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Document 32018R1013

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1013 of 17 July 2018 imposing provisional safeguard measures with regard to imports of certain steel products

C/2018/4555

OJ L 181, 18.7.2018, p. 39–83 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

In force

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_impl/2018/1013/oj

18.7.2018   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 181/39


COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2018/1013

of 17 July 2018

imposing provisional safeguard measures with regard to imports of certain steel products

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) 2015/478 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2015 (1), and in particular Articles 5 and 7 thereof,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) 2015/755 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2015 (2), and in particular Articles 3 and 4 thereof,

After having consulted the Committee on Safeguards established under Article 3(3) of Regulation (EU) 2015/478 and Article 22(3) of Regulation (EU) 2015/755 respectively,

Whereas:

I.   BACKGROUND

(1)

On 26 March 2018, the Commission published a Notice of Initiation of a safeguard investigation concerning imports of 26 steel product categories (2018/C 111/10) (3) in the Official Journal of the European Union. The Commission decided to initiate the investigation in the light of sufficient evidence that imports of those products might cause or threaten to cause serious injury to the Union producers concerned.

(2)

On 28 June, the Commission also published a Notice by which the investigation was extended to two additional product categories (4).

(3)

The information available to the Commission from the steel prior-surveillance mechanism in place (5) and from Union industry sources showed that an increasing trend of imports of these product categories and the prevailing menacing economic and trade conditions, including the situation of the Union steel industry, justified an in-depth examination.

(4)

Furthermore, due to the measures against imports of steel adopted by the United States of America (‘U.S.’) under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (‘Section 232’), there was a high risk of further increase of imports resulting from trade diversion.

(5)

These circumstances, in a context of persistent worldwide overcapacities, may jeopardise the Union steel industry, which is still vulnerable to a likely imminent increase of imports and recovering from the damage caused by unfair trade practices, as the substantial number of trade defence measures taken worldwide on steel products in the recent past prove.

(6)

On 11 April 2018, the Commission issued a ‘Note to the File’ containing key import statistics and available injury indicators. In relation to this ‘Note to the File’, the Commission received 41 submissions from third countries, national associations and individual steel companies

(7)

Several interested parties have claimed that the Commission failed to disclose the evidence on which the initiation of the safeguard investigation was based in an adequate and timely manner. It was claimed that by failing to do this, interested parties were not allowed to fully exercise their rights of defence. More precisely, several interested parties claimed that the ‘Note to the File’ made available on 11 April 2018 did not contain data on Union sales, Union exports, Union consumption, or total Union production.

(8)

Contrary to these claims, the ‘Note to the File’ did contain data on Union sales, Union consumption, and total Union production. Furthermore, the Commission considers that, in addition, the main elements and evidence available were adequately summarised both in the Notice of Initiation that was published in the Official Journal of the European Union and the notification of the investigation to the WTO pursuant to Article 12.1(a) of the WTO Safeguard Agreement.

(9)

The Commission therefore considers that it has fulfilled its legal obligations to adequately protect the rights of defence of interested parties. In any event, interested parties still have the opportunity to exercise their rights during the remainder of the investigation.

(10)

In order to obtain the information necessary to carry out an in-depth assessment, the Commission sent questionnaires to known EU producers and to any exporting producer, importer, and user of the products under investigation that so requested within the deadlines stipulated in the Notice of Initiation. These parties, like third countries, were also invited to make any relevant submissions. The Commission has received 222 replies to questionnaires and 74 submissions.

II.   PRODUCT CONCERNED AND LIKE OR DIRECTLY COMPETING PRODUCT

(11)

The Commission initiated the safeguard investigation on 26 steel product categories imported into the EU, and on 28 June its scope was extended by 2 additional product categories by means of a notice amending the Notice of Initiation (6). The 28 product categories (‘the product concerned’ or the ‘product categories concerned’) are all covered by the steel surveillance mechanism introduced by the Commission in May 2016. They are also subject to the US tariff measures under Section 232. The product categories concerned, together with the CN codes under which these products are currently classified, are listed in Annex I.

(12)

In this preliminary assessment, the Commission finds that the 28 product categories produced by the Union producers (hereinafter ‘the like product’ or ‘the like product categories’) are like or directly competing with the product categories concerned. Both the Union-produced and the imported products concerned have the same basic physical, technical and chemical characteristics; they have the same uses, and price and quality information on them is readily available; they are also sold via similar or identical sales channels to customer who purchase or may purchase them from both domestic as well as alternatively from foreign exporters. Accordingly, there is strong competition between the product categories concerned and those produced by the Union producers under the corresponding categories.

(13)

The Commission has also found in this preliminary analysis that there is an important interrelation and strong competition between products classified in different product categories and also between products at different production stages within certain categories as some of the categories contain the main raw or input material to produce other products in other product categories.

(14)

Some examples illustrate this interrelation and competition within and between product categories. For instance, hot rolled wide strips are produced from slabs and rolled into coils or produced flat on quarto mills. By cutting the strip to length, sheets are produced. Narrow strip is produced either directly or by slitting hot-rolled wide strip. Hot rolled flat products are also used in the manufacture of pipes and tubes for the petrochemical industry and cold rolled flat products are subsequently used by welded tube manufacturers. A large part of the hot rolled wide strip that is produced is further processed to produce cold rolled strip, which is thinner and has a superior surface finish. A significant proportion of the cold rolled products are metallically coated, with tin or chrome for the can industry or with zinc (7).

(15)

Many producers in the Union are active in the production of most the above mentioned products. For example, Arcelor Mittal not only produces hot rolled and cold rolled sheets and strips but also coats several steel products and produces plates. Similarly, companies like Voest Alpine and Tata Steel produce hot rolled and cold rolled sheets and strips and also coated steel products made of these products.

(16)

Furthermore, as a consequence, given this level of interrelation, competitive pressure can easily be shifted from one product to the other. For instance, if trade defence measures are imposed on one product, e.g. steel coils, that product may be further transformed in the same country and exported under a different form to avoid the additional measures and still compete with domestic products. It is also not excluded that third countries import some of these products at low cost and transform them before re-exporting them to the Union.

(17)

Because of these interrelations and interconnections, and given the fact that – as will be explained below – the potential trade diversion resulting from the U.S. Section 232 measures applies to all product categories on account that these measures are applied horizontally to all steel products, without distinction of their shape, size of composition, the analysis for the purpose of the provisional determination has been carried out both globally for all 28 product categories, as the product concerned (i.e. steel in various shapes and forms) and also at individual level for each product category (8).

III.   THE UNION PRODUCERS

(18)

Most of the Union's producers are members of the European Confederation of the Iron and Steel Industry (‘Eurofer’) or, to the extent the products are pipes and tubes, members of European Steel Tube Association (‘ESTA’). These two industry associations represent more than 95 % of Union steel production. Their members are located in almost all Member States.

(19)

On behalf of their members, these industry associations have informed the Commission that they support the opening of the safeguard investigation, as well as the adoption of measures to also address the trade diversion resulting from the Section 232 measures that seriously disrupts the steel market which has not yet fully recovered from the steel crisis.

IV.   INCREASE IN IMPORTS

(20)

Based on the information from Eurostat, the prior steel surveillance mechanism, as well as information submitted by the Union industry, the Commission has carried out a preliminary analysis of the increase in imports of the products concerned over the period 2013-2017. The Commission has also examined the evolution of imports during the first quarter of 2018 in order to confirm the recent increase in imports.

(21)

The total imports of the products concerned have developed as follows:

 

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

imports (000 tonnes)

18 861

22 437

27 164

29 778

30 573

index 2013 = 100

100

119

144

158

162

market shares

12,7 %

14,4 %

16,9 %

17,9 %

18,0 %

Source: Eurostat

(22)

In overall terms, imports of the 28 product categories concerned, taken altogether, increased in absolute terms by 62 % over the period 2013-2017. The increase of imports was especially marked until 2016. Subsequently, imports continued to increase and remained at a very high level.

(23)

Imports for the vast majority of the individual product categories covered by the investigation also showed an increase in absolute terms over the last five years. For example, the imports of the largest categories in terms of imports (product categories 1, 4, and 7) have increased by 45 %, 168 %, and 78 % respectively.

(24)

There was however not an increase for 5 product categories, namely products 10, 11, 19, 24, and 27. The Commission therefore considers that these product categories should at this stage be excluded from the scope of the provisional measures. The Commission, nevertheless, reserves the right to include these 5 product categories in the scope of the definitive measures and to this effect will continue monitoring the imports within these categories. The evolution of imports for each product category is presented in Annex II.

(25)

In addition to the exclusion, at this stage, of the abovementioned product categories, the Commission has also considered the exclusion of certain countries from the scope of the measures in line with the conclusions in recital (121). Accordingly, the Commission has excluded the imports of these product categories from these aforementioned countries from the rest of its preliminary analysis and reviewed the imports' evolution.

(26)

On this basis, the imports of the products concerned by this preliminary determination have developed as follows:

 

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

imports (000 tonnes)

17 367

20 764

25 556

28 174

29 122

index 2013 = 100

100

120

147

162

168

market shares

12,1 %

13,8 %

16,5 %

17,5 %

17,8 %

Source: Eurostat

(27)

Imports increased in absolute terms by 68 % during the period 2013-2017, with market shares increasing from 12,1 % to 17,80 %. The most significant increase took place in the period 2013-2016, but imports continued to increase and remained at a high level in 2017.

(28)

The trend of increasing imports continues in 2018. When comparing the first quarter of 2018 with the first quarter of 2017, the overall import increase amounts to 10 %. For 9 product categories, the increase is more than 20 % and for one of those categories (category 13) the increase is more than 100 %. Moreover, this increase took place even before the Section 232 measures entered into force.

(29)

The Commission therefore concludes that there has been a sudden, steep, and significant increase of imports in absolute terms for 23 product categories. In addition, the increase of imports continues in the first quarter of 2018 and it is expected to be even more significant in view of the expected trade diversion from the Section 232 measures.

V.   UNFORESEEN DEVELOPMENTS

(30)

The Commission has preliminarily determined that the above-mentioned increase in imports of steel products in the Union has been the result of unforeseen developments that finds its source in a number of factors establishing and aggravating imbalances in the international trade of the products concerned.

