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Document 52021XG0708(01)

EU Drugs Action Plan 2021-2025 2021/C 272/02

ST/9819/2021/INIT

OJ C 272, 8.7.2021, p. 2–28 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

8.7.2021   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 272/2


EU Drugs Action Plan 2021-2025

(2021/C 272/02)

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 3

I

Drug supply reduction: enhancing security 4

II

Drug demand reduction: prevention, treatment and care services 10

III

Addressing drug-related harm 15

IV

International cooperation 18

V

Research, innovation and foresight 21

VI

Coordination, governance and implementation 22

ANNEX I

OVERARCHING INDICATORS FOR THE EU DRUGS ACTION PLAN 2021-2025 25

ANNEX II

GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS 27

INTRODUCTION

The EU Drugs Strategy 2021-2025 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Strategy’) provides the overarching political framework and priorities for the European Union’s drugs policy for the period 2021-2025. The framework, aim and objectives of the Strategy serve as the basis for the EU Drugs Action Plan from 2021 to 2025 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Action Plan’).

The Strategy aims to protect and improve the well-being of society and of the individual, to protect and promote public health, to offer a high level of security and well-being for the general public and to increase health literacy. The Strategy takes an evidence-based, integrated, balanced and multidisciplinary approach to the drugs phenomenon at national, EU and international level. It also incorporates a gender equality and health equity perspective.

The Action Plan pursues the aims and objectives of, follows the approach of, and builds on the same documents and information as the Strategy. The Action Plan is based on the principles, values and legal provisions which lie at the basis of the Strategy. In implementing the Strategy, the Action Plan addresses the existing and evolving challenges of the drugs phenomenon, taking on board the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic and taking a future-oriented approach to anticipate challenges.

The Action Plan sets out the actions to be implemented to achieve the eleven strategic priorities of the Strategy. Actions are set out under the three policy areas of the Strategy:

Drug supply reduction: enhancing security,

Drug demand reduction: prevention, treatment and care services, and

Addressing drug-related harm

and the three cross-cutting themes of the Strategy:

International cooperation,

Research, innovation and foresight and

Coordination, governance and implementation.

By 2025, the priorities and actions in the field of illicit drugs, coordinated through the Strategy and implemented through the Action Plan, should have had an overall impact on key aspects of the EU drug situation. The coherent, effective and efficient implementation of measures should both ensure a high level of human health protection, social stability and security, and contribute to awareness raising. Any potential unintended negative consequences associated with the implementation of the actions should be minimised, and human rights and sustainable development promoted.

In drawing up the actions, account was taken of the need to be evidence-based, scientifically sound, realistic, time-bound and measurable with a clear EU relevance and added value.

The Action Plan aligns strategic priorities and actions, with a specific timetable to be developed, a list of responsible parties and a set of indicators based on the existing reporting mechanisms. These do not involve an additional reporting burden. They facilitate the measurement of the overall effectiveness of the Action Plan.

The Commission, taking into account information provided by the Member States and the EEAS, and available from the EMCDDA, Europol and other relevant EU bodies, as well as from civil society, will monitor the implementation of the Strategy and the Action Plan, in close cooperation with the Presidency and the Horizontal Working Party on Drugs (HDG), and will initiate an overall external evaluation of the implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan.

The results of this evaluation will be made available to the European Parliament and to the Council as soon as they are available, and at the latest by 31 March 2025, in order to be discussed in the relevant fora and in particular in the HDG. These discussions will form the basis for the definition of the future development of EU drugs policy and the following cycle of the EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plan to be approved by the Council.

I - DRUG SUPPLY REDUCTION : ENHANCING SECURITY

Strategic priority 1 : Disrupt and dismantle high-risk drug-related organised crime groups operating in, originating in or targeting the EU Member States; address links with other security threats and improve crime prevention

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party (1)

Action 1

Further enhance the EMPACT (European Multidisciplinary Platform Against Criminal Threats) (i) on the basis of its 2020 independent evaluation and by taking into account the EU SOCTA 2021; (ii) on the basis of the findings and recommendations from the annual European Drug Reports by the EMCDDA and the EU Drug Markets Report by the EMCDDA and Europol; and (iii) in line with the lessons learned from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug markets. All stakeholders should strive to align EMPACT on the one hand, and the EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plan on the other hand, in the best possible way in terms of both process and content. Increase coordination and cooperation at both law enforcement and judicial level to achieve more tangible investigative results, including through EMPACT, as well as increased exchange of information on drug-related organised crime groups, domestic and international, and increased use of the Secure Information Exchange Network Application (SIENA).

1.1.

Target high-risk organised crime groups active across the EU and cross-border drug markets; set priorities in synergy with the EU policy cycle for organised and serious international crime (EMPACT); disrupt criminal business models, especially those that foster collaboration between different organised crime groups; and address links with other security threats.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

EMCDDA

Frontex

Eurojust

EEAS

Action 2

Reinforce information sharing and analysis between law enforcement and other relevant agencies:

2.1

regarding illicit drug production, trafficking and distribution. This should include i.a. immediate information exchange between Member States in cases of seizures of large quantities of drugs, identification of high-risk criminals, criminal networks and structures, as well as international references.

2.2

related to other forms of serious crime which are linked to drug crime, such as violence, homicide, corruption, money-laundering, trafficking in human beings, migrant smuggling, trafficking of firearms and terrorism.

1.1

1.2

Track, trace, freeze and confiscate the proceeds of and instruments used by organised crime groups involved in the illicit drug markets.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

EMCDDA

Frontex

Eurojust

EEAS

Action 3

Enhance investigations on drug related organised crime groups and networks posing the highest security risk in the EU through a high-value target selection process established by the Member States with the support of Europol. An integral part of such investigations should be asset-tracing and financial investigations to lead to the effective confiscation of proceeds of drug crime. Ensure increased cooperation and coordination of operational activities (such as controlled deliveries of drugs and joint investigation teams) within the EU and between Member States, relevant third countries and Europol; also increase cooperation with Eurojust on related judicial prosecution.

