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Document 32019Y0201(01)

Recommendation of the European Systemic Risk Board of 5 December 2018 amending Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 on the assessment of cross-border effects of and voluntary reciprocity for macroprudential policy measures (ESRB/2018/8)

OJ C 39, 1.2.2019, p. 1–9 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

1.2.2019   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 39/1


RECOMMENDATION OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMIC RISK BOARD

of 5 December 2018

amending Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 on the assessment of cross-border effects of and voluntary reciprocity for macroprudential policy measures

(ESRB/2018/8)

(2019/C 39/01)

THE GENERAL BOARD OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMIC RISK BOARD,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1092/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on European Union macro-prudential oversight of the financial system and establishing a European Systemic Risk Board (1), and in particular Article 3 and Articles 16 to 18 thereof,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms and amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 (2), and in particular Article 458(8) thereof,

Having regard to Decision ESRB/2011/1 of the European Systemic Risk Board of 20 January 2011 adopting the Rules of Procedure of the European Systemic Risk Board (3), and in particular Articles 18 to 20 thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

In order to ensure effective and consistent national macroprudential policy measures, it is important to complement the mandatory reciprocity required under Union law with voluntary reciprocity.

(2)

The framework on voluntary reciprocity for macroprudential policy measures, set out in Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 of the European Systemic Risk Board (4), aims to ensure that the same set of macroprudential requirements apply to the same type of risk exposures in a given Member State, irrespective of the legal status and location of the financial service provider.

(3)

Recommendation ESRB/2017/4 of the European Systemic Risk Board (5) recommends the relevant activating authority to propose a maximum materiality threshold when submitting a request for reciprocation to the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB), below which an individual financial service provider’s exposure to the identified macroprudential risk in the jurisdiction where the macroprudential policy measure is applied by the activating authority can be considered non-material. The ESRB may recommend a different threshold if deemed necessary.

(4)

As a general principle, in line with Article 458(3) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, the activating authority is expected to cooperate with the relevant authorities reciprocating the measure in order to ensure an efficient and effective implementation of the reciprocating measure.

(5)

From 1 July 2018, French global systemically important institutions (G-SIIs) and other systemically important institutions (O-SIIs) at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter are subject, pursuant to Article 458(2)(d)(ii) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, to a large exposure limit of 5 per cent of their eligible capital in relation to highly-indebted large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France.

(6)

Following the request by the Haut Conseil de stabilité financière (High Council for financial stability) to the ESRB under Article 458(8) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, and in order to: (i) prevent the materialisation of negative cross-border effects in the form of leakages and regulatory arbitrage that could result from the implementation of the macroprudential policy measure applied in France in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(ii) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013; (ii) signal to other market participants the systemic risks associated with the increased leverage of large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France; and (iii) increase the resilience of systemically important institutions in other Member States, the General Board of the ESRB has decided to include this measure in the list of macroprudential policy measures which are recommended to be reciprocated under Recommendation ESRB/2015/2.

(7)

As the measure activated by the Haut Conseil de stabilité financière is applied only at the highest level of consolidation, in line with the principle specified in sub-recommendation C(2) of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 according to which the relevant authorities should implement the same macroprudential policy measure as the one that has been implemented by the activating authority, it should also be possible to reciprocate the measure at the same level of consolidation. In addition, applying the materiality threshold at an individual level could lead to the exemption of institutions which, at a consolidated level, have concentrated large exposures to highly-indebted non-financial corporations having their registered office in France, thereby creating an incentive for regulatory arbitrage. Consequently, the recommended materiality threshold should, in this exceptional case, be applied on a consolidated basis.

(8)

Therefore, Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 should be amended accordingly,

HAS ADOPTED THIS RECOMMENDATION:

AMENDMENTS

Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 is amended as follows:

1.

in Section 1, sub-recommendation C(1) is replaced by the following:

‘1.

