EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Back to EUR-Lex homepage

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document 52021XC1001(06)

Publication of the single document referred to in Article 94(1)(d) of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council and of the reference to the publication of the product specification for a name in the wine sector 2021/C 398/17

C/2021/7019

OJ C 398, 1.10.2021, p. 28–35 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

1.10.2021   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 398/28


Publication of the single document referred to in Article 94(1)(d) of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council and of the reference to the publication of the product specification for a name in the wine sector

(2021/C 398/17)

This publication confers the right to oppose the application pursuant to Article 98 of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1) within two months from the date of this publication.

SINGLE DOCUMENT

’Dehesa Peñalba’

PDO-ES-02592

Date of application: 18 November 2019

1.   Name to be registered

Dehesa Peñalba

2.   Geographical indication type

PDO - Protected Designation of Origin

3.   Categories of grapevine products

1.

Wine

4.   Description of the wine(s)

RED WINE

Appearance: Clear, with medium to high intensity of colour, in shades ranging from brick red to purplish red.

Aroma: Medium to high intensity, with varietal notes characterised by fruits (red and/or black) and/or florals and/or balsamics, as well as notes imparted by the ageing process in the case of wines aged in wood (vanilla and/or wood and/or toasted and/or caramelised and/or spiced elements).

Taste: Wines should be balanced and redolent of fruits (red and/or black) and/or florals and/or balsamics, combined with notes imparted by the ageing process for wines aged in wood (vanilla and/or wood and/or toasted and/or caramelised and/or spiced elements). They are full-bodied with a medium-to-long finish.

(*)

Any values not shown here comply with limits laid down in EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

12,5

Minimum total acidity

4,0 in grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

20,00

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

150

5.   Wine making practices

a.   Essential oenological practices

Cultural practice

1.

The vines are trellised.

2.

The minimum planting density is 2 000 vines per hectare.

Specific oenological practice

1)

Winemaking conditions

Young red wines:

The grapes are hand-picked, placed in crates and then stored in a chiller to lower their temperature to between 5 °C and 10 °C.

They are sorted by hand at the selection table and carried to the tanks by conveyor belt (no pumping equipment is used to lift the berries).

A pre-fermentation cold soak (5-10 °C) for 5-8 days is practised.

Before malolactic fermentation, the wines are aged on the lees for at least 15 days.

Micro-oxygenation is carried out at a dosage rate of 15 ml per litre per month for 3 days and 6 ml per litre per month for 8 days.

Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation takes place in stainless steel tanks.

Extended maceration is practised during and after fermentation for at least 21 days.

Aged red wines:

The grapes are hand-picked, placed in crates and then stored in a chiller to lower their temperature to between 5 °C and 10 °C.

They are sorted by hand at the selection table and carried to the tanks by conveyor belt (no pumping equipment is used to lift the berries).

A pre-fermentation cold soak (5-10 °C) for 5-8 days is practised.

Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation takes place in stainless steel tanks.

Extended maceration is practised during and after fermentation for at least 21 days.

Before malolactic fermentation, the wines are aged on the lees for at least 15 days.

Micro-oxygenation is carried out at a dosage rate of 15 ml per litre per month for 3 days and 6 ml per litre per month for 8 days.

Specific oenological practice

2)

Ageing conditions

Ageing conditions vary by wine type, as follows:

Monovarietal red wines:

Aged in 225-litre oak barrels for 12-24 months

Multivarietal red wines:

Aged in 225- and/or 500-litre oak barrels and/or 5 000-litre wooden vats for 6-24 months

Relevant restriction on making the wines

The must may only be extracted by means of mechanical systems which do not damage the solid parts of the bunch, with a maximum average grape-to-wine ratio of 72 %. For red wine due to undergo ageing, pumps must not be used to transport the pulp to the tanks.

b.   Maximum yields

Young red wines

8 000 kilograms of grapes per hectare

Young red wines

57,60 hectolitres per hectare

Aged red wines

6 000 kilograms of grapes per hectare

Aged red wines

43,20 hectolitres per hectare

6.   Demarcated geographical area

The geographical area for ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO is located in the municipality of Villabáñez (Valladolid). It is a continuous portion of land spanning 91,4287 hectares, identified by the following Land Parcel Information System (LPIS) references (*):

Parcelas [parcels] 5 121, 5 122, 5 123, 5 124 and 5 125, and recinto [plot] 3 of parcela 9 003 (irrigation channel), all in polígono [polygon] 6 of the municipality.

‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO wines must be made and aged in the area defined above.

(*)

As the LPIS is subject to updates, please note that these are references to the 2020 version.

7.   Main wine grapes variety(ies)

CABERNET SAUVIGNON

MERLOT

SYRAH

TEMPRANILLO

8.   Description of the link(s)

a)   Geographical area (natural and human factors)

a.1)   Natural factors

The geographical area defined in point 1,6 has its own unique terrain, soil and climate characteristics. These characteristics are uniform throughout the area and, as will be explained below, differentiate it from the surrounding areas. The area is what is traditionally known as a pago: a single uninterrupted portion of land, traditionally used to grow vines, with its own soil and microclimate characteristics that distinguish it from the surrounding areas. The unique nature of a pago is usually shaped by physical elements surrounding it – such as rivers, plains, woods, etc. – which help to create the specific conditions. In this demarcated area, this is the result of the following factors:

1.

The River Duero is ultimately responsible for the hilly topography of the region, having formed various structures by means of erosion and sedimentation, including river plain terraces – on which deposit matter (mainly sand and gravel) abounds – and the valley floor. As a result, the demarcated area is an area of gently sloping countryside (with a constant gradient of less than 5 %) sitting on the valley floor and flanked by two higher plains (the demarcated area is at an altitude of 720 m and the plains are at 800-840 m, at an incline of 5-15 %) which separate the area both to the north and to the south. The River Duero also borders the area to the north. The area beyond the river continues to be known as Dehesa Peñalba, but as the incline becomes steeper (on the slopes leading up to the high plains and the plains themselves), the land is no longer suitable for vine-growing. To the south it is bordered by a pine forest. These two elements – the high plains and the pine forest – have a buffering effect, shielding the area from adverse weather conditions.

2.

The demarcated area sits on a terrace of land formed from gravelly fluvial deposits, with a sandy top layer on a bedrock of marly limestone. The soil is notable for its pebbles, gravel and an average sand content of 78 %, compared to the less sandy soils (around 60 %) found in the areas to the west and the more clay-rich soils with marl and limestone deposits found on the high plains and on the slopes leading up to them, where the incline is greater.

As a result, the demarcated area offers a dry, sandy topsoil with filtering properties: an area of warm earth but with a cool base and healthy water reserves. It is poor in both organic matter and nutrients.

3.

The fact that the elements surrounding the area act as a buffer means that it is somewhat shielded from adverse conditions such as extreme temperatures, low levels of moisture, punishing winds, and so on. As a result the area has its own microclimate, with milder temperatures (an annual average of 12 oC, roughly half a degree warmer than the surrounding area), particularly in spring and autumn. It has good wind coverage (west to east) and is free of frost for longer than the surrounding area (206 days per year compared to 200).

In summary, the demarcated area known as Dehesa Peñalba is located in a river basin on the valley floor, where the ground is level and the land homogeneous. Its north-west/south-west orientation is ideal for winegrowing, and the soil can be described as warm and poor in view of the high level of sand and coarse elements (pebbles and gravel). These in turn render it highly permeable and reflective of the sun’s rays, protected as it is by a pair of marly limestone plains to the north and south, which shield and enclose it thanks to the altitude difference. The demarcated area is also influenced by the pine forest which runs along its southern and western borders, while the River Duero skirts along its northern and eastern edges. An analysis of the physical environment shows that the demarcated area known as Dehesa Peñalba is a clearly defined site with its own uniform soil and climate conditions that set it apart from its surroundings. This is the result of geomorphological, lithological and orographic formation processes and the presence of natural barriers, such as a river, woods, slopes and high plains.

a.2)   Human factors

Experience gained in the demarcated area’s vineyards over the last 18 years has led to the introduction of a number of vine varieties that are particularly well suited to the local environment, resulting in grapes with a high concentration of polyphenols – particularly in terms of total anthocyanins and tannin content.