1.1

1.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

Action 4

Ensure that Member States give competent authorities swift access to financial information to allow them to carry out effective financial investigations of drug-related organised crime groups, including by: (i) making full use of information held by Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) under the conditions laid down by the Directive on the use of financial information (Directive (EU) 2019/1153); (ii) making more effective use of information gathered by Asset Recovery Offices to identify and track profits linked to drug trafficking, with a view to their possible subsequent freezing and confiscation; (iii) strengthening their cooperation with prosecutors and judges ultimately responsible for applying for and issuing the necessary freezing and confiscation orders and warrants for search and seizure. Increase training for law enforcement and judicial investigators and the local and regional specialised units dedicated to the seizures of criminal assets.

1.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

Cepol

Action 5

Increase active and reciprocal cooperation and establish better links between tax/customs authorities and law enforcement in order to (i) enhance investigations, (ii) detect trade-based money-laundering activities; (iii) disrupt criminal activities and (iv) stop profits from drug markets going back into furthering criminal activities or into the legal economy. Member States are encouraged to build their expertise and resources on alternative banking and money transfer systems used by drug-related organised crime groups (e.g. Hawala).

1.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Action 6

Identify and prioritise cooperation with high-risk countries from a drug production and smuggling perspective in an effort to facilitate Member States’ access to financial and other information in order to strengthen the capacity of the competent authorities to investigate and prosecute drug-related crime and conduct financial investigations, and subsequently, to track and trace drugs-related criminal proceeds and ensure that EU-based seizure and confiscation orders are executed.

1.2

2021-2025

Council of the EU

Member States

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

EEAS

Action 7

Improve possibilities to tackle encryption in line with the resolution on security through encryption and security despite encryption adopted by the Council in December 2020, and other new technology-related methods employed by organised crime groups active in the drug markets to avoid detection and hide their communications. In this context, Europol analytical and technical capacities to support the Member States in this area should be strengthened and mutual legal assistance should be facilitated and strengthened, in particular regarding standard measures (e.g. subscriber identification) to improve information exchange.

1.1

1.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

Action 8

Following the effective confiscation of assets, take into consideration the safe and secure reuse of seized and confiscated instrumentalities in support of drug demand and supply reduction measures, in accordance with national legislation. The European Commission will further consider the effective confiscation of assets within the scope of the possible revision of the Directive on the freezing and confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds of crime in the European Union (Directive 2014/42/EU).

1.1

1.2

2021-2025

European Commission

Council of the EU

Member States

Action 9

(i) Promote and support the work and best practices of the European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) and other relevant projects with a view to reducing recidivism among young drug-related crime offenders; (ii) encourage comprehensive evidence-based strategies in neighbourhoods that experience high levels of drug availability and drug-related crime and (iii) support measures that create a more protective environment for communities affected by the consumption and sale of drugs or drug-related crime, in accordance with internationally recognised quality standards (2).

1.3

Prevent drug related crime with particular focus on the need to counter violence, limit corruption and address the exploitation of vulnerable groups by addressing the underlying factors that lead to their involvement in illicit drug markets.

2021-2025

EUCPN

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Strategic priority 2 : Increase the detection of illicit wholesale trafficking of drugs and drug precursors at EU points of entry and exit

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 10

Support activities at drug trafficking entry and exit points by reinforcing and promoting the establishment of police and customs risk analysis, investigation methods, and other relevant policies, controls and procedures to counter drug trafficking. Ensure structured coordination and cooperation as well as exchange in real time of crime intelligence and coordinated investigations in the EU by using the services of relevant EU agencies such as Europol and Frontex to support Member States. Member States should also ensure that real-time information exchange among competent authorities at the entry/exit points is directly connected to SIENA.

2.1

Counter the smuggling of drugs and drug precursors in and out of the EU by using established legitimate trade channels.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

Action 11

Support Member States in the development of effective screening technologies capable of detecting drugs and drug precursors for containers, trucks and ships, focusing on major ports, airports, train stations and major land border crossings.

2.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

Action 12

Improve structured coordination and cooperation between customs and Frontex, Europol and EMCDDA within their respective mandates, as well as exchange of customs information, to be interoperable and combined with that of law enforcement and border control, where appropriate. Increase the customs expertise within Europol, and reinforce the capability of Frontex border guards to detect drug trafficking at the EU’s borders.

2.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

EMCDDA

Action 13

Establish the necessary links and cooperation with the relevant civil aviation and maritime authorities, where appropriate through formal agreements, in order to ensure effective and efficient investigations and detection of drugs at airports and ports, taking into account relevant international regulation and instruments issued by the International Labour Organization, International Maritime Organization and International Civil Aviation Organization. Strengthen international cooperation with maritime and civil aviation authorities in key partner countries along major drug trafficking routes, where appropriate through formal agreements.

2.1

2.2

Increase monitoring of border crossings that are not part of established trade channels to more effectively prevent illicit or undeclared crossings of the EU external borders.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

EEAS

Action 14

Continue financing and providing the Maritime Analysis and Operation Centre - Narcotics (MAOC-N) with a sustainable long-term governance model. Ensure exchange of information and cooperation with the relevant EU agencies.

2.2.

2021-2025

European Commission

MAOC-N

Member States

Council of the EU

Europol

Frontex

EMCDDA

Action 15

Further develop the drug intelligence fusion platform at Europol, including links with relevant EU agencies and MAOC-N, and enhance information exchange and investigative actions with third countries and regions constituting major source or transit hubs for drugs affecting Member States, in accordance with applicable legislation. Use the services of Europol to support and promote related activities and to facilitate information exchange with Member States’ bilateral liaison officers already placed at the geographical drugs hubs.

