02013D0255 — EN — 06.11.2020 — 033.001


This text is meant purely as a documentation tool and has no legal effect. The Union's institutions do not assume any liability for its contents. The authentic versions of the relevant acts, including their preambles, are those published in the Official Journal of the European Union and available in EUR-Lex. Those official texts are directly accessible through the links embedded in this document

►B

COUNCIL DECISION 2013/255/CFSP

of 31 May 2013

concerning restrictive measures against Syria

(OJ L 147 1.6.2013, p. 14)

Amended by:

 

 

Official Journal

  No

page

date

►M1

COUNCIL DECISION 2013/760/CFSP of 13 December 2013

  L 335

50

14.12.2013

 M2

COUNCIL DECISION 2014/74/CFSP of 10 February 2014

  L 40

63

11.2.2014

►M3

COUNCIL DECISION 2014/309/CFSP of 28 May 2014

  L 160

37

29.5.2014

 M4

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION 2014/387/CFSP of 23 June 2014

  L 183

72

24.6.2014

 M5

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION 2014/488/CFSP of 22 July 2014

  L 217

49

23.7.2014

 M6

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION 2014/678/CFSP of 26 September 2014

  L 283

59

27.9.2014

►M7

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION 2014/730/CFSP of 20 October 2014

  L 301

36

21.10.2014

►M8

COUNCIL DECISION 2014/901/CFSP of 12 December 2014

  L 358

28

13.12.2014

 M9

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2015/117 of 26 January 2015

  L 20

85

27.1.2015

 M10

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2015/383 of 6 March 2015

  L 64

41

7.3.2015

 M11

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2015/784 of 19 May 2015

  L 124

13

20.5.2015

►M12

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2015/837 of 28 May 2015

  L 132

82

29.5.2015

 M13

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2015/973 of 22 June 2015

  L 157

52

23.6.2015

►M14

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2015/1836 of 12 October 2015

  L 266

75

13.10.2015

►M15

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2015/2359 of 16 December 2015

  L 331

26

17.12.2015

 M16

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2016/850 of 27 May 2016

  L 141

125

28.5.2016

►M17

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2016/1746 of 29 September 2016

  L 264

30

30.9.2016

 M18

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2016/1897 of 27 October 2016

  L 293

36

28.10.2016

 M19

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2016/1985 of 14 November 2016

  L 305I

4

14.11.2016

►M20

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2016/2000 of 15 November 2016

  L 308

20

16.11.2016

►M21

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2016/2144 of 6 December 2016

  L 332

22

7.12.2016

 M22

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2017/485 of 20 March 2017

  L 75

24

21.3.2017

 M23

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2017/917 of 29 May 2017

  L 139

62

30.5.2017

►M24

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2017/1245 of 10 July 2017

  L 178

13

11.7.2017

 M25

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2017/1341 of 17 July 2017

  L 185

56

18.7.2017

 M26

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2017/1754 of 25 September 2017

  L 246

7

26.9.2017

 M27

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2018/284 of 26 February 2018

  L 54I

8

26.2.2018

 M28

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2018/421 of 19 March 2018

  L 75I

3

19.3.2018

►M29

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2018/778 of 28 May 2018

  L 131

16

29.5.2018

 M30

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2019/87 of 21 January 2019

  L 18I

13

21.1.2019

 M31

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2019/351 of 4 March 2019

  L 63I

4

4.3.2019

►M32

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2019/806 of 17 May 2019

  L 132

36

20.5.2019

 M33

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2020/212 of 17 February 2020

  L 43I

6

17.2.2020

►M34

COUNCIL DECISION (CFSP) 2020/719 of 28 May 2020

  L 168

66

29.5.2020

►M35

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2020/1506 of 16 October 2020

  L 342I

6

16.10.2020

►M36

COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING DECISION (CFSP) 2020/1651 of 6 November 2020

  L 370I

15

6.11.2020


Corrected by:

 C1

Corrigendum, OJ L 305, 24.10.2014, p.  116 (2014/730/CFSP)

 C2

Corrigendum, OJ L 050, 21.2.2015, p.  48 (2014/488/CFSP)

►C3

Corrigendum, OJ L 336, 10.12.2016, p.  42 (2015/1836)

 C4

Corrigendum, OJ L 146, 9.6.2017, p.  159 (2017/917)

 C5

Corrigendum, OJ L 167, 4.7.2018, p.  36 (2018/778)

►C6

Corrigendum, OJ L 190, 27.7.2018, p.  20 (2013/255/CFSP)

 C7

Corrigendum, OJ L 234, 11.9.2019, p.  31 (2019/806)


The presentation of this consolidated text takes into account judgments of the EU Courts concerning entries in the list of designated persons and entities.




▼B

COUNCIL DECISION 2013/255/CFSP

of 31 May 2013

concerning restrictive measures against Syria



CHAPTER I

EXPORT AND IMPORT RESTRICTIONS

Article 1

1.  
The sale, supply, transfer or export of certain equipment, goods and technology which might be used for internal repression or for the manufacture and maintenance of products which could be used for internal repression, to Syria by nationals of Member States or from the territories of Member States or using their flag vessels or aircraft, shall be prohibited, whether originating or not in their territories.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this paragraph.

2.  

It shall be prohibited to:

(a) 

provide, directly or indirectly, technical assistance, brokering services or other services related to the items referred to in paragraph 1 or related to the provision, manufacture, maintenance and use of such items, to any natural or legal person, entity or body in, or for use in, Syria;

(b) 

provide, directly or indirectly, financing or financial assistance related to the items referred to in paragraph 1, including in particular grants, loans and export credit insurance, as well as insurance and reinsurance, for any sale, supply, transfer or export of such items, or for the provision of related technical assistance, brokering services or other services to any natural or legal person, entity or body in, or for use in, Syria.

▼M1

3.  

Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to the sale, supply, transport or export of certain equipment, goods and technology which might be used for internal repression or for the manufacture and maintenance of products which could be used for internal repression or to the provision of related technical or financial assistance, where a Member State determines on a case-by-case basis that they are intended for:

(a) 

food, agricultural, medical or other humanitarian purposes, or for the benefit of UN Personnel, or personnel of the Union or its Member States; or

(b) 

activities undertaken in accordance with paragraph 10 of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2118(2013) and related decisions of the Executive Council of the OPCW, consistent with the objective of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (Chemical Weapons Convention) and after consultation with the OPCW.

▼B

Article 2

1.  
The sale, supply, transfer or export of certain equipment, goods or technology other than those referred to in Article 1(1) which might be used for internal repression or for the manufacture and maintenance of products which could be used for internal repression, to Syria by nationals of Member States or from the territories of Member States or using their flag vessels or aircraft, shall be subject to authorisation on a case-by-case basis by the competent authorities of the exporting Member State.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this paragraph.

2.  

The provision of:

(a) 

technical assistance, brokering services or other services related to the items referred to in paragraph 1 or related to the provision, manufacture, maintenance and use of such items, to any natural or legal person, entity or body in, or for use in, Syria;

(b) 

financing or financial assistance related to the items referred to in paragraph 1, including in particular grants, loans and export credit insurance, as well as insurance and reinsurance, for any sale, supply, transfer or export of such items, or for the provision of related technical assistance, brokering services or other services to any natural or legal person, entity or body in, or for use in, Syria,

shall also be subject to an authorisation of the competent authority of the exporting Member State.

Article 3

1.  
The purchase, import or transport of arms and related material of all types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment and spare parts for the aforementioned, from Syria or originating in Syria, shall be prohibited.
2.  
It shall be prohibited to provide, directly or indirectly, financing or financial assistance, including financial derivatives, as well as insurance and reinsurance, and brokering services related to insurance and reinsurance, for any purchase, import or transport of the items referred to in paragraph 1, from Syria or originating in Syria.

▼M1

3.  
Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to the import or transport of chemical weapons or related material from Syria or originating in Syria, undertaken in accordance with paragraph 10 of UN Security Council Resolution 2118(2013) and related decisions of the Executive Council of the OPCW, consistent with the objective of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

▼B

Article 4

The sale, supply, transfer or export of equipment or software intended primarily for use in the monitoring or interception by the Syrian regime, or on its behalf, of the Internet and of telephone communications on mobile or fixed networks in Syria and the provision of assistance to install, operate or update such equipment or software shall be prohibited.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this Article.

Article 5

1.  
The purchase, import or transport from Syria of crude oil and petroleum products shall be prohibited.
2.  
It shall be prohibited to provide, directly or indirectly, financing or financial assistance, including financial derivatives, as well as insurance and reinsurance, related to the prohibitions referred to in paragraph 1.

▼M21

3.  
The prohibitions set out in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to the purchase or transport in Syria of petroleum products or to associated financing or financial assistance by public bodies, or by legal persons or entities which receive public funding from the Union or Member States to provide humanitarian relief in Syria or to provide assistance to the civilian population in Syria, where such products are purchased or transported for the sole purposes of providing humanitarian relief in Syria or to provide assistance to the civilian population in Syria.
4.  
The prohibitions set out in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to the purchase or transport of petroleum products by diplomatic or consular missions where such products are purchased or transported for official purposes of the mission.

▼M21

Article 6

1.  

With a view to helping the civilian population in Syria in cases not covered by Article 5(3) and by way of derogation from Article 5(1) and (2), the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise, on the general and specific terms and conditions they deem appropriate, the purchase or transport in Syria of petroleum products and the provision of associated financing or financial assistance, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) 

the activities concerned are for the sole purpose of providing humanitarian relief in Syria or assistance to the civilian population in Syria; and

(b) 

the activities concerned do not breach any of the prohibitions laid down in this Decision.

2.  
The Member State concerned shall inform the other Member States and the Commission of any authorisation granted under this Article within two weeks of any authorisation granted. For an authorisation granted under paragraph 1, the notification shall contain details about the authorised entity and about its humanitarian activities in Syria.

▼B

Article 7

The prohibitions in Article 5 shall be without prejudice to the execution, until 15 November 2011, of obligations provided for in contracts concluded before 2 September 2011.

▼M8

Article 7a

1.  
The sale, supply, transfer or export of jet fuel and additives specifically formulated for jet fuel to Syria by nationals of Member States, or from the territories of Member States, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, shall be prohibited, whether originating or not in their territories.
2.  
It shall be prohibited to provide, directly or indirectly, financing or financial assistance, as well as insurance and reinsurance or brokering services, related to any sale, supply, transfer or export of jet fuel and additives as referred to in paragraph 1.
3.  
The competent authorities of a Member State may authorise the sale, supply, transfer or export of jet fuel and additives to Syria or the provision of direct or indirect financing, financial assistance, insurance, reinsurance or brokering services, necessary for use by the United Nations or bodies acting on its behalf for humanitarian purposes such as delivering or facilitating the delivery of assistance, including medical supplies, food, or the transfer of humanitarian workers and related assistance or for evacuations from Syria or within Syria.
4.  
The prohibitions in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to jet fuel and additives exclusively used by non-Syrian civilian aircraft landing in Syria, provided that they are intended and used solely for the continuation of the flight operation of the aircraft into which they were loaded.
5.  
The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this Article.

▼B

Article 8

1.  

The sale, supply or transfer of key equipment and technology for the following key sectors of the oil and natural gas industry in Syria, or to Syrian or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria, by nationals of Member States, or from the territories of Member States, or using vessels or aircraft under the jurisdiction of Member States shall be prohibited whether or not originating in their territories:

(a) 

refining;

(b) 

liquefied natural gas;

(c) 

exploration;

(d) 

production.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this paragraph.

2.  

It shall be prohibited to provide the following to enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the key sectors of the Syrian oil and gas industry referred to in paragraph 1 or to Syrian, or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria:

(a) 

technical assistance or training and other services related to key equipment and technology as referred to in paragraph 1;

(b) 

financing or financial assistance for any sale, supply, transfer or export of key equipment and technology as set out in paragraph 1 or for the provision of related technical assistance or training.

Article 9

1.  
The prohibition in Article 8(1) shall be without prejudice to the execution of an obligation relating to the delivery of goods provided for in contracts awarded or concluded before 1 December 2011.
2.  
The prohibitions in Article 8 shall be without prejudice to the execution of an obligation arising from contracts awarded or concluded before 1 December 2011 and relating to investments made in Syria before 23 September 2011 by enterprises established in Member States.