(31)

First of all, the nominal global steelmaking capacity has more than doubled since 2000, from a level of 1,05 billion tonnes in 2000 to 2,29 billion tonnes in 2016 and has remained at a very high level in 2017 (2,27 billion tonnes) (9). In addition, actual global steel production in 2016 (1,6 billion tonnes) was still 100 million tonnes higher than global steel demand (1,5 billion tonnes). Consequently, there has been over the last years a major gap between nominal global capacity and production and between production and demand, generating an unprecedented overcapacity in the global steel market which has persisted despite the measures adopted to narrow it. Moreover, looking forward, whereas global production in 2017 increased by more than 5 % due to an economic recovery, global steel demand in 2018 will show only moderate growth with further deceleration predicted for 2019. There was a sign of recovery in 2017, but important risks remain.

(32)

The steel firms continue to be financially vulnerable since, as mentioned above, there are persisting structural imbalances in the steel sector. These imbalances are accentuated by distortive subsidies and government support measures (10). Given the important fixed costs in the steel sector, many steel producers, notably in countries where the State distorts the normal play of market forces, kept capacity utilisation at high rates and flooded third country markets with their products at low prices when they could not be absorbed by domestic consumption. This has resulted in increasing imports in the EU and overall price depression. Import prices have in general undercut Union industry prices in 2017, based on an average price comparison for each product category. Such an average price comparison does not necessarily reflect all the specificities which may have an impact on comparability, but nevertheless gives a good indication of the general price level of imports as compared to Union prices. Undercutting was established for 17 product categories, with ranges between 1,2 % and 23 %.

(33)

Secondly, the above effect has been exacerbated by trade-restrictive practices in third country markets. Indeed, since 2014/2015, in reaction to the above mentioned oversupply of steel and the market-distorting practices, several countries have begun to make greater use of trade policy and trade defence instruments in the steel sector with a view to protecting their domestic producers. Mexico, South Africa, India and Turkey have applied import tariffs' increases ranging from 2,5 % to 40 % for a series of steel products including inter alia: hot rolled and cold rolled steel, flat steel products like strips, and also rebars. These products were typically imported in increasing quantities over the period of investigation. Furthermore, third countries continued throughout 2017 to impose trade restrictive measures: some countries introduced minimum import prices (India), some imposed mandatory national standards for steel (Indonesia) and others imposed local content requirements, including through government procurement (U.S.).

(34)

In addition, recourse to trade defence instruments has steadily increased. Based on WTO statistics, whereas during 2011-2013 on average around 77 steel-related investigations had been initiated per year, during 2015-2016 this average increased to 117. In February 2018, the U.S. had 169 anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders in place on steel, as well as 25 ongoing investigations that could lead to an even more restrictive picture for imports of steel into the U.S. (11) As the U.S. is one of the world's largest steel importing countries – representing around 13,1 % of the world steel imports (in 2016) – the impact of such a large number of trade remedies has been strongly felt globally.

(35)

Third, in the context of the prevailing persistent worldwide overcapacity, the illegal and restrictive U.S. Section 232 measures, given their level and scope, are likely to cause substantial trade diversion of steel products into the Union. The U.S. have calculated that the imposition of a single across-product tariff under the Section 232 measures with almost no country exclusion should decrease imports by approximately 13 million tonnes – corresponding to 7 % of Union consumption (12). The Union market is generally a very attractive market for steel products both in terms of demand and prices. Some of the main exporters to the US are also traditional steel suppliers to the Union and there is no doubt that these countries, as well as others whose exports and production will be affected by the U.S. measures and the foreseeable trade diversion cascade, will redirect their exports to the Union. Even a partial diversion of the abovementioned trade flows into the Union will unavoidably result in a new price depression and undercutting on the EU market, bringing price down to levels comparable to those of 2016, with significant negative consequences on the profitability of the Union steel industry. It should finally be noted that the additional import increase which is liable to further deteriorate the economic situation of the Union steel industry might especially originate from countries currently not subject to anti-dumping/countervailing duty measures.

(36)

Consequently, the abovementioned unforeseen developments have lead and will further lead to a clear increase of steel imports into the Union.

VI.   THREAT OF SERIOUS INJURY

1.   Global situation of the Union steel industry

(37)

In order to formulate its preliminary determination as to whether there is evidence of serious injury or threat of serious injury to the Union industry for the product concerned under assessment, the Commission, in line with Article 9 of Regulation 2015/478 and Article 6 of Regulation 2015/755, has examined the trends of consumption, production, capacity utilisation, sales, market share, prices, profitability, stocks, Return On Capital Employed (ROCE), cash flow and employment for the product concerned for the years 2013 to 2017 (pending the collection of 2018 data).

(38)

This analysis has been carried out globally and also individually for the 23 product categories showing an increase of import volumes (‘the products/product categories under assessment’). As explained in Section II above, the Commission considers such a global and comprehensive analysis adequate in this investigation, given the interrelation, interconnection, and the level of competition between the different products from a demand and supply point of view.

(39)

When looking at the overall situation, the Union consumption, sales of Union producers and the corresponding market share developed as follows:

(000 tonnes)

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption

144 908

152 146

157 236

163 100

166 244

index 2013 = 100

100

105

109

113

115

Domestic sales

125 808

129 261

129 542

132 717

134 542

index 2013 = 100

100

103

103

105

107

market shares (%)

86,8 %

85,0 %

82,4 %

81,4 %

80,9 %

Source: Eurostat and industry data

(40)

The consumption of the products under assessment increased consistently every year during the period 2013-2017, and by 15 % overall. The sales of Union producers also increased, but to a much lesser extent than Union consumption, i.e. by 7 % only. Consequently, the Union producers could not benefit from the increasing Union demand and lost market shares, going from 86,8 % to 80,9 %. It should be recalled that during the same period imports increased by 68 %.

(41)

On the basis of the questionnaire replies received from the Union producers, production and production capacity developed as follows:

000 tonnes

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

EU production

184 912

190 687

192 493

194 369

200 650

index 2013 = 100

100

103

104

105

109

production capacity

257 331

257 138

258 056

260 171

265 353

index 2013 = 100

100

100

100

101

103

capacity utilisation (%)

71,9 %

74,2 %

74,6 %

74,7 %

75,6 %

Source: Industry data

(42)

Production capacity increased by 3 % during the period 2013-2017, but less than the production level which increased by 9 %. As a result, the capacity utilisation rate increased from 72 % to 76 %.

(43)

The stocks held by the cooperating companies increased overall by 20 % in the period 2013-2017.

000 tonnes

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Stocks

11 006

11 896

12 391

12 117

13 222

index 2013 = 100

100

108

113

110

120

Source: questionnaire replies

(44)

Unit sales prices, profitability and cash flow of the Union producers developed as follows:

 

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Unit sales prices (EUR/tonne)

673,5

652,8

616,9

572,9

681,5

index 2013 = 100

100

97

92

85

101

Profitability

– 1,0 %

0,9 %

0,9 %

2,2 %

6,2 %

Cash flow (mio EUR )

3 133

4 975

6 519

5 386

6 141

index 2013 = 100

100

159

208

172

196

Source: questionnaire replies

(45)

In the period 2013-2016 there was a significant price depression on the Union market: Unit sales prices decreased by 15 %. It should be recalled that imports also increased significantly during this period. The average unit sales price recovered however in 2017 and reached a level comparable to 2013. Profitability overall remained at a very low level during the period 2013-2016. Despite a significant decrease in prices, the Union industry could nevertheless reduce its cost of production in 2016 to such an extent that it managed to make a small level of profit of 2,2 %. The situation temporarily recovered in 2017. Sales prices increased by almost 20 % between 2016 and 2017 and reached their 2013 level. The Union industry achieved a level of profit of 6,2 % since cost of production (raw material), even if increasing, remained lower than in 2013. The overall cash flow position of the Union industry increased by approximately 60 %.

(46)

In terms of employment, over the 5-year period, the Union producers of the product categories under assessment lost almost 10 000 jobs.

 

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

employment (FTE)

189 265

183 470

182 136

182 162

181 303

index 2013 = 100

100

97

96

96

96

Source: questionnaire replies

2.   Situation at the level of individual product categories

(47)

In addition to the global analysis of the situation for the product concerned overall, which the Commission considers to be the appropriate standpoint for the appraisal of the necessity of safeguard measures in this investigation, the Commission has also assessed the situation at the level of the individual product categories in order to confirm the above trends at a disaggregated level.

(48)

When looking at individual product categories, the situation is more contrasted but generally shows the same trends. The economic indicators are provided individually and by product categories in Annex III.

(49)

The Union consumption for all but two product categories increased in the last five years. While this increase remained modest for some individual products, with a minimum increase of 2 %, it was much more marked for others, with a maximum increase of 169 %.

(50)

Sales volumes were generally stable in the period 2013-2017 or, in some cases, slightly increased but, except for three product categories, they did not increase as much as EU consumption. As a result, there was a decrease of market shares over the five year period for all but 3 products.

(51)

Production levels generally increased for 18 out of 23 of the individual products, as well as capacity utilisation rates.

(52)

In terms of prices, there was a significant price decrease for each product (except for one product that was subject to anti-dumping duties in the form of a minimum import price) in the period 2013-2016. Prices recovered in 2017, given a general recovery of the steel market but also as a consequence of the various trade defence measures taken against unfair pricing behaviour and subsidised imports. For 16 products the price level remained lower in 2017 than in 2013. It should be noted that average import price levels were almost systematically lower than Union prices for all years, and for all product categories.

(53)

As far as profit is concerned, all product categories were sold at a loss or at a much reduced profit until 2016. Only 7 products could recover to a level of profit above 6 % in 2017. These products are significant in terms of EU production volume and six of them are currently subject to (recent) anti-dumping or countervailing duty measures. Note that these measures concern only some countries of origin. All other products remained either loss making (3 products) or only close to break-even (13 products). It is considered that the level profit below 6 % is insufficient to cover the investments needed to sustain the activity, as, in the majority of the recent investigations, the Commission has used a level of around 8 % profit as a sufficient profit level in this sector in order to cover investments. As for cash flow, for half of the products the cash flow deteriorated in 2013-2017 and for 6 products the cash flow was even negative in 2017. The return on capital employed (ROCE) remained low in the period 2013-2016, but subsequently improved for a large majority of the product categories, even though for 5 products the ROCE was still negative in 2017.

(54)

In terms of stocks, the stocks increased for 17 product categories. Only the stocks of 5 product categories decreased and for one product category it remained at the same level during the period.

(55)

The above analysis corroborates that the situation of the Union steel industry deteriorated significantly in the period 2013-2016. This materialised by a decrease in market shares, and by a significant price depression which prevented the industry from benefiting from lower raw material costs. These trends existed both at a global and individual product level. The situation partially recovered in 2017. While many product categories are still below a level of sustainable profit, some have improved, most likely as a result of the recent imposition of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures. Globally, and for individual product categories, it is therefore considered that the Union industry is still in a fragile situation and vulnerable to further increase in imports, in particular if imports from countries subject to trade defence measures are replaced by other imports diverted from the U.S. market as a result of the Section 232 action.