Tempranillo: This is the most important variety grown in the Dehesa Peñalba vineyard. Thanks to green cover crops in the rows and deep soil work near the trunks, complemented by meticulous trellising, it is in perfect harmony with the local area.

Syrah: This is the second most characteristic variety. With its longer growth cycle, it enjoys ideal conditions in this area (clement springs and autumns), allowing its varietal qualities to be expressed to their fullest.

Cabernet Sauvignon: As with Syrah, the microclimate in the demarcated area enables this grape to reach its fullest potential, though at the same time limits its yield.

Merlot: Whereas this grape tends to suffer from insufficient water in the surrounding areas, the subsoil in the demarcated area offers sufficient water reserves for it to ripen in an optimal, balanced manner.

In order to improve the conditions in which these varieties are grown and ripen, the viticulture techniques practised during the vine growth cycle are ones that tend to give lower yields per hectare, resulting in a higher quality of raw material with a consistent degree of ripeness.

Sustainable viticulture practices are used, ensuring maximum respect for the environment. The vineyard parcels are certified as organic.

Following on from this careful process in the vineyard, painstaking production practices are applied at the winery. The following steps are the most important:

The grapes are hand-picked, placed in crates and then stored in a chiller to lower their temperature to between 5 °C and 10 °C. The grapes are hand-sorted at the selection table and lifted by conveyor belt (pumps are not used) so there is no oxidation before they arrive in the tanks and maceration can take place in the best conditions.

Maceration is practised during and after fermentation for at least 21 days.

Before malolactic fermentation, the wines are aged on the lees, resulting in micro-oxygenation

b)   Quality and characteristics of the product owing principally or solely to the geographical area

‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO wines are reds with a deep, sustained colour (high colour intensity, bluish-red tonality and good stability). They are highly aromatic, with a predominance of ripe red and black fruits, especially when young. They have a consistent structure due to their stable high polyphenol content, with mild, long-lasting tannins. This results in highly elegant wines that are medium- to full-bodied and full of flavour and volume, with a long finish.

c)   Description of the link – interaction between natural and human factors and the characteristics of the product

The demarcated area for ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO occupies an uninterrupted stretch of land which, as described above, boasts its own uniform soil and microclimatic characteristics which set it apart from other areas in the vicinity. These natural conditions, together with the choice of varieties, sustainable vineyard practices and a painstaking production method, make it possible to obtain a product (wine) with specific characteristics. This statement is borne out by the following features:

1.

The soil, defined as poor yet warm land with a high level of sand and coarse elements (pebbles and gravel) which render it highly permeable and reflective of the sun’s rays, boosts the ripening of the grape and promotes phenomena such as skin pigmentation, resulting in grapes with higher polyphenol content, particularly anthocyanins and tannins.

2.

As it is a level area with good orientation, protected by two higher plain formations and by a pine forest, and delimited to the north by the River Duero, the demarcated area is framed by natural barriers. This means that the grapes can reach perfect ripeness, as they receive more ground-reflected irradiance, and the vines are offered protection from extreme weather conditions, meaning that conditions are more clement at two key times for the vine cycle: spring, when flowering and fruit set take place, and autumn, when the grapes are at the final stage of the ripening process. This allows the vine to have a longer growth cycle. The area is free of frost for longer – so the vines have more days to develop and mature – and has a higher average annual temperature than the surrounding areas. This all conspires to afford a more balanced ripening, boosting phenomena such as the pigmentation of red grape skins and producing grapes with higher polyphenol content, which in turn gives the wines more polyphenols and lengthens their life thanks to their increased structure and greater concentration of total anthocyanins and tannins.

3.

The warm, sandy soil and milder climate (more clement springs and autumns) mean that the Tempranillo variety and – in particular – the non-native varieties with longer growth cycles (the French varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah) have adapted very well, allowing the grapes to ripen and the vines to complete their growth cycle in a more balanced and comprehensive manner, meaning that certain components (total anthocyanins and aromas) are found in greater concentrations than in the grapes grown in the surrounding area.