Article 10

With a view to helping the Syrian civilian population, in particular to meeting humanitarian concerns, restoring normal life, upholding basic services, reconstruction, and restoring normal economic activity or other civilian purposes and by way of derogation from Article 8(1) and (2), the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise the sale, supply or transfer of key equipment and technology for the key sectors of the oil and natural gas industry in Syria referred to in Article 8(1), or to Syrian or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria and the provision of related technical assistance or training and other services, as well as financing or financial assistance, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) 

the Syrian National Coalition for Opposition and Revolutionary Forces has been consulted in advance by the Member State concerned;

(b) 

the activities concerned are not directly or indirectly for the benefit of a person or entity referred to in Article 28(1); and

(c) 

the activities concerned do not breach any of the prohibitions laid down in this Decision.

The relevant Member State shall inform the other Member States of any authorisation granted under this Article.

Article 11

The delivery of Syrian denominated banknotes and coinage to the Central Bank of Syria shall be prohibited.

Article 12

The direct or indirect sale, purchase, transportation or brokering of gold and precious metals, as well as of diamonds to, from or for the Government of Syria, its public bodies, corporations and agencies, the Central Bank of Syria, as well as to, from or for persons and entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, or entities owned or controlled by them, shall be prohibited.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this Article.

Article 13

The sale, supply, transfer or export of luxury goods to Syria by nationals of Member States or from the territories of Member States or using their flag vessels or aircraft, shall be prohibited, whether originating or not in their territories.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this Article.

▼M12

Article 13a

It shall be prohibited to import, export, transfer or provide related brokering services for cultural property and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific and religious importance which have been illegally removed from Syria, or where reasonable suspicion exists that they have been illegally removed from Syria, on or after 15 March 2011. The prohibition shall not apply if it is shown that the cultural items are being safely returned to their legitimate owners in Syria.

The Union shall take the necessary measures in order to determine the relevant items to be covered by this Article.

▼B



CHAPTER II

RESTRICTIONS ON FINANCING OF CERTAIN ENTERPRISES

Article 14

The following shall be prohibited:

(a) 

the granting of any financial loan or credit to enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the Syrian oil industry sectors of exploration, production or refining, or to Syrian or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria;

(b) 

the granting of any financial loan or credit to enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the construction of new power plants for the production of electricity in Syria;

(c) 

the acquisition or extension of a participation in enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the Syrian oil industry sectors of exploration, production or refining, or in Syrian or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria, including the acquisition in full of such enterprises and the acquisition of shares or securities of a participating nature;

(d) 

the acquisition or extension of a participation in enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the construction of new power plants for the production of electricity in Syria, including the acquisition in full of such enterprises and the acquisition of shares or securities of a participating nature;

(e) 

the creation of any joint venture with enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the Syrian oil industry sectors of exploration, production or refining and with any subsidiary or affiliate under their control;

(f) 

the creation of any joint venture with enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the construction of new power plants for the production of electricity in Syria and with any subsidiary or affiliate under their control.

Article 15

1.  

The prohibitions set out in points (a) and (c) of Article 14:

(i) 

shall be without prejudice to the execution of an obligation arising from contracts or agreements concluded before 23 September 2011;

(ii) 

shall not prevent the extension of a participation, if such extension is an obligation under an agreement concluded before 23 September 2011.

2.  

The prohibitions set out in points (b) and (d) of Article 14:

(i) 

shall be without prejudice to the execution of an obligation arising from contracts or agreements concluded before 1 December 2011;

(ii) 

shall not prevent the extension of a participation, if such extension is an obligation under an agreement concluded before 1 December 2011.

Article 16

With a view to helping the Syrian civilian population, in particular to meeting humanitarian concerns, restoring normal life, upholding basic services, reconstruction, and restoring normal economic activity or other civilian purposes and by way of derogation from points (a), (c) and (e) of Article 14, the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise the granting of any financial loan or credit to or the acquisition or extension of a participation in enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the Syrian oil industry sectors of exploration, production or refining, or Syrian or Syrian-owned enterprises engaged in those sectors outside Syria, or the creation of any joint venture with enterprises in Syria that are engaged in the Syrian oil industry sectors of exploration, production or refining and with any subsidiary or affiliate under their control, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) 

the Syrian National Coalition for Opposition and Revolutionary Forces has been consulted in advance by the Member State concerned;

(b) 

the activities concerned are not directly or indirectly for the benefit of a person or entity referred to in Article 28(1); and

(c) 

the activities concerned do not breach any of the prohibitions laid down in this Decision.

The relevant Member State shall inform the other Member States of any authorisation granted under this Article.



CHAPTER III

RESTRICTIONS ON INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

Article 17

1.  
Participation in the construction of new power plants for the production of electricity in Syria shall be prohibited.
2.  
It shall be prohibited to provide technical assistance or financing or financial assistance to the construction of new power plants for the production of electricity in Syria.
3.  
The prohibition in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be without prejudice to the execution of an obligation arising from contracts or agreements concluded before 1 December 2011.



CHAPTER IV

RESTRICTIONS ON FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR TRADE

Article 18

1.  
Member States shall exercise restraint in entering into new short and medium-term commitments for public and private provided financial support for trade with Syria, including the granting of export credits, guarantees or insurance, to their nationals or entities involved in such trade, with a view to reducing their outstanding amounts, in particular to avoid any financial support contributing to the violent repression against the civilian population in Syria. In addition, Member States shall not enter into new long-term commitments for public and private provided financial support for trade with Syria.
2.  
Paragraph 1 shall not affect commitments established prior to 1 December 2011.
3.  
Paragraph 1 shall not concern trade for food, agricultural, medical or other humanitarian purposes.



CHAPTER V

FINANCIAL SECTOR

Article 19

Member States shall not enter into new commitments for grants, financial assistance or concessional loans to the Government of Syria, including through their participation in international financial institutions, except for humanitarian and developmental purposes.

Article 20

The following shall be prohibited:

(a) 

any disbursement or payment by the European Investment Bank (EIB) under or in connection with any existing loan agreements entered into between Syria and the EIB;

(b) 

the continuation by the EIB of any existing Technical Assistance Service Contracts for sovereign projects located in Syria.

Article 21

The following shall be prohibited: the direct or indirect sale or purchase of, or brokering or assistance in the issuance of Syrian public or public-guaranteed bonds issued after 1 December 2011 to and from the Government of Syria, its public bodies, corporations and agencies, the Central Bank of Syria, or banks domiciled in Syria, or branches and subsidiaries within and outside the jurisdiction of Member States of banks domiciled in Syria, or financial entities that are neither domiciled in Syria nor within the jurisdiction of the Member States, but are controlled by persons and entities domiciled in Syria as well as any persons and entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, or entities owned or controlled by them.

Article 22

1.  
The opening of new branches, subsidiaries, or representative offices of Syrian banks in the territories of Member States, and the establishment of new joint ventures, or the taking of an ownership interest, or the establishment of new correspondent banking relationships by Syrian banks, including the Central Bank of Syria, its branches and subsidiaries and financial entities that are not domiciled in Syria, but are controlled by persons or entities domiciled in Syria, with banks in the jurisdiction of Member States, shall be prohibited.
2.  
Financial institutions within the territories of the Member States or under their jurisdiction shall be prohibited from opening representative offices, subsidiaries or banking accounts in Syria.

Article 23

With a view to helping the Syrian civilian population, in particular to meeting humanitarian concerns, restoring normal life, upholding basic services, reconstruction, and restoring normal economic activity or other civilian purposes and by way of derogation from Article 22(2), the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise financial institutions within the territories of the Member States or under their jurisdiction to open representative offices, subsidiaries or banking accounts in Syria, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) 

the Syrian National Coalition for Opposition and Revolutionary Forces has been consulted in advance by the Member State concerned;

(b) 

the activities concerned are not directly or indirectly for the benefit of a person or entity referred to in Article 28(1); and

(c) 

the activities concerned do not breach any of the prohibitions laid down in this Decision.

The relevant Member State shall inform the other Member States of any authorisation granted under this Article.

Article 24

1.  
The provision of insurance and re-insurance to the Government of Syria, its public bodies, corporations and agencies or to any persons or entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, or to entities owned or controlled by them, including through illicit means, shall be prohibited.
2.  

Paragraph 1 shall not apply to the provision of:

(a) 

health or travel insurance to natural persons;

(b) 

compulsory or third party insurance to Syrian persons, entities or bodies based in the Union;

(c) 

insurance or re-insurance to the owner of a vessel, aircraft or vehicle chartered by a Syrian person, entity or body and which person, entity or body is not listed in Annex I or II.



CHAPTER VI

TRANSPORT SECTOR

Article 25

1.  
Member States, in accordance with their national legislation and consistent with international law, in particular relevant international civil aviation agreements, shall take the necessary measures to prevent access to the airports under their jurisdiction of all exclusively cargo flights operated by Syrian carriers and all flights operated by Syrian Arab Airlines.
2.  
Paragraph 1 shall not apply to the access to airports under the jurisdiction of Member States of flights operated by Syrian Arab Airlines, necessary for the sole purpose of evacuating citizens of the Union and their family members from Syria.

Article 26

1.  
If Member States have information that provides reasonable grounds to believe that the cargo of vessels and aircraft bound for Syria contains items whose supply, sale, transfer or export is prohibited under Article 1 or subject to authorisation under Article 2, they shall inspect, in accordance with their national legislation and consistent with international law, in particular the law of the sea and relevant international civil aviation agreements and maritime transport agreements, such vessels and aircraft in their seaports and airports, as well as in their territorial sea, in accordance with decisions and capabilities of their competent authorities and with the consent, as necessary in accordance with international law for the territorial sea, of the flag State.
2.  
Member States, in accordance with their national legislation and consistent with international law, shall, upon discovery, seize and dispose of items whose supply, sale, transfer or export is prohibited under Article 1 or 2.
3.  
Member States shall cooperate, in accordance with their national legislation, with inspections and disposals undertaken pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2.
4.  
Aircraft and vessels transporting cargo to Syria shall be subject to the requirement of additional pre-arrival or pre-departure information for all goods brought into or out of a Member State.



CHAPTER VII

RESTRICTIONS ON ADMISSION

▼M14

Article 27

1.  
Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the entry into, or transit through, their territories of the persons responsible for the violent repression against the civilian population in Syria, persons benefiting from or supporting the regime, and persons associated with them, as listed in Annex I.
2.  

In accordance with the assessments and determinations made by the Council in the context of the situation in Syria as set out in recitals 5 to 11, Member States shall also take the necessary measures to prevent the entry into, or transit through, their territories of:

(a) 

leading businesspersons operating in Syria;

(b) 

members of the Assad or Makhlouf families;

(c) 

Syrian Government Ministers in power after May 2011;

(d) 

members of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of ‘colonel’ and the equivalent or higher in post after May 2011;

(e) 

members of the Syrian security and intelligence services in post after May 2011;

(f) 

members of regime-affiliated militias; or

(g) 

persons operating in the chemical weapons proliferation sector,

and persons associated with them, as listed in Annex I.

3.  
Persons within one of the categories referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be included or retained on the list of persons and entities in Annex I if there is sufficient information that they are not, or are no longer, associated with the regime or do not exercise influence over it or do not pose a real risk of circumvention.
4.  
All listing decisions shall be made on an individual and case-by-case basis taking into account the proportionality of the measure.
5.  
Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not oblige a Member State to refuse its own nationals entry into its territory.
6.  

Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be without prejudice to the cases where a Member State is bound by an obligation of international law, namely:

(a) 

as a host country to an international intergovernmental organisation;

(b) 

as a host country to an international conference convened by, or under the auspices of, the UN;

(c) 

under a multilateral agreement conferring privileges and immunities; or

(d) 

under the 1929 Treaty of Conciliation (Lateran pact) concluded by the Holy See (State of the Vatican City) and Italy.

7.  
Paragraph 6 shall be considered as also applying in cases where a Member State is host country to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
8.  
The Council shall be duly informed in all cases where a Member State grants an exemption pursuant to paragraph 6 or 7.
9.  
Member States may grant exemptions from the measures imposed under paragraphs 1 and 2 where travel is justified on the grounds of urgent humanitarian need, or on grounds of attending intergovernmental meetings, including those promoted by the Union, or hosted by a Member State holding the Chairmanship in office of the OSCE, where a political dialogue is conducted that directly promotes democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Syria.
10.  
A Member State wishing to grant exemptions referred to in paragraph 9 shall notify the Council in writing. The exemption shall be deemed to be granted unless one or more of the Council members raises an objection in writing within two working days of receiving notification of the proposed exemption. Should one or more of the Council members raise an objection, the Council, acting by a qualified majority, may decide to grant the proposed exemption.
11.  
Where, pursuant to paragraphs 6 to 10, a Member State authorises the entry into, or transit through, its territory of persons listed in Annex I, the authorisation shall be limited to the purpose for which it is given and to the person concerned therewith.

