 °C) or less (see annex 4, appendix 6, paragraph 2.3.1., DT).

3.6.   Checking the analysers

The emission analysers must be set at zero and spanned. If sample bags are used, they must be evacuated.

3.7.   Engine starting procedure

The stabilised engine must be started according to the manufacturer's recommended starting procedure in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer. Optionally, the test may start directly from the engine preconditioning phase without shutting the engine off, when the engine has reached the idle speed.

3.8.   Test cycle

3.8.1.   Test sequence

The test sequence must be started, if the engine has reached idle speed. The test must be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in paragraph 2 of this appendix. Engine speed and torque command set points must be issued at 5 Hz (10 Hz recommended) or greater. Feedback engine speed and torque must be recorded at least once every second during the test cycle, and the signals may be electronically filtered.

3.8.2.   Analyser response

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the preconditioning, the measuring equipment must be started, simultaneously:

start collecting or analysing dilution air;

start collecting or analysing diluted exhaust gas;

start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas (CVS) and the required temperatures and pressures;

start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.

HC and NOx must be measured continuously in the dilution tunnel with a frequency of 2 Hz. The average concentrations must be determined by integrating the analyser signals over the test cycle. The system response time must be no greater than 20 s, and must be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO2, NMHC and CH4 must be determined by integration or by analysing the concentrations in the sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air must be determined by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other values must be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second (1 Hz).

3.8.3.   Particulate sampling (if applicable)

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the preconditioning, the particulate sampling system must be switched from by-pass to collecting particulates.

If no flow compensation is used, the sample pump(s) must be adjusted so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within ± 5 per cent of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is used, it must be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change by more than ± 5 per cent of its set value (except for the first 10 seconds of sampling).

Note: For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate through the sample filters and the secondary dilution air flow rate.

The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet must be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle (within ± 5 per cent) because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test must be voided. The test must be rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.

3.8.4.   Engine stalling

If the engine stalls anywhere during the test cycle, the engine must be preconditioned and restarted, and the test repeated. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test cycle, the test must be voided.

3.8.5.   Operations after test

At the completion of the test, the measurement of the diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate sample pump must be stopped. For an integrating analyser system, sampling must continue until system response times have elapsed.

The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, must be analysed as soon as possible and in any case not later than 20 minutes after the end of the test cycle.

After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas must be used for re-checking the analysers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2 per cent of the span gas value.

For diesel engines only, the particulate filters must be returned to the weighing chamber no later than one hour after completion of the test and must be conditioned in a closed, but unsealed petri dish for at least one hour, but not more than 80 hours before weighing.

3.9.   Verification of the test run

3.9.1.   Data shift

To minimise the biasing effect of the time lag between the feedback and reference cycle values, the entire engine speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced or delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the feedback signals are shifted, both speed and torque must be shifted the same amount in the same direction.

3.9.2.   Calculation of the cycle work

The actual cycle work Wact (kWh) must be calculated using each pair of engine feedback speed and torque values recorded. This must be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this option is selected. The actual cycle work Wact is used for comparison to the reference cycle work Wref and for calculating the brake specific emissions (see paragraphs 4.4. and 5.2). The same methodology must be used for integrating both reference and actual engine power. If values are to be determined between adjacent reference or adjacent measured values, linear interpolation must be used.

In integrating the reference and actual cycle work, all negative torque values must be set equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a frequency of less than 5 Hertz, and if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes from positive to negative or negative to positive, the negative portion must be computed and set equal to zero. The positive portion must be included in the integrated value.

Wact must be between –15 % and +5 % of Wref.

3.9.3.   Validation statistics of the test cycle

Linear regressions of the feedback values on the reference values must be performed for speed, torque and power. This must be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this option is selected. The method of least squares must be used, with the best fit equation having the form:

y = mx + b

where:

y

=

feedback (actual) value of speed (min–1), torque (Nm), or power (kW)

m

=

slope of the regression line

x

=

reference value of speed (min–1), torque (Nm), or power (kW)

b

=

y intercept of the regression line

The standard error of estimate (SE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r2) must be calculated for each regression line.

It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1 Hertz. All negative reference torque values and the associated feedback values must be deleted from the calculation of cycle torque and power validation statistics. For a test to be considered valid, the criteria of table 6 must be met.