4.

The choice of varieties, coupled with sustainable vineyard management practices, makes it possible to obtain an optimum raw material with which to make ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO wines:

Tempranillo provides structure, red fruit and forest fruit aromas, and sustained depth of colour;

Cabernet Sauvignon provides volume, length and long-lasting tannins, as well as intense ripe fruit and spiced notes;

Merlot gives elegance, very mild tannins, red fruit and a good balance between acidity and pH;

Syrah provides silky tannins, black fruit, and pH and acidity levels that provide a good deal of freshness.

In short, the Tempranillo and Cabernet varieties yield wines that last, thanks to their volume, structure and length, while Syrah and Merlot give freshness, acidity, aromatic intensity, elegance and finesse.

5.

Picking the grapes by hand, placing them in crates and then storing them in a chiller to lower their temperature to between 5 °C and 10 °C prevents oxidation and protects the colour (anthocyanin compounds). Sorting the grapes by hand at the selection table and lifting them by conveyor belt (without pumping) means there is no oxidation before they arrive in the tanks and maceration can take place in the best conditions. All of this means that the cold soak begins with the grapes intact, which improves aromatic potential and colour extraction.

6.

The maceration process during and after fermentation is long enough (at least 21 days) to obtain higher concentrations of colour compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), to release the free aromas, and to give more structured and potentially longer-lasting wines.

7.

Ageing on the lees prior to malolactic fermentation – causing micro-oxygenation – promotes increased extraction and lengthens the wines’ lifespan by increasing the amount of phenolic compounds, such as tannins and anthocyanins because it promotes the formation of pyranoanthocyanins, anthocyanins and flavanols, which need acetaldehyde to form so that coloured ethyl-bridged adducts can be created (oxygen is needed for acetaldehyde formation). Thus, the practice of micro-oxygenation before malolactic fermentation improves the wines’ chromatic characteristics and colour stability. Mouthfeel is also improved in terms of body and astringency. A further positive effect of micro-oxygenation is that it improves wine aroma by reducing vegetal qualities. Micro-oxygenation allows compounds such as pyrazines and thiols, which are oxidised by oxygen, to be reduced.

As has already been explained, testing has shown that the grapes grown in the demarcated area have higher concentrations of anthocyanins, as well as tannin composition. These are transferred in the winemaking process: maceration allows these substances to seep into the wine, giving the wines more intensity and a bluish-red tonality when young, as well as a longer life thanks to the formation of more stable colourants. As a result, ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO wines have good intensity of colour, generally with notes of ripe red and/or black fruits. They are medium- to full-bodied, round wines that are mature and have a long finish, with a high concentration of polyphenolic pigments, giving more structured wines, with a more stable colour. As a result they last longer and are more suited for ageing, including bottle-ageing, than wines produced in the surrounding area.

More specifically, according to research by the Oenology Group at the Regional Institute of Applied Scientific Research (part of the University of Castile-La Mancha’s Food Technology Area), it is basically possible to distinguish ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO wines from wines made in the adjacent areas that have been aged for a similar length of time (‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO and ‘Castilla y León’ PGI wines) because the former have larger quantities of monomeric anthocyanins and these are more inherently stable (with a greater concentration of malvidin-3-glucoside and a larger proportion of the more stable anthocyanins, such as p-Coumaroylated anthocyanins and caffeoylated anthocyanins).

While the demarcated geographical area for ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO lies within the area for ‘Castilla y León’ PGI and is near the ‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO, and although the wines do have the general characteristics of the PGI, they also have some substantially different qualities and some other characteristics not found in ‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO wines.

