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Document 52017XC0512(02)

Publication of an application pursuant to Article 50(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs

OJ C 148, 12.5.2017, p. 6–10 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)



Official Journal of the European Union

C 148/6

Publication of an application pursuant to Article 50(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs

(2017/C 148/06)

This publication confers the right to oppose the application pursuant to Article 51 of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1).



EU No: PDO-FR-02105 — 14.1.2016

PDO ( X ) PGI ( )

1.   Name(s)

‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’

2.   Member State or Third Country


3.   Description of the agricultural product or foodstuff

3.1.   Type of product

Class 1.2. Meat products (cooked, salted, smoked, etc.)

3.2.   Description of the product to which the name in (1) applies

‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’ is a dried ham made from pure bred local Gascon pigs, reared in grassy paddocks from the age of six months and slaughtered at an age of at least 12 months and no more than 24 months. The carcase weighs a minimum of 100 kg, with at least 2,5 % intramuscular fat in the Longissimus dorsi muscle and with a ZP fat depth of at least 30 mm and ZP muscle depth of at least 45 mm.

The ham is cut in a specific way according to traditional local practices. The first cut is rounded and includes all of the bottom round which remains covered in a layer of fat. Half of the aitchbone is retained.

The ham weighs a minimum of 5 kg after being cured for at least 12 months, has at least 30 mm of fat on the exposed part above the head of the femur, less than 6 % salt and 2,5 % or more of intramuscular fat. The lean meat is deep red in colour and the fat is white, sometimes with a slight pinkish hue.

The ham has a soft texture and a round, balanced sensory profile. It is soft and very tender, without a rancid flavour and with limited saltiness and subtle, lingering aromas reminiscent of nuts (hazelnut, cashew nut), grilled chestnuts, undergrowth and mushrooms.

The dried ham comes whole, on the bone and with trotter, intact or with the rind and fat trimmed partially to the shank, whole or pre-sliced, in slices.

3.3.   Feed (for products of animal origin only) and raw materials (for processed products only)

When suckling, piglets may consume a supplement made of a mixture based on cereal, soya and milk powder. A maximum of 5 kg of such feed may be consumed per piglet during this period. The feed may be sourced from outside the geographical area. It is in fact not possible to source all of the feed from the geographical area as the topographical and climate conditions are such that not all plant-based raw materials essential for the animals' balanced diet, in particular protein crops and legumes, can be produced there. This share of the feed, limited to 5 kg, is less than the amount provided during the suckling phase, in which piglets ingest an average of about 40 litres of milk from their mothers, equating to 8 kg of dry matter sourced from the geographical area. The mixture based on cereal, soya and milk powder cannot be certified as coming from the defined area as it is supplied through a variety of sources.

After weaning, the piglets are fed a cereal-based diet (70 % minimum raw material weight), possibly supplemented by proteins, minerals and vitamins. The cereals must come from the geographical area.

From no less than three and a half months and no more than six months of age, pigs are reared in grassy paddocks, under extensive or semi-extensive conditions, during the fattening stage. The maximum density is 20 animals per hectare, with the pigs feeding partly by grazing. They therefore feed on grass, consisting predominantly of clover and grasses, fruit and other local resources.

A feedstuff to supplement the fattening process is provided. This feedstuff comprises at least 70 % cereal, possibly supplemented by products derived from cereals and/or proteins, minerals and vitamins. The cereals must come from the geographical area. Only the supplementary proteins, minerals and vitamins are sourced from outside the area. Due to local constraints, a sufficient supply cannot be produced in the geographical area.

The maximum daily intake of complementary feed is 3 kg per pig, expressed as dry matter.

These rules ensure that a minimum of 72,6 % of feed originates from the geographical area during the animal's lifetime.

3.4.   Specific steps in production that must take place in the defined geographical area

All steps in the production of ‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’, from the birth of the pigs to the curing, take place in the geographical area.

3.5.   Specific rules concerning slicing, grating, packaging, etc. of the product the registered name refers to

For the product to retain all of its qualities, pre-slicing — which requires special expertise — must take place at appropriate facilities located in the geographical area of the designation.

Given that the proportion of outer fat differs between hams and that the dried product is the result of a long period of curing, deboning and pre-slicing operations must be adapted to each case in order to preserve the organoleptic quality of the product, its appearance and to assure consumers that the pre-sliced ‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’ available on the market has the same characteristics whether sold pre-sliced or sliced in front of the customer. Each ham intended for slicing must be specially cut in a way which takes into account its weight, maturity and proportion of outer fat.