Table 6

Regression line tolerances

 

Speed

Torque

Power

Standard error of estimate (SE) of Y on X

max 100 min–1

max 13 % (15 %) of power map maximum engine torque

max 8 % (15 %) of power map maximum engine power

Slope of the regression line, m

0,95 to 1,03

0,83 – 1,03

0,89 – 1,03

(0,83 – 1,03)

Coefficient of determination, r2

min 0,9700

(min 0,9500)

min 0,8800

(min 0,7500)

min 0,9100

(min 0,7500)

Y intercept of the regression line, b

± 50 min–1

± 20 Nm or ± 2 % (± 20 Nm or ± 3 %) of max torque whichever is greater

± 4 kW or ± 2 % (± 4 Kw or ± 3 %) of max power whichever is greater

The figures shown in brackets may be used for the type-approval testing of gas engines until 1 October 2005.

Table 7

Permitted Point Deletions From Regression Analysis

Condition

Points to be deleted

Full load and torque feedback ≠ torque reference

Torque and/or power

No load, not an idle point, and torque feedback > torque reference

Torque and/or power

No load/closed throttle, idle point and speed > reference idle speed

Speed and/or power

4.   CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS

4.1.   Determination of the diluted exhaust gas flow

The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle (kg/test) must be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V0 for PDP or KV for CFV, as determined in annex 4, appendix 5, paragraph 2.). The following formulae must be applied, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept constant over the cycle by using a heat exchanger (± 6 K for a PDP-CVS, ± 11 K for a CFV-CVS, see annex 4, appendix 6, paragraph 2.3.).

For the PDP-CVS system

MTOTW

=

1,293 × V0 × NP × (pB – p1) × 273 / (101,3 × T)

where:

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle, kg

V0

=

volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions, m3/rev

NP

=

total revolutions of pump per test

pB

=

atmospheric pressure in the test cell, kPa

p1

=

pressure depression below atmospheric at pump inlet, kPa

T

=

average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet over the cycle, K

For the CFV-CVS system

MTOTW = 1,293 × t × Kv × pA / T0,5

where:

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle, kg

t

=

cycle time, s

KV

=

calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions,

pA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa

T

=

absolute temperature at venturi inlet, K

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous mass emissions must be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas must be calculated as follows.

For the PDP-CVS system:

MTOTW,i = 1,293 × V0 × NP,i × (pB – p1) × 273 / (101,3 ≅ T)

where:

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis, kg

NP,i

=

total revolutions of pump per time interval

For the CFV-CVS system:

MTOTW,i

=

1,293 × Δti × KV × pA / T0,5

where:

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis, kg

Δti

=

time interval, s

If the total sample mass of particulates (MSAM) and gaseous pollutants exceeds 0,5 per cent of the total CVS flow (MTOTW), the CVS flow must be corrected for MSAM or the particulate sample flow must be returned to the CVS prior to the flow measuring device (PDP or CFV).

4.2.   NOx correction for humidity

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration must be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factors given in the following formulae.

(a)

for diesel engines:

Formula

(b)

for gas engines:

Formula

where:

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air, grams of water per kg of dry air,

in which:

Formula

Ra

=

relative humidity of the intake air, %

pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.3.   Calculation of the emission mass flow

4.3.1.   Systems with constant mass flow

For systems with heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) must be determined from the following equations:

(1)

NOx mass

=

0,001587 · NOx conc · KH,D · MTOTW

(diesel engines)

(2)

NOx mass

=

0,001587 · NOx conc · KH,G · MTOTW

(gas engines)

(3)

COmass

=

0,000966 · COconc · MTOTW

 

(4)

HCmass

=

0,000479 · HCconc · MTOTW

(diesel engines)

(5)

HCmass

=

0,000502 · HCconc · MTOTW

(LPG fuelled engines)

(6)

HCmass

=

0,000552 · HCconc · MTOTW

(NG fuelled engines)

(7)

NMHCmass

=

0,000479 · NMHCconc · MTOTW

(diesel engines)

(8)

NMHCmass

=

0,000502 · NMHCconc · MTOTW

(LPG fuelled engines)

(9)

NMHCmass

=

0,000516 × NMHCconc × MTOTW

(NG fuelled engines)

(10)

CH4 mass

=

0,000552 × CH4 conc × MTOTW

(NG fuelled engines)

where:

NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (27), NMHCconc, CH4 conc = average background corrected concentrations over the cycle from integration (mandatory for NOx and HC) or bag measurement, ppm

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in paragraph 4.1., kg

KH,D

=

humidity correction factor for diesel engines as determined in paragraph 4.2., based on cycle averaged intake air humidity

KH,G

=

humidity correction factor for gas engines as determined in paragraph 4.2., based on cycle averaged intake air humidity

Concentrations measured on a dry basis must be converted to a wet basis in accordance with annex 4, appendix 1, paragraph 4.2.