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CHAPTER VIII

FREEZING OF FUNDS AND ECONOMIC RESSOURCES

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Article 28

1.  
All funds and economic resources belonging to, or owned, held or controlled by persons responsible for the violent repression against the civilian population in Syria, persons and entities benefiting from or supporting the regime, and persons and entities associated with them, as listed in Annexes I and II, shall be frozen.
2.  

In accordance with the assessments and determinations made by the Council in the context of the situation in Syria as set out in recitals 5 to 11, all funds and economic resources belonging to, or owned, held or controlled by:

(a) 

leading businesspersons operating in Syria;

(b) 

members of the Assad or Makhlouf families;

(c) 

Syrian Government Ministers in power after May 2011;

(d) 

members of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of ‘colonel’ and the equivalent or higher in post after May 2011;

(e) 

members of the Syrian security and intelligence services in post after May 2011;

(f) 

members of regime-affiliated militias; or

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(g) 

members of entities, units, agencies, bodies or institutions operating in the chemical weapons proliferation sector,

and persons and entities associated with them, as listed in Annex I, shall be frozen.

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3.  
Persons, entities or bodies within one of the categories referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be included or retained on the list of persons and entities in Annex I if there is sufficient information that they are not, or are no longer, associated with the regime or do not exercise influence over it or do not pose a real risk of circumvention.
4.  
All listing decisions shall be made on an individual and case-by-case basis taking into account the proportionality of the measure.
5.  
No funds or economic resources shall be made available, directly or indirectly, to or for the benefit of, the natural or legal persons or entities listed in Annexes I and II.
6.  

The competent authority of a Member State may authorise the release of certain frozen funds or economic resources, or the making available of certain funds or economic resources, under such conditions as it deems appropriate, after having determined that the funds or economic resources concerned are:

(a) 

necessary to satisfy the basic needs of the persons listed in Annexes I and II and their dependent family members, including payments for foodstuffs, rent or mortgage, medicines and medical treatment, taxes, insurance premiums, and public utility charges;

(b) 

intended exclusively for the payment of reasonable professional fees and the reimbursement of incurred expenses associated with the provision of legal services;

(c) 

intended exclusively for the payment of fees or service charges for the routine holding or maintenance of frozen funds or economic resources; or

(d) 

necessary for extraordinary expenses, provided that the competent authority has notified the competent authorities of the other Member States and the Commission of the grounds on which it considers that a specific authorisation should be granted, at least two weeks prior to the authorisation;

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(f) 

to be paid into or from an account of a diplomatic or consular mission or an international organisation enjoying immunities in accordance with international law, in so far as such payments are intended to be used for official purposes of the diplomatic or consular mission or international organisation;

(g) 

necessary for evacuations from Syria;

(h) 

intended for the Central Bank of Syria or Syrian State-owned entities, as listed in Annexes I and II, to make payments on behalf of the Syrian Arab Republic to the OPCW for activities related to the OPCW verification mission and the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons, and in particular to the OPCW Syrian Special Trust Fund for activities related to the complete destruction of Syrian chemical weapons outside the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic.

A Member State shall inform the other Member States and the Commission of any authorisation it grants under this paragraph.

7.  

By way of derogation from paragraphs 1 and 2, the competent authorities of a Member State, may authorise the release of certain frozen funds or economic resources, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) 

the funds or economic resources are subject of an arbitral decision rendered prior to the date on which the person or entity referred to in paragraph 1 or 2 was listed in Annex I or II or of a judicial or administrative decision rendered in the Union, or a judicial decision enforceable in the Member State concerned, prior to or after that date;

(b) 

the funds or economic resources will be used exclusively to satisfy claims secured by such a decision or recognised as valid in such a decision, within the limits set by applicable laws and regulations governing the rights of persons having such claims;

(c) 

the decision is not for the benefit of a person or entity listed in Annex I or II; and

(d) 

recognising the decision is not contrary to public policy in the Member State concerned.

A Member State shall inform the other Member States and the Commission of any authorisation granted under this paragraph.

8.  
Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not prevent a designated person or entity from making a payment due under a contract entered into before the listing of such a person or entity, provided that the relevant Member State has determined that the payment is not directly or indirectly received by a person or entity referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2.
9.  
Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not prevent a designated entity listed in Annex II, for a period of two months after the date of its designation, from making a payment from frozen funds or economic resources received by such entity after the date of its designation, where such payment is due under a contract in connection with the financing of trade, provided that the relevant Member State has determined that the payment is not directly or indirectly received by a person or entity referred to in paragraph 1 or 2.
10.  

Paragraph 5 shall not apply to the addition to frozen accounts of:

(a) 

interest or other earnings on those accounts; or

(b) 

payments due under contracts, agreements or obligations that were concluded or arose prior to the date on which those accounts became subject to this Decision,

provided that any such interest, other earnings and payments remain subject to paragraphs 1 and 2.

11.  
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall not apply to a transfer by or through the Central Bank of Syria of funds or economic resources received and frozen after the date of its designation or to a transfer of funds or economic resources to or through the Central Bank of Syria after the date of its designation where such transfer is related to a payment by a non-designated financial institution due in connection with a specific trade contract, provided that the relevant Member State has determined, on a case-by-case basis, that the payment is not directly or indirectly received by a person or entity referred to in paragraph 1 or 2.
12.  
Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to a transfer by or through the Central Bank of Syria of frozen funds or economic resources where such transfer is for the purpose of providing financial institutions under the jurisdiction of Member States with liquidity for the financing of trade, provided that the transfer has been authorised by the relevant Member State.
13.  
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall not apply to a transfer, by or through a financial entity listed in Annex I or II, of frozen funds or economic resources where the transfer is related to a payment by a person or entity not listed in Annex I or II in connection with the provision of financial support to Syrian nationals pursuing an education, professional training or engaged in academic research in the Union, provided that the relevant Member State has determined, on a case-by-case basis, that the payment is not directly or indirectly received by a person or entity referred to in paragraph 1 or 2.
14.  
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall not apply to acts or transactions carried out, with regard to Syrian Arab Airlines, for the sole purpose of evacuating citizens of the Union and their family members from Syria.
15.  
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall not apply to the transfer by or through the Commercial Bank of Syria of funds or economic resources received from outside the Union and frozen after the date of its designation or to a transfer of funds or economic resources to or through the Commercial Bank of Syria received from outside the Union after the date of its designation where such transfer is related to a payment by a non-designated financial institution due in connection with a specific trade contract for medical supplies, food, shelter, sanitation or hygiene for civilian use, provided that the relevant Member State has determined, on a case-by-case basis, that the payment is not directly or indirectly received by a person or entity referred to in paragraph 1 or 2.

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Article 28a

1.  
The prohibition set out in Article 28(5) shall not apply to funds or economic resources made available to the natural or legal persons and entities listed in Annexes I and II by public bodies, or by legal persons or entities which receive public funding to provide humanitarian relief in Syria or to provide assistance to the civilian population in Syria, where the provision of such funds or economic resources is in accordance with Article 5(3).
2.  
In cases not covered by paragraph 1 of this Article and by way of derogation from Article 28(5), the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise the making available of certain funds or economic resources, on the general and specific terms and conditions they deem appropriate, after having determined that the making available of funds or economic resources concerned is necessary for the sole purpose of providing humanitarian relief in Syria or assistance to the civilian population in Syria.
3.  
The prohibition in Article 28(5) shall not apply to funds or economic resources made available to the natural or legal persons or entities listed in Annexes I and II by diplomatic or consular missions where the provision of such funds or economic resources is in accordance with Article 5(4).
4.  
By way of derogation from Articles 28(1) and 28(2), the competent authorities of a Member State may authorise the release of certain frozen funds or economic resources on the general and specific terms and conditions they deem appropriate after having determined that the funds and economic resources concerned are necessary for the sole purpose of providing humanitarian relief in Syria or assistance to the civilian population in Syria. The funds or economic resources shall be released to the UN for the purpose of delivering or facilitating the delivery of assistance in Syria in accordance with the Syria Humanitarian Response Plan or any successor plan coordinated by the UN.
5.  
The Member State concerned shall inform the other Member States and the Commission of any authorisation granted under paragraphs 2 and 4 within two weeks of any authorisation granted.

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CHAPTER IX

GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 29

No claims, including for compensation or indemnification or any other claim of this kind, such as a claim of set-off, fines or a claim under a guarantee, claims for extension or payment of a bond, financial guarantee, including claims arising from letters of credit and similar instruments in connection with any contract or transaction the performance of which was affected, directly or indirectly, wholly or in part, by reason of measures covered by this Decision, shall be granted to the designated persons or entities listed in Annexes I and II, or any other person or entity in Syria, including the Government of Syria, its public bodies, corporations and agencies, or any person or entity claiming through or for the benefit of any such person or entity.

Article 30

1.  
The Council, acting upon a proposal by a Member State or the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, shall establish and amend the lists in Annexes I and II.

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2.  
The Council shall communicate its decision on the listing, including the grounds therefor, to the person, entity or body concerned, either directly, if the address is known, or through the publication of a notice, providing such person, entity or body with an opportunity to present observations. In particular, where a person, entity or body is listed in Annex I on the basis that they fall within one of the categories of persons, entities or bodies set out in Articles 27(2) and 28(2), the person, entity or body may present evidence and observations as to why, although they fall within such a category, they consider that their designation is not justified.

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3.  
Where observations are submitted, or where substantial new evidence is presented, the Council shall review its decision and inform the person or entity concerned accordingly.

Article 31

1.  
Annexes I and II shall include the grounds for listing the persons and entities concerned.
2.  
Annexes I and II shall also contain, where available, the information necessary to identify the persons or entities concerned. With regard to persons, such information may include names, including aliases, date and place of birth, nationality, passport and identity card numbers, gender, address if known, and function or profession. With regard to entities, such information may include names, place and date of registration, registration number and place of business.

Article 32

It shall be prohibited to participate, knowingly or intentionally, in activities the object or effect of which is to circumvent the prohibitions laid down in this Decision.

Article 33

In order to maximise the impact of the measures set out in this Decision, the Union shall encourage third States to adopt restrictive measures similar to those contained in this Decision.

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Article 34

This Decision shall apply until 1 June 2021. It shall be kept under constant review. It may be renewed, or amended as appropriate, if the Council deems that its objectives have not been met.

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Article 35

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.




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ANNEX I

List of natural and legal persons, entities or bodies referred to in Articles 27 and 28



A.  Persons

 

Name

Identifying information

Reasons

Date of listing

1.

Bashar (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

Date of birth: 11.9.1965;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No D1903;

Gender: male

President of the Republic; person authorising and supervising the crackdown on demonstrators.

23.5.2011

2.

Maher (image) (a.k.a. Mahir) AL‐ASSAD (image)

Date of birth: 8.12.1967;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No 4138;

Position: Major General of the 42nd Brigade and former Brigadier Commander of the Army’s 4th Armoured Division

Gender: male

Member of the Syria Armed Forces of the rank of Colonel and the equivalent or higher in post after May 2011; Major General of the 42nd Brigade and former Brigadier Commander of the Army’s 4th Armoured Division. Member of the Assad family; brother of President Bashar al‐Assad.

9.5.2011

3.

Ali (image) MAMLUK (image) (a.k.a. Mamlouk)

Date of birth: 19.2.1946;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No 983;

Gender: male

Director of the National Security Bureau. Former Head of Syrian Intelligence Directorate involved in violence against demonstrators.

9.5.2011

4.

Atej (image) (a.k.a. Atef, Atif) NAJIB (image) (a.k.a. Najeeb)

Place of birth: Jablah, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Head of the Political Security Directorate in Dara’a. Involved in violence against demonstrators. Member of the Assad family; cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

9.5.2011

5.

Hafiz (image) MAKHLOUF (image)

(a.k.a. Hafez Makhlouf)

Date of birth: 2.4.1971;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No 2246;

Gender: male

Former Colonel and Head of Unit in General Intelligence Directorate, Damascus Branch in post after May 2011. Member of the Makhlouf family; cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

9.5.2011

6.