The relevant authorities are recommended to reciprocate the macroprudential policy measures adopted by other relevant authorities and recommended for reciprocation by the ESRB. It is recommended that the following measures, as further described in the Annex, be reciprocated:

Estonia:

a 1 per cent systemic risk buffer rate applied in accordance with Article 133 of Directive 2013/36/EU to the domestic exposures of all credit institutions authorised in Estonia;

Finland:

a 15 per cent floor for the average risk-weight on residential mortgage loans secured by a mortgage on housing units in Finland applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 to credit institutions authorised in Finland, using the Internal Ratings Based (IRB) Approach for calculating regulatory capital requirements;

Belgium:

a risk-weight add-on for retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 to credit institutions authorised in Belgium, using the IRB Approach for calculating regulatory capital requirements and composed of:

(a)

a flat risk-weight add-on of 5 percentage points; and

(b)

a proportionate risk-weight add-on consisting of 33 per cent of the exposure-weighted average of the risk-weights applied to the portfolio of retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium;

France:

a tightening of the large exposure limit provided for in Article 395(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, applicable to exposures to highly-indebted large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France to 5 per cent of eligible capital, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(ii) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 to global systemically important institutions (G-SIIs) and other systemically important institutions (O-SIIs) at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter.’;

2.

The Annex is replaced by the Annex to this Recommendation.

Done at Frankfurt am Main, 5 December 2018.

Francesco MAZZAFERRO

The Head of the ESRB Secretariat

on behalf of the General Board of the ESRB


(1)  OJ L 331, 15.12.2010, p. 1.

(2)  OJ L 176, 27.6.2013, p. 1.

(3)  OJ C 58, 24.2.2011, p. 4.

(4)  Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 of the European Systemic Risk Board of 15 December 2015 on the assessment of cross-border effects of and voluntary reciprocity for macroprudential policy measures (OJ C 97, 12.3.2016, p. 9).

(5)  Recommendation ESRB/2017/4 of the European Systemic Risk Board of 20 October 2017 amending Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 on the assessment of cross-border effects of and voluntary reciprocity for macroprudential policy measures (OJ C 431, 15.12.2017, p. 1).


ANNEX

The Annex to Recommendation ESRB/2015/2 is replaced by the following:

‘Annex

Estonia

1 per cent systemic risk buffer rate applied in accordance with Article 133 of Directive 2013/36/EU to the domestic exposures of all credit institutions authorised in Estonia

I.   Description of the measure

1.

The Estonian measure constitutes a 1 per cent systemic risk buffer rate applied in accordance with Article 133 of Directive 2013/36/EU to the domestic exposures of all credit institutions authorised in Estonia.

II.   Reciprocation

2.

Where Member States have implemented Article 134 of Directive 2013/36/EU in national law, relevant authorities are recommended to reciprocate the Estonian measure for exposures located in Estonia of domestically authorised institutions in accordance with Article 134(1) of Directive 2013/36/EU. For the purposes of this paragraph, the deadline specified in sub-recommendation C(3) applies.

3.

Where Member States have not implemented Article 134 of Directive 2013/36/EU in national law, relevant authorities are recommended to reciprocate the Estonian measure for exposures located in Estonia of domestically authorised institutions in accordance with sub-recommendation C(2). Relevant authorities are recommended to adopt the equivalent measure within six months.

Finland

A credit institution-specific minimum level of 15 per cent for the average risk-weight on loans secured by a mortgage on housing units in Finland applicable to credit institutions using the Internal Ratings Based (IRB) Approach (hereinafter “IRB credit institutions”) under Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013.

I.   Description of the measure

1.

The Finnish measure, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, consists of a credit institution-specific average risk-weight floor of 15 per cent for IRB credit institutions, at the portfolio level, for residential mortgage loans secured by housing units in Finland.

II.   Reciprocation

2.

In accordance with Article 458(5) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, relevant authorities of the Member States concerned are recommended to reciprocate the Finnish measure and apply it to IRB credit institutions' portfolios of retail mortgage loans secured by housing units in Finland issued by domestically authorised branches located in Finland. For the purposes of this paragraph, the deadline specified in sub-recommendation C(3) applies.

3.

Relevant authorities are also recommended to reciprocate the Finnish measure and apply it to IRB credit institutions' portfolios of retail mortgage loans secured by housing units in Finland issued directly across borders by credit institutions established in their respective jurisdictions. For the purposes of this paragraph, the deadline specified in sub-recommendation C(3) applies.