(56)

This is, for example, typically the case for product categories 1, 2 and 4, which are important in terms of Union demand but also because these product categories (in particular categories 1 and 2) are used as raw material to produce other steel products. For product categories 1, 2 and 4, the financial situation was negative in 2016, but became positive in 2017 following the imposition of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures against a number of countries like, amongst others, China and Russia. Imports from these countries have however been recently and partially replaced by imports from India, Korea and Turkey, the two latter being also significant supplier to the U.S. In the first quarter of 2018, i.e. before the imposition of the measures in the U.S., Union imports have already increased for product category 1 as compared to the first quarter 2017, and this increase is mainly due to imports from Turkey.

(57)

It is likely that a further increase in steel imports in the Union would prevent the Union industry, which has not yet fully recovered, to benefit from the positive effect of the recent trade defence measures.

3.   Threat of serious injury

(58)

In its Steel Communication of March 2016 (13), the Commission concluded that the Union steel industry was facing a number of serious challenges, fuelled by global overcapacity, a dramatic increase of global exports, and an unprecedented wave of unfair trading practices.

(59)

In parallel, in order to remedy the injury caused by unfair trade imports, the Union has imposed a number of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures against imports of steel products. In total, there are currently no less than 19 anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures against the unfairly traded imports of 14 product categories under investigation from various countries. During the period under investigation, i.e. 2013-2017, 13 new investigations determined that the EU steel industry suffered (or in one case was threatened to suffer) from material injury caused by unfair trade practices.

(60)

As noted in recital (55), the Union industry is still in a fragile situation and vulnerable to a further increase in imports. The recent U.S. decision not to exclude EU exports from the scope of Section 232 measures will likely reduce the Union producers' ability to export their products to the U.S. and make their situation even more vulnerable.

(61)

Steel imports have increased significantly, remaining at high levels in 2017. The further increase of imports in 2018 – in particular from those countries or exporters not subject to trade defence measures – is likely to prevent the industry from a full recovery and from benefiting from these measures. The Union steel industry is indeed considered to be still vulnerable to further increases of imports.

(62)

In the absence of provisional safeguard measures, it is likely that the situation will develop into actual serious injury in the foreseeable future.

(63)

In this context, pursuant to Article 9(2) of Regulation 2015/478 and Article 6(3) of Regulation 2015/755, the Commission has examined the rate of increase of the exports to the Union and the likelihood that available capacity is used to export into the Union.

(64)

First, as concluded above, imports into the Union increased substantially in the period 2013-2017, i.e. by 68 % globally. While the increase was especially marked until 2016, imports continued to increase in the subsequent period, albeit at a slower pace. As highlighted in recitals (37) and (82) regarding critical circumstances – imports increased again significantly, by almost 10 %, in the first quarter of 2018. The rate of increase of imports is therefore significant.

(65)

Second, in a situation of global overcapacity in various countries, it is expected that the restrictive U.S. Section 232 measures, given their level and scope, are likely to cause trade diversion of steel products in the Union.

(66)

The U.S. have announced their intention to decrease imports by approximately 13 million tonnes and, as a result, have imposed in March 2018 an additional import duty of 25 % against imports of a very large number of steel products. The volume of steel that will no longer be exported to the U.S. will unavoidably be diverted to other third countries.

(67)

Some of the main exporters to the US are also traditional steel suppliers to the Union. It is more than likely that these countries, as well as others, will to a large extent be willing to redirect their exports to the Union. The Union market is indeed generally an attractive market for steel products both in terms of demand and prices. In fact, the EU is, after China, but before the U.S., one of the main markets for steel, where demand has increased in the last years and prices have also now recovered.

(68)

In this context, a significant increase of supply on the Union market caused by an influx of imports will result in a general downward price pressure, resulting in price levels comparable to 2016 with significant negative consequences on the profitability of the Union steel industry.

4.   Conclusions

(69)

Under these circumstances, and based on the above, it is preliminary concluded that, although the Union steel industry has partially recovered for some product categories in 2017, notably due to trade defence measures, for the bulk of product categories under assessment the financial situation is still well below sustainable levels, which makes the Union industry still vulnerable to another surge of imports. Accordingly, the Commission concludes that the Union steel industry is in a situation of threat of serious injury for the 23 product categories under assessment.

VII.   CAUSATION

1.   Increase of imports

(70)

The Commission has made a preliminary determination that there is a causal link between increased imports of the product under assessment on the one hand and a threat of serious injury on the other hand, on the following basis.

(71)

It is first recalled that the products produced by the Union producers are like or directly competing with the products concerned. They have the same basic characteristics, the same uses and are sold via similar or identical sales channels and strongly compete on price.

(72)

As explained in Sections IV and VI, the Union producers have suffered in terms of loss of market share and significant price pressure resulting in a negative or unsustainable level of profit. For some products, even if the producers have recovered, serious injury appears to be imminent.

(73)

In the period 2013-2017, imports of the product concerned increased significantly and took away Union market shares based on lower than EU producers' price levels. Indeed, the market share of imports, overall, grew from 12,2 % to 17,6 % and import prices remained almost systematically lower than the Union sales prices for each individual product.

(74)

The causal link between the increased imports and the situation of the Union producers was especially marked in the period 2013-2016, when low priced imports peaked (+ 62 %) and EU producers' prices fell by 15 %. For category 13, the decrease in prices amounted even to 20 % whereas for categories 1 and 3 they were 19 % and 18 % respectively. As a result, Union producers of the like products were either in a loss making situation or just close to break even. In the year 2017, imports remained at a high level and continued to undercut prices, despite a general price increase. EU prices recovered, but not sufficiently for a number of products which were still sold at a loss or reduced profit.

(75)

Even if profit recovered for some product categories, their situation is still vulnerable. Indeed, based on previous years' developments, these product categories are particularly sensitive to price pressure, and any further increase of imports at low prices would have a significant negative impact on their situation.

(76)

In this context, it is considered that the restrictive measures taken by the U.S. pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act, given their level and scope, are likely to cause imminent serious injury to Union producers.

(77)

The Commission therefore provisionally concludes that, in relation to the 23 product categories under assessment, there is a causal link between the increase in imports, the pressure on the Union steel market price and the threat of serious injury suffered by Union producers.

2.   Other known factors

(78)

To ensure that the serious injury is not attributable to factors other than the increase in imports, the Commission has carried out a preliminary analysis to determine whether the other factors may have contributed to the serious injury suffered by the Union producers.

(79)

The global overcapacity was found to have played a role in the sense that it boosted cheap imports into the Union. Consumption for the steel products concerned increased and could therefore not weaken the causal link.

(80)

The Commission also considered the attribution of serious injury due to imports of the products concerned from members of the European Economic Area (EEA). As a result of the EEA Agreement between the Union and its Member States, on the one hand, and members of the EEA (Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein), on the other hand, the Union has established a close economic integration with the markets of EEA countries, as well as the industries of the products concerned. The industry in those markets is mature and saturated, due to which it is considered that the exclusion of products originating in the members of the EEA from the safeguard measures will have little (if no) impact on the import levels of the products. Indeed, and while the imports from these countries have indeed contributed for some product categories to an increase in imports (overall imports from these countries show an increase of approximately 9 %), the share of those imports in the total imports is limited (EEA share in imports is about 1,5 %, with a corresponding market share of 0,3 % in total). In addition, EEA members are traditionally minor suppliers of the product concerned to the U.S., which means that the risk of trade diversion has preliminarily been determined to also be limited. Having, therefore, regard to the traditionally minor supplies to the U.S., the maturity of the industry in EEA markets, and the related limited risk of trade diversion stemming therefrom, the Commission considers that imports of the products concerned from EEA members may only have very marginally, if at all contributed to the threat of serious injury.

(81)

Consequently, the Commission has not identified other factors that would weaken the causal link between the increase in imports and the serious injury to the Union producers. Nevertheless, a more detailed examination of all other factors that have or may have contributed to the injury will be undertaken in the remainder of the investigation.

VIII.   CRITICAL SITUATION

(82)

As indicated above, Union steel producers are globally in a situation of threat of injury and serious injury is clearly imminent. For some individual product categories, there are already indications pointing towards serious injury. A further increase of imports will likely have significant adverse effects on the economic situation of the industry overall.

(83)

The Commission has examined whether critical circumstances exist in which delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair. In particular it was examined whether imports have continued to increase in the most recent period.

(84)

Based on a comparison between imports of steel products in the first quarter 2018 and the first quarter 2017, it appears that for 18 of the 23 product categories imports increased by 26 %. This increase of imports is significantly more important than that experienced in the period 2016-2017, which was around 2 %.

(85)

The 25 % tariffs under Section 232 on steel products were introduced on 23 March 2018. It is at this stage not possible to assess the full effect of the U.S. measures in terms of trade diversion. The increase of imports into the Union in the first quarter 2018 could however be seen as an anticipation of their effects and, therefore, give a good indication of what could be the potential future development of Union imports after the US measures have been imposed.

(86)

On 30 May 2018, the U.S. also decided that Section 232 measures should be enforced against the Union, Mexico and Canada. The Commission considers that this is a further critical element since it would not only restrict Union exports but also increase the risk of trade diversion from the other two important steel producing countries.

(87)

Given the vulnerable situation of the industry, and in view of the most recent increase of imports, a further oversupply of steel products on the Union market, and the resulting pressure on prices, will undoubtedly have serious consequences on the situation of the Union producers.

(88)

Therefore, the Commission considers that, on account of the real risk of trade diversion and the further restriction of imports to the U.S. of important steel producing countries, there are critical circumstances by which any delay in the adoption of provisional safeguard measures would cause damage which would be difficult to repair. The Commission therefore concludes that provisional safeguard measures should be adopted without delay.

IX.   UNION INTEREST

(89)

In accordance with Article 16 of Regulation 2015/478, it has been examined whether, despite the provisional finding of threat of serious injury, compelling reasons exist for concluding that it is not in the Union interest to adopt provisional measures in this particular case. The analysis of the Union interest was based on an appraisal of all the various interests involved, including those of the Union producers, importers, and users.

