Deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure



Regulation (EU) 2023/1804 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure


The regulation sets mandatory national targets for European Union (EU) Member States to deploy publicly accessible alternative fuels infrastructure (in particular for electricity and hydrogen) for road vehicles, vessels moored at the quayside and stationary aircraft, with a specific focus on the trans-European networks. The regulation also includes:


Recharging infrastructure for electric cars and vans

Member States must ensure that publicly accessible recharging stations are set up in proportion to the number of registered vehicles, as follows:

Member States must also ensure the deployment of publicly accessible recharging stations along the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) road network.

Recharging infrastructure for electric heavy-duty vehicles

Member States must ensure a minimum coverage of recharging points for heavy-duty electric vehicles.

Hydrogen infrastructure for road vehicles

By 31 December 2030, Member States must ensure that publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling stations with a total capacity of at least 1 tonne per day are deployed at least every 200 km along the TEN-T core network. At least one refuelling station must be deployed in each urban node.

Liquefied methane for road transport

Until 31 December 2024, Member States must ensure that an appropriate number of publicly accessible refuelling points for liquefied methane are set up, at least along the TEN-T core network, where there is demand, unless the costs are disproportionate to the benefits, including environmental benefits.

Electricity supply in maritime ports

By 31 December 2029, there must be sufficient shoreside electricity for ships moored at the quayside at TEN-T core and TEN-T comprehensive maritime ports to serve at least 90% of all container and passenger vessels above 5,000 gross tonnage.

Electricity for stationary aircraft

By 31 December 2024, all airports of the TEN-T core and comprehensive network must provide electricity to stationary aircraft used for commercial air transport operations at aircraft contact stands, and by 31 December 2029 at all remote stands.

Railway infrastructure

Member States must assess the development of alternative fuel technologies and propulsion systems (including hydrogen and battery power) for rail infrastructure that cannot be fully electrified for technical or cost-efficiency reasons.


Users of electric and hydrogen vehicles must be able to pay easily at recharging and hydrogen refuelling points (with payment cards and without subscriptions). Prices, including all of their components and specific to the recharging session, must be communicated clearly to end users before the start of a recharging session.


The regulation came into force on 12 October 2023 and will be applicable as from 13 April 2024. A range of targets to be met by Member States will be phased in by 2035.


The alternative fuels infrastructure regulation is part of the fit-for-55 package presented by the European Commission in July 2021, aiming to reduce the EU’s net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels and to be climate neutral by 2050.

The regulation repeals Directive 2014/94/EU (see summary).

For further information, see:


Recharging pool. One or more recharging stations at a specific location.
TEN-T core network. A subset of the TEN-T comprehensive network comprising the most important connections linking major cities and urban nodes, which must be completed by 2030 and meet the highest infrastructure quality standards.
TEN-T comprehensive network. A Europe-wide transport infrastructure network comprising railways, inland waterways, short sea shipping routes and roads linking urban nodes, maritime and inland ports, airports and terminals, used as a basis for identifying projects of common interest.
Urban node. An urban area where the transport infrastructure of the trans-European transport network, such as ports including passenger terminals, airports, railway stations, logistic platforms and freight terminals located in and around an urban area, is connected with other parts of that infrastructure and with the infrastructure for regional and local traffic.


Regulation (EU) 2023/1804 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 September 2023 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, and repealing Directive 2014/94/EU (OJ L 234, 22.9.2023, pp. 1–47).


Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 2021 establishing the framework for achieving climate neutrality and amending Regulations (EC) No 401/2009 and (EU) 2018/1999 (‘European Climate Law’) (OJ L 243, 9.7.2021, pp. 1–17).

Regulation (EU) 2019/631 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new light commercial vehicles, and repealing Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 and (EU) No 510/2011 (recast) (OJ L 111, 25.4.2019, pp. 13–53).

Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) 2019/631 have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.

Regulation (EU) 2019/1242 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles and amending Regulations (EC) No 595/2009 and (EU) 2018/956 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Directive 96/53/EC (OJ L 198, 25.7.2019, pp. 202–240).

See consolidated version.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – The European Green Deal (COM(2019) 640 final, 11.12.2019).

Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (recast) (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, pp. 82–209).

See consolidated version.

last update 01.02.2024