The determination of NMHCconc and CH4 conc depends on the method used (see annex 4, appendix 4, paragraph 3.3.4.). Both concentrations must be determined as follows, whereby CH4 is subtracted from HC for the determination of NMHCconc:

(a)

GC method

NMHCconc = HCconc – CH4 conc

CH4 conc = as measured

(b)

NMC method

Formula Formula

where:

HC(w/Cutter)

=

HC concentration with the sample gas flowing through the NMC

HC(w/o Cutter)

=

HC concentration with the sample gas bypassing the NMC

CEM

=

methane efficiency as determined per annex 4, appendix 5, paragraph 1.8.4.1.

CEE

=

ethane efficiency as determined per annex 4, appendix 5, paragraph 1.8.4.2.

4.3.1.1.   Determination of the background corrected concentrations

The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air must be subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the pollutants. The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by the sample bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following formula must be used.

conc = conce – concd · (1 – (1/DF))

where:

conc

=

concentration of the respective pollutant in the diluted exhaust gas, corrected by the amount of the respective pollutant contained in the dilution air, ppm

conce

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air, ppm

DF

=

dilution factor

The dilution factor shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

CO2,conce

=

concentration of CO2 in the diluted exhaust gas, % vol

HCconce

=

concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm C1

COconce

=

concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

FS

=

stoichiometric factor

Concentrations measured on dry basis must be converted to a wet basis in accordance with annex 4, appendix 1, paragraph 4.2.

The stoichiometric factor must be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

x, y

=

fuel composition CxHy

Alternatively, if the fuel composition is not known, the following stoichiometric factors may be used:

FS (diesel)

=

13,4

FS (LPG)

=

11,6

FS (NG)

=

9,5

4.3.2.   Systems with flow compensation

For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) must be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction must be applied directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following formulae must be applied:

(1)

=

NOx mass

=

Formula (diesel engines)

(2)

=

NOx mass

=

Formula (gas engines)

(3)

=

COmass

=

Formula

(4)

=

HCmass

=

Formula (diesel engines)

(5)

=

HCmass

=

Formula (LPG engines)

(6)

=

HCmass

=

Formula (NG engines)

(7)

=

NMHCmass

=

Formula (diesel engines)

(8)

=

NMHCmass

=

Formula (LPG engines)

(9)

=

NMHCmass

=

Formula (NG engines)

(10)

=

CH4 mass

=

Formula (NG engines)

where:

conce

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air, ppm

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas (see paragraph 4.1.), kg

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (see paragraph 4.1.), kg

KH,D

=

humidity correction factor for diesel engines as determined in paragraph 4.2., based on cycle averaged intake air humidity

KH,G

=

humidity correction factor for gas engines as determined in paragraph 4.2., based on cycle averaged intake air humidity

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in paragraph 4.3.1.1.

4.4.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The emissions (g/kWh) must be calculated for the individual components, as required according to paragraphs 5.2.1. and 5.2.2. for the respective engine technology, in the following way:

Formula

=

NOx mass / Wact

(diesel and gas engines)

Formula

=

COmass / Wact

(diesel and gas engines)

Formula

=

HCmass / Wact

(diesel and gas engines)

Formula

=

NMHCmass / Wact

(diesel and gas engines)

Formula

=

CH4 mass / Wact

(NG fuelled gas engines)

where:

Wact

=

actual cycle work as determined in paragraph 3.9.2., kWh.