(90)

The Union industry is composed of around 40 producers, located in many different Member States of the Union, and employing directly more than 180 000 people in relation to the 25 products concerned in the period 2013-2017. It has been established that the Union industry faces a threat of serious injury caused by an increase of imports. It is recalled that the Union industry has not benefited from an increase in consumption and that the economic situation of the Union industry remains fragile and vulnerable to further increase of imports. The strategic importance of the steel industry has long been recognised (14). It is in the Union interest to have a healthy and competitive steel industry. It is clear that if no measures are taken, both the prices and the market share of the Union producers will further decrease resulting in reduced production, increased financial losses and loss of employment, both in the steel industry and in related industries. Imposing provisional safeguard measures will temporary remedy the serious injury and facilitate the adjustment by the Union industry.

(91)

Users and importers, in general, seek the lowest possible price for steel, and it is clear that, without measures, prices would be lower. However, it is also in their interests to have a competitive and viable Union steel industry, able to meet their future needs.

(92)

In this context, several interested parties to the investigation have claimed that it would not be in the interest of the Union to impose provisional safeguard measures. They claim that measures would almost certainly result in a supply shortage and would therefore place that Union industry in a stronger negotiating position to exert pressure on prices. They further argued that the sources of supply are already limited by the imposition of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures and that products which are not available from Union producers or not available sufficiently or with the proper technical specifications must be excluded from safeguard measures.

(93)

In order to strike the right balance between the various legitimate interests and since the threat of serious injury is mainly linked in this case to the existence of trade diversion, the Commission considers that the form of the safeguard measures should preserve historical import levels, and that only imports in excess of this level should be subjected to them. In this respect, a system of Tariff Rate Quotas under which no obstacle is raised against traditional trade flows guarantees that the safeguard measures are in line with the Union interest. Such a form of measure would prevent the negative effects of trade diversion for the Union industry, while at the same time preserve traditional trade supply sources and effective competition in the steel market.

(94)

In these circumstances, the Commission considers that the risk that the adopted measure triggers a supply shortage or a price increase is not material. Similarly, the claim that certain specific product categories must be excluded from safeguard measures as they are not available from Union producers or not available sufficiently or with the proper technical specifications should be rejected since traditional trade flows will be guaranteed.

(95)

Therefore, on balance, the Commission provisionally concludes that the Union interest requires the adoption of provisional safeguard measures under the specific form of a tariff increase which will be applied beyond traditional trade flows on a product category basis.

X.   CONCLUSIONS AND ADOPTION OF PROVISIONAL MEASURES

1.   Adoption of provisional measures

(96)

It was preliminary concluded that the Union steel industry is in a situation of threat of serious injury for the 23 product categories under assessment and that this situation is likely to develop into actual serious injury in the foreseeable future. Given the critical circumstances, it is considered that provisional safeguard measures should be taken in order to prevent damage to the EU steel industry which would be difficult to repair before the conclusion of the current investigation.

2.   Form and level of measures

(97)

For the selection of the appropriate form of measure, the Commission considered the three following elements. First, serious injury to the global Union steel industry is likely to materialise due to the diversion of steel exports to the US to the EU as a consequence of the Section 232 measures. Second, it is considered that the openness of the Union market should be preserved and the traditional flow of imports should be maintained. Indeed, it is basically the excess of imports above these traditional trade flows that are considered to be the main threat for the situation of the steel industry. Finally, in conformity with Article 7(2) of Regulation (EU) 2015/478 and the Union's international obligations, in particular Article 6 of the WTO Agreement on Safeguards, the provisional measures should take the form of tariff measures.

(98)

On that basis the Commission considers that, as mentioned in recital (93), the provisional safeguard measures should take the form of a system of tariff rate quotas in excess of which an additional duty will be paid. To ensure access to the Union market to all traditional suppliers, such tariff rate quotas should be based on the average of the annual level of imports in the years 2015, 2016, and 2017. As the tariff rate quotas will be in operation for 200 calendar days, the quotas should be set at a corresponding pro-rata level to the annual figure.

(99)

The additional above-quota duty rate should be fixed at a level which is consistent with the aim of preventing serious injury to the Union industry. Given the conclusions on threat of serious injury and the fact that serious injury did not occur yet in overall terms, the Commission considers that calculating an injury margin on the basis of the constructed average non-injurious price per tonne of the Union industry's products in the most recent period does not seem to be appropriate.

(100)

Under these circumstances, the Commission rather considers it more appropriate to take a forward-looking approach to assessing the level of the duty necessary to deter imports in excess of traditional trade flows from materialising and producing serious injury to the Union industry once the level of the quota has been reached.

(101)

In this respect, the Union industry has submitted two complementary methods to calculate a sufficiently deterring tariff, which the Commission finds adequate for such purpose: the first is a partial equilibrium model of the Union market for steel, whereas the second calculates contribution margins for steel products.

(102)

A partial equilibrium model is a set of demand and supply equations focusing on one part of the economy and applying the ceteris paribus assumption to the rest of the economy. It also assumes that the macroeconomic impacts of the scenario that is analysed are not large enough to influence macroeconomic aggregates such as the overall wage level in an economy.

(103)

The model proposed by the Union industry is based on publically available code that is programmed and solved in a spreadsheet-software. Partial equilibrium models more broadly are a standard tool for trade policy analysis by investigating authorities, including the Commission.

(104)

The model, as most others, applies the so-called Armington assumption that products from different origins are imperfect substitutes. The model looks at the Union market only using a supply function each for Union domestic supply, import supply by countries subject to safeguards and import supply by countries exempted from safeguards. Finally, it employs an Union demand function that responds to the overall price level to determine demand for steel at the aggregate level and distributes this according to relative prices to the three mentioned sources of supply. This latter process is governed by the so-called Armington Elasticities, i.e. economic parameters representing the elasticity of substitution between products from different countries of origin that differ between product types and markets.

(105)

The data for the model comes from Eurofer and Eurostat. The Armington Elasticities, as well as the supply and demand elasticities come from established sources such as the U.S. ITC and the Global Trade Analysis Project (‘GTAP’). The Armington Elasticity is set at 3,75, the demand elasticity is set at – 0,5 and the three supply elasticities are set at 4 in accordance with these sources.

(106)

Being a one-country-model certain explicit and implicit assumptions need to be made, notably concerning the U.S. steel market and the impact of the measures imposed by invoking Section 232.

(107)

First, it is assumed that these measures will succeed in excluding from the U.S. market the current exports of countries subjected to Section 232 measures. In the next step, the proportion of these excluded exports that will be diverted towards the EU market for each producer country currently exporting to the U.S. is calculated according to a methodology under which four different criteria are considered and weighted: distance to the Union, availability in the relevant region of countries capable of absorbing diverted exports, existence of countries in the region with significant overcapacity, and the existence in the country of trade defence measures in place. According to this calculation, 72 % of current US imports of steel will be diverted to the EU market, which corresponds to 55 % of total Union imports of steel in 2017. It is further assumed that these additional imports will displace Union production of the same amount.

(108)

The model is specified with the above mentioned parameters and the market data corrected for the assumptions made in the two previous recitals. The model is then solved with experiments of various magnitudes of a Union out-of-quota safeguard tariff. The results of the model predict that a tariff of 25 % would allow import levels that are about 19 % higher than in the reference period of 2015-2017. A tariff of 32 % would still allow 10 % more imports than in the reference period. A tariff of 41 % would, on the other hand, suppress imports to their 2015-2017 level.

(109)

The results of the macroeconomic trade model are complemented with a series of microeconomic simulations of typical contribution margins for 12 different product categories under assessment. The assumption behind the analysis is that in case of falling prices, producers would continue to fully utilize their capacities and export to the Union as long as variable costs are covered. The margin between the sales price and variable costs is termed the contribution margin. In other words, a producer would continue producing as long as the contribution margin is non-negative. The analysis establishes for each of the twelve product categories under assessment the Union landed price at which the contribution margin for exporters to the EU would be entirely exhausted. The spread between this price and the non-injurious domestic price on the Union market should then be the out-of-quota tariff necessary to guarantee a non-injurious price level on the Union market.

(110)

The analysis uses a basket of raw material prices based on Metal Bulleting public indices, variable cost of Chinese firms from the CRU database and assumed freight costs of $60/tonne between China and the EU, which is stated to be a conservative estimate. It concludes that contribution margins and thus the necessary deterrent out-of-quota tariffs should be in the range of 19-45 %, with a median of 34 %, which would essentially confirm the order of magnitude of the out-of-quota tariff identified by the partial equilibrium model.

(111)

On the basis of the above, the Commission has preliminary established that a provisional 25 % out-of-quota tariff would be sufficient to prevent serious injury from occurring. This lower tariff than the 32 % resulting from the model for ensuring a traditional trade plus 10 % import flow increase represents a cautious approach, having regard to the Union interest, and pending comments from interested parties after the adoption of the provisional measures and a closer study of the evolution of imports before the imposition of definitive measures.

3.   Administration of the quotas

(112)

The best way of ensuring optimal use of the tariff quotas is to allocate them in the chronological order of the dates on which declarations of release for free circulation are accepted, as provided for in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2447 (15). Equal and continuous access to the quotas should be ensured for all Union importers. This method of administration calls for close cooperation between the Member States and the Commission.

(113)

The eligibility of imported goods from developing countries to be excluded from the tariff quotas is dependent on the origin of the goods. The criteria for determining non-preferential origin currently in force in the Union should therefore be applied.

(114)

For the purpose of the provisional measures, in order to permit traditional trade flows to continue, a specific quota will be determined for each of the product categories on which this Regulation imposes provisional measures, irrespectively of their country of origin. The remainder of the investigation will determine whether an allocation of quota by exporting country is desirable in order to ensure traditional trade flows from these countries and having regard to the impact of the provisional measures. In particular, the Commission will have to consider the potential effect of the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures currently in force on the allocation and usage of a per-country quota.

4.   Applicable anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures

(115)

Once the determined free-of-duty quota is reached, the safeguard measures will apply.

(116)

Several interested parties claimed that the combination of the already imposed anti-dumping and countervailing measures on many product categories with the safeguard measures on those same imports would place an undesirably onerous burden on certain exporting producers seeking to export to the EU, which may have the effect of denying them access to the Union market.

(117)

Indeed, for 12 steel product categories covered by the current provisional safeguard measures, some countries of origin are currently subject to anti-dumping and countervailing duties. It is therefore necessary to consider whether the cumulation of these measures with the safeguard measures would not lead to a greater effect than desirable (16). In order to avoid the imposition of ‘double remedies’, whenever the tariff quota is exceeded, the level of the existing anti-dumping and countervailing will be suspended or reduced to ensure that the combined effect of these measures does not exceed the highest level of the safeguard or anti-dumping/countervailing duties in place.

5.   Duration

(118)

The provisional measures should apply for 200 calendar days from the date on which this Regulation enters into force.