2.2

2021-2025

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

MAOC-N

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 16

Conclude agreements between the European Union and third countries where drug trafficking hubs are located, enabling relevant EU agencies such as Europol and Frontex to exchange information and data, including personal and operational data, where appropriate.

2.2

2021-2025

European Commission

Europol

Frontex

Council of the EU

EEAS

Strategic priority 3: Tackle the exploitation of logistical and digital channels for medium- and small-volume illicit drug distribution and increase seizures of illicit substances smuggled through these channels in close cooperation with the private sector

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 17

Monitor internet and darknet marketplaces for drugs by implementing the preparatory action proposed by the European Parliament on 24/7 monitoring of the darknet to ensure comprehensive results (3). Reinforce EMCDDA’s and Europol’s capacities in this area.

3.1.

Tackle digitally enabled illicit drug markets.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 18

Operational feasibility analysis of how postal and express services can detect and prevent distribution of illicit substances in postal items (4). Conclude Memoranda of Understanding with the objective of enhancing cooperation between law enforcement, customs, postal and express services and electronic payment providers.

3.2.

Target drugs trafficking via postal and express services.

2021-2025

European Commission

Council of the EU

Member States

Europol

EMCDDA

Action 19

Promote the development, use and exchange of best practices and equipment among Member States on monitoring of suspicious postal items by employing solutions such as detection dogs and/or x-ray machines. Notably, the role of new technologies and especially of artificial intelligence should be examined, while preserving the fundamental right of privacy of correspondence.

3.2

2021-2025

Member States

European Commission

Council of the EU

Action 20

Raise awareness of the need to focus actions on drug trafficking channels currently insufficiently monitored by law enforcement, by establishing or reinforcing monitoring and investigation methods for smaller sea harbours and fluvial ports, airfields, and train and bus stations. Involve relevant EU agencies to support Member States in these activities within their respective mandates.

3.3.

Reinforce monitoring and investigation methods for cross-EU rail and fluvial channels and the general aviation space.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

EMCDDA

Strategic priority 4 : Dismantle illicit drug production and counter illicit cultivation; prevent the diversion and trafficking of drug precursors for illicit drug production; and address environmental damage

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 21

Identify, track and dismantle illicit drug producing facilities in the EU, including by targeting precursors and designer precursors, by improving and making better use of forensic investigations and intelligence and by developing and expanding detection techniques, making better use of public-private partnerships and enhancing the reporting of suspicious transactions.

4.1.

Counter illicit production of synthetic drugs and illicit cultivation of drugs.

2021-2025

Member States

European Commission

Europol

EMCDDA

Action 22

Consider launching a study assessing the effectiveness of Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of 25 October 2004 laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties in the field of illicit drug trafficking, with a view to amending possibly outdated aspects and strengthening areas as needed, including the provisions on NPS.

4.1

2021-2022

European Commission

Member States

Action 23

Address the main challenges identified by the evaluation of the drug precursors regulations, in particular the need to address the challenge posed by designer precursors.

4.2.

Tackle the diversion and trafficking of drug precursors and the development of alternative chemicals.

2021-2022

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 24

Boost the operational activities of law enforcement agencies and their cooperation with administrative authorities and other relevant parties with regard to the fight against environmental crime related to illicit drug production and trafficking, the transfer, custody and storage of drugs, precursors and seized equipment, and the destruction and treatment of the waste produced, as well as their associated costs where possible.

Develop detection technologies, information exchange and coordinated investigations by involving relevant EU agencies to support Member States, including to develop a comprehensive method regarding the implementation and coordination of efficient and environment-friendly disposal of waste.

4.3.

Address environmental crime related to illicit drug production and trafficking.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

EMCDDA

II - DRUG DEMAND REDUCTION: PREVENTION, TREATMENT AND CARE SERVICES

Strategic priority 5: Prevent drug use and raise awareness of the adverse effects of drugs

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 25

Implement and, where needed, increase the availability of evidence-based environmental and universal prevention interventions and strategies, based on life skills. These should address the links between addictions to illegal, as well as legal, substances and behavioural addictions.

5.1.

Provide, implement and, where needed, increase the availability of evidence-based environmental and universal prevention interventions and strategies for target groups and environments, in order to increase resilience and strengthen life skills and healthy life choices.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 26

Expand and promote cross-EU educational campaigns, taking into consideration local and regional needs, targeted at families, teachers, social workers and local decision makers, to increase their knowledge and support them in increasing health literacy and promoting positive behaviour, a healthy lifestyle, and a safe environment for young people and other groups, with the objective of preventing them from taking illicit drugs and engaging in risk behaviours and in drug market-related crime/activities.

5.1

2022-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA Member States

Council of the EU

Action 27

Increase the availability of reliable information on prevention, including effective models of prevention, as available on the EMCDDA Best Practice Portal and encourage the wider adoption of prevention programmes that have proven to be effective, including innovative activities with demonstrable effectiveness.

5.1

2022-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 28

Promote the inclusion of preventive messages with demonstrable effectiveness in communication and social media channels addressed to young people and other vulnerable groups. Roll out targeted rapid alert risk communications and intelligence notifications when dangerous substances, including new psychoactive substances (NPS), or other emerging threats appear on the market including, where appropriate and in accordance with national legislation, using information from drug checking.

5.2.

Provide, implement and, where needed, increase the availability of evidence-based targeted prevention interventions for young people and other vulnerable groups.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 29

Provide for and increase the partnership approach in the provision of effective evidence-based selective and indicated prevention measures to prevent the development of risk behaviours and reduce progression into severe drug use disorders, among those experiencing multiple disadvantages, such as homelessness, dual diagnosis, migrants, refugees and victims of violence, including gender-based violence. Also for young people in multiple settings, including schools, families and community, in recreational and workplace settings, as well as people in high-risk environments Collaboration efforts should be enabled between all stakeholders, including parents and families, those working in education or family support networks, youth services, student unions, sporting organisations and networks of people who use drugs.