5.   CALCULATION OF THE PARTICULATE EMISSION (IF APPLICABLE)

5.1.   Calculation of the mass flow

The particulate mass (g/test) must be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Mf

=

particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in paragraph 4.1., kg

MSAM

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas taken from the dilution tunnel for collecting particulates, kg

and,

Mf

=

Mf,p + Mf,b, if weighed separately, mg

Mf,p

=

particulate mass collected on the primary filter, mg

Mf,b

=

particulate mass collected on the back-up filter, mg

If a double dilution system is used, the mass of the secondary dilution air must be subtracted from the total mass of the double diluted exhaust gas sampled through the particulate filters.

MSAM = MTOT – MSEC

where:

MTOT

=

mass of double diluted exhaust gas through particulate filter, kg

MSEC

=

mass of secondary dilution air, kg

If the particulate background level of the dilution air is determined in accordance with paragraph 3.4., the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this case, the particulate mass (g/test) must be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Mf, MSAM, MTOTW

=

see above

MDIL

=

mass of primary dilution air sampled by background particulate sampler, kg

Md

=

mass of the collected background particulates of the primary dilution air, mg

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in paragraph 4.3.1.1.

5.2.   Calculation of the specific emission

The particulate emission (g/kWh) must be calculated in the following way:

Formula

where:

Wact = actual cycle work as determined in paragraph 3.9.2., kWh.

ANNEX 4

Appendix 3

ETC ENGINE DYNAMOMETER SCHEDULE

Time

Norm. Speed

Norm. Torque

s

%

%

1

0

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

5

0

0

6

0

0

7

0

0

8

0

0

9

0

0

10

0

0

11

0

0

12

0

0

13

0

0

14

0

0

15

0

0

16

0,1

1,5

17

23,1

21,5

18

12,6

28,5

19

21,8

71

20

19,7

76,8

21

54,6

80,9

22

71,3

4,9

23

55,9

18,1

24

72

85,4

25

86,7

61,8

26

51,7

0

27

53,4

48,9

28

34,2

87,6

29

45,5

92,7

30

54,6

99,5

31

64,5

96,8

32

71,7

85,4

33

79,4

54,8

34

89,7

99,4

35

57,4

0

36

59,7

30,6

37

90,1

‘m’

38

82,9

‘m’

39

51,3

‘m’

40

28,5

‘m’

41

29,3

‘m’

42

26,7

‘m’

43

20,4

‘m’

44

14,1

0

45

6,5

0

46

0

0

47

0

0

48

0

0

49

0

0

50

0

0

51

0

0

52

0

0

53

0

0

54

0

0

55

0

0

56

0

0

57

0

0

58

0

0

59

0

0

60

0

0

61

0

0

62

25,5

11,1

63

28,5

20,9

64

32

73,9

65

4

82,3

66

34,5

80,4

67

64,1

86

68

58

0

69

50,3

83,4

70

66,4

99,1

71

81,4

99,6

72

88,7

73,4

73

52,5

0

74

46,4

58,5

75

48,6

90,9

76

55,2

99,4

77

62,3

99

78

68,4

91,5

79

74,5

73,7

80

38

0

81

41,8

89,6

82

47,1

99,2

83

52,5

99,8

84

56,9

80,8

85

58,3

11,8

86

56,2

‘m’

87

52

‘m’

88

43,3

‘m’

89

36,1

‘m’

90

27,6

‘m’

91

21,1

‘m’

92

8

0

93

0

0

94

0

0

95

0

0

96

0

0

97

0

0

98

0

0

99

0

0

100

0

0

101

0

0

102

0

0

103

0

0

104

0

0

105

0

0

106

0

0

107

0

0

108

11,6

14,8

109

0

0

110

27,2

74,8

111

17

76,9

112

36

78

113

59,7

86

114

80,8

17,9

115

49,7

0

116

65,6

86

117

78,6

72,2

118

64,9

‘m’

119

44,3

‘m’

120

51,4

83,4

121

58,1

97

122

69,3

99,3

123

72

20,8

124

72,1

‘m’

125

65,3

‘m’

126

64

‘m’

127

59,7

‘m’

128

52,8

‘m’

129

45,9

‘m’

130

38,7

‘m’

131

32,4

‘m’

132

27

‘m’

133

21,7

‘m’