XI.   EXCLUSIONS OF CERTAIN COUNTRIES FROM THE SCOPE OF THE PROVISIONAL MEASURES

(119)

In accordance with Article 18 of Regulation 2015/478 and the international obligations of the Union, the provisional measures should not apply to any product originating in a developing country as long as its share of imports of that product into the Union does not exceed 3 %, provided that developing country members of the WTO with less than a 3 % import share, collectively account for not more than 9 % of total Union imports of the product concerned.

(120)

The preliminary determination made by the Commission shows that the product categories concerned originating in certain developing countries meet the requirements to benefit from the abovementioned derogation. Annex IV (List of products originating in developing countries to which the provisional measures apply) specifies the developing countries for the purposes of this Regulation. It also indicates for each of the 23 product categories the developing countries to which the provisional measures apply. The Commission considers it appropriate at this stage to calculate the volume of imports from developing countries on the basis of each product category since the tariff rate quota is also established by reference to traditional trade flows from each category individually. This is without prejudice as to future decisions regarding whether a country can be considered as a developing country.

(121)

As set out in recital (80) above, on account of the close integration of markets with EEA members, the overall figures of imports from these countries, and the low risk of trade diversion, the Commission considers that the products under assessment originating in Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein should be excluded from the application of this Regulation,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Article 1

1.   Tariff quotas are hereby opened in relation to imports into the Union of each of the 23 product categories listed in Annex I for a period of 200 days from the entry into force of this Regulation.

2.   Tariff quotas are specified in Annex V (defined by reference to the CN codes specified in relation to it).

3.   Where the relevant tariff quota is exhausted or where imports of the product categories do not benefit from the relevant tariff quota, an additional duty at the rate of 25 % shall be levied. That additional duty shall apply to the customs value of the product being imported.

Article 2

1.   The origin of any product to which this Regulation applies shall be determined in accordance with the provisions in force in the Union relating to non-preferential origin.

2.   Unless otherwise specified, the relevant provisions in force concerning customs duties shall apply.

Article 3

The tariff quotas shall be managed by the Commission and the Member States in accordance with the management system for tariff quotas provided for in Articles 49 to 54 of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2447.

Article 4

Imports of the product categories referred to in Article 1, which are already on their way to the Union on the date of entry into force of this Regulation, whose destination cannot be changed, shall not be attributed to the tariff quotas, or subject to the additional duty specified in Article 1, and may be put into free circulation.

Article 5

The Member States and the Commission shall cooperate closely to ensure compliance with this Regulation.

Article 6

1.   Subject to paragraph 2, imports of the 23 product categories specified in Annex I originating in one of the developing countries shall, as specified in Annex IV, not be subject to the tariff quotas or subject to the additional duty referred to in Article 1.

2.   For each of the 23 product categories, Annex IV specifies the originating developing countries which shall be subject to the measures set out in Article 1.

Article 7

Products originating in Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein shall not be subject to the measures set out in Article 1.

Article 8

This Regulation shall enter into force on the day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 17 July 2018.

For the Commission

The President

Jean-Claude JUNCKER


(1)  OJ L 83, 27.3.2015, p. 16.

(2)  OJ L 123, 19.5.2015, p. 33.

(3)  OJ C 111, 26.3.2018, p. 29.

(4)  OJ C 225, 28.6.2018, p. 54.

(5)  Prior surveillance measures were adopted in April 2018 through the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/670 of 28 April 2016 introducing prior Union surveillance of imports of certain iron and steel products originating in certain third countries (OJ L 115, 29.4.2016, p. 37).

(6)  OJ C 225, 28.6.2018, p. 54.

(7)  Case No COMP/ECSC.1351 Usinor/Arbed/Aceralia and Case No COMP/M.4137, Mittal/Arcelor.

(8)  In particular, see Section IV and Section VI 1 and 2.

(9)  Cf. reports from the 83rd and 84th OECD Steel Committee, available at http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/steel.htm

(10)  Idem, 83rd report.

(11)  Press release U.S. Secretary Ross, Department of Commerce, https://www.commerce.gov/news/press-releases/2018/02/secretary-ross-releases-steel-and-aluminum-232-reports-coordination

(12)  Report by U.S. Department of Commerce under Section 232, https://www.commerce.gov/sites/commerce.gov/files/the_effect_of_imports_of_steel_on_the_national_security_-_with_redactions_-_20180111.pdf

(13)  Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, and the European Investment Bank: Steel: Preserving sustainable jobs and growth in Europe, COM(2016) 155 final, 16.3.2016.

(14)  Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank of 16.3.2016, ‘Steel: Preserving sustainable jobs and growth in Europe’, COM(2016)155 final)

(15)  Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2447 of 24 November 2015 laying down detailed rules for implementing certain provisions of Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down the Union Customs Code (OJ L 343, 29.12.2015, p. 558).

(16)  Regulation (EU) 2015/477 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2015 on measures that the Union may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures (OJ L 83, 27.3.2015, p. 11).


ANNEX I — Products concerned

Product Number

Product category

CN Codes

1

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

7208 10 00 , 7208 25 00 , 7208 26 00 , 7208 27 00 , 7208 36 00 , 7208 37 00 , 7208 38 00 , 7208 39 00 , 7208 40 00 , 7208 52 10 , 7208 52 99 , 7208 53 10 , 7208 53 90 , 7208 54 00 , 7211 13 00 , 7211 14 00 , 7211 19 00 , 7212 60 00 , 7225 19 10 , 7225 30 10 , 7225 30 30 , 7225 30 90 , 7225 40 15 , 7225 40 90 , 7226 19 10 , 7226 91 20 , 7226 91 91 , 7226 91 99

2

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Cold Rolled Sheets

7209 15 00 , 7209 16 90 , 7209 17 90 , 7209 18 91 , 7209 25 00 , 7209 26 90 , 7209 27 90 , 7209 28 90 , 7209 90 20 , 7209 90 80 , 7211 23 20 , 7211 23 30 , 7211 23 80 , 7211 29 00 , 7211 90 20 , 7211 90 80 , 7225 50 20 , 7225 50 80 , 7225 99 00 , 7226 20 00 , 7226 92 00

3

Electrical Sheets (other than GOES)

7209 16 10 , 7209 17 10 , 7209 18 10 , 7209 26 10 , 7209 27 10 , 7209 28 10 , 7225 19 90 , 7226 19 80

4

Metallic Coated Sheets

7210 20 00 , 7210 30 00 , 7210 41 00 , 7210 49 00 , 7210 61 00 , 7210 69 00 , 7210 90 80 , 7212 20 00 , 7212 30 00 , 7212 50 20 , 7212 50 30 , 7212 50 40 , 7212 50 61 , 7212 50 69 , 7212 50 90 , 7225 91 00 , 7225 92 00 , 7226 99 10 , 7226 99 30 , 7226 99 70

5

Organic Coated Sheets

7210 70 80 , 7212 40 80

6

Tin Mill products

7209 18 99 , 7210 11 00 , 7210 12 20 , 7210 12 80 , 7210 50 00 , 7210 70 10 , 7210 90 40 , 7212 10 10 , 7212 10 90 , 7212 40 20

7

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Quarto Plates

7208 51 20 , 7208 51 91 , 7208 51 98 , 7208 52 91 , 7208 90 20 , 7208 90 80 , 7210 90 30 , 7225 40 12 , 7225 40 40 , 7225 40 60

8

Stainless Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

7219 11 00 , 7219 12 10 , 7219 12 90 , 7219 13 10 , 7219 13 90 , 7219 14 10 , 7219 14 90 , 7219 22 10 , 7219 22 90 , 7219 23 00 , 7219 24 00 , 7220 11 00 , 7220 12 00

9

Stainless Cold Rolled Sheets and Strips

7219 31 00 , 7219 32 10 , 7219 32 90 , 7219 33 10 , 7219 33 90 , 7219 34 10 , 7219 34 90 , 7219 35 10 , 7219 35 90 , 7219 90 20 , 7219 90 80 , 7220 20 21 , 7220 20 29 , 7220 20 41 , 7220 20 49 , 7220 20 81 , 7220 20 89 , 7220 90 20 , 7220 90 80

12

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Merchant Bars and Light Sections

7214 30 00 , 7214 91 10 , 7214 91 90 , 7214 99 31 , 7214 99 39 , 7214 99 50 , 7214 99 71 , 7214 99 79 , 7214 99 95 , 7215 90 00 , 7216 10 00 , 7216 21 00 , 7216 22 00 , 7216 40 10 , 7216 40 90 , 7216 50 10 , 7216 50 91 , 7216 50 99 , 7216 99 00 , 7228 10 20 , 7228 20 10 , 7228 20 91 , 7228 30 20 , 7228 30 41 , 7228 30 49 , 7228 30 61 , 7228 30 69 , 7228 30 70 , 7228 30 89 , 7228 60 20 , 7228 60 80 , 7228 70 10 , 7228 70 90 , 7228 80 00

13

Rebars

7214 20 00 , 7214 99 10

14

Stainless Bars and Light Sections

7222 11 11 , 7222 11 19 , 7222 11 81 , 7222 11 89 , 7222 19 10 , 7222 19 90 , 7222 20 11 , 7222 20 19 , 7222 20 21 , 7222 20 29 , 7222 20 31 , 7222 20 39 , 7222 20 81 , 7222 20 89 , 7222 30 51 , 7222 30 91 , 7222 30 97 , 7222 40 10 , 7222 40 50 , 7222 40 90

15

Stainless Wire Rod

7221 00 10 , 7221 00 90

16

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Wire Rod

7213 10 00 , 7213 20 00 , 7213 91 10 , 7213 91 20 , 7213 91 41 , 7213 91 49 , 7213 91 70 , 7213 91 90 , 7213 99 10 , 7213 99 90 , 7227 10 00 , 7227 20 00 , 7227 90 10 , 7227 90 50 , 7227 90 95

17

Angles, Shapes and Sections of Iron or Non Alloy Steel

7216 31 10 , 7216 31 90 , 7216 32 11 , 7216 32 19 , 7216 32 91 , 7216 32 99 , 7216 33 10 , 7216 33 90

18

Sheet Piling

7301 10 00

20

Gas pipes

7306 30 41 , 7306 30 49 , 7306 30 72 , 7306 30 77

21

Hollow sections

7306 61 10 , 7306 61 92 , 7306 61 99

22

Seamless Stainless Tubes and Pipes

7304 11 00 , 7304 22 00 , 7304 24 00 , 7304 41 00 , 7304 49 10 , 7304 49 93 , 7304 49 95 , 7304 49 99