Muhammad (image) Dib (image) ZAYTUN (image)

(a.k.a. Mohammed Dib Zeitoun; a.k.a. Mohamed Dib Zeitun)

Date of birth: 20.5.1951;

Place of birth: Jubba, Damascus province, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No D000001300;

Gender: male

Director of the National Security Bureau since July 2019. Former Head of the General Security Directorate; involved in violence against demonstrators.

9.5.2011

7.

Amjad (image) ABBAS (image) (a.k.a. al‐Abbas)

Gender: male

Former head of Political Security in Banyas, involved in violence against demonstrators in Baida. Promoted to the rank of Colonel in 2018.

9.5.2011

8.

Rami (image) MAKHLOUF (image)

Date of birth: 10.7.1969;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Passport No 000098044;

Issue No 002‐03‐0015187;

Gender: male

Leading businessman operating in Syria with interests in the telecommunications, financial services, transport and property sectors. He has financial interests in and/or holds senior and executive positions in Syriatel (the leading mobile telephone operator in Syria) and in the investment funds Al Mashreq, Bena Properties and Cham Holding.

He furnishes financing and support to the Syrian regime, through his business interests.

He is an influential member of the Makhlouf family and closely connected to the Assad family; cousin of President Bashar Al‐Assad.

9.5.2011

9.

Abd al‐Fatah (image) QUDSIYAH (image)

Date of birth: 1953;

Place of birth: Hama, Syria;

Diplomatic passport No D0005788;

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Major General in the Syrian Armed Forces in post after May 2011.

Deputy Director of the National Security Bureau of the Ba’ath Party. Former Head of the Syrian Military Intelligence Directorate. Involved in violent repression of the civilian population in Syria.

9.5.2011

10.

Jamil (image) (a.k.a. Jameel) HASSAN (image) (a.k.a. al‐Hassan)

Date of birth: 7.7.1953;

Place of birth: Qusayr, Homs province, Syria;

Former Head of Syrian Air Force Intelligence;

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Major‐General in the Syrian Air Force in post after May 2011. Former head of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence in post after May 2011 and until July 2019. Responsible for violent repression of the civilian population in Syria.

9.5.2011

11.

Mohammad Mouti' MOUAYYAD

(a.k.a. Mohammad Muti'a Moayyad)

Date of birth: 1968;

Place of birth: Ariha (Idlib), Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

12.

Ghazwan Kheir BEK

(a.k.a. Ghazqan Kheir Bek)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Latakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Transport in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). He was previously General Director of the Port of Tartous. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

13.

Munzir (image) (a.k.a. Mundhir, Monzer) Jamil (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

Date of birth: 1.3.1961;

Place of birth: Kerdaha, Latakia Province, Syria;

Passports No 86449 and No 842781;

Gender: male

Involved in violence against the civilian population as part of the Shabiha militia.

9.5.2011

14.

Brigadier General Mohammed BILAL

(a.k.a. Lieutenant Colonel Muhammad Bilal)

Gender: male

As a senior officer in the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service, he supports the Syrian regime and is responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population. He is also associated with the listed Scientific Studies Research Centre (SSRC).

Head of the Tartus police since December 2018.

21.10.2014

15.

Kamal CHEIKHA

(a.k.a. Kamal al‐Sheikha)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Water Resources in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

16.

Faruq (image) (a.k.a. Farouq, Farouk) AL SHAR' (image) (a.k.a. Al Char', Al Shara', Al Shara)

Date of birth: 10.12.1938;

Gender: male

Former Vice‐President of Syria; involved in violence against the civilian population.

23.5.2011

17.

Hassan NOURI

(a.k.a. Hassan al‐Nouri)

Date of birth: 9.2.1960;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Administrative Development in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

18.

Mohammed (image) HAMCHO (image)

Date of birth: 20.5.1966;

Passport No 002954347;

Gender: male

Leading businessman operating in Syria, with interests in the engineering and construction, media, hospitality and health sector. He has financial interests in and/or holds senior and executive positions within a number of companies in Syria, in particular Hamsho International, Hamsho Communication, Mhg International, Jupiter for Investment and Tourism project and Syria Metal Industries.

He plays an important role in the business community in Syria as general secretary of the Damascus Chamber of Commerce (appointed by the then Minister for economy Khodr Orfali in December 2014), chairman of the China‐Syria Bilateral Business Councils (since March 2014) and chairman of the Syrian Metal and Steel Council (since December 2015).

He has close business relationships with key figures of the Syrian regime, including Maher al‐Assad.

He benefits from and provides support to the Syrian regime through his business interests, and is associated with persons benefiting from and providing support to that regime.

27.1.2015

19.

Iyad (image) (a.k.a. Eyad) MAKHLOUF (image)

Date of birth: 21.1.1973;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Passport No N001820740;

Gender: male

Member of the Makhlouf family; son of Mohammed Makhlouf, brother of Hafez Makhlouf and Rami Makhlouf and brother of Ihab Makhlouf; cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

Member of the Syrian security and intelligence services in post after May 2011.

As an officer in the General Intelligence Directorate, involved in violence against the civilian population in Syria.

23.5.2011

20.

Bassam (image) AL HASSAN (image) (a.k.a. Al Hasan)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Sheen, Homs, Syria;

Rank: Major General;

Gender: male

Presidential Advisor for Strategic Affairs; head of the General Secretariat of the National Defence. Involved in violence against the civilian population.

23.5.2011

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22.

Ihab (image) (a.k.a. Ehab, Iehab) MAKHLOUF (image)

Date of birth: 21.1.1973;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Passport No N002848852;

Gender: male

Leading businessman operating in Syria. Vice President of, and shareholder in, Syriatel, the leading mobile telephone operator in Syria. He also has business interests in several other Syrian companies and entities, including Ramak Construction Co and Syrian International Private University for Science and Technology (SIUST).

As Vice President of Syriatel, which transfers a significant part of its profits to the Syrian government by way of its licensing contract, Ihab Makhlouf is also directly supporting the Syrian regime.

He is an influential member of the Makhlouf family and closely connected to the Assad family; cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

23.5.2011

23.

Zoulhima (image) (a.k.a. Zu al‐Himma) CHALICHE (image) (a.k.a. Shalish, Shaleesh)

(a.k.a. Dhu al‐Himma Shalish)

Date of birth: 1946 or 1951 or 1956;

Place of birth: Kerdaha, Syria;

Rank: Major General;

Gender: male

Officer of the Syrian security and intelligence services in post after May 2011; former Head of Presidential Security.

Member of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of Major General in post after May 2011.

Involved in violence against demonstrators.

Member of the Assad family; cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

23.6.2011

24.

Riyad (image) CHALICHE (image) (a.k.a. Shalish, Shaleesh)

(a.k.a. Riyad Shalish)

Function: chairman of Riyad Isa Development Corporation;

Gender: male

Former Director of Military Housing Establishment; provides funding to the Syrian regime; first cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad.

23.6.2011

25.

Brigadier Commander Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) Ali (image) JAFARI (image) (a.k.a. Jaafari, Ja'fari, Aziz; a.k.a. Jafari, Ali; a.k.a. Jafari, Mohammad Ali; a.k.a. Ja'fari, Mohammad Ali; a.k.a. Jafari‐Naja‐fabadi, Mohammad Ali)

Date of birth: 1.9.1957;

Place of birth: Yazd, Iran;

Gender: male

Head of ‘Baqiayt Allah’, cultural organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. General Commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps until 21.4.2019, involved in providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria.

23.6.2011

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27.

Hossein (image) TAEB (image)

(a.k.a. Taeb, Hassan; a.k.a. Taeb, Hosein; a.k.a. Taeb, Hossein; a.k.a. Taeb, Hussayn; a.k.a. Hojjatoleslam Hossein Ta'eb)

Date of birth: 1963;

Place of birth: Tehran, Iran;

Gender: male

Director of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Intelligence Service. Former Deputy Commander for Intelligence of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, involved in providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria.

23.6.2011

28.

Khalid (image) (a.k.a. Khaled) QADDUR (image) (a.k.a. Qadour, Qaddour, Kaddour)

Gender: male

Leading businessperson operating in Syria, with interests and/or activities in the telecommunications, oil and plastic industry sectors and close business relations with Maher al‐Assad.

He benefits from and provides support to the Syrian regime, through his business activities.

Associate of Maher al‐Assad, including through his business activities.

27.1.2015

29.

Ra'if (image) AL‐QUWATLY (image)

(a.k.a. Ri'af al‐Quwatli a.k.a. Raeef al‐Kouatly)

Date of birth: 3.2.1967;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Business associate of Maher al‐Assad and responsible for managing some of his business interests; provides funding to the Syrian regime.

23.6.2011

30.

Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Muhammad, Mohamed, Mohammed) MUFLEH (image) (a.k.a. Muflih)

Gender: male

Head of Syrian Military Intelligence in the town of Hama; involved in the crackdown on demonstrators.

1.8.2011

31.

Major General Tawfiq (image) (a.k.a. Tawfik) YOUNES (image) (a.k.a. Yunes)

Gender: male

Former head of the Department for Internal Security of the General Intelligence Directorate; involved in violence against the civilian population.

1.8.2011

32.

Mohammed (image) MAKHLOUF (image)

(a.k.a. Abu Rami)

Date of birth: 19.10.1932;

Place of birth: Latakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Influential member of the Makhlouf family; business associate and father of Rami, Ihab and Iyad Makhlouf. Closely associated with the Assad family and maternal uncle of Bashar and Maher al‐Assad. Also referred to as Abu Rami.

Leading businessperson operating in Syria, with interests and/or activities in multiple sectors of Syria’s economy, including interests in and/or significant influence in the General Organisation of Tobacco and the oil and gas, arms and banking sectors.

Involved in business dealings for the Syrian regime in arms procurement and banking. Given the extent of his business and political ties to the Syrian regime, he provides support to and benefits from the regime.

1.8.2011

33.

Ayman (image) JABIR (image)

(a.k.a. Aiman Jaber)

Place of birth: Latakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Leading businessman operating in Syria, involved in the steel, media, consumable goods and oil sectors, including in trading these goods. He has financial interests and/or holds senior executive positions in a number of companies and entities in Syria, in particular Al Jazira (a.k.a. Al Jazerra, El Jazireh), Dunia TV and Sama Satellite Channel.

Through his company Al Jazira, Ayman Jaber has facilitated the importation of oil from Overseas Petroleum Trading to Syria.

Ayman Jaber benefits from and provides support to the Syrian regime, through his business interests.

Provides direct support for and plays a leading role in activities of regime‐affiliated militias known as Shabiha and/or Suqur as‐Sahraa.

Associate of Rami Makhlouf through his business activities, and an associate of Maher al‐Assad through his role in regime‐affiliated militias.

27.1.2015

34.

Hayel (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

(a.k.a. Hael al‐Asad (هاىلالأسد))

Gender: male

Assistant to Maher al‐Assad; Head of the military police unit of the army’s 4th Division, involved in repression.

23.8.2011

35.

Ali (image) AL‐SALIM (image) (a.k.a. al‐Saleem)

Gender: male

Director of the supplies office of the Syrian Ministry of Defence, entry point for all arms acquisitions by the Syrian army.

23.8.2011

36.

Nizar (image) AL‐ASSAD (image) (a.k.a. al‐Asad; Assad; Asad)

Gender: male

Leading Syrian businessperson with close ties to the regime. Cousin of Bashar al‐Assad, and associated with the Assad and Makhlouf families.

As such, has been participating in, benefitting from or otherwise supporting the Syrian regime.

Leading oil investor and previously head of the ‘Nizar Oilfield Supplies’ company.

23.8.2011

37.

Major General Rafiq (image) (a.k.a. Rafeeq) SHAHADAH (image) (a.k.a. Shahada, Shahade, Shahadeh, Chahada, Chahade, Chahadeh, Chahada)

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Jablah, Latakia Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Member of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of Major General in post after May 2011. Former Head of Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI) Branch 293 (Internal Affairs) in Damascus. Directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Damascus. Advisor to President Bashar al‐Assad for strategic questions and military intelligence.

23.8.2011

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40.

Muhammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) Said (image) (a.k.a. Sa'id, Sa'eed, Saeed) BUKHAYTAN (image)

Gender: male

Assistant Regional Secretary of the Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party since 2005; from 2000 to 2005 Director for the national security of the regional Ba’ath party. Former Governor of Hama (1998‐2000). Close associate of President Bashar al‐Assad and Maher al‐Assad. Senior decision‐maker in the regime on repression of civilian population.

23.8.2011

41.