Implementation of these measures may rely on trained professionals, in particular from primary healthcare, to better identify substance use issues and include the use of brief and early interventions, and utilise novel digital health communication and the social media channels.

5.3.

Provide, implement and, where needed, increase the availability of evidence-based early intervention measures.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 30

Promote and allocate sufficient funding for education, training and continuous professional development for decision makers, opinion leaders and professionals on the latest scientific evidence on drug use and addiction prevention, including new consumption patterns, also using online tools, and in particular promote the implementation of the European Drug Prevention Quality Standards (EDPQS), the UNODC/WHO International Standards on Drug Use Prevention and the European Prevention Curriculum (EUPC) training courses.

5.4.

Disseminate the latest scientific evidence on prevention to decision makers and practitioners and provide them with training.

2022-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 31

Implement activities that raise awareness of the risks of driving while impaired by drugs and disseminate best practices of testing and early intervention models targeted especially to young drivers. Support research and innovation of on-site drug detection tools and explore the possibility of including considerations on drugs in the EU Recommendation on permitted blood alcohol content for drivers.

5.5.

Address drug-impaired driving.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Strategic priority 6: Ensure access to and strengthen treatment and care services

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 32

Develop and ensure voluntary, non-discriminatory and gender-sensitive access to effective evidence-based drug treatment, including person-centred opioid maintenance therapy, risk and harm reduction, rehabilitation services, social reintegration and recovery support including comprehensive services for people with co-morbidity. Ensure that these services are well-coordinated at service level on the case management principle to provide the full continuum of care and be both as effective as possible and focused on life stages, with a particular focus on homeless and vulnerable people. These measures, based on the WHO/UNODC International Standards for the Treatment of Drug Use Disorders, should also address poly drug use, ageing drug users, needs of families of people who use drugs and patients with coexistent drug addiction and other physiological or behavioural addictions.

6.1.

Ensure voluntary access to treatment and care services that work in close coordination and collaboration with other health and social support services.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 33

Develop and implement training for staff working in treatment and care services and those dealing with drug issues in generic health or social support services, on the basis of evidence-based measures, identifying curricula that cover both core and advanced competencies and encouraging the sharing of best practices and partnerships between training providers.

6.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 34

Support innovation in treatment delivery and improve and promote the use of electronic and mobile health delivery options and new pharmacotherapies in order to ensure access to drug treatment for all target groups. Assess the effectiveness of such approaches with the possibility of scaling up those interventions that have proven to be most effective.

6.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 35

Recognise and promote peer-led outreach and peer group work. Support the opportunities for peer workers to be added to the multidisciplinary treatment workforce. Invite expert peers to working groups and hearings.

6.2.

Promote peer work.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 36

Identify, address and reduce barriers to accessing drug treatment, risk and harm reduction, social rehabilitation and recovery, especially with regard to demographic and personal barriers and ensure that healthcare and social services are funded and appropriate to the needs and the key characteristics of their client groups, and take into account new realities i.e. the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.3.

Identify and remedy the barriers to accessing treatment and ensure and, where needed, extend coverage of treatment and care services based on individual needs.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 37

Extend the evidence base on cannabis-related problems, including those related to synthetic cannabinoids, and improve understanding of both treatment needs and what constitutes effective interventions when responding to these substances.

6.3

 

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 38

Continue and further develop the implementation of the EU minimum quality standards adopted by the Council in 2015 (5) and evidence-based guidelines in national guidelines and programmes.

6.3

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 39

Develop and provide training for decision makers, employers and professionals about stigma linked to drug use and drug-use disorders, and mental health, and consider the impact that this stigma may have had on patients when delivering care. This should be done with the involvement of people who have experienced drug-related stigma.

6.4.

Reduce stigma.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 40

Identify and reduce barriers to treatment and other services utilisation for women who use drugs, and ensure that drug-related services respond to the needs of women e.g. including childcare support. Launch outreach efforts to reach women who use drugs and raise awareness of available women-centred treatment and also tackle gender-based violence towards women who use drugs. Ensure that women who are victims of violence and use drugs have access both to drug prevention and to support and treatment in order to break the cycle of drug use and the vulnerability to violence.

6.5.

Widely implement treatment and care addressing the specific needs of women.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 41

Provide services that can address the diversity existing among groups with special care needs in relation to problem drug use, including comorbidity, also engaging with models of care that recognise the need for cross-service partnerships between healthcare, youth and social care providers, and patients/carers groups.

6.6.

Implement models of care that are appropriate for groups with special care needs.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 42

Promote and implement capacity-building and awareness-raising activities regarding access to and availability of controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes, bearing in mind the risk of misuse and diversion and in this regard, provide an overview of the up-to-date evidence on the use of controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes.

6.7.

Provide and, where needed, improve access to, availability and appropriate use of substances for medical and scientific purposes.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

European Medicines Agency

III - ADDRESSING DRUG-RELATED HARM

Strategic priority 7 : Risk- and harm-reduction interventions and other measures to protect and support people who use drugs

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 43

Maintain and where needed enhance access to effective risk and harm reduction measures, also guided by the EU minimum quality standards in drug demand reduction, such as needle and syringe programmes, opioid agonist treatment, peer-based interventions and outreach programmes, in accordance with national legislation. These measures need also to improve the social situation of people who use drugs, housing, their financial situation, employment and education, including programmes utilising peer support and self-help initiatives.

Further extend the exchange of best practices in this area among Member States, and with partners such as third countries, regions and international organisations, and implement and promote professional training on these measures.

7.1.

Reduce the prevalence and incidence of drug-related infectious diseases and other negative health and social outcomes.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 44

Maintain and, where needed, scale up measures to reduce the prevalence of drug-related infectious diseases, in particular the early diagnosis of Hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS, promoting rapid testing and self-testing for HIV and outreach programmes to reach the most vulnerable people. Where needed, enhance access to treatment after diagnosis to eradicate hepatitis C and achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target for 2030. Promote the diagnosis of tuberculosis among people who use drugs and homeless people.