23

Bearing Tubes and Pipes

7304 51 12 , 7304 51 18 , 7304 59 32 , 7304 59 38

25

Large welded tubes

7305 11 00 , 7305 12 00 , 7305 19 00 , 7305 20 00 , 7305 31 00 , 7305 39 00 , 7305 90 00

26

Other Welded Pipes

7306 11 10 , 7306 11 90 , 7306 19 10 , 7306 19 90 , 7306 21 00 , 7306 29 00 , 7306 30 11 , 7306 30 19 , 7306 30 80 , 7306 40 20 , 7306 40 80 , 7306 50 20 , 7306 50 80 , 7306 69 10 , 7306 69 90 , 7306 90 00

28

Non Alloy Wire

7217 10 10 , 7217 10 31 , 7217 10 39 , 7217 10 50 , 7217 10 90 , 7217 20 10 , 7217 20 30 , 7217 20 50 , 7217 20 90 , 7217 30 41 , 7217 30 49 , 7217 30 50 , 7217 30 90 , 7217 90 20 , 7217 90 50 , 7217 90 90


ANNEX II

II.1 — Growth in imports for the 23 product categories (in tonnes)

Product Number

Product category

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

growth 2017 compared to 2013

1

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

4 814 207

5 212 268

7 807 441

8 574 007

6 991 376

45 %

2

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Cold Rolled Sheets

1 832 159

1 903 092

2 759 877

1 998 437

2 462 471

34 %

3

Electrical Sheets (other than GOES)

266 559

285 132

280 256

318 496

379 649

42 %

4

Metallic Coated Sheets

1 854 963

2 202 856

2 687 715

3 911 752

4 980 452

168 %

5

Organic Coated Sheets

681 698

725 296

622 553

730 625

915 248

34 %

6

Tin Mill products

552 384

662 861

638 316

756 016

617 567

12 %

7

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Quarto Plates

1 419 767

1 959 605

2 554 930

2 814 802

2 530 630

78 %

8

Stainless Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

175 836

233 028

269 697

351 075

436 173

148 %

9

Stainless Cold Rolled Sheets and Strips

697 457

1 017 613

787 521

843 352

976 108

40 %

12

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Merchant Bars and Light Sections

911 115

1 219 800

1 200 627

1 400 824

1 385 829

52 %

13

Rebars

527 008

972 602

1 430 014

1 292 971

1 191 445

126 %

14

Stainless Bars and Light Sections

113 071

147 453

142 416

147 811

159 577

41 %

15

Stainless Wire Rod

52 082

71 229

57 627

58 670

62 978

21 %

16

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Wire Rod

1 125 730

1 289 953

1 697 912

2 000 967

2 094 274

86 %

17

Angles, Shapes and Sections of Iron or Non Alloy Steel

223 669

277 507

268 014

388 041

262 745

17 %

18

Sheet Piling

15 870

16 503

14 051

36 970

85 054

436 %

20

Gas pipes

266 467

340 051

298 103

336 050

380 257

43 %

21

Hollow sections

461 263

552 874

574 490

725 545

820 667

78 %

22

Seamless Stainless Tubes and Pipes

32 581

38 782

39 719

42 510

42 701

31 %

23

Bearing Tubes and Pipes

7 489

9 426

11 944

9 773

8 663

16 %

25

Large welded tubes

286 939

411 273

209 524

159 219

1 044 534

264 %

26

Other Welded Pipes

474 949

491 934

510 548

540 386

571 167

20 %

28

Non Alloy Wire

573 988

722 719

692 714

736 500

722 633

26 %

II.2 — Growth in imports for the 23 product categories (in tonnes)

Product Number

Product category

Q1 2017

Q1 2018

growth Q1 2017 vs. Q1 2018

1

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

1 810 764

2 079 408

15 %

2

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Cold Rolled Sheets

679 628

630 459

– 7 %

3

Electrical Sheets (other than GOES)

80 836

114 451

42 %

4

Metallic Coated Sheets

1 482 049

1 190 741

– 20 %

5

Organic Coated Sheets

212 209

201 838

– 5 %

6

Tin Mill products

146 457

168 583

15 %

7

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Quarto Plates

676 207

640 176

– 5 %

8

Stainless Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

122 092

107 577

– 12 %

9

Stainless Cold Rolled Sheets and Strips

229 981

280 549

22 %

12

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Merchant Bars and Light Sections

319 420

466 154

46 %

13

Rebars

210 505

551 316

162 %

14

Stainless Bars and Light Sections

40 602

49 988

23 %

15

Stainless Wire Rod

14 956

19 642

31 %

16

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Wire Rod

560 863

641 668

14 %

17

Angles, Shapes and Sections of Iron or Non Alloy Steel

73 733

139 670

89 %

18

Sheet Piling

19 947

20 326

2 %

20

Gas pipes

94 430

120 512

28 %

21

Hollow sections

223 618

256 998

15 %

22

Seamless Stainless Tubes and Pipes

12 411

12 399

0 %

23

Bearing Tubes and Pipes

1 316

1 498

14 %

25

Large welded tubes

48 791

51 285

5 %

26

Other Welded Pipes

145 059

153 106

6 %

28

Non Alloy Wire

176 299

202 450

15 %

II.3 — Growth in imports for the 5 product categories (in tonnes)

Product Number

Product category

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

growth 2017 compared to 2013

10

Stainless Hot Rolled Quarto Plate

34 319

40 218

37 542

31 407

32 917

– 4 %

11

Grain-oriented electrical sheet

147 565

160 580

150 047

156 477

121 947

– 17 %

19

Railway Material

1 376

1 096

1 240

1 521

1 342

– 2 %

24

Other Seamless tubes

456 167

528 245

475 132

464 876

402 600

– 12 %

27

Non Alloy and Other Alloy Cold Finished Bars

456 791

521 976

484 927

459 327

458 310

0 %


ANNEX III — Economic indicators for the 23 product categories

Product 1 Non Alloy and Other Alloy Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

30 225 632

31 095 524

33 121 273

34 158 703

32 768 375

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

4 814 207

5 212 268

7 807 441

8 574 007

6 991 376

Market share (%)

15,9 %

16,8 %

23,6 %

25,1 %

21,3 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

463

442

396

351

492

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

75 %

75 %

76 %

75 %

76 %

Production (tonnes)

76 871 621

77 990 908

77 331 686

77 563 694

79 568 514

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

25 411 425

25 883 256

25 313 832

25 584 696

25 776 999

Market share (%)

84,1 %

83,2 %

76,4 %

74,9 %

78,7 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

519

493

455

422

556

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 1,9 %

0,0 %

– 3,1 %

– 1,0 %

7,8 %

Employment (end of period)

37 467

35 573

35 038

33 557

34 815

Stock

2 572 574

2 580 258

2 585 958

2 617 556

2 749 280

Cashflow

448 135 738

1 065 492 450

763 891 666

603 485 811

1 369 472 142

ROCE (%)

– 3,8 %

1,0 %

– 6,6 %

– 1,0 %

7,7 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

11,5 %

Product 2 Non Alloy and Other Alloy Cold Rolled Sheets

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

9 772 904

9 728 449

10 353 391

9 849 904

10 085 487

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

1 832 159

1 903 092

2 759 877

1 998 437

2 462 471

Market share (%)

18,7 %

19,6 %

26,7 %

20,3 %

24,4 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

566

546

485

474

606

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

71 %

75 %

75 %

75 %

77 %

Production (tonnes)

40 855 196

41 632 189

41 639 946

41 738 974

42 811 283

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

7 920 370

7 805 648

7 570 764

7 829 002

7 602 288

Market share (%)

81,0 %

80,2 %

73,1 %

79,5 %

75,4 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

588

558

522

495

633

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 4,4 %

– 2,8 %

– 3,0 %

0,6 %

9,8 %

Employment (end of period)

12 690

11 973

11 550

11 230

11 264

Stock

1 078 838

1 052 246

1 064 061

1 054 347

1 093 798

Cashflow

200 559 843

413 849 620

324 264 435

454 766 919

375 807 983

ROCE (%)

– 8,0 %

– 2,4 %

– 12,8 %

– 3,1 %

4,0 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

4,3 %

Product 3 Electrical Sheets (other than GOES)

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

1 267 827

1 287 448

1 223 892

1 255 417

1 350 354

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

266 559

285 132

280 256

318 496

379 649

Market share (%)

21,0 %

22,1 %

22,9 %

25,4 %

28,1 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

648

617

578

502

642

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

87 %

80 %

80 %

82 %

81 %

Production (tonnes)

1 080 894

1 110 013

1 052 273

1 032 560

1 114 309

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

1 001 268

1 002 316

943 636

936 553

969 977

Market share (%)

79,0 %

77,9 %

77,1 %

74,6 %

71,8 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

705

657

606

576

699

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 8,9 %

– 8,1 %

– 13,0 %

– 14,3 %

– 3,2 %

Employment (end of period)

1 522

1 707

2 087

2 069

2 065

Stock

45 680

136 605

142 998

125 466

148 259

Cashflow

110 221 498

213 556 132

127 226 053

131 151 436

– 89 295 095

ROCE (%)

– 18,3 %

– 11,7 %

– 38,3 %

– 17,9 %

– 3,4 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

8,1 %

Product 4 Metallic Coated Sheets

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

23 229 673

24 289 751

25 840 225

27 439 848

28 231 862

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

1 854 963

2 202 856

2 687 715

3 911 752

4 980 452

Market share (%)

8,0 %

9,1 %

10,4 %

14,3 %

17,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

679

657

615

530

662

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

78 %

82 %

84 %

86 %

84 %

Production (tonnes)

27 930 059

29 517 243

29 875 495

29 905 847

30 450 568

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

21 344 052

22 056 052

23 118 423

23 490 212

23 218 040

Market share (%)

91,9 %

90,8 %

89,5 %

85,6 %

82,2 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

682

654

614

586

711

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

1,9 %

5,4 %

5,5 %

7,9 %

11,7 %

Employment (end of period)

28 915

28 243

28 749

29 863

29 648

Stock

1 970 500

2 433 422

2 498 143

2 329 341

2 597 133

Cashflow

807 884 294

1 353 026 892

1 343 062 742

1 720 354 890

2 020 588 339

ROCE (%)

– 6,8 %

– 0,9 %

– 10,4 %

– 1,7 %

6,0 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

7,0 %

Product 5 Organic Coated Sheets

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

4 533 256

4 823 144

4 809 384

5 121 927

5 221 575

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

681 698

725 296

622 553

730 625

915 248

Market share (%)

15,0 %

15,0 %

12,9 %

14,3 %

17,5 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

854

813

813

709

853

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

70 %

76 %

74 %

76 %

75 %

Production (tonnes)