Ali (image) DOUBA (image)

Date of birth: 1933;

Place of birth: Karfis, Syria;

Gender: male

Special Advisor to President Bashar al‐Assad.

As Special Advisor, participates in, benefits from and supports the Syrian regime. Has been involved in violently repressing the civilian population in Syria.

23.8.2011

42.

Brigadier‐General Nawful (image) (a.k.a. Nawfal, Nofal, Nawfel) AL‐HUSAYN (image) (a.k.a. al‐Hussain, al‐Hussein)

Gender: male

Idlib Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI) Branch Chief. Directly involved in repression of and violence against the civilian population in Idlib province.

23.8.2011

43.

Brigadier Husam (image) SUKKAR (image)

Gender: male

Presidential Adviser on Security Affairs. Presidential Adviser for security agencies’ repression of and violence against the civilian population in Syria.

23.8.2011

44.

Brigadier‐General Muhammed (image) (a.k.a. Muhamad) ZAMRINI (image) (a.k.a. Zamreni)

Gender: male

Branch Chief for Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI) in Homs. Directly involved in repression of and violence against the civilian population in Homs.

23.8.2011

45.

Munir (image) (a.k.a. Mounir, Mouneer, Monir, Moneer, Muneer) ADANOV (image) (a.k.a. Adnuf, Adanof)

Date of birth: 1951;

Place of birth: Homs, Syria;

Passport No 0000092405;

Position: Deputy Chief of General Staff, Operations and Training, Syrian Army;

Rank: Lieutenant‐General, Syrian Arab Army;

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Lieutenant General and Deputy Chief of General Staff, Operations and Training for the Syrian Army in post after May 2011. In his position as Deputy Chief of General Staff he was directly involved in repression of and violence against the civilian population in Syria.

23.8.2011

46.

Brigadier‐General Ghassan (image) KHALIL (image) (a.k.a. Khaleel)

Gender: male

Head of General Intelligence Directorate’s Information Branch. Directly involved in repression of and violence against the civilian population in Syria.

23.8.2011

47.

Mohammed (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohamed) JABIR (image) (a.k.a. Jaber)

Place of birth: Latakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Shabiha militia. Associate of Maher al‐Assad for the Shabiha militia. Directly involved in repression of and violence against the civilian population, and in coordination of Shabiha militia groups.

23.8.2011

48.

Samir (image) HASSAN (image)

Gender: male

Leading businessperson operating in Syria, with interests and/or activities in multiple sectors of Syria’s economy. He holds interests in and/or has significant influence in the Amir Group and Cham Holding, two conglomerates with interests in the real estate, tourism, transport and finance sectors. From March 2014 until September 2018, he held the position of Chairman for Russia of the Bilateral Business Councils following his appointment by Minister of Economy, Khodr Orfali.

Samir Hassan supports the Syrian regime’s war effort with cash donations.

Samir Hassan is associated with persons benefitting from or supporting the regime. In particular, he is associated with Rami Makhlouf and Issam Anbouba, who have been designated by the Council and benefit from the Syrian regime.

27.9.2014

49.

Fares (image) CHEHABI (image)

(a.k.a. Fares Shihabi; Fares Chihabi)

Son of Ahmad Chehabi;

Date of birth: 7.5.1972;

Gender: male

President of Aleppo Chamber of Industry; Chairman of the Federation of Chambers of Industry since 16.12.2018. Vice‐Chairman of Cham Holding. Provides economic support to the Syrian regime. Member of Syrian Parliament since 2016.

2.9.2011

50.

Tarif (image) AKHRAS (image) (a.k.a. Al Akhras (image))

Date of birth: 2.6.1951;

Place of birth: Homs, Syria;

Syrian passport No 0000092405;

Gender: male

Prominent businessman benefiting from and supporting the Syrian regime. Founder of the Akhras Group (commodities, trading, processing and logistics) and former Chairman of the Homs Chamber of Commerce. Close business relations with President Bashar al‐Assad’s family. Member of the Board of the Federation of Syrian Chambers of Commerce. Provided logistical support for the regime (buses and tank loaders).

2.9.2011

51.

Issam (image) ANBOUBA (image)

President of Anbouba for Agricultural Industries Co.;

Date of birth: 1952;

Place of birth: Homs, Syria;

Gender: male

Providing financial support for the repressive apparatus and the paramilitary groups exerting violence against the civil population in Syria. Providing property (premises, warehouses) for improvised detention centres. Financial relations with high‐ranking Syrian officials. Co‐founder and member of the board of Cham Holding.

2.9.2011

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52.

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53.

Adib (image) MAYALEH (image)

(a.k.a. André Mayard)

Date of birth: 15.5.1955;

Place of birth: Bassir, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Governor and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Syria.

Adib Mayaleh controlled the Syrian banking sector and managed the Syrian money supply through the issue and withdrawal of bank notes and control of the foreign exchange rate value of the Syrian Pound. Through his role at the Central Bank of Syria, Adib Mayaleh provided economic and financial support to the Syrian regime.

Former Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade in power after May 2011.

15.5.2012

54.

Major General Jumah (image) AL‐AHMAD (image) (a.k.a. al‐Ahmed)

Gender: male

Commander Special Forces. Responsible for the use of violence against protestors across Syria.

14.11.2011

55.

Colonel Lu'ai (image) (a.k.a. Louay, Loai) AL‐ALI (image)

Place of birth: Jablah, Latakia Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Head of Syrian Military Intelligence, Dara’a Branch. Responsible for violence against protesters in Dara’a.

14.11.2011

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56.

Ali (image) Abdullah (image) (a.k.a. Abdallah) AYYUB (image) (a.k.a. Ayyoub, Ayub, Ayoub, Ayob)

Date of birth: 1952;

Place of birth: Lattakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Vice President of the Council of Ministers and Minister of Defence. Appointed in January 2018.

Officer of the rank of General in the Syrian Army, in post after May 2011. Former Chief of General Staff of the Syrian Armed Forces. Person supporting the Syrian regime and responsible for repression of and violence against the civilian population in Syria.

14.11.2011

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57.

Fahd (image) (a.k.a. Fahid, Fahed) Jasim (image) (a.k.a. Jasem, Jassim, Jassem) AL‐FURAYJ (image) (a.k.a. al‐Freij)

Date of birth: 1.1.1950;

Place of birth: Hama, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Defence. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population in Syria.

14.11.2011

58.

Major General Aous (image) (a.k.a. Aws, Aus) ‘Ali’ ASLAN (image)

Date of birth: 1958;

Gender: male

High‐ranking officer. Close to Maher al‐Assad and President Bashar al‐Assad. Former positions: Commander of the 40th Brigade (4th Division) between 2011 and 2014; deputy Commander of the 4th Division in 2015; Commander of the 2nd Corps in 2016. Involved in the crackdown on the civilian population across Syria, including arbitrary arrests, mass killings and forced displacements of civilian population.

14.11.2011

59.

General Ghassan (image) BELAL (image) (a.k.a. Bilal)

Gender: male

Head of the 4th Division security bureau, head of the 555th paratrooper regiment. Adviser to Maher al‐Assad and coordinator of security operations. Responsible for the crackdown on the civilian population across Syria and involved in several breaches of cessation of hostilities in the Ghouta.

14.11.2011

60.

Abdullah (image) (a.k.a. Abdallah) BERRI (image)

Gender: male

Head of the Berri family militia. In charge of pro‐government militia involved in the crackdown on the civilian population in Aleppo.

14.11.2011

61.

George (image) CHAOUI (image)

Gender: male

Member of the Syrian electronic army (territorial army intelligence service).. Involved in the violent crackdown and call for violence against the civilian population across Syria.

14.11.2011

62.

Zuhair (image) (a.k.a. Zouheir, Zuheir, Zouhair) HAMAD (image)

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Rank: Major General;

Position: Deputy Head of General Intelligence Directorate (a.k.a. General Security Directorate) since July 2012;

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Major General in the Syrian Armed Forces in post after May 2011. Deputy Head of General Intelligence Directorate. Responsible for repression, human rights abuses and violence against the civilian population in Syria.

14.11.2011

63.

Amar (image) (a.k.a. Ammar) ISMAEL (image) (a.k.a. Ismail)

Date of birth on or around 3.4.1973;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Civilian ‐ Head of Syrian electronic army (territorial army intelligence service). Involved in the violent crackdown and call for violence against the civilian population across Syria.

14.11.2011

64.

Mujahed (image) ISMAIL (image) (a.k.a. Ismael)

Gender: male

Member of Syrian electronic army (territorial army intelligence service). Involved in the violent crackdown and call for violence against the civilian population across Syria.

14.11.2011

65.

Major General Nazih (image)

Gender: male

Deputy Director of General Intelligence Directorate. Responsible for the use of violence across Syria and intimidation and torture of protestors.

14.11.2011

66.

Major General Kifah (image) MOULHEM (image) (a.k.a. Moulhim, Mulhem, Mulhim, Milhem)

Place of birth: Junaynat Ruslan, Tartous province, Syria;

Gender: male

Head of the Military Intelligence Directorate since March 2019. Former Head of the Security Committee in the Southern region and former deputy head of the Military Intelligence directorate, leading the regime’s operation in Homs and Aleppo regions. Responsible for the crackdown on the civilian population in Deir ez‐Zor and the main individual responsible for the violent repression committed by the Military Intelligence Directorate (Branch 248) throughout 2011 and 2012 as well as torture and severe violations on detainees.

14.11.2011

67.

Major General Wajih (image) (a.k.a. Wajeeh) MAHMUD (image)

Gender: male

Commander 18th Armoured Division. Responsible for the violence against protestors in Homs.

14.11.2011

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68.

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69.

Lt. General Talal (image) Mustafa (image) TLASS (image)

Gender: male

Deputy Chief of General Staff (Logistics and supplies). Responsible for the use of violence against protestors across Syria.

14.11.2011

70.

Major General Fu'ad (image) TAWIL (image)

Gender: male

Deputy head of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence. Responsible for the use of violence across Syria and intimidation and torture of protestors.

14.11.2011

71.

Bushra (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

(a.k.a. Bushra Shawkat, Bouchra Al Assad)

Date of birth: 24.10.1960;

Gender: female

Member of the Assad family; sister of President Bashar al‐Assad. Given the close personal relationship and intrinsic financial relationship to President Bashar al‐Assad, she benefits from and is associated with the Syrian regime.

23.3.2012

72.

Asma (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

(a.k.a. Asma Fawaz Al Akhras)

Date of birth: 11.8.1975;

Place of birth: London, UK;

Passport No 707512830, expires 22.9.2020;

Maiden name: Al Akhras;

Gender: female

Member of the Assad family and closely connected to key regime figures; wife of President Bashar al‐Assad. Given the close personal relationship and intrinsic financial relationship to President Bashar al‐Assad, she benefits from and is associated with the Syrian regime.

23.3.2012

73.

Manal (image) AL‐ASSAD (image)

(a.k.a. Manal Al Ahmad)

Date of birth: 2.2.1970;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Passport No (Syrian) 0000000914;

Maiden name: Al Jadaan;

Gender: female

Wife of Maher al‐Assad, and as such benefits from and is closely associated with the Syrian regime.

23.3.2012

74.

Mohammad Walid GHAZAL

Date of birth: 1951;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Housing and Urban Development (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

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76.

Major General Ibrahim (image) AL‐HASSAN (image) (a.k.a. al‐Hasan)

Gender: male

Deputy Chief of Staff. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

77.

Brigadier Khalil (image) (a.k.a. Khaleel) ZGHRAYBIH (image,image) (a.k.a. Zghraybeh, Zghraybe, Zghrayba, Zghraybah, Zaghraybeh, Zaghraybe, Zaghrayba, Zaghraybah, Zeghraybeh, Zeghraybe, Zeghrayba, Zeghraybah, Zughraybeh, Zughraybe, Zughrayba, Zughraybah, Zighraybeh, Zighraybe, Zighrayba, Zighraybah)

Gender: male

14th Division. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

78.

Major General Ali (image) BARAKAT (image)

Gender: male

103rd Brigade of the Republican Guard Division. Military official involved in the violence in Homs. Promoted to Major General in 2017.

1.12.2011

79.

Major General Talal (image) MAKHLUF (image) (a.k.a. Makhlouf)

Gender: male

Former commander of the 105th Brigade of the Republican Guards. Former Commander General of the Republican Guards. Current Commander of the 2nd Corps. Member of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of Major General in post after May 2011. Military official involved in the violence in Damascus.

1.12.2011

80.