134

19,1

0,4

135

34,7

14

136

16,4

48,6

137

0

11,2

138

1,2

2,1

139

30,1

19,3

140

30

73,9

141

54,4

74,4

142

77,2

55,6

143

58,1

0

144

45

82,1

145

68,7

98,1

146

85,7

67,2

147

60,2

0

148

59,4

98

149

72,7

99,6

150

79,9

45

151

44,3

0

152

41,5

84,4

153

56,2

98,2

154

65,7

99,1

155

74,4

84,7

156

54,4

0

157

47,9

89,7

158

54,5

99,5

159

62,7

96,8

160

62,3

0

161

46,2

54,2

162

44,3

83,2

163

48,2

13,3

164

51

‘m’

165

50

‘m’

166

49,2

‘m’

167

49,3

‘m’

168

49,9

‘m’

169

51,6

‘m’

170

49,7

‘m’

171

48,5

‘m’

172

50,3

72,5

173

51,1

84,5

174

54,6

64,8

175

56,6

76,5

176

58

‘m’

177

53,6

‘m’

178

40,8

‘m’

179

32,9

‘m’

180

26,3

‘m’

181

20,9

‘m’

182

10

0

183

0

0

184

0

0

185

0

0

186

0

0

187

0

0

188

0

0

189

0

0

190

0

0

191

0

0

192

0

0

193

0

0

194

0

0

195

0

0

196

0

0

197

0

0

198

0

0

199

0

0

200

0

0

201

0

0

202

0

0

203

0

0

204

0

0

205

0

0

206

0

0

207

0

0

208

0

0

209

0

0

210

0

0

211

0

0

212

0

0

213

0

0

214

0

0

215

0

0

216

0

0

217

0

0

218

0

0

219

0

0

220

0

0

221

0

0

222

0

0

223

0

0

224

0

0

225

21,2

62,7

226

30,8

75,1

227

5,9

82,7

228

34,6

80,3

229

59,9

87

230

84,3

86,2

231

68,7

‘m’

232

43,6

‘m’

233

41,5

85,4

234

49,9

94,3

235

60,8

99

236

70,2

99,4

237

81,1

92,4

238

49,2

0

239

56

86,2

240

56,2

99,3

241

61,7

99

242

69,2

99,3

243

74,1

99,8

244

72,4

8,4

245

71,3

0

246

71,2

9,1

247

67,1

‘m’

248

65,5

‘m’

249

64,4

‘m’

250

62,9

25,6

251

62,2

35,6

252

62,9

24,4

253

58,8

‘m’

254

56,9

‘m’

255

54,5

‘m’

256

51,7

17

257

56,2

78,7

258

59,5

94,7

259

65,5

99,1

260

71,2

99,5

261

76,6

99,9

262

79

0

263

52,9

97,5

264

53,1

99,7

265

59

99,1

266

62,2

99

267

65

99,1

268

69

83,1

269

69,9

28,4

270

70,6

12,5

271

68,9

8,4

272

69,8

9,1

273

69,6

7

274

65,7

‘m’

275

67,1

‘m’

276

66,7

‘m’

277

65,6

‘m’

278

64,5

‘m’

279

62,9

‘m’

280

59,3

‘m’

281

54,1

‘m’

282

51,3

‘m’

283

47,9

‘m’

284

43,6

‘m’

285

39,4

‘m’

286

34,7

‘m’

287

29,8

‘m’

288

20,9

73,4

289

36,9

‘m’

290

35,5

‘m’

291

20,9

‘m’

292

49,7

11,9

293

42,5

‘m’

294

32

‘m’

295

23,6

‘m’

296

19,1

0

297

15,7

73,5

298

25,1

76,8

299

34,5

81,4

300

44,1

87,4

301

52,8

98,6

302

63,6

99

303

73,6

99,7

304

62,2

‘m’

305

29,2

‘m’

306

46,4

22

307

47,3

13,8

308

47,2

12,5

309

47,9

11,5

310

47,8

35,5

311

49,2

83,3

312

52,7

96,4

313

57,4

99,2

314

61,8

99

315

66,4

60,9

316

65,8

‘m’

317

59

‘m’

318

50,7

‘m’

319

41,8

‘m’

320

34,7

‘m’

321

28,7

‘m’

322

25,2

‘m’