4 479 238

4 564 346

4 574 414

4 863 169

4 940 410

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

3 851 467

4 097 788

4 186 771

4 391 169

4 306 231

Market share (%)

85,0 %

85,0 %

87,1 %

85,7 %

82,5 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

898

868

829

791

934

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 1,7 %

1,4 %

1,1 %

3,7 %

3,9 %

Employment (end of period)

6 377

6 272

6 047

6 150

6 095

Stock

239 236

182 275

197 241

214 384

258 114

Cashflow

152 893 378

351 790 418

321 603 588

361 237 401

79 886 901

ROCE (%)

– 7,6 %

– 2,1 %

– 12,9 %

– 2,7 %

3,7 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

8,6 %

Product 6 Tin Mill Products

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

3 638 423

3 758 879

3 789 391

3 792 575

3 695 205

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

552 384

662 861

638 316

756 016

617 567

Market share (%)

15,2 %

17,6 %

16,8 %

19,9 %

16,7 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

822

792

781

667

753

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

82 %

84 %

84 %

82 %

84 %

Production (tonnes)

4 223 583

4 315 402

4 353 002

4 302 367

4 295 575

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

3 085 602

3 095 745

3 150 741

3 036 316

3 077 185

Market share (%)

84,8 %

82,4 %

83,1 %

80,1 %

83,3 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

845

821

789

728

812

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

1,7 %

4,1 %

4,8 %

4,6 %

3,1 %

Employment (end of period)

7 939

7 660

7 683

7 819

7 424

Stock

380 445

394 384

394 712

297 877

356 460

Cashflow

117 064 184

201 350 074

291 440 814

272 002 110

133 250 945

ROCE (%)

– 18,6 %

– 10,1 %

– 35,2 %

– 20,4 %

– 25,0 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

7,3 %

Product 7 Non Alloy and Other Alloy Quarto Plates

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

10 148 839

10 375 274

10 934 966

11 058 596

11 059 068

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

1 419 767

1 959 605

2 554 930

2 814 802

2 530 630

Market share (%)

14,0 %

18,9 %

23,4 %

25,5 %

22,9 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

513

492

474

403

533

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

58 %

62 %

62 %

63 %

65 %

Production (tonnes)

10 749 475

11 240 103

10 608 260

10 244 950

10 581 040

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

8 727 826

8 414 892

8 377 455

8 242 865

8 527 686

Market share (%)

14,0 %

18,9 %

23,4 %

25,5 %

22,9 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

700

676

714

582

692

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 9,4 %

– 8,9 %

– 4,0 %

– 7,5 %

3,2 %

Employment (end of period)

18 472

17 628

17 177

16 763

16 211

Stock

707 152

788 008

896 708

862 084

819 690

Cashflow

45 651 999

123 399 207

426 592 285

– 44 547 318

205 976 592

ROCE (%)

– 12,2 %

– 0,3 %

– 3,3 %

– 9,9 %

– 1,5 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

23,0 %

Product 8 Stainless Hot Rolled Sheets and Strips

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

1 168 291

1 352 875

1 590 437

1 807 242

1 487 848

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

175 836

233 028

269 697

351 075

436 173

Market share (%)

15,1 %

17,2 %

17,0 %

19,4 %

29,3 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

2 011

1 926

1 877

1 518

1 822

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

61 %

65 %

69 %

73 %

73 %

Production (tonnes)

3 334 814

3 525 794

3 664 821

3 842 503

3 799 867

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

991 962

1 119 435

1 320 528

1 455 714

1 050 966

Market share (%)

84,9 %

82,7 %

83,0 %

80,5 %

70,6 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

2 023

2 013

2 028

1 792

2 115

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 4,2 %

– 0,3 %

4,0 %

4,9 %

9,2 %

Employment (end of period)

5 439

4 914

4 464

4 271

4 133

Stock

103 375

131 557

123 098

106 508

93 335

Cashflow

144 497 251

182 932 062

613 851 975

116 754 324

218 815 195

ROCE (%)

– 33,7 %

– 37,1 %

– 1,5 %

– 0,4 %

13,6 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

13,9 %

Product 9 Stainless Cold Rolled Sheets and Strips

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

3 362 718

3 671 898

3 587 237

3 913 974

3 816 472

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

697 457

1 017 613

787 521

843 352

976 108

Market share (%)

20,7 %

27,7 %

22,0 %

21,5 %

25,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

2 098

1 985

2 064

1 782

2 023

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

71 %

76 %

80 %

84 %

84 %

Production (tonnes)

3 076 074

3 016 723

3 139 572

3 425 201

3 114 323

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

2 664 602

2 653 177

2 798 719

3 070 197

2 839 979

Market share (%)

79,2 %

72,3 %

78,0 %

78,4 %

74,4 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

2 259

2 272

2 238

2 014

2 323

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 4,2 %

– 2,7 %

2,4 %

5,5 %

9,4 %

Employment (end of period)

10 205

9 483

9 220

8 892

8 812

Stock

179 087

206 956

219 170

215 904

213 931

Cashflow

135 463 456

45 971 825

847 696 098

450 355 017

685 492 711

ROCE (%)

– 12,4 %

– 7,7 %

8,5 %

10,6 %

21,5 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

12,9 %

Product 12 Non Alloy and Other Alloy Merchant Bars and light Sections

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

11 891 558

12 422 902

12 297 356

12 678 733

13 617 607

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

911 115

1 219 800

1 200 627

1 400 824

1 385 829

Market share (%)

7,7 %

9,8 %

9,8 %

11,0 %

10,2 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

699

657

640

531

641

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

79 %

82 %

80 %

80 %

74 %

Production (tonnes)

12 132 593

12 585 360

12 301 986

11 839 241

12 427 808

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

10 964 010

11 189 221

11 095 204

11 276 054

12 230 774

Market share (%)

92,2 %

90,1 %

90,2 %

88,9 %

89,8 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

632

613

573

520

592

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

2,2 %

3,4 %

2,4 %

0,8 %

3,6 %

Employment (end of period)

9 537

9 734

10 057

10 342

10 486

Stock

749 386

888 456

914 268

943 355

1 023 612

Cashflow

220 994 774

264 742 034

272 433 127

255 904 385

123 997 731

ROCE (%)

– 1,2 %

3,7 %

3,3 %

3,9 %

6,9 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 8,3 %

Product 13 Rebars

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

9 617 685

10 359 993

10 664 689

11 099 947

11 253 309

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

527 008

972 602

1 430 014

1 292 971

1 191 445

Market share (%)

5,5 %

9,4 %

13,4 %

11,6 %

10,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

475

446

388

353

441

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

72 %

72 %

71 %

73 %

67 %

Production (tonnes)

13 171 558

13 019 699

12 763 140

13 191 436

12 494 712

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

8 906 120

9 187 941

9 019 809

9 568 119

9 848 615

Market share (%)

92,6 %

88,7 %

84,6 %

86,2 %

87,5 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

460

437

386

367

436

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 2,0 %

– 2,5 %

– 2,6 %

3,4 %

4,8 %

Employment (end of period)

5 563

5 441

5 529

5 634

5 457

Stock

761 808

683 591

642 506

602 948

659 484

Cashflow

20 571 082

14 116 433

53 015 513

165 167 521

249 292 475

ROCE (%)

0,9 %

2,4 %

1,9 %

6,2 %

9,3 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 1,3 %

Product 14 Stainless Bars and light Shapes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

526 080

593 501

593 530

630 737

632 804

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

113 071

147 453

142 416

147 811

159 577

Market share (%)

21,5 %

24,8 %

24,0 %

23,4 %

25,2 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

3 092

2 894

3 035

2 590

2 885

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

65 %

68 %

68 %

69 %

72 %

Production (tonnes)

527 386

597 178

599 927

637 938

641 446

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

411 655

444 339

450 094

482 314

472 247

Market share (%)

78,2 %

74,9 %

75,8 %

76,5 %

74,6 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

2 988

2 969

2 838

2 404

2 807

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

5,2 %

5,6 %

4,1 %

2,3 %

5,8 %

Employment (end of period)

3 680

3 766

3 737

3 789

3 844

Stock

83 561

91 900

89 676

90 409

90 893

Cashflow

111 869 518

142 849 693

191 511 047

155 623 001

145 832 442

ROCE (%)

1,0 %

4,3 %

1,4 %

– 0,7 %

4,9 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 2,8 %

Product 15 Stainless Wire Rod

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

318 373

323 191

304 987

335 552

347 077

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

52 082

71 229

57 627

58 670

62 978

Market share (%)

16,4 %

22,0 %

18,9 %

17,5 %

18,1 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

2 300

2 193

2 310

1 962

2 228

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

63 %

64 %

65 %

69 %

71 %

Production (tonnes)

373 010

383 586

388 273

412 892

449 392

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

266 290

251 961

247 359

276 880

284 098

Market share (%)

83,6 %

78,0 %

81,1 %

82,5 %

81,9 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

2 480

2 516

2 382

2 022

2 417

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 3,7 %

– 2,1 %

– 4,7 %

– 3,1 %

3,9 %

Employment (end of period)

1 677

1 671

1 731

1 761

1 852

Stock

24 810

28 696

31 083

31 584

43 800

Cashflow

13 022 575

18 221 077

106 175 940

84 328 053

44 337 763

ROCE (%)

– 0,7 %

2,9 %

– 1,5 %

– 2,8 %

5,5 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

7,8 %

Product 16 Non Alloy and Other Alloy Wire Rod

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

18 033 534

18 249 258

18 949 497

19 375 225

20 026 426

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

1 125 730

1 289 953

1 697 912

2 000 967

2 094 274

Market share (%)

6,2 %

7,1 %

9,0 %

10,3 %

10,5 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

522

504

439

392

486

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

80 %

84 %

83 %

81 %

83 %

Production (tonnes)

19 765 154

19 775 715

20 436 595

20 037 883

20 757 864

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

16 782 585

16 828 358

17 108 877

17 222 468

17 795 595

Market share (%)

93,1 %

92,2 %

90,3 %

88,9 %

88,9 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

509

492

443

420

505

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

1,8 %

4,8 %

3,0 %

0,6 %

3,4 %

Employment (end of period)

11 561

11 598

11 881

13 068

13 058

Stock

876 450

896 633

1 120 091

974 085

954 649

Cashflow

234 768 428

424 076 182

365 467 214

287 106 970

310 381 566

ROCE (%)

1,0 %

6,9 %

2,9 %

3,9 %

6,7 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

3,7 %

Product 17 Angles shapes and sections of iron or non alloy steel

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

6 159 135

6 544 142

6 549 935

7 205 377

7 375 383

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

223 669

277 507

268 014

388 041

262 745

Market share (%)