7.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 45

Improve and increase the ability to identify, assess and respond, at national and EU levels and via the EU Early Warning System on NPS, to new trends and developments in drug use, including changes due to epidemic outbreaks.

7.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

ECDC

Action 46

Continue to reduce drug-related deaths and non-fatal overdoses (including the role played by poly substance use), by introducing, maintaining and where needed enhancing measures to reduce fatal and non-fatal overdoses, and other risk and harm reduction and policy measures, where appropriate and in accordance with national legislation, including: (i) opioid agonist treatment, including take-home naloxone programmes; (ii) supervised drug consumption facilities; (iii) innovative approaches including digital health for people who use stimulant drugs and for young people in nightlife settings, such as peer-led outreach work, online street work in user fora or drug checking. Support training, the evaluation of effective approaches and the exchange of best practices in this area and further improve the monitoring and real-time reporting of non-fatal intoxications and overdose deaths across the EU, with a view to developing an overall target for the reduction of drug-related deaths in the EU.

7.2.

Prevent overdoses and drug-related deaths.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 47

Strengthen efforts to share forensic and toxicological data: (i) enhance analytical methods, test and promote new techniques; (ii) exchange best practices and develop joint training; (iii) increase cooperation with the Commission’s Joint Research Centre and the EMCDDA, and through existing networks, such as the REITOX network of Focal Points, the Drugs Working Group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes and the Customs Laboratories European Network. Develop and recommend for implementation a set of European forensic toxicology guidelines for drug-related death investigations.

7.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 48

Promote and encourage the active and meaningful participation and involvement of civil society, including non-governmental organisations, young people, people who use drugs, clients of drug-related services, the scientific community and other experts in the development, implementation and evaluation of drug policies and provide an appropriate level of resources for all drug services and for the involvement of civil society.

7.3.

Promote civil society participation and ensure sustainable funding.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 49

Scale up the availability, effective implementation, monitoring and evaluation of measures provided as alternatives to coercive sanctions (6) for drug-using offenders and for people in pre-trial detention, arrested, charged with or convicted of drug-related offences or people found in possession of drugs for personal use, such as (suspension of sentence with) treatment, rehabilitation and recovery, and social reintegration, in accordance with national legislation. Follow-up to the Study on alternatives to coercive sanctions as response to drug law offences and drug related crimes concluded in 2016, e.g. through a possible Commission Recommendation on the topic that respects the different national approaches on the matter and the Member States’ competence to legislate in this field. Produce more comprehensive and in-depth data, including on implementation barriers, and share and exchange best practices on alternatives to coercive sanctions, including research on responses to drugs-related offences of drug consumption and/or drug possession for personal use, taking into account differences in the national legislation of the Member States.

7.4.

Provide alternatives to coercive sanctions.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Strategic priority 8 : Address the health and social needs of people who use drugs in prison settings and after release

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 50

Ensure evidence-based drug services, including opioid agonist treatment, rehabilitation and recovery, developing a continuum of care model in prison settings and the probationary service for drug using offenders, together with provisions to reduce stigma. It is essential to provide continued access to evidence-based drug services, equivalent to that provided in the community.

8.1.

Assure equivalence and continuity of healthcare provision in prison and by probationary services.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 51

Facilitate the development of a balanced and comprehensive policy response to drug issues in prisons and provide guidelines for Member States for this purpose.

8.1

2024

European Commission

EMCDDA

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 52

Scale up access to testing and treatment for blood-borne infections alongside other evidence-based preventive measures that reduce the health risks associated with drug use in prison settings in the same way as is done in the community, implemented by well-trained staff or peers.

8.2.

Implement evidence-based measures in prison settings to prevent and reduce drug use and its health consequences, including measures to address the risk of drug-related deaths and the transmission of blood-borne viruses.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 53

Reduce overdoses and drug-related mortality in prison and upon release, by providing overdose awareness training and where possible take-home naloxone. Upon release, provide drug-using offenders with access to healthcare and social services, employment, housing and support for reintegration into society.

8.3.

Provide overdose prevention and referral services to ensure continuity of care on release.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Action 54

Implement training for prison staff to better detect drugs entering prisons, increase awareness of the issue and implement evidence-based health related drug responses within the prison environment. Increase cooperation with law enforcement and other relevant agencies.

8.4.

Restrict the availability of drugs in prisons.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Eurojust

IV - INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Strategic priority 9 : Strengthening international cooperation with third countries, regions, international and regional organisations, and at multilateral level to pursue the approach and objectives of the Strategy, including in the field of development. Enhancing the role of the EU as a global broker for a people-centred and human rights-oriented drug policy

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 55

Contribute to shaping the international agenda on drugs policy in line with the approach and objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy 2021-2025, including by accelerating the implementation of joint multilateral commitments such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the outcome document of the 2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the world drug problem (UNGASS) and in the context of the mid-term review of the 2019 Ministerial Declaration of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2024.

9.1.

Continue shaping the international and multilateral agendas on drug policy.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

Action 56

Strengthen partnerships with UNODC, WHO, INCB and other relevant UN bodies, including in support of the UN System Common Position, and relevant international and regional bodies, organisations and initiatives, focusing on drug policies, health, human rights and development and in support of global evidence-based research and data collection.

9.1

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

Action 57

Continue and reinforce, as appropriate, established drugs dialogues or meetings with partners in the Western Balkans, the Eastern Partnership, Central Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as with Russia, the USA, China and Iran.

9.2.

Ensure a sustainable level of dialogue and information sharing on the strategies, aims and relevant initiatives with third countries or regions.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

EEAS

Action 58

Dublin Group to use its potential and the potential of its regional reports to analyse and exchange views on the drugs situation in various regions of the world, and on ways to address this situation.