Major General Nazih (image) (a.k.a. Nazeeh) HASSUN (image) (a.k.a. Hassoun)

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Major General in the Syrian Armed Forces in post after May 2011. Head of the Political Security Directorate of the Syrian security services in post after May 2011. Responsible for violent repression of the civilian population in Syria.

1.12.2011

81.

Captain Maan (image) (a.k.a. Ma'an) JDIID (image) (a.k.a. Jdid, Jedid, Jedeed, Jadeed, Jdeed)

Gender: male

Presidential Guard. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

82.

Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) AL‐SHAAR (image) (a.k.a. al‐Chaar, al‐Sha'ar, al‐Cha'ar)

Gender: male

Political Security Division. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

83.

Khald (image) (a.k.a. Khaled) AL‐TAWEEL (image) (a.k.a. al‐Tawil)

Gender: male

Political Security Division. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

84.

Ghiath (image) FAYAD (image) (a.k.a. Fayyad)

Gender: male

Political Security Division. Military official involved in the violence in Homs.

1.12.2011

85.

Brigadier General Jawdat (image) Ibrahim (image) SAFI (image)

Position: Commander of the 154th Regiment;

Gender: male

Ordered troops to shoot at protestors in and around Damascus, including Mo’adamiyeh, Douma, Abasiyeh, Duma.

23.1.2012

86.

Major General Muhammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) Ali (image) DURGHAM

Position: Commander of the 4th Division;

Gender: male

Ordered troops to shoot at protestors in and around Damascus, including Mo’adamiyeh, Douma, Abasiyeh, Duma.

23.1.2012

87.

Major General Ramadan (image) Mahmoud (image) RAMADAN (image)

Position: Commander of the 35th Special Forces Regiment;

Gender: male

Ordered troops to shoot protestors in Baniyas and Deraa.

23.1.2012

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89.

Major General Naim (image) (a.k.a. Naaeem, Naeem, Na'eem, Naaim, Na'im) Jasem (image) SULEIMAN (image)

Position: Commander of the 3rd Division;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot protestors in Douma.

23.1.2012

90.

Brigadier General Jihad (image) Mohamed (image) (a.k.a Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) SULTAN (image)

Position: Commander of the 65th Brigade;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot protestors in Douma.

23.1.2012

91.

Major General Fo'ad (image) (a.k.a. Fouad, Fu'ad) HAMOUDEH (image) (a.k.a. Hammoudeh, Hammoude, Hammouda, Hammoudah)

Position: Commander of the military operations in Idlib;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot protestors in Idlib at the beginning of September 2011.

23.1.2012

92.

Major General Bader (image) AQEL (image)

Position: Special Forces Commander;

Gender: male

Gave soldiers orders to pick up the bodies and hand them over to the mukhabarat and responsible for the violence in Bukamal.

23.1.2012

93.

Brigadier General Ghassan (image) AFIF (image) (a.k.a. Afeef)

Position: Commander of the 45th Regiment;

Gender: male

Commander of military operations in Homs, Baniyas and Idlib.

23.1.2012

94.

Brigadier General Mohamed (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) MAARUF (image) (a.k.a. Maarouf, Ma'ruf)

Position: Commander of the 45th Regiment;

Gender: male

Commander of military operations in Homs. Gave orders to shoot protestors in Homs.

23.1.2012

95.

Brigadier General Yousef (image) ISMAIL (image) (a.k.a. Ismael)

Position: Commander of the 134th Brigade;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot at houses and people on roofs during a funeral in Talbiseh for protesters killed the previous day.

23.1.2012

96.

Brigadier General Jamal (image) YUNES (image) (a.k.a. Younes)

Position: Commander of the 555th Regiment;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot at protestors in Mo’adamiyeh.

23.1.2012

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98.

Brigadier General Ali (image) DAWWA

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to shoot protestors in Al‐Herak.

23.1.2012

99.

Major General Mohamed (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) KHADDOR (image) (a.k.a. Khaddour, Khaddur, Khadour, Khudour)

Position: Commander of the 106th Brigade, Presidential Guard;

Gender: male

Gave orders to troops to beat protesters with sticks and then arrest them. Responsible for repression of peaceful protestors in Douma.

23.1.2012

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101.

Wafiq (image) (a.k.a. Wafeeq) NASSER (image)

Position: Head of Suwayda Regional Branch (Department of Military Intelligence);

Gender: male

As Head of the Suwayda Regional Branch of the Department for Military Intelligence, responsible for arbitrary detention and torture of detainees in Suwayda.

23.1.2012

102.

Ahmed (image) (a.k.a. Ahmad) DIBE (image) (a.k.a. Dib, Deeb)

Head of Deraa Regional Branch (General Security Directorate);

Gender: male

As Head of the Deraa Regional Branch of the General Security Directorate, responsible for arbitrary detention and torture of detainees in Deraa.

23.1.2012

103.

Makhmoud (image) (a.k.a. Mahmoud) AL‐KHATTIB (image) (a.k.a. al‐Khatib, al‐Khateeb)

Position: Head of Investigative Branch (Political Security Directorate);

Gender: male

As Head of the Investigative Branch of the Political Security Directorate, responsible for detention and torture of detainees.

23.1.2012

104.

Mohamed (image) (a.k.a. Mohammad, Muhammad, Mohammed) Heikmat (image) (a.k.a. Hikmat, Hekmat) IBRAHIM (image)

Position: Major General. Head of the police of Al‐Hassaka;

Gender: male

Head of the police of Al‐Hassaka. Major General. As former Head of the Operations Branch of the Political Security Directorate, was responsible for detention and torture of detainees.

23.1.2012

105.

Nasser (image) (a.k.a. Naser) AL‐ALI (image)

(a.k.a. Brigadier General Nasr al‐Ali)

Position: Head of the Political Security Directorate;

Gender: male

Head of the Political Security Directorate since July 2019. Responsible for detention and torture of detainees.

23.1.2012

106.

Dr. Wael (image) Nader (image) AL–HALQI (image) (a.k.a. al‐Halki)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Dara’a Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Prime Minister, in office until 3.7.2016, and former Minister of Health. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population. Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Qasyoun Private University.

27.2.2012

107.

Mohammad Ibrahim AL‐SHA'AR

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of the Interior. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population. Vice Chair of the National Progressive Front of Syria.

1.12.2011

108.

Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) AL‐JLEILATI (image)

Date of birth: 1945;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Finance, in office until 9.2.2013. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

1.12.2011

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109.

Imad (image) Mohammad

(image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) Deeb (image) KHAMIS (image)

(a.k.a. Imad Mohammad Dib Khamees)

Date of birth: 1.8.1961;

Place of birth: near Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Prime Minister and Former Minister of Electricity.

As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

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110.

Omar (image) Ibrahim (image) GHALAWANJI (image)

Date of birth: 1954;

Place of birth: Tartous, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Vice Prime Minister for Services Affairs, former Minister of Local Administration, in office until 3.7.2016. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

111.

Joseph (image) SUWAID (image)

Date of birth: 1958;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State, in office until at least 21.1.2014. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population. Chair of the Amana wing of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party.

23.3.2012

112.

Hussein (image) (a.k.a. Hussain) Mahmoud (image) FARZAT (image)

(a.k.a.: Hussein Mahmud Farzat)

Date of birth: 1957;

Place of birth: Hama, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State, in office until at least 2014. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

113.

Mansour (image) Fadlallah (image) AZZAM (image)

(a.k.a.: Mansur Fadl Allah Azzam)

Date of birth: 1960;

Place of birth: Sweida Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Minister for Presidency Affairs. As a Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

27.2.2012

114.

Emad (image) Abdul‐Ghani (image) SABOUNI (image)

(a.k.a. Imad Abdul Ghani Al Sabuni)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Telecommunications and Technology, in office until at least April 2014. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population. Appointed in July 2016 as the Head of Planning and International Cooperation Agency (government agency).

27.2.2012

115.

General Ali (image) Habib (image) (a.k.a. Habeeb) MAHMOUD (image)

Date of birth: 1939;

Place of birth: Tartous, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Defence. Associated with the Syrian regime and the Syrian military, and its violent repression of the civilian population.

1.8.2011

116.

Tayseer (image) Qala (image) AWWAD (image)

Date of birth: 1943;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Justice. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population. Former Head of Military Court. Member of the High Judicial Council.

23.9.2011

117.

Adnan (image) Hassan (image) MAHMOUD (image)

Date of birth: 1966;

Place of birth: Tartous, Syria;

Gender: male

Syrian Ambassador to Iran. Former Minister of Information in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

23.9.2011

118.

Khalaf Souleymane ABDALLAH

(a.k.a. Khalaf Sleiman al‐Abdullah)

Date of birth: 1960;

Place of birth: Deir ez‐Zor, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Labour in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

119.

Sufian (image) ALLAW (image)

Date of birth: 1944;

Place of birth: al‐Bukamal, Deir Ezzor, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Oil and Mineral Resources. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

27.2.2012

120.

Dr. Adnan (image) SLAKHO (image)

Date of birth: 1955;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Industry. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

27.2.2012

121.

Dr. Saleh (image) AL‐RASHED (image)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Aleppo Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Education. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

27.2.2012

122.

Dr. Fayssal (image) (a.k.a. Faysal) ABBAS (image)

Date of birth: 1955;

Place of birth: Hama Province, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Transport. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

27.2.2012

123.

Ghiath (image) JERAATLI (image) (a.k.a. Jer'atli, Jir'atli, Jiraatli)

Date of birth: 1950;

Place of birth: Salamiya, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

124.

Yousef (image) Suleiman (image) AL‐AHMAD (image) (a.k.a. al‐Ahmed)

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Hasaka, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

125.

Hassan (image,image) AL‐SARI (image)

Date of birth: 1953;

Place of birth: Hama, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of State. Associated with the Syrian regime and its violent repression of the civilian population.

23.3.2012

126.

Bouthaina (image) SHAABAN (image)

(a.k.a. Buthaina Shaaban)

Date of birth: 1953;

Place of birth: Homs, Syria;

Gender: female

Political and Media Advisor to the President since July 2008 and as such associated with the violent crackdown on the civilian population.

26.6.2012

127.

Brigadier General Sha'afiq (image) (a.k.a. Shafiq, Shafik) MASA (image) (a.k.a. Massa)

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Al‐Zara (Hama), Syria;

Gender: male

Head of Branch 215 (Damascus) of the army’s intelligence service. Responsible for the torture of detained opponents. Involved in repressive actions against civilians.

24.7.2012

128.

Brigadier General Burhan (image) QADOUR (image) (a.k.a. Qaddour, Qaddur)

Gender: male

Former Head of Branch 291 (Damascus) of the army’s intelligence service. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

129.

Brigadier General Salah (image) HAMAD (image)

Gender: male

Deputy Head of Branch 291 of the army’s intelligence service. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

130.

Brigadier General Muhammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohammed) KHALLOUF (image) (a.k.a. Abou Ezzat)

Gender: male

Former (2009‐2014) Head of Branch 235 a.k.a. ‘Palestine’ (Damascus) of the army’s intelligence service, which is at the centre of the army’s apparatus of repression. Directly involved in repression of opponents. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

131.

Major General Riad (image) (a.k.a. Riyad) AL‐AHMED (image) (a.k.a. al‐Ahmad)

Gender: male

Deputy Head of Latakia Branch of the army’s intelligence service. Responsible for the torture and murder of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

132.

Brigadier General Abdul‐Salam (image) Fajr (image) MAHMOUD (image)

Gender: male

Head of the Bab Tuma (Damascus) Branch of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service. Former Head of the Mezze Airport Air Force intelligence investigation branch. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody. Under international arrest warrant for ‘complicity in acts of torture’, ‘complicity in crimes against humanity’ and ‘complicity in war crimes’.

24.7.2012

133.

Brigadier General Jawdat (image) AL‐AHMED (image) (a.k.a. al‐Ahmad)

Place of birth: Qardaha, Lattakia province, Syria;

Gender: male

Head of the Homs Branch of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody as well as killings of peaceful protesters.

24.7.2012

134.

Colonel Qusay (image) MIHOUB (image)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Derghamo, Jableh, Lattakia, Syria;

Gender: male

High‐ranking officer at the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service. Former Head of the Deraa branch of the air force's intelligence service (sent from Damascus to Deraa at the start of demonstrations there). Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody as well as the violent repression of peaceful protests in the southern region.

24.7.2012

135.