3,6 %

4,2 %

4,1 %

5,4 %

3,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

539

509

463

409

473

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

64 %

69 %

71 %

72 %

72 %

Production (tonnes)

8 583 668

8 590 216

8 894 223

9 400 691

9 605 365

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

5 935 432

6 266 353

6 281 426

6 817 231

7 112 453

Market share (%)

96,4 %

95,8 %

95,9 %

94,6 %

96,4 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

471

471

449

417

463

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 6,5 %

– 3,7 %

– 0,6 %

2,1 %

– 1,8 %

Employment (end of period)

6 212

5 685

6 006

6 264

6 096

Stock

510 927

464 184

466 561

559 452

569 947

Cashflow

– 48 381 794

7 224 031

161 157 041

150 487 051

– 18 595 244

ROCE (%)

– 6,0 %

6,3 %

1,4 %

3,9 %

0,6 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 2,1 %

Product 18 Sheet piling

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

574 025

637 684

577 270

584 985

626 863

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

15 870

16 503

14 051

36 970

85 054

Market share (%)

2,8 %

2,6 %

2,4 %

6,3 %

13,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

787

765

1 126

651

629

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

78 %

82 %

76 %

82 %

81 %

Production (tonnes)

907 320

940 451

840 182

777 182

817 764

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

558 131

621 150

563 140

548 010

541 782

Market share (%)

97,2 %

97,4 %

97,6 %

93,7 %

86,4 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

711

697

652

623

640

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

6,8 %

11,5 %

8,8 %

14,0 %

3,7 %

Employment (end of period)

949

971

951

981

995

Stock

49 762

47 610

58 744

68 417

75 616

Cashflow

58 272 442

68 732 139

63 936 644

86 404 634

40 555 786

ROCE (%)

– 9,3 %

6,8 %

6,7 %

10,3 %

1,5 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

1,7 %

Product 20 Gas pipes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

1 211 435

1 662 233

1 653 112

1 637 097

1 642 935

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

266 467

340 051

298 103

336 050

380 257

Market share (%)

22,0 %

20,5 %

18,0 %

20,5 %

23,1 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

688

649

646

566

676

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

37 %

38 %

38 %

40 %

37 %

Production (tonnes)

1 053 283

1 460 549

1 471 772

1 396 933

1 392 404

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

944 903

1 322 070

1 354 273

1 300 727

1 262 560

Market share (%)

78,0 %

79,5 %

81,9 %

79,5 %

76,8 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

717

666

619

580

693

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

0,9 %

1,3 %

2,3 %

3,9 %

0,5 %

Employment (end of period)

552

543

548

526

509

Stock

55 178

55 305

53 434

58 081

50 697

Cashflow

15 451 286

15 884 723

16 166 705

15 309 189

20 506 964

ROCE (%)

3,7 %

3,9 %

1,1 %

1,7 %

8,7 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

2,4 %

Product 21 Hollow sections

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

3 347 996

3 407 926

3 511 951

3 885 748

4 028 730

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

461 263

552 874

574 490

725 545

820 667

Market share (%)

13,8 %

16,2 %

16,4 %

18,7 %

20,4 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

599

571

553

497

618

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

46 %

46 %

46 %

47 %

49 %

Production (tonnes)

3 019 375

3 019 977

3 106 261

3 333 368

3 388 786

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

2 882 473

2 854 843

2 936 771

3 159 965

3 207 994

Market share (%)

86,1 %

83,8 %

83,6 %

81,3 %

79,6 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

606

569

541

517

625

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

– 2,7 %

– 3,9 %

– 3,3 %

0,2 %

– 0,5 %

Employment (end of period)

1 073

1 124

1 200

1 209

1 181

Stock

160 442

138 981

146 353

107 826

149 537

Cashflow

– 9 630 441

13 389 861

23 807 058

13 000 201

21 372 166

ROCE (%)

– 2,4 %

– 5,3 %

– 6,2 %

– 0,6 %

7,2 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

1,2 %

Product 22 Seamless stainless tubes and pipes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

96 507

101 504

97 341

96 320

95 672

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

32 581

38 782

39 719

42 510

42 701

Market share (%)

33,8 %

38,2 %

40,8 %

44,1 %

44,6 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

6 941

6 167

6 118

5 846

6 300

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

6 %

7 %

6 %

6 %

6 %

Production (tonnes)

116 630

124 135

101 291

101 831

92 357

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

61 822

61 708

56 802

53 196

52 083

Market share (%)

64,1 %

60,8 %

58,4 %

55,2 %

54,4 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

7 913

7 740

8 318

7 361

7 993

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

3,1 %

5,9 %

– 0,4 %

– 0,1 %

1,2 %

Employment (end of period)

11 180

11 211

10 369

9 779

9 317

Stock

7 452

9 389

10 455

8 690

11 688

Cashflow

19 858 477

10 438 041

– 48 885 671

4 038 078

– 22 872 178

ROCE (%)

22,7 %

– 4,3 %

– 58,1 %

– 33,4 %

– 50,5 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

21,2 %

Product 23 Bearing tubes and pipes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

68 824

72 805

67 249

59 867

65 355

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

7 489

9 426

11 944

9 773

8 663

Market share (%)

10,9 %

12,9 %

17,8 %

16,3 %

13,3 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

2 069

1 626

1 749

1 630

1 608

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

68 %

64 %

53 %

52 %

63 %

Production (tonnes)

64 972

65 475

58 407

52 494

57 657

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

61 324

63 378

55 304

50 092

56 691

Market share (%)

89,1 %

87,1 %

82,2 %

83,7 %

86,7 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

2 023

2 003

1 925

1 804

1 837

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

4,6 %

4,9 %

– 6,7 %

– 9,2 %

– 1,8 %

Employment (end of period)

332

322

306

274

280

Stock

1 285

1 433

2 591

1 452

2 429

Cashflow

3 499 664

3 928 566

5 055 796

– 791 310

– 620 461

ROCE (%)

0,9 %

– 3,3 %

– 64,7 %

– 54,5 %

– 28,1 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

12,5 %

Product 25 Large welded tubes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

669 846

1 041 055

427 457

586 746

1 804 463

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

286 939

411 273

209 524

159 219

1 044 534

Market share (%)

42,8 %

39,5 %

49,0 %

27,1 %

57,9 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

1 070

793

904

772

936

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

26 %

32 %

29 %

35 %

65 %

Production (tonnes)

1 333 900

1 150 000

1 034 600

1 086 300

1 500 000

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

382 758

624 819

216 243

426 937

759 478

Market share (%)

57,1 %

60,0 %

50,6 %

72,8 %

42,1 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

894

887

835

771

766

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

3,0 %

– 6,1 %

– 2,7 %

– 0,6 %

0,0 %

Employment (end of period)

1 512

1 545

1 365

1 372

1 326

Stock

322 722

600 020

633 600

727 048

1 139 429

Cashflow

197 726 967

– 97 558 802

94 492 289

– 70 888 943

13 666 659

ROCE (%)

– 15,8 %

– 23,5 %

– 17,7 %

– 6,7 %

9,1 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 22,0 %

Product 26 Other welded tubes

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

2 385 499

3 121 613

3 126 300

3 286 436

3 352 661

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

474 949

491 934

510 548

540 386

571 167

Market share (%)

19,9 %

15,8 %

16,3 %

16,4 %

17,0 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

1 352

1 376

1 397

1 262

1 431

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

57 %

57 %

57 %

58 %

60 %

Production (tonnes)

2 384 152

3 166 935

3 144 492

3 190 480

3 301 195

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

1 907 944

2 622 348

2 588 536

2 721 349

2 765 915

Market share (%)

80,0 %

84,0 %

82,8 %

82,8 %

82,5 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

1 024

1 013

984

942

1 062

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

1,2 %

2,4 %

1,7 %

4,2 %

4,3 %

Employment (end of period)

3 024

3 013

3 011

3 089

3 025

Stock

125 621

84 268

100 035

120 308

120 420

Cashflow

66 281 502

68 619 951

77 514 611

87 283 492

106 630 804

ROCE (%)

9,1 %

11,5 %

8,8 %

12,8 %

19,3 %


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

– 34,8 %

Product 28 Steel Wire

Data per Calendar Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Consumption (tonnes)

1 318 451

1 517 192

1 480 243

1 513 248

1 505 202

Imports

Volume (tonnes)

574 083

722 773

692 918

736 623

722 858

Market share (%)

43,5 %

47,6 %

46,8 %

48,7 %

48,0 %

Unit prices (EUR/tonne)

781

729

722

626

708

Situation of EU producers

Utilisation of capacity (%)

73 %

75 %

77 %

73 %

71 %

Production (tonnes)

899 763

932 496

940 169

886 666

900 054

Sales volume in the EU (tonnes)

744 368

794 419

787 325

776 626

782 344

Market share (%)

56,5 %

52,4 %

53,2 %

51,3 %

52,0 %

Unit sales price (EUR/tonne)

940

909

840

832

905

Net profit/loss on EU sales (in %)

0,5 %

0,0 %

1,1 %

2,6 %

0,8 %

Employment (end of period)

3 387

3 395

3 429

3 459

3 408

Stock

 

 

 

 

 

Cashflow

66 281 502

68 619 951

77 514 611

87 283 492

106 630 804

ROCE (%)

 

 

 

 

 


Price comparison for 2017

 

Price undercutting

21,8 %


ANNEX IV — List of products originating in developing countries to which the provisional measures apply

Country/Product group

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

20

21

22

23

25

26

28

Afghanistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Angola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antigua and Barbuda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Armenia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bahrain, Kingdom of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bangladesh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbados

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belize

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia, Plurinational State of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Botswana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brazil

x

x

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brunei Darussalam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Burkina Faso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Burundi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cabo Verde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cambodia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cameroon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Central African Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Côte d'Ivoire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cuba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Djibouti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dominica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dominican Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egypt

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

El Salvador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiji

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gabon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gambia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ghana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grenada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guinea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guinea-Bissau

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guyana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Haiti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Honduras

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hong Kong, China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jamaica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jordan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kuwait, the State of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kyrgyz Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lao People's Democratic Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesotho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macao, China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madagascar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malawi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malaysia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maldives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mali

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mauritania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mauritius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moldova, Republic of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mongolia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montenegro

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Morocco

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mozambique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Myanmar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Namibia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nepal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicaragua

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Niger

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Panama

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papua New Guinea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paraguay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philippines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qatar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rwanda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Lucia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

Senegal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seychelles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sierra Leone