9.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

EMCDDA

Europol

Action 59

HDG to hold discussions with a view to assessing the relevance of launching new dedicated drugs dialogues or meetings with other priority countries and/or regions, taking into account their strategic relevance from the drugs perspective and EU relations, and approving the objectives, scope and modalities of such dialogues or meetings.

9.2

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

Action 60

Strengthen, where relevant, the role of the EU agencies, especially the EMCDDA and Europol, but also Eurojust, in international cooperation in the field of drugs, in a way that ensures synergies with the role of other international actors, and, where relevant, in a way that promotes complementarity with international tools and standards, and ensure regular and timely reporting of relevant and operational information between cooperation programmes and these EU agencies.

9.3

Foster international cooperation by further involving competent EU agencies within their respective mandates.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Eurojust

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 61

Strengthen existing cooperation initiatives and programmes where possible and relevant, based on regular evaluations and if applicable launch new ones to support third countries and other partners’ efforts to address drug-related challenges, including as regards public health, development, safety and security issues, as well as human rights.

9.4.

Continue, and establish new cooperation programmes with third countries or regions and other partners based on regular evaluations of such programmes.

2021-2025

European Commission

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 62

Provide targeted technical assistance and support, as necessary, to candidate countries and potential candidates to facilitate their alignment with the EU acquis in the drugs field.

9.4

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 63

Foster synergies, including by ensuring exchange of information within the HDG, on drug-related cooperation programmes with third countries funded by the EU and/or by the Member States.

9.4

2021-2025

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 64

Strengthen the EU’s international coordination and cooperation in the fields of drug-related crime prevention, law enforcement and judicial cooperation, including the possible links with terrorism, organised crime and other forms of transnational crime, as defined in the UN legal framework and in full compliance with international human rights obligations. International cooperation should also be enhanced to ensure the fight against money laundering and in the field of seizure and confiscation of assets.

9.5.

Address all the policy aspects of the Strategy in international cooperation, including in the fields of security and judicial cooperation as well as the health-related aspects of drugs issues.

2021-2025

European Commission

Europol

Eurojust

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 65

Enhance international cooperation to address the health- related aspects of drug use, especially in the fields of prevention, treatment, risk and harm reduction, social reintegration, and alternatives to coercive sanctions in line with human rights obligations. International cooperation should also be enhanced to promote increased access to and availability of controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes.

9.5

2021-2025

European Commission

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 66

Further promote an integrated approach to Alternative Development in line with the Council Conclusions on Alternative Development (7)(2018), in cooperation with third countries (8).

9.6.

Strengthen the commitment to development-oriented drug policies and alternative development measures.

2021-2025

European Commission

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 67

Strengthen the commitment and provide an appropriate level of EU and Member State’s funding and expertise to alternative development programmes and related development-centred drug policy interventions within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and according to the OECD Development Assistance Committee’s (DAC) criteria beyond an exclusive focus on illicit drug crop monitoring indicators and ensuring ownership among target communities.

9.6

2021-2025

European Commission

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 68

Ensure that the monitoring, protection and promotion of human rights are fully integrated in the EU’s relations with, and external assistance to, third countries, regions and international organisations, and take into account, among others, different parts of the International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Policy as relevant.

9.7.

Protect and promote adherence to international human right standards and obligations in global drug policies.

2021-2025

EEAS

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 69

Reaffirm the EU’s strong and unequivocal opposition to the death penalty in all circumstances, including for drug-related offences, and promote the principle of an adequate, proportionate and effective response to drug-related offences.

9.7

2021-2025

EEAS

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

V - RESEARCH, INNOVATION AND FORESIGHT

Strategic priority 10 : Building synergies to provide the EU and its Member States with the comprehensive research evidence base and foresight capacities necessary to enable a more effective, innovative and agile approach to the growing complexity of the drugs phenomenon, and to increase the preparedness of the EU and its Member States to respond to future challenges and crises

Action

Priority area

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 70

Strengthen and broaden research, information, monitoring, evaluation and modelling capacities of the EU and its Member States, including by making use of new technologies, by i) identifying and prioritising knowledge gaps and testing capacities; ii) supporting coordination, networking and other activities necessary to create synergies across the European research community and iii) ensuring the efficient and accurate collation and presentation of European data needed for international reporting and assessment purposes, mindful of profiting of synergies and avoiding duplications. All data based on individuals should be disaggregated by sex and the collection and presentation of data should consider the gender-sensitive aspects of drug policy.

10.1.

Strengthen and broaden research capacities and encourage the greater sharing and use of results.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 71

Improve preparedness to possible future challenges and opportunities by: i) identifying the lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on service delivery, drug markets, patterns of use and harm; ii) investing in the development of new methods and technologies and analytical techniques (such as developments in forensic and toxicologcal methods; information technologies, detection tools, statistical modeling; telemedicine and use of big data and open source information) needed to better identify emerging threats and innovative responses and iii) creating synergies and supporting the sharing of best practice in the innovations and future domains in the work of EMCDDA and Europol.

10.2.

Foster innovation, so that policy and actions shift from a reactive to a proactive mode.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 72

Improve EU resilience by increasing the capacity to predict and respond to potential threats, trends and developments by: i) conducting a strategic review during the course of the action plan to identify any important new emerging threats and to allow mitigating measures to be developed; ii) encouraging regular horizon-scanning activities and networking relating to demand and supply, where links with drug problems and opportunities exist or may emerge in the future, including policy developments with respect to internationally controlled narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including information on cannabis developments.

10.3.

Develop strategic foresight and a future-oriented approach.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 73

Increase the value and complementarity of European research efforts by: i) continuing to provide adequate support for existing information collection mechanisms; ii) recognising and developing, where possible and appropriate, the role played by EMCDDA and Europol in the European research knowledge cycle; iii) regular reviewing of research needs, coordination mechanisms and how synergies can be enhanced at the European level and iv) strengthening the role of the EMCDDA and Europol to ensure that the agencies, and the Reitox network of national focal points, have the means, including financial resources, to support the EU and its Member States with the robust high-quality evidence base necessary to respond effectively to the drug-related policy challenges, including the strengthening of early warning approaches.