Only trained specialists are able to select and cut the meat, with their perfect knowledge of the product and ability to precisely cut the meat such that a good ratio of fat to lean meat is preserved, which determines the organoleptic quality of the ham whilst guaranteeing a good yield and perfect presentation and uniformity between cuts. Consequently, cuts which come from ham with a high proportion of fat can have the rind partly or fully removed and be trimmed with precision in order to reduce the thickness of the fat whilst maintaining a good balance with the lean meat.

It is also very important to prevent oxidation of the fat — which can occur if the meat is exposed excessively to open air — by quickly cutting and packaging the pre-sliced meat after deboning. These processes must be carried out within a maximum of 2 hours of deboning.

As any identification marks are removed during the cutting stage, the requirement for the ham to be cut and packaged in the geographical area reinforces the traceability of the product.

3.6.   Specific rules concerning labelling of the product the registered name refers to

Irrespective of regulatory references, each ham is identified under the ‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’ designation of origin by means of an abattoir number ink-stamped on the rind, the week number and last digits of the salting year branded on the rind, and the acronym ‘NB’ heat stamped onto the rind, at the base of the trotter.

4.   Concise definition of the geographical area

The geographical area comprises the following municipalities or parts of municipalities.

Municipalities included in their entirety:

Department of Haute-Garonne:

Ardiège, Aspret-Sarrat, Ausson, Bagiry, Balesta, Barbazan, Blajan, Bordes-de-Rivière, Boudrac, Boulogne-sur-Gesse, Cardeilhac, Cassagnabère-Tournas, Cazaril-Tambourès, Charlas, Ciadoux, Cier-de-Rivière, Clarac, Cuguron, Le Cuing, Eup, Franquevielle, Galié, Génos, Gensac-de-Boulogne, Gourdan-Polignan, Huos, Labarthe-Rivière, Labroquère, Lalouret-Laffiteau, Larcan, Larroque, Lécussan, Lespugue, Lodes, Loudet, Lourde, Lunax, Luscan, Malvezie, Martres-de-Rivière, Mont-de-Galié, Montgaillard-sur-Save, Montmaurin, Montréjeau, Nénigan, Nizan-Gesse, Ore, Payssous, Pointis-de-Rivière, Ponlat-Taillebourg, Régades, Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, Saint-Gaudens, Saint-Ignan, Saint-Lary-Boujean, Saint-Loup-en-Comminges, Saint-Marcet, Saint-Pé-d'Ardet, Saint-Pé-Delbosc, Saint-Plancard, Saman, Sarrecave, Sarremezan, Sauveterre-de-Comminges, Saux-et-Pomarède, Sédeilhac, Seilhan, Les Tourreilles, Valcabrère, Valentine, Villeneuve-de-Rivière, Villeneuve-Lécussan.

Department of Gers:

the municipalities in the canton of Mirande-Astarac, with the exception of Lamazère,

the municipalities in the canton of Pardiac-Rivière-Basse, with the exception of Castelnau-d'Anglès, L'Isle-de-Noé, Izotges, Montesquiou, Mouchès,

in the canton of Astarac-Gimone, the municipalities of Arrouède, Aujan-Mournède, Bellegarde, Bézues-Bajon, Cabas-Loumassès, Chélan, Cuélas, Esclassan-Labastide, Labarthe, Lalanne-Arqué, Lourties-Monbrun, Manent-Montané, Masseube, Moncorneil-Grazan, Monlaur-Bernet, Mont-d'Astarac, Panassac, Ponsan-Soubiran, Pouy-Loubrin, Saint-Arroman, Saint-Blancard, Samaran, Sarcos, Seissan, Sère,

in the canton of Fezensac, the municipalities of Gazax-et-Baccarisse, Peyrusse-Grande, Peyrusse-Vieille, Saint-Pierre-d'Aubézies.

Department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques:

Aast, Bédeille, Bentayou-Sérée, Casteide-Doat, Castéra-Loubix, Coarraze, Ger, Labatmale, Labatut, Lamayou, Maure, Monségur, Montaner, Montaut, Ponson-Debat-Pouts, Ponson-Dessus, Pontacq, Pontiacq-Viellepinte, Saint-Vincent, Saubole.