4.

In accordance with sub-recommendation C(2), the relevant authorities are recommended to apply, following consultation with the ESRB, a macroprudential policy measure available in their jurisdiction that has the effect most equivalent to the above measure recommended for reciprocation, including adopting supervisory measures and powers laid down in Title VII, Chapter 2, Section IV of Directive 2013/36/EU. The relevant authorities are recommended to adopt the equivalent measure within four months.

III.   Materiality threshold

5.

The measure is complemented by a materiality threshold of EUR 1 billion exposure to the residential mortgage lending market in Finland to steer the potential application of the de minimis principle by the reciprocating Member States.

6.

In line with Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, relevant authorities of the Member State concerned may exempt individual IRB credit institutions with non-material portfolios of retail mortgage loans secured by housing units in Finland below the materiality threshold of EUR 1 billion. In this case the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of the exposures and are recommended to reciprocate when an IRB credit institution exceeds the threshold of EUR 1 billion.

7.

Where there are no IRB credit institutions authorised in other Member States concerned with branches located in Finland or providing financial services directly in Finland that have exposures of EUR 1 billion or above to the Finnish mortgage market, relevant authorities of the Member States concerned may decide not to reciprocate as provided by Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2. In this case the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of the exposures and are recommended to reciprocate when an IRB credit institution exceeds the threshold of EUR 1 billion.

Belgium

A risk-weight add-on for retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium, imposed on credit institutions authorised in Belgium using the IRB Approach and applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013. The add-on is composed of two components:

(a)

a flat risk-weight add-on of 5 percentage points; and

(b)

a proportionate risk-weight add-on consisting of 33 per cent of the exposure-weighted average of the risk-weights applied to the portfolio of retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium.

I.   Description of the measure

1.

The Belgian measure, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(vi) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and imposed on credit institutions authorised in Belgium using the IRB Approach, consists of a risk-weight add-on for retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium, which is composed of two components:

(a)

The first component consists of a 5 percentage point increase to the risk-weight for retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium obtained after computing the second part of the risk-weight add-on in accordance with point (b).

(b)

The second component consists of a risk-weight increase of 33 per cent of the exposure-weighted average of the risk-weights applied to the portfolio of retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium. The exposure-weighted average is the average of the risk-weights of the individual loans calculated in accordance with Article 154 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, weighted by the relevant exposure value.

II.   Reciprocation

2.

In accordance with Article 458(5) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, relevant authorities of the Member States concerned are recommended to reciprocate the Belgian measure by applying it to branches located in Belgium of domestically authorised credit institutions using the IRB Approach within the deadline specified in sub-recommendation C(3).

3.

Relevant authorities are recommended to reciprocate the Belgian measure by applying it to domestically authorised credit institutions using the IRB Approach that have direct retail exposures secured by residential immovable property located in Belgium. In accordance with sub-recommendation C(2), the relevant authorities are recommended to apply the same measure as the one that has been implemented in Belgium by the activating authority within the deadline specified in sub-recommendation C(3).

4.

If the same macroprudential policy measure is not available in their jurisdiction, the relevant authorities are recommended to apply, following consultation with the ESRB, a macroprudential policy measure available in their jurisdiction that has the most equivalent effect to the above measure recommended for reciprocation, including adopting supervisory measures and powers laid down in Title VII, Chapter 2, Section IV of Directive 2013/36/EU. Relevant authorities are recommended to adopt the equivalent measure by no later than four months following the publication of this Recommendation in the Official Journal of the European Union.

III.   Materiality threshold

5.

The measure is complemented by an institution-specific materiality threshold of EUR 2 billion to steer the potential application of the de minimis principle by the relevant authorities reciprocating the measure.

6.

In line with Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, relevant authorities of the Member State concerned may exempt individual domestically authorised credit institutions using the IRB Approach having non-material retail exposures secured by residential immovable property in Belgium which are below the materiality threshold of EUR 2 billion. When applying the materiality threshold, the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of exposures and are recommended to apply the Belgian measure to previously exempted individual domestically authorised credit institutions when the materiality threshold of EUR 2 billion is breached.

7.