A comparison of ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO, ‘Castilla y León’ PGI and ‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO is as follows:

Higher alcoholic strength

‘Castilla y León’ PGI

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

> 11,0

> 12,5

Lower yield per hectare

‘Castilla y León’ PGI

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

16 000 kg

8 000 kg for young reds

 

6 000 kg for aged reds

Higher volatile acidity

‘Castilla y León’ PGI

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

< 13,36 meq/l

< 20 meq/l

Higher alcoholic strength

‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

> 11,0 for whites

 

> 11,5 for reds

> 12,5

Lower yield per hectare

‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

7 000 kg

6 000 kg for aged reds

Higher volatile acidity

‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

< 8,33 meq/l

< 20 meq/l

According to research by the University of Castile-La Mancha, they also have a greater concentration of monomeric anthocyanins:

‘Ribera del Duero’ PDO

‘Dehesa Peñalba’

< 59 mg/l

< 223 mg/l

While parts of the demarcated area (recintos 1 and 2 of parcela 5121, and recinto 3 of parcela 5122) have other owners, the application has been submitted by the only winery that is currently present in the demarcated area. Other producers would be able to join the project in the future if they wished.

d)   Informal interaction

Dehesa Peñalba has long been a sought-after site among marquises, bishops and nobles, who have recognised the potential of this land on the banks of the River Duero since antiquity.

Numerous written and bibliographic sources attest to the long history of the town of Peñalba de Duero and the localities which fall within its bounds, as also to vine cultivation and its commercial ends or to the obligations due towards the feudal lords in the form of tithes of must obtained from this land.

In the fourteenth century the Libro Becerro de las Behetrías de Castilla [‘Vellum Tome of the Free Towns of Castile’] was compiled by order of Pedro I of Castile, listing the various counties and free towns of which the Kingdom of Castile was composed. It contains accounts of the different towns governed under the ‘free town’ [behetría] system, their legal status, the economic entitlement of the king and the rights of the lords. A number of manuscript copies survive, although the Royal Chancellery in Valladolid houses one of the very oldest.

Within the dominion of the principality of Valladolid (the ‘Merindad del Infantado de Valladolid’ or, in Old Spanish, ‘Merindat del infantazgo de vallit’), Villabáñez (‘Villa hanes’) and Peñalba (‘Peñalva’) both feature.

‘In 1751, the town of Villabáñez came under three jurisdictions’ within the administrative district of Portillo in the Province of Madrid: it was ruled by the Cabildo [“Council”] of Valladolid Cathedral and by the Marchioness of Camarasa and the Marquis of Revilla, both resident in Valladolid. At that time the municipality of Villabáñez comprised 11 423 plots or obradas [an old agricultural measure] of land, of which 600 were vineyard, amounting to 1 200 aranzadas [another old agricultural measure]... .’

‘The municipality of Peñalba de Duero consisted of 1 923 obradas of land, of which 560 were unirrigated fields, 6 meadows (4 of them commons), 7 planting beds (commons), 500 of mountain land with oak and holm oak (commons), 650 vineyards in Dehesa de Peñalba la Verde [“the Green”] ... .’

Although several different names are used in the historical documents – ‘Dehesa’, ‘La Dehesa’, ‘Dehesa de Peñalba’ and ‘Peñalba La Verde’ – they all refer to the same place, which has been known as Dehesa Peñalba for the last 30 years. This also shows that in this context the term ‘Dehesa’ is a toponym and has nothing to do with livestock (the Spanish word dehesa refers to a traditional form of rearing livestock on poor or non-agricultural land).

In 1995 the decision was taken to resume cultivation, planting a selection of vine varieties with a medium-to-long growth cycle, and a winery was built with the very latest in winemaking technology. This allows the potential of the grape to be fully harnessed and transformed into wines of international renown.

9.   Essential further conditions

Legal framework:

In national legislation

Type of further condition:

Additional provisions relating to labelling

Description of the condition:

The year of harvest must be stated on the labels of the protected wines.

Wines of the ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO may use the term roble or ‘oak’ on the label, provided that they comply with current applicable legislation.

Wines of the ‘Dehesa Peñalba’ PDO may make use of the traditional terms ‘Crianza’, ‘Reserva’ and ‘Gran Reserva’ on the label, provided that they fulfil the terms of use set out in the current applicable legislation.

Link to the product specification

www.itacyl.es/documents/20143/342640/PPTA+PCC+VP+DEHESA+PE%C3%91ALBA+Rev+0+%281%29.docx/3066f78c-4629-ae2d-ea64-1c0f64b265e9


(1)  OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 671.


Top