323

43

24,8

324

38,7

0

325

48,1

31,9

326

40,3

61

327

42,4

52,1

328

46,4

47,7

329

46,9

30,7

330

46,1

23,1

331

45,7

23,2

332

45,5

31,9

333

46,4

73,6

334

51,3

60,7

335

51,3

51,1

336

53,2

46,8

337

53,9

50

338

53,4

52,1

339

53,8

45,7

340

50,6

22,1

341

47,8

26

342

41,6

17,8

343

38,7

29,8

344

35,9

71,6

345

34,6

47,3

346

34,8

80,3

347

35,9

87,2

348

38,8

90,8

349

41,5

94,7

350

47,1

99,2

351

53,1

99,7

352

46,4

0

353

42,5

0,7

354

43,6

58,6

355

47,1

87,5

356

54,1

99,5

357

62,9

99

358

72,6

99,6

359

82,4

99,5

360

88

99,4

361

46,4

0

362

53,4

95,2

363

58,4

99,2

364

61,5

99

365

64,8

99

366

68,1

99,2

367

73,4

99,7

368

73,3

29,8

369

73,5

14,6

370

68,3

0

371

45,4

49,9

372

47,2

75,7

373

44,5

9

374

47,8

10,3

375

46,8

15,9

376

46,9

12,7

377

46,8

8,9

378

46,1

6,2

379

46,1

‘m’

380

45,5

‘m’

381

44,7

‘m’

382

43,8

‘m’

383

41

‘m’

384

41,1

6,4

385

38

6,3

386

35,9

0,3

387

33,5

0

388

53,1

48,9

389

48,3

‘m’

390

49,9

‘m’

391

48

‘m’

392

45,3

‘m’

393

41,6

3,1

394

44,3

79

395

44,3

89,5

396

43,4

98,8

397

44,3

98,9

398

43

98,8

399

42,2

98,8

400

42,7

98,8

401

45

99

402

43,6

98,9

403

42,2

98,8

404

44,8

99

405

43,4

98,8

406

45

99

407

42,2

54,3

408

61,2

31,9

409

56,3

72,3

410

59,7

99,1

411

62,3

99

412

67,9

99,2

413

69,5

99,3

414

73,1

99,7

415

77,7

99,8

416

79,7

99,7

417

82,5

99,5

418

85,3

99,4

419

86,6

99,4

420

89,4

99,4

421

62,2

0

422

52,7

96,4

423

50,2

99,8

424

49,3

99,6

425

52,2

99,8

426

51,3

100

427

51,3

100

428

51,1

100

429

51,1

100

430

51,8

99,9

431

51,3

100

432

51,1

100

433

51,3

100

434

52,3

99,8

435

52,9

99,7

436

53,8

99,6

437

51,7

99,9

438

53,5

99,6

439

52

99,8

440

51,7

99,9

441

53,2

99,7

442

54,2

99,5

443

55,2

99,4

444

53,8

99,6

445

53,1

99,7

446

55

99,4

447

57

99,2

448

61,5

99

449

59,4

5,7

450

59

0

451

57,3

59,8

452

64,1

99

453

70,9

90,5

454

58

0

455

41,5

59,8

456

44,1

92,6

457

46,8

99,2

458

47,2

99,3

459

51

100

460

53,2

99,7

461

53,1

99,7

462

55,9

53,1

463

53,9

13,9

464

52,5

‘m’

465

51,7

‘m’

466

51,5

52,2

467

52,8

80

468

54,9

95

469

57,3

99,2

470

60,7

99,1

471

62,4

‘m’

472

60,1

‘m’

473

53,2

‘m’

474

44

‘m’

475

35,2

‘m’

476

30,5

‘m’

477

26,5

‘m’

478

22,5

‘m’

479

20,4

‘m’

480

19,1

‘m’

481

19,1

‘m’

482

13,4

‘m’

483

6,7

‘m’

484

3,2

‘m’

485

14,3

63,8

486

34,1

0

487

23,9

75,7

488

31,7

79,2

489

32,1

19,4

490

35,9

5,8

491

36,6

0,8

492

38,7

‘m’

493

38,4

‘m’

494

39,4

‘m’

495

39,7

‘m’

496

40,5

‘m’

497

40,8

‘m’

498

39,7

‘m’

499

39,2

‘m’

500

38,7

‘m’

501

32,7

‘m’

502

30,1

‘m’

503

21,9

‘m’

