Official Journal of the European Union

C 364/3

New national sides of euro circulation coins

(2022/C 364/03)

Euro circulation coins have legal tender status throughout the euro area. The Commission publishes all new euro coin designs (1) with a view to informing all parties required to handle coins in the course of their work as well as the public at large.

On 12 July 2022 the Council of the European Union decided that the Republic of Croatia fulfils the necessary conditions for the adoption of the euro on 1 January 2023 (2).

From 1 January 2023 the Republic of Croatia will therefore issue euro coins, subject to the approval by the ECB of the volume of the issue (cf. Article 128(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union).

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1 Euro Cent

2 Euro Cent

5 Euro Cent

10 Euro Cent

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20 Euro Cent

50 Euro Cent

1 Euro

2 Euro

Issuing country: Republic of Croatia

Date of issue:1 January 2023

Description of the designs

1, 2 and 5 cent: Glagolitic script with the Croatian checkerboard in the background

The central part of the coin depicts letters ‘HR’ written in the angular Glagolitic script in the form of ligature, with HR being the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for Croatia. The Glagolitic script is the oldest Slavic script, and is, alongside the Cyrillic script, one of the two Slavic scripts. Although modelled after the Greek alphabet, the Glagolitic alphabet is an original script, probably created by Constantine the Philosopher (Saint Cyril) for the purpose of promoting Christianity among Slavic peoples. The Croats started to use the Glagolitic script in the second half of the 9th century and by the end of the 12th century they were the only people using and further developing the script. Only 28 years after the Gutenberg Bible, ‘Misal po zakonu rimskoga dvora’ (Missale Romanum Glagolitice) – the first book printed in the Croatian Old Church Slavic language, written in the Croatian (angular) Glagolitic script, was printed in Croatia in 1483. It was the first incunabulum in Europe not printed in the Latin script and language. The Glagolitic script was used in Croatia up to the first half of the 19th century, becoming an important element of Croatian identity. To the right and below the ligature ‘HR’ is the Croatian checkerboard, the part of the coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia. The top central part features the year of issuance and the bottom central part features the inscription of the issuing country. The coin's outer ring depicts the 12 stars of the European flag.

10, 20 and 50 cent: Nikola Tesla with the Croatian checkerboard in the background

The central part of the coin features a portrait of Nikola Tesla surrounded by magnetic field lines. The lines extend from the portrait to the circle of 12 stars, symbolising Nikola Tesla’s connection to EU Member States where he spent a part of his life. Nikola Tesla, Croatian, European and American inventor of Serbian origin, was born in Croatia in the village of Smiljan on 10 July 1856. He attended school in Croatia in Smiljan, Gospić and Karlovac, where he graduated. His patents and his theoretical work set the stage for global electrification, while his work in the field of high-frequency electric currents and wireless transmission of electromagnetic waves paved the way for the development of radio technology and telecommunications. One of his most famous inventions, the Tesla transformer (Tesla coil), invented in 1891, was used to produce high voltage, high-frequency alternating current electricity. The term ‘tesla’ was adopted as a unit of magnetic induction at the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960. To the left of the portrait and magnetic field lines is the Croatian checkerboard, the part of the coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia. Between magnetic field lines, at the top to the left is the inscription of the issuing country while the year of issuance appears at the bottom to the right.

1 euro: Marten with the Croatian checkerboard in the background

The national side of the 1-euro coin depicts a marten with the Croatian checkerboard in the background. The central part of the coin's national side features an image of a marten. This fast and dexterous animal with precious dark brown fur and a yellow patch on the neck and chest is a symbol of the Croatian monetary history. In the Middle Ages, marten pelts were used for payment in kind for taxes (kunovina or marturina) in Slavonia, the Croatian Littoral and Dalmatia. They went on to become a unit of account and then to function as money in the modern sense of the word. In addition, the image of a marten was displayed on the coin called

banovac, as the first motif shown on a Croatian currency, from the first half of the 13th century to the late 14th century, hence its important role in the Croatian monetary and fiscal history. Displayed behind the marten is the Croatian checkerboard, a part of the coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia. The inscription of the issuing country 'HRVATSKA' is at the top left and the year of issuance '2023.' is inscribed at the bottom right.

2 euro: Geographical map of the Republic of Croatia with the Croatian checkerboard in the background

The central part of the coin features a symbolic and stylized geographical representation of the Republic of Croatia. Croatia's distinctive and recognisable geographical shape reflects both its geographical features and its historical circumstances. Croatia geographically stretches from the vast Pannonian Plain, over the Dinaric range to the Adriatic Coast, one of the most indented coastlines in the world, and a multitude of islands. One half of the Croatian territory is in the Pannonian region, one third in the coastal Adriatic region and the remaining part is in the mountainous Dinaric region. To achieve harmony of the coin design, featuring behind the geographical map is strict regularity of the Croatian checkerboard, the part of the coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia, which is in contrast to the very ‘organic’ borders, with the year of issuance integrated in the central part to the right. At the bottom to the left, positioned in the same line as the image of the geographical map, is the inscription of the issuing country. The edge lettering of the coin features the most beautiful verses from the Hymn to Freedom ‘O lijepa, o draga, o slatka slobodo’ (‘Oh beautiful, oh dear, oh sweet freedom’), which is an integral part of the pastoral play ‘Dubravka’ by the 17th century writer Ivan Gundulić.

(1)  See OJ C 373, 28.12.2001, p. 1, OJ C 254, 20.10.2006, p. 6 and OJ C 248, 23.10.2007, p. 8 for a reference to the other euro coins.

(2)  Council Decision of 12 July 2022 on the adoption by Croatia of the euro on 1 January 2023 (OJ L 187, 14.7.2022, p. 31).