Department of Hautes-Pyrénées:

the municipalities in the following cantons: Aureilhan, Bordères-sur-l'Échez, Les Coteaux, Moyen Adour, Ossun, Val d'Adour-Rustan-Madiranais, La Vallée de l'Arros et des Baïses (with the exception of Asque, partly included), Vic-en-Bigorre,

the following municipalities: Adast, Adé, Anères, Les Angles, Anla, Antichan, Antist, Aragnouet, Arcizac-ez-Angles, Argelès-Gazost, Arné, Arrayou-Lahitte, Arrodets-ez-Angles, Artigues, Aspin-en-Lavedan, Astugue, Aventignan, Aveux, Avezac-Prat-Lahitte, Ayros-Arbouix, Ayzac-Ost, Barlest, La Barthe-de-Neste, Bartrès, Bazus-Neste, Bertren, Bize, Bizous, Boô-silhen, Bourréac, Campistrous, Cantaous, Capvern, Cheust, Clarens, Créchets, Escala, Escoubès-Pouts, Gaudent, Gazave, Gembrie, Générest, Ger, Gerde, Geu, Gez, Gez-ez-Angles, Hautaget, Hiis, Ilheu, Izaourt, Izaux, Jarret, Julos, Juncalas, Labastide, Laborde, Lagrange, Lannemezan, Lau-Balagnas, Lézignan, Lombrès, Lortet, Loubajac, Lourdes, Loures-Barousse, Lugagnan, Mazères-de-Neste, Mazouau, Montégut, Montgaillard, Montoussé, Montsérié, Nestier, Neuilh, Omex, Ordizan, Ossun-ez-Angles, Ousté, Pailhac, Paréac, Peyrouse, Pierrefitte-Nestalas, Pinas, Poueyferré, Pouzac, Préchac, Réjaumont, Saint-Arroman, Saint-Créac, Sainte-Marie, Saint-Laurent-de-Neste, Saint-Paul, Samuran, Sarp, Sassis, Sère-en-Lavedan, Sère-Lanso, Siradan, Sireix, Soulom, Tajan, Tarbes, Tibiran-Jaunac, Trébons, Troubat, Tuzaguet, Uglas, Viger.

Municipalities included in part:

Department of Haute-Garonne:

Antichan-de-Frontignes, Chaum, Cierp-Gaud, Esténos, Fronsac, Frontignan-de-Comminges, Marignac, Saint-Béat.

Department of Hautes-Pyrénées:

Adervielle-Pouchergues, Agos-Vidalos, Ancizan, Arcizans-Avant, Arcizans-Dessus, Ardengost, Armenteule, Arras-en-Lavedan, Arreau, Arrens-Marsous, Artalens-Souin, Aspin-Aure, Asque, Asté, Aucun, Avajan, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Bareilles, Barran-coueu, Bazus-Aure, Beaucens, Beaudéan, Berbérust-Lias, Betpouey, Beyrède-Jumet, Bordères-Louron, Bourisp, Bramevaque, Bun, Cadéac, Cadeilhan-Trachère, Camous, Campan, Camparan, Cauterets, Cazarilh, Cazaux-Debat, Cazaux-Fréchet-Anéran-Camors, Chèze, Esbareich, Esparros, Esquièze-Sère, Estaing, Estarvielle, Estensan, Esterre, Ferrère, Fréchet-Aure, Gaillagos, Gazost, Gèdre, Génos, Germs-sur-l'Oussouet, Gouaux, Grezian, Grust, Guchan, Guchen, Hèches, Ilhet, Jézeau, Labas-sère, Lançon, Loudenvielle, Luz-Saint-Sauveur, Mauléon-Barousse, Nistos, Ossen, Ourde, Ourdis-Cotdoussan, Ourdon, Ouzous, Ris, Sacoué, Sailhan, Saint-Lary-Soulan, Saint-Pastous, Saint-Pé-de-Bigorre, Saint-Savin, Saléchan, Saligos, Salles, Sarrancolin, Sazos, Ségus, Seich, Sers, Sost, Thèbe, Tramezaïgues, Uz, Viella, Vielle-Aure, Vielle-Louron, Vier-Bordes, Viey, Vignec, Villelongue, Viscos, Vizos.