504

12,8

0

505

0

0

506

0

0

507

0

0

508

0

0

509

0

0

510

0

0

511

0

0

512

0

0

513

0

0

514

30,5

25,6

515

19,7

56,9

516

16,3

45,1

517

27,2

4,6

518

21,7

1,3

519

29,7

28,6

520

36,6

73,7

521

61,3

59,5

522

40,8

0

523

36,6

27,8

524

39,4

80,4

525

51,3

88,9

526

58,5

11,1

527

60,7

‘m’

528

54,5

‘m’

529

51,3

‘m’

530

45,5

‘m’

531

40,8

‘m’

532

38,9

‘m’

533

36,6

‘m’

534

36,1

72,7

535

44,8

78,9

536

51,6

91,1

537

59,1

99,1

538

66

99,1

539

75,1

99,9

540

81

8

541

39,1

0

542

53,8

89,7

543

59,7

99,1

544

64,8

99

545

70,6

96,1

546

72,6

19,6

547

72

6,3

548

68,9

0,1

549

67,7

‘m’

550

66,8

‘m’

551

64,3

16,9

552

64,9

7

553

63,6

12,5

554

63

7,7

555

64,4

38,2

556

63

11,8

557

63,6

0

558

63,3

5

559

60,1

9,1

560

61

8,4

561

59,7

0,9

562

58,7

‘m’

563

56

‘m’

564

53,9

‘m’

565

52,1

‘m’

566

49,9

‘m’

567

46,4

‘m’

568

43,6

‘m’

569

40,8

‘m’

570

37,5

‘m’

571

27,8

‘m’

572

17,1

0,6

573

12,2

0,9

574

11,5

1,1

575

8,7

0,5

576

8

0,9

577

5,3

0,2

578

4

0

579

3,9

0

580

0

0

581

0

0

582

0

0

583

0

0

584

0

0

585

0

0

586

0

0

587

8,7

22,8

588

16,2

49,4

589

23,6

56

590

21,1

56,1

591

23,6

56

592

46,2

68,8

593

68,4

61,2

594

58,7

‘m’

595

31,6

‘m’

596

19,9

8,8

597

32,9

70,2

598

43

79

599

57,4

98,9

600

72,1

73,8

601

53

0

602

48,1

86

603

56,2

99

604

65,4

98,9

605

72,9

99,7

606

67,5

‘m’

607

39

‘m’

608

41,9

38,1

609

44,1

80,4

610

46,8

99,4

611

48,7

99,9

612

50,5

99,7

613

52,5

90,3

614

51

1,8

615

50

‘m’

616

49,1

‘m’

617

47

‘m’

618

43,1

‘m’

619

39,2

‘m’

620

40,6

0,5

621

41,8

53,4

622

44,4

65,1

623

48,1

67,8

624

53,8

99,2

625

58,6

98,9

626

63,6

98,8

627

68,5

99,2

628

72,2

89,4

629

77,1

0

630

57,8

79,1

631

60,3

98,8

632

61,9

98,8

633

63,8

98,8

634

64,7

98,9

635

65,4

46,5

636

65,7

44,5

637

65,6

3,5

638

49,1

0

639

50,4

73,1

640

50,5

‘m’

641

51

‘m’

642

49,4

‘m’

643

49,2

‘m’

644

48,6

‘m’

645

47,5

‘m’

646

46,5

‘m’

647

46

11,3

648

45,6

42,8

649

47,1

83

650

46,2

99,3

651

47,9

99,7

652

49,5

99,9

653

50,6

99,7

654

51

99,6

655

53

99,3

656

54,9

99,1

657

55,7

99

658

56

99

659

56,1

9,3

660

55,6

‘m’

661

55,4

‘m’

662

54,9

51,3

663

54,9

59,8

664

54

39,3

665

53,8

‘m’

666

52

‘m’

667

50,4

‘m’

668

50,6

0

669

49,3

41,7

670

50

73,2

671

50,4

99,7

672

51,9

99,5

673

53,6

99,3

674

54,6

99,1

675

56

99

676

55,8

99

677

58,4

98,9

678

59,9

98,8

679

60,9

98,8

680

63

98,8

681

64,3

98,9

682

64,8

64

683

65,9

46,5

684

66,2

28,7

685

65,2

1,8

686

65

6,8

687

63,6

53,6

688

62,4

82,5

689

61,8

98,8

690

59,8

98,8

691

59,2

98,8

692

59,7

98,8

693

61,2

98,8

694

62,2

49,4

695

62,8

37,2

696

63,5

46,3

697

64,7

72,3

698

64,7

72,3

699

65,4

77,4

700

66,1

69,3

701

64,3

‘m’