10.4.

Strengthen coordination and synergies, and support the central role of the EMCDDA, Europol and the Reitox network of national focal points in research, innovation and foresight.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 74

Promote, where possible, appropriate financing of EU-level drug-related research, innovation and foresight, including through EU cross-sectoral funding sources and appropriately support the efficient targeting, coordination and sustainability of drug-related research efforts.

10.5.

Ensure adequate financing for drug-related research, innovation and foresight.

2021-2025

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

VI - COORDINATION, GOVERNANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION

Strategic priority 11 : Ensuring optimal implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan, coordination by default of all stakeholders and the provision of adequate resources at EU and national levels

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Action 75

Member States to compile and provide, when required, the available national data needed for monitoring the implementation of the Strategy and its Action Plan, as well as the impact of implementation, where possible. All actors involved as responsible parties shall, within the context of their mandate, collect and analyse the available data or seek where possible to develop or improve existing data sources where they are inadequate, so as to provide the information necessary for the implementation of the action in question. The European Commission, taking into account the information provided by the Member States and with the support of the EEAS, EMCDDA, Europol, other EU bodies and civil society, shall monitor the implementation of the Strategy and the Action Plan.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 76

The Presidency of the Council to organise within the HDG dedicated discussions or exchanges of best practices which could provide support to the Member States in the implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan, with expert input where appropriate.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

EEAS

Action 77

The Commission, on the basis of the information provided by the Member States, the EEAS, the EMCDDA, Europol, other relevant EU institutions and bodies and civil society, to initiate an overall external evaluation of the implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan and transmit the results of this evaluation to the European Parliament and to the Council, as soon as they are available, and at the latest by 31 March 2025. On the basis of these results, to organise within the HDG discussions that will form the basis for the definition of the future development of EU drug policy and the following cycle of the EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plan to be approved by the Council.

2024

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 78

Member States to conduct evidence-based evaluations of policies and interventions on a regular or ongoing basis and share with EU partners findings and methodologies.

2021-2024

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EMCDDA

Europol

Action 79

Allocate, from cross-sectoral funding sources, appropriate and targeted resources (provided by the EU and its Member States) for the implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan at both EU and national level.

2021-2025

European Commission

Member States

Council of the EU

EEAS

Action 80

Review the mandate of the EMCDDA following the evaluation completed in 2019 (9) to ensure that the agency plays a stronger part in addressing the current and future challenges of the drug phenomenon. Redefine responsibilities and operation of the REITOX network of national focal points, reinforcing its role accordingly.

2021-2025

European Commission

EMCDDA

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 81

Facilitate synergies and complementarity between the drug-related policies of the EU and the Member States, and between the drug-related activities of EU Institutions and other bodies as well as coordination with relevant international actors.

2021-2025

European Commission

EEAS

Member States

Council of the EU

Action 82

The Presidency of the Council to keep HDG, as the main coordinating body on drug policy, informed on drug-related activities in other preparatory bodies of the Council, such as the Standing Committee on Operational Cooperation on Internal Security (COSI) and the Working Party on Public Health, as well as other relevant Council preparatory bodies, including in the area of customs, judicial and criminal matters, law enforcement, social affairs, agriculture and external relations, with the support of the EEAS for those that they are chairing. The Commission, the EEAS and the Member States to proactively update all partners in the HDG on drug-related developments in which they are involved.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

Action 83

Member States to work towards efficient systems of collaboration between drug policy and the other relevant policies, including in the law enforcement/security and health/social policy fields, involving the relevant stakeholders in the various areas.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

Action 84

The EU and its Member States to promote the EU approach to drug policy, in particular when acting in the international scene, speaking with one voice.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS

Action 85

Promote and strengthen dialogue with and involvement of civil society in implementation, evaluation and providing input to the development of drug policies at Member State, EU and international levels.

2021-2025

Member States

Council of the EU

European Commission

EEAS


(1)  The stakeholders listed as responsible parties are the stakeholders involved in the implementation of the action concerned. The involvement of responsible parties for the implementation of the Action Plan shall be in accordance with their respective role as defined in applicable Union legislation and in their mandate.

(2)  UNODC/WHO International Standards on Drug Use Prevention

(3)  For details, see Item 18 02 77 04 — Preparatory action — EU-coordinated Darknet monitoring to counter criminal activities, on page 61 of Annex 3, PP/PA budgetary remarks.

(4)  Postal item: an item addressed in the final form in which it is to be carried by a postal service provider. In addition to items of correspondence, such items also include, for instance, books, catalogues, newspapers, periodicals and postal parcels containing merchandise with or without commercial value.

(5)  Council Conclusions on the implementation of the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 regarding minimum quality standards in drug demand reduction in the European Union 11985/15.

(6)  The term ‘alternatives to coercive sanctions’ could, according to the national legislation of the Member States, also refer to alternatives that are used instead of or alongside the traditional criminal justice measures for drug-using offenders (see Council conclusions: Promoting the use of alternatives to coercive sanctions for drug using offenders, 8 March 2018).

(7)  Council Conclusions on Alternative Development: ‘Towards a new Understanding of Alternative Development and Related Development- centered Drug Policy Interventions – Contributing to the Implementation of UNGASS 2016 and the UN Sustainable Development Goals’.

(8)  taking into account specific framework conditions, including: assuring full compliance with international human rights obligations and adhering to the principles of gender equality, non-conditionality, non-discrimination and proper sequencing when designing, implementing and evaluating alternative development programmes, as well as stressing the environmental and climate considerations linked to illicit drug crop cultivation and drug production.

(9)  For more, see Drugs and drug addiction – expanding the mandate of the European monitoring centre: https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/better-regulation/have-your-say/initiatives/12432-Revision-of-the-mandate-of-the-European-Monitoring-Centre-for-Drugs-and-Drug-Addiction.


