Motor vehicles with trailers: polluting emissions

This Directive establishes limit values for emissions from petrol and diesel engine passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. It will be repealed in 2013 by the Regulation establishing the Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards.

ACT

Council Directive 70/220/EEC of 20 March 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States on measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles. [See amending acts].

SUMMARY

This Directive and its subsequent amending directives cover motor vehicles with positive-ignition or compression-ignition engines:

These Directives apply to tailpipe emissions, evaporative emissions, emissions of crankcase gases and the durability of anti-pollution devices for all motor vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines. They also apply to the tailpipe emissions from and the durability of the anti-pollution devices of category M1 and N1 vehicles equipped with compression-ignition engines, with the exception of certain category N1 vehicles for which type-approval has been granted pursuant to Directive 88/77/EEC.

The Directives lay down different limit values for emissions from petrol and diesel cars:

The most stringent values, laid down by Directive 98/69/EC, will apply from 2000 and 2005, according to the type of vehicle.

The new types of category M1 and N1 vehicles had to be fitted at the latest by 1 January 2005 (light diesel-engined commercial vehicles), 2000 (petrol-engined passenger cars) or 2003 (other types of vehicle) with an on-board diagnostic system (OBD) allowing emission levels to be checked and any malfunction in a vehicle's anti-pollution equipment to be detected.

Tax incentives granted by Member States to encourage advance compliance with new limit values are permitted on condition that they:

Procedure for the type-approval of vehicles:

- average tailpipe emissions after a cold start;

- carbon monoxide emissions at idling speed;

- emissions of crankcase gases;

- evaporative emissions;

- durability of anti-pollution devices;

- carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions after a cold start;

Up to 28 September 1999, the full European test cycle provided for by Directive 91/441/EEC was used as the testing procedure in order to establish compliance with the limit values. Since that date, the test procedure introduced by Directive 98/69/EC has applied.

The clause concerning manufacturers whose worldwide annual production is less than 10 000 units allows them to obtain EC approval on the basis of the US emission standards or of the "master document" prepared by the international meeting in Stockholm on air pollution from motor vehicles, as an alternative to the European standards laid down by the Directives.

Subsequent improvement of the limit values

Prior to 31 December 1999, the Commission undertook to submit a new proposal to Parliament and the Council that was aimed at adding measures to the existing Directives to apply from 1 January 2005. Those proposals covered the following aspects:

When drawing up these proposals, the Commission had to take account of several factors: the contribution to air quality made by the Directives, an examination of technical feasibility and the cost-effectiveness ratio, the availability of advanced technologies and compatibility with other objectives.

The Commission also produced reports on the development of on-board diagnostic systems and on their extension to other safety-related electronic monitoring systems.

Directive 98/69/EC provides, where appropriate, for the drafting of standards concerning the type-approval of vehicles using alternative propulsion systems or alternative fuels.

Directive 2001/1/EC lays down the dates from which it is compulsory to install on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in private and light commercial vehicles with positive-ignition engines running partly or wholly on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas (NG).

Directive 2001/100/EC sets the low-temperature emission limit values for certain light commercial vehicles and small vans (Euro 4 standard), and in particular:

The Euro 5 and Euro 6 Regulation adopted in 2007 sets stricter limits for pollutant emissions from light on-road vehicles, particularly with regard to emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. It repeals Directive 70/220/EEC with effect from 2 January 2013.

References

Act

Entry into force - Date of expiry

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Directive 70/220/EEC

2.1.2013

1.7.1973

OJ L 76 of 6.4.1970

Amending act(s)

Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Directive 74/290/EEC

4.6.1974

30.9.1974

OJ L 159 of 15.6.1974

Directive 77/102/EEC

2.12.1976

31.12.1976

OJ L 32 of 3.2.1977

Directive 78/665/EEC

14.7.1978

31.12.1978

OJ L 223 of 14.8.1978

Directive 83/351/EEC

23.6.1983

31.11.1983

OJ L 197 of 20.7.1983

Directive 88/76/EEC

16.12.1987

30.6.1988

OJ L 36 of 9.2.1988

Directive 88/436/EEC

28.6.1988

1.10.1988

OJ L 214 of 6.8.1988

Directive 89/458/EEC

24.7.1989

31.12.1989

OJ L 226 of 3.8.1989

Directive 89/491/EEC

25.7.1989

1.1.1990

OJ L 238 of 15.8.1989

Directive 91/441/EEC

25.7.1991

31.12.1991

OJ L 242 of 30.8.1991

Directive 93/59/EEC

8.7.1993

30.9.1993

OJ L 186 of 28.7.1993

Directive 94/12/EC

9.5.1994

30.6.1994

OJ L 100 of 19.4.1994

Directive 96/44/EC

9.9.1996

31.12.1996

OJ L 210 of 20.8.1996

Directive 96/69/EC

21.11.1996

31.3.1997

OJ L 282 of 1.11.1996

Directive 98/69/EC

28.12.1998

28.9.1999

OJ L 350 of 28.12.1998

Directive 98/77/EC

12.11.1998

30.12.1998

OJ L 286 of 23.10.1998

Directive 99/102/EC

31.12.1999

31.12.1999

OJ L 334 of 28.12.1999

Directive 2001/1/EC

6.2.2001

6.2.2002

OJ L 35 of 6.2.2001

Directive 2001/100/EC

21.1.2002

20.10.2002

OJ L 16 of 18.1.2002

Directive 2002/80/EC

31.10.2002

30.5.2003

OJ L 291 of 28.10.2002

Directive 2003/76/EC

4.9.2003

3.9.2004

OJ L 206 of 15.8.2003

Directive 2006/96/EC

1.1.2007

1.1.2007

OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006

RELATED ACTS

Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6 ) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information [Official Journal L 171, 29.6.2007]. This Regulation tightens pollutant emission limits applicable to light on-road vehicles, especially with regard to particulates and nitrogen oxides (Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards). It also includes measures relating to access to information on vehicles and their components, the possibility of tax incentives, and the type approval and guarantee of the vehicles concerned. With effect from 2 January 2013, this Regulation repeals Directive 70/220/EC.

Commission Communication of 5 October 2000: A Review of the Auto-Oil II Programme [COM(2000) 626 final - not published in the Official Journal]. The Communication reviews the approach taken in the Auto-Oil II programme and reports on the key results. It also reports on the progress of certain related legislative proposals and makes suggestions for the future.

A programme estimate regarding emissions from road transport suggests that emissions of the traditionally regulated pollutants will fall to less than 20% of their 1995 levels by 2020, whereas CO2 emissions will continue to rise until at least 2005. The share of overall CO2 emissions attributable to road transport will have fallen substantially between 1990 and 2010 and the relative importance of other sectors will have risen correspondingly. The Auto-Oil II programme provides for a large improvement in urban air quality by 2010. The most important remaining challenges concern particulates, regional tropospheric ozone levels and localised instances of non-compliance with nitrogen dioxide targets. An assessment of policy options has led to the identification of cost-effective options for reducing emissions from 2-wheeled and 3-wheeled vehicles. Non-technical measures have demonstrated their potential for reducing emissions and cutting costs in cities. Fiscal measures have also been shown to provide a win-win solution for both the environment and the economy. The programme has shown that, in order to come up with a set of cost-effective measures, an integrated approach is required which encompasses emission sources, pollutants and measures.

Last updated: 13.03.2008