Brigadier General Suhail (image) (a.k.a. Suheil) AL‐ABDULLAH (image) (a.k.a. al‐Abdallah)

Gender: male

Head of the Latakia Branch of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

136.

Brigadier General Khudr (image) KHUDR (image)

Gender: male

Head of the Latakia branch of the General Intelligence Directorate. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

137.

Brigadier General Ibrahim (image) MA'ALA (image) (a.k.a. Maala, Maale, Ma'la)

Gender: male

Head of Branch 285 (Damascus) of the General Intelligence Directorate (replaced Brigadier General Hussam Fendi at the end of 2011). Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

138.

Brigadier General Firas (image) AL‐HAMED (image) (a.k.a. al‐Hamid)

Gender: male

Head of Branch 318 (Homs) of the General Intelligence Directorate. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

139.

Major General Hussam (image) (a.k.a. Husam, Housam, Houssam) LUQA (image) (a.k.a. Louqa, Louca, Louka, Luka)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Head of the General Security Directorate. Major General. From April 2012 to 2.12.2018, was head of the Homs branch of the Political Security Directorate (succeeded Brigadier General Nasr al‐Ali). Since 3.12.2018, head of the Political Security Directorate. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

140.

Brigadier General Taha (image) TAHA (image)

Gender: male

Site manager of the Latakia branch of the Political Security Directorate. Responsible for the torture of opponents in custody.

24.7.2012

141.

Bassel (image) (a.k.a. Basel) BILAL (image)

Gender: male

Police officer at Idlib central prison; has taken part directly in acts of torture of opponents held in Idlib central prison.

24.7.2012

142.

Ahmad (image) (a.k.a. Ahmed) KAFAN (image)

Gender: male

Police officer at Idlib central prison; has taken part directly in acts of torture of opponents held in Idlib central prison.

24.7.2012

143.

Bassam (image) AL‐MISRI (image)

Gender: male

Police officer at Idlib central prison; has taken part directly in acts of torture of opponents held in Idlib central prison.

24.7.2012

144.

Ahmed (image) (a.k.a. Ahmad) AL‐JARROUCHEH (image) (a.k.a. al‐Jarousha, al‐Jarousheh, al‐Jaroucha, al‐Jarouchah, al‐Jaroucheh)

Date of birth: 1957;

Gender: male

Former head of the foreign branch of General Intelligence (Branch 279). As such, responsible for General Intelligence arrangements in Syrian embassies.

24.7.2012

145.

Michel (image) KASSOUHA (image) (a.k.a. Kasouha) (a.k.a. Ahmed Salem; Ahmed Salem Hassan)

Date of birth: 1.2.1948;

Gender: male

Member of the Syrian security services since the early 1970s, he is involved in combating opposition in France and Germany. Since March 2006, has been responsible for public relations of Branch 273 of the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate. A longstanding member of the managerial staff, he is close to General Intelligence Directorate head Ali Mamlouk, one of the top security officials of the regime who has been subject to EU restrictive measures since 9.5.2011. He directly supports the Syrian regime’s repression of opponents and is responsible inter alia for repression of the Syrian opposition abroad.

24.7.2012

146.

General Ghassan (image) Jaoudat (image) ISMAIL (image) (a.k.a. Ismael)

Date of birth: 1960;

Place of birth: Drekish, Tartous region, Syria;

Gender: male

Head of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service since 2019. Former deputy director of the Air Force Intelligence Service and previously in charge of the missions branch of the Air Force Intelligence Service which, in cooperation with the special operations branch, manages the elite troops of the Air Force Intelligence Service, who play an important role in the repression conducted by the Syrian regime. As such, Ghassan Jaoudat Ismail is one of the top military leaders directly implementing the violent repression of opponents conducted by the Syrian regime as well as practices of disappearance of civilians.

24.7.2012

147.

Major General Amer AL‐ACHI (a.k.a. Amer Ibrahim al‐Achi; Amis al Ashi; Ammar Aachi; Amer Ashi) (image)

Gender: male

Appointed Governor of the Sweida Governorate by President Bashar al‐Assad on July 2016. Former Head of the intelligence branch of the Syrian Air Force Intelligence Service (2012‐2016). Through his role in the Air Force Intelligence Service, Amer al‐Achi is implicated in the repression of the Syrian opposition.

24.7.2012

148.

General Mohammed (image) (a.k.a. Muhammad, Mohamed, Mohammad) Ali (image) NASR (image) (a.k.a. Mohammed Ali Naser)

Date of birth: around 1960;

Gender: male

Close to Maher al‐Assad, younger brother of President Bashar al‐Assad. Most of his career has been spent in the Republican Guard. In 2010 he joined the internal branch (Branch 251) of the General Intelligence Directorate which is responsible for combating the political opposition. As one of its senior officers, General Mohammed Ali Nasr is directly involved in the repression of opponents.

24.7.2012

149.

General Issam (image) HALLAQ (image)

Gender: male

Air Force Chief of Staff since 2010. Commands air operations against opponents.

24.7.2012

150.

Ezzedine (image) ISMAEL (image) (a.k.a. Ismail)

Date of birth: middle of the 1940s (probably 1947);

Place of birth: Bastir, Jableh region, Syria;

Gender: male

Retired general, longstanding member of the managerial staff of the Air Force Intelligence Service, of which he became the head in the early 2000s. Was appointed political and security adviser to the President in 2006. As political and security adviser to President Bashar al‐Assad, Ezzedine Ismael is implicated in the political repression conducted by the Syrian regime against the opposition.

24.7.2012

151.

Samir (image) (a.k.a. Sameer) JOUMAA (image) (a.k.a. Jumaa, Jum'a, Joum'a)

(a.k.a. Abou Sami)

Date of birth: around 1962;

Gender: male

For almost 20 years he has been head of the office of Mohammad Nassif Kheir Bek, one of the main security advisers of President Bashar al‐Assad (and officially deputy to the Vice President, Farouk al‐Sharaa). Samir Joumaa’s closeness to President Bashar al‐Assad and Mohammed Nassif Kheir Bek means that he is implicated in the policy of repression conducted by the Syrian regime against its opponents.

24.7.2012

152.

Dr. Qadri (image) (a.k.a. Kadri) JAMIL (image) (a.k.a. Jameel)

Date of birth: 1952;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Vice Prime Minister for Economic Affairs, former Minister of Domestic Trade and Consumer Protection. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

153.

Waleed (image) (a.k.a. Walid) AL MO'ALLEM (image) (a.k.a. Al Moallem, Muallem (image))

Date of birth: 17.7.1941;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Vice Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates. As a Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

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155.

Dr. Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) Abdul‐Sattar (image) (a.k.a. Abd al‐Sattar) AL SAYED (image) (a.k.a. Al Sayyed)

Date of birth: 1958;

Place of birth: Tartous, Syria;

Gender: male

Minister of Religious Endowments. As a Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

156.

Hala (image) Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) AL NASSER (image)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Raqqa, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Tourism. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

157.

Bassam (image) HANNA (image)

Date of birth: 1954;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Water Resources in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

158.

Subhi (image) Ahmad (image) AL ABDALLAH (image) (a.k.a. al‐Abdullah)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

159.

Dr. Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Muhammad, Mohamed, Mohammed) Yahiya (image) (a.k.a. Yehya, Yahya, Yihya, Yihia, Yahia) MOALLA (image) (a.k.a. Mu'la, Ma'la, Muala, Maala, Mala)

Date of birth: 1951;

Place of birth: Lattakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Higher Education. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

160.

Dr. Hazwan (image) AL WEZ (image) (a.k.a. Al Wazz)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Education, appointed in July 2016.

As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

161.

Dr. Mohamad (image) (a.k.a. Muhammad, Mohamed, Mohammed, Mohammad) Zafer (image) (a.k.a. Dhafer) MOHABAK (image) (a.k.a. Mohabbak, Muhabak, Muhabbak)

Date of birth: 1945

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

162.

Dr. Mahmoud (image) Ibraheem (image) (a.k.a. Ibrahim) SA'IID (image) (a.k.a. Said, Sa'eed, Saeed)

Date of birth: 1953;

Place of birth: Lattakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Transport in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

163.

Dr. Safwan (image) AL ASSAF (image)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Housing and Urban Development. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

164.

Yasser (image) (a.k.a. Yaser) AL SIBA'II (image) (a.k.a. al‐Sibai, al‐Siba'i, al Sibaei)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Public Works. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

165.

Sa'iid (image) (a.k.a. Sa'id, Sa'eed, Saeed) MA'THI (image) (a.k.a. Mu'zi, Mu'dhi, Ma'dhi, Ma'zi, Maazi) Hneidi (image)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Oil and Mineral Resources. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

166.

Dr. Lubana (image) (a.k.a. Lubanah) MUSHAWEH (image) (a.k.a. Mshaweh, Mshawweh, Mushawweh)

Date of birth: 1955;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: female

Former Minister of Culture in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

167.

Dr. Jassem (image) (a.k.a. Jasem) Mohammad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad, Mohammed) ZAKARIA (image)

Date of birth: 1968;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Labour and Social Affairs. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

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169.

Dr. Adnan (image) Abdo (image) (a.k.a. Abdou) AL SIKHNY (image) (a.k.a. al‐Sikhni, al‐Sekhny, al‐Sekhni)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Industry. As a former Government Minister shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

170.

Najm (image) (a.k.a. Nejm) Hamad (image) AL AHMAD (image) (a.k.a. al‐Ahmed)

Gender: male

Former Minister of Justice in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

171.

Dr. Abdul‐Salam (image) AL NAYEF (image)

Date of birth: 1959

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Health in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

172.

Ali HADAR

Date of birth: 1962;

Gender: male

Head of the National Reconciliation Agency and former State Minister for National Reconciliation Affairs. Chair of the Intifada wing of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

173.

Dr. Nazeera (image) (a.k.a. Nazira, Nadheera, Nadhira) Farah (image) SARKEES (image) (a.k.a. Sarkis)

Date of birth: 1962;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: female

Former State Minister for Environmental Affairs, in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

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175.

Najm‐eddin (image) (a.k.a. Nejm‐eddin, Nejm‐eddeen, Najm‐eddeen, Nejm‐addin, Nejm‐addeen, Najm‐addeen, Najm‐addin) KHREIT (image) (a.k.a. Khrait)

Gender: male

Former State Minister. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

176.

Abdullah (image) (a.k.a. Abdallah) Khaleel (image) (a.k.a. Khalil) HUSSEIN (image) a.k.a. Hussain)

Gender: male

Former State Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

177.

Jamal (image) Sha'ban (image) (a.k.a. Shaaban) SHAHEEN (image)

Gender: male

Former State Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

16.10.2012

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178.

Nizar Wahbeh YAZAJI

(a.k.a. Nizar Wehbe Yazigi)

(نزار وهبه يازجي)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Health.

As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

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179.

Razan (image) OTHMAN (image)

Wife of Rami Makhlouf, daughter of Waleed (alias Walid) Othman;

Date of birth: 31.1.1977;

Place of birth: Governorate of Latakia, Syria;

ID No: 06090034007

Gender: female

Razan Othman has close personal and financial relations with Rami Makhlouf, cousin of President Bashar al‐Assad and principal financer of the regime, who has been designated by the Council. As such, associated with the Syrian regime, and benefiting from it, notably through investments in the real estate sector.

16.10.2012

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180.

Ahmad AL‐QADRI

(أحمد القادري)

Date of birth: 1956;

Gender: male

Former Agriculture and Agrarian Reform Minister.

As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

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181.

Suleiman AL ABBAS

Gender: male

Former Oil and Mineral Resources Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

182.

Kamal Eddin TU'MA

Date of birth: 1959;

Gender: male

Former Industry Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

183.

Kinda AL‐SHAMMAT (a.k.a. Shmat)

Date of birth: 1973;

Gender: female

Former Social Affairs Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

184.

Hassan HIJAZI

Date of birth: 1964;

Gender: male

Former Minister for Labour in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

185.

Ismael ISMAEL (a.k.a. Ismail Ismail; or Isma'Il Isma'il)

Date of birth: 1955;

Gender: male

Former Finance Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

186.

Dr. Khodr ORFALI (a.k.a. Khud/Khudr; Urfali/Orphaly)

Date of birth: 1956;

Gender: male

Former Economy and Foreign Trade Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

187.

Samir Izzat Qadi AMIN

Date of birth: 1966;

Gender: male

Former Internal Trade and Consumer Protection Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

188.

Bishr Riyad YAZIGI

Date of birth: 1972;

Gender: male

Advisor to President Bashar al‐Assad. Former Minister of Tourism. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

189.