5.   Link with the geographical area

Specificity of the geographical area

Hillsides and valleys cutting into the sediment of the Pyrenees form the natural environment characteristic of the area of production, Bigorre. The environment, which is often restricted by its uneven terrain, generally acidic soil and prevalence of woodland, is suited to establishing paddocks for pigs comprising both grassy and wooded areas.

The climate is influenced by the ocean, acting as a thermal regulator, and the presence of the Pyrenees which has two important effects. The first is that it blocks clouds coming from the west and north-west, prompting rainfall formed from ocean water. Consequently, there is considerable, almost uninterrupted grass growth throughout the year. The second is the Foehn effect which heats up and dries the air. Consequently, every one in three days during spring and autumn, there is a mild, dry wind in the geographical area, alternating with periods of wet, stormy weather. This local climate is essential for the drying of ‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’.

The Gascon pigs from which the ham is made live in paddocks from the age of six months. Throughout this finishing period, pigs which have reached adult size consume 5 to 6 kg of feed each day. As the amount of animal feed they may be given is limited to 3 kg per day, they are required to find 2 to 3 kg of forage from the paddock, primarily grass.

Specificity of the product

‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’ is produced with trotter. The first cut is rounded and includes all of the bottom round which remains covered in a layer of fat. Half of the aitchbone is retained. It has the following specific characteristics:

a minimum weight of 5 kg after curing,

at least 30 mm of fat on the exposed part above the head of the femur,

lean meat of a deep red colour,

fat of a white colour, sometimes with a slight pinkish hue,

approximately 4 % intramuscular fat and always a minimum of 2,5 %.

The ham is characterised by the soft texture of its lean meat, the fluid texture of its fat, its intense, lingering odour and round, balanced sensory profile. It is soft and very tender, without a rancid flavour and with limited saltiness and subtle, lingering aromas reminiscent of nuts (hazelnut, cashew nut), grilled chestnuts, undergrowth and mushrooms.

Causal link

The Gascon breed possesses characteristics derived from centuries of breeding by livestock farmers. Consequently, it is perfectly adapted to the environment and type of livestock farming, e.g. in terms of its ability to roam and to cope with variations in climate and feed. Paddocks make regular physical activity possible and necessary for the pigs, resulting in muscle development which produces a more marbled meat with a higher myoglobine content and, therefore, a redder colour.

The forage they find in their paddocks contains aromatic compounds which subsequently influence the organoleptic characteristics of the ham. Although naturally varying between seasons, this feed nevertheless corresponds to approximately 50 % of the pigs' daily intake during the finishing period. This share is guaranteed through a low animal density in the paddock and a limit on the amount of animal feed the pigs may be given.

It is primarily during the finishing period, i.e. in the paddock, that fatty tissue is deposited, subsequently influencing in various ways the sensory qualities. The nature of the animal feed determines the fatty acid composition in the fat and the relative significance of the different classes of fat (saturated and unsaturated). The feed therefore contributes to the specific sensory qualities of the ham.

Owing to the feed and type of livestock farming which are adapted to the breed of pig, the fresh ham, as the raw material, has its own typical features, characterised by a specific fat composition notably resulting in fat which only oxidises to a limited extent. Where natural resources are used as feed, fatty tissue has been shown to draw together the various antioxidant compounds found in the plants which are consumed. These substances have an effect on the oxidation kinetics of the fat, slowing down the onset of rancidity and enabling a long curing process, thereby affecting in a specific way the distribution of taste-related and aromatic compounds. The effect greatly depends on the nature of the grazed vegetation and is all the more noticeable if the drying and curing period is long.

This is true for ‘Jambon noir de Bigorre’ which is produced and cured over a period of at least 20 months, 12 of which take place in a drying room connected with the air outside. As a result, the ham experiences the climate of each of the seasons in Bigorre, with the alternating damp and dry spells — linked in particular to the Foehn effect — creating optimal conditions for achieving aromatic maturity. A dry period triggers the formation of a crust, with the internal moisture of the ham then balancing out with that of the surface.

During the curing process, the ham acquires all its sensory characteristics and completes the development of its typical features. Its flavour (lingering in the mouth) comes from the release of amino acids thanks to the development of certain endogenous enzymes found in the meat. This proteolytic activity which affects the texture and, in particular, the tenderness of the ham, is encouraged by all the curing processes carried out.

Reference to publication of the specification

(the second subparagraph of Article 6(1) of this Regulation)

(1)  OJ L 343, 14.12.2012, p. 1.