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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Adaptation preparedness scoreboard Country fiches Accompanying the document REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change

SWD/2018/460 final

Brussels, 12.11.2018

SWD(2018) 460 final

EMPTY

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard Country fiches

Accompanying the document

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL

on the implementation of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change

{COM(2018) 738 final} - {SEC(2018) 472 final} - {SWD(2018) 461 final}


EUROPEAN
COMMISSION

Brussels, 12.11.2018

SWD(2018) 460 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard Country fiches

Accompanying the document

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL

on the implementation of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change

{COM(2018) 738 final} - {SEC(2018) 472 final} - {SWD(2018) 461 final}

Table of contents

Note to the Reader    

Austria    

Belgium    

Bulgaria    

Croatia    

Cyprus    

The Czech Republic    

Denmark    

Estonia    

Finland    

France    

Germany    

Greece    

Hungary    

Ireland    

Italy    

Latvia    

Lithuania    

Luxembourg    435

Malta    453

The Netherlands    475

Poland     502

Portugal    529

Romania    566

Slovakia    592

Slovenia    617

Spain    642

Sweden    667

The United Kingdom    695

Note to the Reader

This Staff Working Document collects the adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches for each Member State. Under Action 1 of the EU’s Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM(2013)216), in collaboration with the Member States, the Commission developed an ‘adaptation preparedness scoreboard’. Using the scoreboard, the Commission prepared country fiches on each Member State in an iterative consultation process. 1 The country fiches assess the Member States’ adaptation policy, including the content of NASs and plans, for the following aspects:

§Institutional structure

§Quality of national vulnerability assessments

§Knowledge creation (national observation systems in relevant sectors 2 and climate modelling), transfer and use

§Action plans:

-Quality (incl. the basis used for assessment of adaptation options)

-Actual implementation mechanisms

§Funding mechanisms

§Mainstreaming into sectoral policies, in particular:

-Disaster risk reduction

-Spatial planning

-Environmental impact assessment (EIA) (how the Directive is transposed)

-Insurance policy    

§Transboundary cooperation

§Monitoring mechanisms in different sectors and governance levels

The fiches are based on internal work by the Commission and on targeted assistance from an external contractor. They also served as input to the assessment of Action 1 of the Strategy during its evaluation. Annex IX of the Commission’s linked SWD on the evaluation of the Strategy presents a horizontal assessment of the 28 country fiches, while Annex X presents the list of scoreboard indicators and the methodology used in applying them.

The assessments in the country fiches (yes/no/in progress) need to be read in conjunction with the narrative that accompanies them. They assess the state of play within each EU Member State. While all effort has been made to ensure the coherence across fiches in the assessment of the same indicator, it should not be directly compared across the Member States. Two countries with a "yes" on the same indicator could have a different national situation leading to that assessment. Not all indicators have the "in progress" status, some can only be "yes" or "no".



Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiche for

Austria

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1.    Coordination structure    

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3    Current and projected climate change    

4    Knowledge gaps    

5    Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6    Adaptation options’ identification    

7    Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9    Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10    Monitoring and reporting    

11    Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    

List of abbreviations

ACRP    Austrian Climate Research Programme

APCC    Austrian Panel on Climate Change

BMNT    Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism

CCCA    Climate Change Centre Austria

COIN    Costs of Inaction

EAA    Environment Agency Austria

EIA    Environmental Impact Assessment

EUSALP    EU Strategy for the Alpine Region

LURK    Provincial Environmental Speaker’s Conference

NAP    National Adaptation Plan

NAS    National Adaptation Strategy

NGO    Non-Governmental Organisation

NUTS    Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics

PACINAS    Public Adaptation Costs: Investigating the National Adaptation    Strategy

PATCH:ES    Private Adaptation Threats and Chances: Enhancing Synergies

SEA    Strategic Environmental Assessment

SKKM    Strategy for National Crisis and Disaster Protection Management

VIOLA    Violent Observed Local Assessment

ZAMG    Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics

ÖREK    Austrian Spatial Planning Concept

ÖROK    Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

In Austria, a national adaptation strategy (NAS) was adopted on 23rd October 2012 by the Council of Ministers and endorsed by the Provincial Governors’ Conference on 16th May 2013. The Austrian NAS consists of two parts: a Strategic Framework (or “Context”) and an Action Plan 3 . The aim of the Austrian NAS is to avoid the adverse effects of climate change on the environment, society, and the economy and to fully utilise any opportunities that may arise. The NAS aims to create a national framework to ensure coordination and harmonisation of the various climate adaptation activities in all areas. In August 2017, a revised version of the NAS was adopted by the Austrian Council of Ministers, which was subsequently also approved by the Conference of the Governor’s of the Bundesländer (NUTS II) in November 2017. This new version aims to update and further develop the NAS, while preserving its overall structure.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

In Austria, the Bundesländer have legislative and executive powers (e.g. with regard to spatial planning, nature protection, transport), which are relevant to climate adaptation. The Bundesländer are also responsible for the administration, implementation and enforcement of certain federal laws at lower levels of government. Representatives from all Bundesländer were actively involved in the development of the NAS and NAP.