Where there are no credit institutions authorised in the Member States concerned with branches located in Belgium or which have direct retail exposures secured by residential immovable property in Belgium, which use the IRB Approach and which have exposures of EUR 2 billion or above to the Belgian residential immovable property market, relevant authorities of the Member States concerned may, pursuant to Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, decide not to reciprocate the Belgian measure. In this case the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of the exposures and are recommended to reciprocate the Belgian measure when a credit institution using the IRB Approach exceeds the threshold of EUR 2 billion.

8.

In line with Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, the materiality threshold of EUR 2 billion is a recommended maximum threshold level. Reciprocating relevant authorities may therefore instead of applying the recommended threshold set a lower threshold for their jurisdictions where appropriate, or reciprocate the measure without any materiality threshold.

France

A tightening of the large exposure limit provided for in Article 395(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, applicable to exposures to highly-indebted large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France to 5 per cent of eligible capital, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(ii) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 to global systemically important institutions (G-SIIs) and other systemically important institutions (O-SIIs) at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter.

I.   Description of the measure

1.

The French measure, applied in accordance with Article 458(2)(d)(ii) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and imposed on G-SIIs and O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter (not at a sub-consolidated level), consists of a tightening of the large exposure limit to 5 per cent of their eligible capital, applicable to exposures to highly-indebted large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France.

2.

A non-financial corporation is defined as a natural or legal person under private law having its registered office in France, and which, at its level and at the highest level of consolidation, belongs to the non-financial corporations sector as defined in point 2.45 of Annex A to Regulation (EU) No 549/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1).

3.

The measure applies to exposures to non-financial corporations having their registered office in France and to exposures to groups of connected non-financial corporations as follows:

(a)

For non-financial corporations which are part of a group of connected non-financial corporations having its registered office at the highest level of consolidation in France, the measure applies to the sum of the net exposures towards the group and all its connected entities within the meaning of point (39) of Article 4(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013;

(b)

For non-financial corporations which are part of a group of connected non-financial corporations having its registered office at the highest level of consolidation outside France, the measure applies to the sum of:

(i)

the exposures to those non-financial corporations having their registered office in France;

(ii)

the exposures to the entities in France or abroad over which the non-financial corporations referred to in (i) have direct or indirect control within the meaning of point (39) of Article 4(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013; and

(iii)

the exposures to the entities in France or abroad which are economically dependent on the non-financial corporations referred to in (i) within the meaning of point (39) of Article 4(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013.

Non-financial corporations which do not have their registered office in France and which are not a subsidiary or an economically dependent entity of, and which are not directly or indirectly controlled by, a non-financial corporation having its registered office in France, therefore fall outside the scope of the measure.

In accordance with Article 395(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, the measure is applicable after taking into account the effect of the credit risk mitigation techniques and exemptions in accordance with Articles 399 to 403 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013.

4.

A G-SII or an O-SII must consider a non-financial corporation having its registered office in France as large if its original exposure to the non-financial corporation, or to the group of connected non-financial corporations within the meaning of paragraph 3, is equal to or larger than EUR 300 million. The original exposure value is calculated in accordance with Articles 389 and 390 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 before taking into account the effect of credit risk mitigation techniques and exemptions set out in Articles 399 to 403 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, as reported in accordance with Article 9 of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 680/2014 (2).

5.

A non-financial corporation is considered highly-indebted if it has a leverage ratio that is greater than 100 per cent and a financial charges coverage ratio that is below three, calculated at the highest level of group consolidation as follows:

(a)

The leverage ratio is the ratio between total debt net of cash and equity; and

(b)

The financial charges coverage ratio is the ratio between, on the one hand, the value added plus operating subsidies less: (i) payroll; (ii) operating taxes and duties; (iii) other net ordinary operating expenses excluding net interest and similar charges; and (iv) depreciation and amortisation, and, on the other hand, interest and similar charges.

The ratios are calculated based on accounting aggregates defined in accordance with the applicable standards, as presented in the non-financial corporation's financial statements, certified where appropriate by a chartered accountant.

II.   Reciprocation

6.

Relevant authorities are recommended to reciprocate the French measure by applying it to domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation within the jurisdiction of their banking prudential perimeter.