Dr. Malek (image) ALI (image) (a.k.a. Malik Ali)

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Tartous, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Higher Education Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

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190.

Hussein ARNOUS (a.k.a. Arnus) (حسين عرنوس)

Date of birth: 1953;

Place of birth: Idleb, Syria;

Gender: male

Prime Minister. Appointed in August 2020.

As a Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

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191.

Dr. Hassib Elias SHAMMAS (a.k.a. Hasib)

Date of birth: 1957;

Place of birth: Aleppo, Syria;

Gender: male

Former State Minister in power after May 2011. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

24.6.2014

192.

Hashim Anwar AL‐AQQAD

(a.k.a. Hashem Aqqad, Hashem Akkad, Hashim Akkad)

Date of birth: 1961;

Place of birth: Mohagirine, Syria;

Gender: male

Leading businessperson operating in Syria, with interests and/or activities in multiple sectors of Syria’s economy. He holds interests in and/or has significant influence in Anwar Akkad Sons Group (AASG) and its subsidiary United Oil. AASG is a conglomerate with interests in sectors such as oil, gas, chemicals, insurance, industrial machinery, real estate, tourism, exhibitions, contracting, insurance and medical equipment.

Hashim Anwar al‐Aqqad also worked as a member of the Syrian Parliament as recently as 2012.

Hashim Anwar Al‐Aqqad could not have remained successful without assistance from the regime. Given the extent of his business and political ties to the regime, he provides support to and benefits from the Syrian regime.

23.7.2014

193.

Suhayl (a.k.a. Sohail, Suhail, Suheil) HASSAN (a.k.a. Hasan, al‐Hasan, al‐Hassan) known as ‘The Tiger’ (a.k.a. al‐Nimr)

Date of birth: 1970;

Place of birth: Jableh, Latakia Province, Syria;

Rank: Major‐General;

Position: Commander of Qawat al‐Nimr (Division 25 Special Mission Forces, formerly known as Tiger Forces);

Gender: male

Officer of the rank of Major‐General in the Syrian Army after May 2011. Commander of army division known as ‘Tiger Forces’. Since August 2019, ‘Tiger Forces’ has been renamed ‘Division 25 Special Mission Forces’ and placed under the army’s central command. Responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population in Syria.

23.7.2014

194.

Amr ARMANAZI

(a.k.a. Amr Muhammad Najib al‐Armanazi, Amr Najib Armanazi, Amrou al‐Armanazy)

Date of birth: 7.2.1944;

Gender: male

Director‐General of the Syrian Scientific Studies and Research Centre (SSRC), responsible for providing support to the Syrian army for the acquisition of equipment used for the surveillance and repression of demonstrators. Also responsible for the development and production of non‐conventional weapons, including chemical weapons, and the missiles to deliver them.

Responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population; supports the Syrian regime.

23.7.2014

199.

Bayan BITAR

(a.k.a. Dr. Bayan al‐Bitar)

Date of birth: 8.3.1947;

Address: P.O. Box 11037, Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Managing Director of the Organisation for Technological Industries (OTI), and the Syrian Company for Information Technology (SCIT), which are both subsidiaries of the Syrian Ministry of Defence, which has been designated by the Council. OTI assists in the production of chemical weapons for the Syrian regime. As Managing Director of OTI and the SCIT, Bayan Bitar provides support to the Syrian regime. Due to his role in the production of chemical weapons, he also shares responsibility for the violent repression of the Syrian population. In view of his senior position in these entities, he is also associated with the designated entities OTI and SCIT.

7.3.2015

200.

Brigadier General Ghassan ABBAS

Date of birth: 10.3.1960;

Place of birth: Homs, Syria;

Address: CERS, Centre d'Etude et de Recherche Scientifique (a.k.a. SSRC, Scientific Studies and Research Centre; Centre de Recherche de Kaboun Barzeh Street, P.O. Box 4470, Damascus, Syria)

Gender: male

Manager of the branch of the designated Syrian Scientific Studies and Research Centre (SSRC/CERS) near Jumraya/Jmraiya. He has been involved in the proliferation of chemical weapons and the organisation of chemical weapons attacks, including in Ghouta in August 2013. He therefore shares responsibility for the violent repression of the Syrian population. As manager of the SSRC/CERS branch near Jumraya/Jmraiya, Ghassan Abbas provides support to the Syrian regime. As a result of his senior position in the SSRC, he is also associated with the designated entity SSRC.

7.3.2015

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201.

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██████

██████

██████

██████

██████

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202.

Hassan SAFIYEH

(a.k.a. Hassan Safiye)

Date of birth: 1949;

Place of birth: Latakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection in power after May 2011 (appointed 27.8.2014). As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

21.10.2014

203.

George HASWANI

(a.k.a. Heswani; Hasawani; Al Hasawani)

Address: Damascus Province, Yabroud, Al Jalaa St, Syria;

Gender: male

Leading businessperson operating in Syria, with interests and/or activities in the engineering, construction and oil and gas sectors. He holds interests in and/or has significant influence in a number of companies and entities in Syria, in particular HESCO Engineering and Construction Company, a major engineering and construction company.

7.3.2015

204.

Emad (image) HAMSHO (image)

(a.k.a. Imad Hmisho; Hamchu; Hamcho; Hamisho; Hmeisho; Hemasho)

Address: Hamsho Building 31 Baghdad Street, Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Occupies a senior management position in Hamsho Trading. As a result of his senior position in Hamsho Trading, a subsidiary of Hamsho International, which has been designated by the Council, he provides support to the Syrian regime. He is also associated with a designated entity, Hamsho International. He is also vice‐president of the Syrian Council of Iron and Steel alongside designated regime businessmen such as Ayman Jaber. He is also an associate of President Bashar al‐Assad.

7.3.2015

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206.

Major General Muhamad (image) (a.k.a. Mohamed, Muhammad) MAHALLA (image) (a.k.a. Mahla, Mualla, Maalla, Muhalla)

Date of birth: 1960;

Place of birth: Jableh, Syria;

Gender: male

Member of the Syria Armed Forces of the rank of Major General in post after May 2011. Former head of the Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI), Branch 293 (Internal Affairs), since April 2015. Responsible for repression of and violence against the civilian population in Damascus/Damascus Countryside. Former Deputy Head of Political Security (2012), Officer of the Syrian Republican Guard and Vice‐Director of the Political Security Directorate. Former head of Military Police, Member of the National Security Bureau.

29.5.2015

207.

Adib SALAMEH

(a.k.a. Adib Salamah; Adib Salama; Adib Salame; Mohammed Adib Salameh; Adib Nimr Salameh)

(image)

Position: Major General, Deputy Director of Air Force Intelligence Directorate in Damascus;

Gender: male

Member of the Syrian security and intelligence services in post after May 2011; Deputy Director of the Air Force Intelligence Directorate in Damascus; previously Head of Air Force Intelligence in Aleppo.

Member of the Syrian Armed Forces of the rank of Colonel and the equivalent or higher in post after May 2011; holds the rank of Major General.

Responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population in Syria, through the planning of and involvement in military assaults in Aleppo and authority over the arrest and detention of civilians.

28.10.2016

208.

Adnan Aboud HILWEH

(a.k.a. Adnan Aboud Helweh; Adnan Aboud)

(image)

Position: Brigadier General;

Gender: male

Holds the rank of Brigadier General of 155 Brigade and 157 Brigade in the Syrian Army in post after May 2011.

As the Brigadier General of 155 Brigade and 157 Brigade, he is responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population in Syria, including through his responsibility for the deployment and use of missile and chemical weapons in civilian areas in 2013 and involvement in large scale detentions.

28.10.2016

209.

Jawdat Salbi MAWAS

(a.k.a. Jawdat Salibi Mawwas; Jawdat Salibi Mawwaz)

(image)

Position: Major General;

Gender: male

Holds the rank of Major General, a senior officer in the Syrian Artillery and Missile Directorate of the Syrian Armed Forces, in post after May 2011.

As a senior ranking officer of the Syrian Artillery and Missile Directorate, he is responsible for violent repression of the civilian population, including the use of missiles and chemical weapons by Brigades under his command in highly populated civilian areas in Ghouta in 2013.

28.10.2016

210.

Tahir (image) Hamid (image) KHALIL (image) (a.k.a. Tahir Hamid Khali; Khalil Tahir Hamid)

Position: Major General;

Gender: male

Holds the ranks of Major General, Head of the Syrian Artillery and Missiles Directorate of the Syrian Armed Forces, in post after May 2011. As a senior ranking officer of the Syrian Artillery and Missile Directorate, he is responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population, including the deployment of missiles and chemical weapons by Brigades under his command in highly populated civilian areas in Ghouta in 2013.

28.10.2016

211.

Hilal HILAL (a.k.a. Hilal al‐Hilal) (image)

Date of birth: 1966;

Gender: male

Member of the regime‐affiliated militias known as ‘Kataeb al‐Baath’ (the Baath Party militia). Vice‐Chairman of the Baath Party. Supports the Syrian regime through his role in the recruitment and organisation of the Baath Party militia.

28.10.2016

212.

Ammar AL‐SHARIF

(a.k.a. Amar al‐Sharif; Amar al‐Charif; Ammar Sharif; Ammar Charif; Ammar al Shareef; Ammar Sherif; Ammar Medhat Sherif)

(image)

Date of birth: 26.6.1969;

Place of birth: Lattakia, Syria;

Nationality: Syrian;

Syrian Passport:

‐ number: 010312413;

‐ issue number: 002‐15‐L093534;

‐ date of issue: 14.7.2015;

‐ place of issue: Damascus‐Centre;

‐ date of expiry: 13.7.2021;

National number: 060‐10276707;

Gender: male

Associated with a member of the Makhlouf family (brother‐in‐law of Rami Makhlouf).

28.10.2016

213.

Bishr AL‐SABBAN

(a.k.a. Mohammed Bishr al‐Sabban; Bishr Mazin al‐Sabban)

Date of birth: 1966;

Place of birth: Damascus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Governor of Damascus, who was appointed by, and is associated with, President Bashar al‐Assad. Supports the Syrian regime and is responsible for the violent repression of the civilian population in Syria, including engaging in discriminatory practices against Sunni communities within the capital.

28.10.2016

214.

Ahmad Sheik ABDUL‐QADER

(a.k.a. Ahmad Sheikh Abdul Qadir; Ahmad al‐Sheik Abdulquader)

(image)

Gender: male

Former Governor of Quneitra, associated with and appointed by President Bashar al‐Assad. Previously Governor of Latakia. Supports and benefits from the Syrian regime, including by public support for the Syrian Armed Forces and pro‐regime militia.

28.10.2016

215.

Dr. Ghassan Omar KHALAF

(image)

Gender: male

Former Governor of Hama, who was appointed by, and is associated with, President Bashar al‐Assad. He also supports and benefits from the Syrian regime. Ghassan Omar Khalaf is closely associated with members of a regime‐affiliated militia in Hama known as the Hama Brigade.

28.10.2016

216.

Khayr al‐Din AL‐SAYYED

(a.k.a. Khayr al‐Din Abdul‐Sattar al‐Sayyed; Mohamed Khair al‐Sayyed; Kheredden al‐Sayyed; Khairuddin as‐Sayyed; Khaireddin al‐Sayyed; Kheir Eddin al‐Sayyed; Kheir Eddib Asayed)

(image)

Gender: male

Former Governor of Idlib, associated with and appointed by President Bashar al‐Assad. Benefits from and supports the Syrian regime, including by providing support for Syrian Armed Forces and pro‐regime militia. Associated with the regime’s Minister of Awqaf, Dr. Mohammad Abdul‐Sattar al‐Sayyed, who is his brother.

28.10.2016

▼M35

217.

Atef NADDAF

(image)

Date of birth: 1956;

Place of birth: Damascus countryside, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection.

As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

14.11.2016

218.

Hussein MAKHLOUF

(a.k.a. Makhluf)

(image)

Date of birth: 1964;

Place of birth: Lattakia, Syria;

Gender: male

Minister of local Administration and environment.

Former Governor of Damascus Governorate.

As a Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

Cousin of Rami Makhlouf.

14.11.2016

▼M34

219.

Ali AL‐ZAFIR

(image)

Date of birth: 1962;

Place of birth: Tartus, Syria;

Gender: male

Former Minister of Communications and Technology. As a former Government Minister, shares responsibility for the Syrian regime’s violent repression of the civilian population.

14.11.2016

▼M35

220.

Ali GHANEM

(