702

64,3

‘m’

703

63

‘m’

704

62,2

‘m’

705

61,6

‘m’

706

62,4

‘m’

707

62,2

‘m’

708

61

‘m’

709

58,7

‘m’

710

55,5

‘m’

711

51,7

‘m’

712

49,2

‘m’

713

48,8

40,4

714

47,9

‘m’

715

46,2

‘m’

716

45,6

9,8

717

45,6

34,5

718

45,5

37,1

719

43,8

‘m’

720

41,9

‘m’

721

41,3

‘m’

722

41,4

‘m’

723

41,2

‘m’

724

41,8

‘m’

725

41,8

‘m’

726

43,2

17,4

727

45

29

728

44,2

‘m’

729

43,9

‘m’

730

38

10,7

731

56,8

‘m’

732

57,1

‘m’

733

52

‘m’

734

44,4

‘m’

735

40,2

‘m’

736

39,2

16,5

737

38,9

73,2

738

39,9

89,8

739

42,3

98,6

740

43,7

98,8

741

45,5

99,1

742

45,6

99,2

743

48,1

99,7

744

49

100

745

49,8

99,9

746

49,8

99,9

747

51,9

99,5

748

52,3

99,4

749

53,3

99,3

750

52,9

99,3

751

54,3

99,2

752

55,5

99,1

753

56,7

99

754

61,7

98,8

755

64,3

47,4

756

64,7

1,8

757

66,2

‘m’

758

49,1

‘m’

759

52,1

46

760

52,6

61

761

52,9

0

762

52,3

20,4

763

54,2

56,7

764

55,4

59,8

765

56,1

49,2

766

56,8

33,7

767

57,2

96

768

58,6

98,9

769

59,5

98,8

770

61,2

98,8

771

62,1

98,8

772

62,7

98,8

773

62,8

98,8

774

64

98,9

775

63,2

46,3

776

62,4

‘m’

777

60,3

‘m’

778

58,7

‘m’

779

57,2

‘m’

780

56,1

‘m’

781

56

9,3

782

55,2

26,3

783

54,8

42,8

784

55,7

47,1

785

56,6

52,4

786

58

50,3

787

58,6

20,6

788

58,7

‘m’

789

59,3

‘m’

790

58,6

‘m’

791

60,5

9,7

792

59,2

9,6

793

59,9

9,6

794

59,6

9,6

795

59,9

6,2

796

59,9

9,6

797

60,5

13,1

798

60,3

20,7

799

59,9

31

800

60,5

42

801

61,5

52,5

802

60,9

51,4

803

61,2

57,7

804

62,8

98,8

805

63,4

96,1

806

64,6

45,4

807

64,1

5

808

63

3,2

809

62,7

14,9

810

63,5

35,8

811

64,1

73,3

812

64,3

37,4

813

64,1

21

814

63,7

21

815

62,9

18

816

62,4

32,7

817

61,7

46,2

818

59,8

45,1

819

57,4

43,9

820

54,8

42,8

821

54,3

65,2

822

52,9

62,1

823

52,4

30,6

824

50,4

‘m’

825

48,6

‘m’

826

47,9

‘m’

827

46,8

‘m’

828

46,9

9,4

829

49,5

41,7

830

50,5

37,8

831

52,3

20,4

832

54,1

30,7

833

56,3

41,8

834

58,7

26,5

835

57,3

‘m’

836

59

‘m’

837

59,8

‘m’

838

60,3

‘m’

839

61,2

‘m’

840

61,8

‘m’

841

62,5

‘m’

842

62,4

‘m’

843

61,5

‘m’

844

63,7

‘m’

845

61,9

‘m’

846

61,6

29,7

847

60,3

‘m’

848

59,2

‘m’

849

57,3

‘m’

850

52,3

‘m’

851

49,3

‘m’

852

47,3

‘m’

853

46,3

38,8

854

46,8

35,1

855

46,6

‘m’

856

44,3

‘m’

857

43,1

‘m’

858

42,4

2,1

859

41,8

2,4

860

43,8

68,8

861

44,6

89,2

862

46

99,2

863

46,9

99,4

864

47,9

99,7

865

50,2

99,8

866