ANNEX I

Overarching indicators for the EU Drugs Action Plan 2021-2025 (1)

1)

Developments in targeting high-risk organised crime groups: indicator based on cases reports and available statistical information on operations to disrupt high-risk organised crime groups targeting the EU, including review of major assets recovery operations and financial investigations and significant developments in cross border cooperation. (Sources Europol, European Commission, Member States, EMCDDA)

2)

Trends in drug-related organised crime, corruption, intimidation and gang violence: indicator based on a summary of available structured data sources collected using a common methodology, case reports and expert opinion. (Sources: Europol, EMCDDA, Member States, European Commission)

3)

Drug Markets Dashboard: Market Trends by market level in: number and quantities of seized illicit drugs; number of drug production labs seized; number of drug production related offences, drug prices and purity/dose (by market level where possible); data from other relevant information sources sensitive to understanding differences in drug availability, content and form, at different levels of the drug market where these are available; trends in the availability and use of precursors and other chemicals required for drug production; trends and developments in the use of the darknet and other digital-facilitated means for drug sales. (Sources: EMCDDA; Europol, European Commission, Member States)

4)

Impact on communities: indicator measuring through two Eurobarometer studies (2021 and 2025) and, if available, other relevant national or EU-level data sources, perceptions of how drugs, their availability and the operation of drug markets impact on public health, safety and the security of communities, including drug-related violence and intimidation. (Sources: European Commission, Member States)

5)

Health Dashboard: EU-level reporting on the health impact of drug use. Trends in drug related morbidity and mortality. Providing a summary analysis of the most recent available data from both established and developing sources on: trends in drug-related hospital emergencies, drug-related deaths, infectious diseases and associated health problems, including injecting drug use and other high-risk drug use behaviours, as well as mental health issues related to drug use, if data available. (Sources: EMCDDA, Member States)

6)

Prevalence and patterns of drug use: indicator of trends from surveys of the general population who have used drugs (recently and ever) and from youth or school surveys on drug use (last year and ever) and the age of first drug initiation, and information on prevalence and patterns of drug use from other important subpopulations where available. (Sources: EMCDDA, ESPAD, HBSC, Member States)

7)

Reducing Harm Dashboard: indicator of measures of availability of evidence-based prevention, treatment, harm reduction services, and alternatives to coercive sanctions (2) for drug-using offenders. Availability and coverage of opioid agonist treatment, availability of needle and syringe programmes and coverage of HCV, HIV and HBV testing and treatment for people who inject drugs. (Sources: EMCDDA, Member States)

8)

Trends and developments in NPS: indicator from Early Warning System on the appearance of and harm caused by new psychoactive substances, derived from reporting to the Early Warning System and Risk Assessment exercises on new psychoactive substances. (Sources: EMCDDA, Europol, Member States, European Commission)

9)

Emerging Threats Dashboard: indicator that highlights potential emerging threats based on the triangulation of data from more timely and forward-looking sources (where available) including for example, levels of drug volumes consumed in community/cities from waste water analysis, web surveys, forensic, toxicological reporting, etc. (Sources: EMCDDA, Member States)

10)

Responding to drug use in prison: indicator on the availability and coverage of responses to address the issue of drugs use in custodial settings including an assessment of the extent to which a comprehensive and balanced approach to responding to drug use exists in custodial settings. (Sources: EMCDDA, Member States)

11)

Meeting commitments of the Sustainable Development Goals: indicator of progress made in relation to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (Eurostat report on the progress made towards achieving the SDGs relevant to drug issues).(Sources: Eurostat, European Commission)

(1)  These indicators will be informed by statistical and other routine sources of information collected as part of ongoing efforts to monitor and respond to drug use in Europe and provide the most comprehensive set of EU-level resources to support the monitoring and evaluation of the EU Drugs Strategy 2021-2025 and EU Drugs Action Plan 2021-2025. Whilst the most up-to-date information available will be used, the data available will not necessarily correspond directly with the 2021-2025 period. Even though routine sources will be used whenever possible, some additional data collection exercises may be required to support the reporting of some of the indicators listed here. Therefore, they support a comprehensive evaluation and facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, coherence and EU added value of the Strategy and its Action Plan.

(2)  The term ‘alternatives to coercive sanctions’ could, according to the national legislation of the Member States, also refer to alternatives that are used instead of or alongside the traditional criminal justice measures for drug-using offenders (see Council conclusions: Promoting the use of alternatives to coercive sanctions for drug using offenders, 8 March 2018.


ANNEX II

Glossary of acronyms

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

CEPOL

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training

COSI

Council of the European Union — Standing Committee on Operational Cooperation on Internal Security

COVID-19

Coronavirus Disease 2019

EDPQ

European Drug Prevention Quality Standards

EEAS

European External Action Service

EMCDDA

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

EMPACT

European Multidisciplinary Platform Against Criminal Threats

ESPAD

European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs

EU

European Union

EU SOCTA

European Union Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment

EUCPN

European Crime Prevention Network

EUPC

European Prevention Curriculum

EUROJUST

European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation

EUROPOL

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation

EUROSTAT

Statistical Office of the European Union

FIUs

Financial Intelligence Units

FRONTEX

European Border and Coast Guard Agency

HBSC

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HDG

Council of the European Union — Horizontal Working Party on Drugs

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

INCB

International Narcotics Control Board

JHA

Justice and Home Affairs

MAOC-N

Maritime Analysis and Operation Centre - Narcotics

NPS

New psychoactive substances

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OECD-DAC

OECD-Development Assistance Committee

REITOX

Réseau Européen d’Information sur les Drogues et les Toxicomanies (European information network on drugs and drug addiction)

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

SIENA

Secure Information Exchange Network Application

SOCTA

Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment

UN

United Nations

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

UNGASS

United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

WHO

World Health Organization


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