7.

If the same macroprudential policy measure is not available in their jurisdiction, in line with sub-recommendation C(2), the relevant authorities are recommended to apply, following consultation with the ESRB, a macroprudential policy measure available in their jurisdiction that has the most equivalent effect to the above measure recommended for reciprocation. The relevant authorities are recommended to adopt the equivalent measure by no later than six months following the publication of this Recommendation in the Official Journal of the European Union.

III.   Materiality threshold

8.

The measure is complemented by a combined materiality threshold to steer the potential application of the de minimis principle by the relevant authorities reciprocating the measure, which is composed of:

(a)

A threshold of EUR 2 billion for the total original exposures of domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation of the banking prudential perimeter to the French non-financial corporations sector;

(b)

A threshold of EUR 300 million applicable to domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs equalling or exceeding the threshold mentioned in (a) for:

(i)

a single original exposure to a non-financial corporation having its registered office in France;

(ii)

the sum of original exposures to a group of connected non-financial corporations, which has its registered office at the highest level of consolidation in France, calculated in accordance with paragraph 3(a);

(iii)

the sum of original exposures to non-financial corporations having their registered office in France which are part of a group of connected non-financial corporations having its registered office at the highest level of consolidation outside France as reported in templates C 28.00 and C 29.00 of Annex VIII to Implementing Regulation (EU) No 680/2014;

(c)

A threshold of 5 per cent of the G-SII's or O-SII's eligible capital at the highest level of consolidation, for exposures identified in (b) after taking into account the effect of the credit risk mitigation techniques and exemptions in accordance with Articles 399 to 403 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013.

The thresholds referred to in paragraphs (b) and (c) are to be applied irrespective of whether the relevant entity or non-financial corporation is highly-indebted or not.

The original exposure value referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) is to be calculated in accordance with Articles 389 and 390 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 before taking into account the effect of credit risk mitigation techniques and exemptions set out in Articles 399 to 403 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 as reported in accordance with Article 9 of Implementing Regulation (EU) No 680/2014.

9.

In line with Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, the relevant authorities of the Member State concerned may exempt domestically authorised G-SIIs or O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter which do not breach the combined materiality threshold referred to in paragraph 8. When applying the materiality threshold, the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of the exposures of domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs to the French non-financial corporations sector as well as the exposure concentration of domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs to large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France, and are recommended to apply the French measure to previously exempted domestically authorised G-SIIs or O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter when the combined materiality threshold referred to in paragraph 8 is breached. Relevant authorities are also encouraged to signal the systemic risks associated with the increased leverage of large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France to other market participants in their jurisdiction.

10.

Where there are no G-SIIs or O-SIIs at the highest level of consolidation of their banking prudential perimeter authorised in the Member States concerned and having exposures to the French non-financial corporations sector above the materiality threshold referred to in paragraph 8, the relevant authorities of the Member States concerned may, pursuant to Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, decide not to reciprocate the French measure. In this case the relevant authorities should monitor the materiality of the exposures of domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs to the French non-financial corporations sector as well as the exposure concentration of domestically authorised G-SIIs and O-SIIs to large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France, and are recommended to reciprocate the French measure when a G-SII or O-SII at the highest level of consolidation of its banking prudential perimeter exceeds the combined materiality threshold referred to in paragraph 8. Relevant authorities are also encouraged to signal the systemic risks associated with the increased leverage of large non-financial corporations having their registered office in France to other market participants in their jurisdiction.

11.

In line with Section 2.2.1 of Recommendation ESRB/2015/2, the combined materiality threshold referred to in paragraph 8 is a recommended maximum threshold level. Reciprocating relevant authorities may therefore instead of applying the recommended threshold set a lower threshold for their jurisdictions where appropriate, or reciprocate the measure without any materiality threshold.

(1)  Regulation (EU) No 549/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on the European system of national and regional accounts in the European Union (OJ L 174, 26.6.2013, p. 1).

(2)  Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 680/2014 of 16 April 2014 laying down implementing technical standards with regard to supervisory reporting of institutions according to Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 191, 28.6.2014, p. 1).


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