The Bundesländer have either developed regional adaptation strategies (Oberösterreich, 2013; Steiermark, 2015; Vorarlberg, 2016; Salzburg, 2017) or integrated adaptation and mitigation strategies (Tirol, 2015), or have integrated adaptation into existing climate mitigation strategies (Niederösterreich, 2011; Wien, 2009). Kärnten is in the process of preparing a climate adaptation strategy. In Burgenland, adaptation measures are directly integrated into sectoral programmes and strategies. The Bundesländer propose, enact and implement measures. Overall, 93.6% of the population and 88.6% of the territory of Austria are covered by sub-national adaptation strategies (with Kärnten as the only Bundesland without one).

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

A national adaptation plan (NAP) was adopted in 2012 (as part of the NAS) and revised in 2016 (and approved together with the revised NAS in 2017, see above). The NAP presents a catalogue of 136 adaptation options for 14 areas of action. These areas are: agriculture, forestry, water resources and water management, tourism, energy (with a focus on the electricity industry), protection from natural hazards, construction and housing, disaster risk management, health, ecosystems and biodiversity, transportation infrastructure and selected aspects of mobility, spatial planning, business/industry/trade, and cities (with a focus on urban green and open spaces).

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

The NAP makes reference to a range of individual Bundesländer in its 136 adaptation options, however, only Tirol and Vorarlberg have also prepared (together with their strategy) their own action plan with relevant state-specific adaptation measures 4 .

The development of local adaptation concepts and measures is supported by KLAR! – Climate Change Adaptation Model Regions 5 , a programme which was launched in 2016. Until the end of March 2017, regions and municipalities were invited to submit their applications including a basic concept to the Climate and Energy Fund, who initiated the programme in cooperation with the Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism (BMNT). Since 2018 and up until 2020, beneficiaries are now working on implementing the measures laid out in these concepts. In a third phase post-2020, the action plans and their executed measures will then be evaluated.

An increasing number of activities carried out at regional and local level can be identified already; however, these are not always explicitly labelled as adaptation. Many of these activities are fostered by applied research projects, which are financed by the ACRP (Austrian Climate Research Programme) of the Climate and Energy Fund 6 and StartClim 7 . Examples of Bundesländer-level activities are: touristic concepts and water management measures for an important large lake in eastern Austria, research projects devoted to impacts and adaptation measures in the Alps, projects for flood risk management and spatial planning, protection of forests and habitats, and concepts for safeguards against summertime overheating of buildings in urban areas. 8 The Austrian government has recently published a good practice guide presenting various examples of how cities and communities can implement adaptation actions 9 .

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

A range of sectors are discussed in the NAP, as well as the Tirol action plan on adaptation and others. However, no sector-specific adaptation plans exist as of today.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1.    Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

In Austria, the BMNT 10 (formerly, BMLFUW) holds overall responsibility for adaptation policy-making (Division I/4 of the BMNT). One of its main assignments is to provide guidance by keeping the NAS and NAP updated, as well as by drafting the progress report on its implementation. The NAP is implemented in collaboration with a wide range of fellow ministries, regional government actors and sector stakeholders.

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

All federal ministries were invited to join the NAS and NAP development process and to provide feedback and comments on the document via three rounds of written consultations. More precisely, the Inter-Ministerial Committee to Coordinate Measures to Protect Global Climate (IMC Climate Change) was regularly updated on the status of work towards the NAS. (According to the latest amendment of the Austrian Climate Protection Law, § 4. (2), instead of the IMC the National Climate Protection Committee is in charge of adaptation to unavoidable climate impacts. The Committee meets at least once a year and is chaired by the BMLFUW.)

Given the holistic and cross-sectoral nature of adaptation action, there is a need for horizontal coordination in the implementation phase as well. In accordance with the current division of competences (after the national election in 2017), the BMNT holds a much broader range of responsibilities as concerns areas of action in climate change. The National Climate Protection Committee is the relevant institutional body, set up by law, to provide sectoral coordination of adaptation and mitigation measures. The Austrian Spatial Planning Concept (ÖREK) 11 , also calls for the continued organisation of ‘round table’ meetings between sectoral representatives to discuss relevant climate-related issues during the implementation of measures.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

The Bundesländer are highly committed to cooperating with the Federal Ministry (BMNT) on climate adaptation. Climate coordination officers/units have been installed in all provincial governments and act as the main agents of vertical cooperation with the National Ministry 12 .

The Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism together with all Bundesländer (decision taken by the LURK - Provincial Environmental Speaker’s Conference) has established an implementation plan summarising a few specific measures to be implemented in close cooperation, as a first step. One of the decisions 13 was the implementation of “dialogue events” 14 in various Austrian cities. Twelve such dialogue events took place in 2016 and 2017.

The National Climate Protection Committee is the relevant institutional body, set up by law, to provide vertical (and sectoral) coordination of adaptation and mitigation measures.

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

A broad participatory process conducted by the Environment Agency Austria (EAA) accompanied development of the NAS. The main objective of the participation process was to discuss the adaptation options identified by the scientific community (expert studies) with stakeholders from the organised public (e.g. federal and provincial ministries or related institutions, interest groups and social/environmental NGOs) for inclusion in the policy paper 15 .

Stakeholders were consulted during the development of the NAS via online-surveys, written feedback on policy drafts and advisory committees. Governmental stakeholders from national level and sub-national level have been actively involved. The private sector, interest groups and researchers have been consulted and information has been gathered from the general public. 16  

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

In the NAS/NAP, cooperation to address common challenges with neighbouring countries is not explicitly addressed. Nevertheless, Austria is participating in several international partnerships that are actively working on climate change and adaptation issues, although it is not clear how these interact with the Austrian strategic approach to adaptation.

Austria is a contracting Party to the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, which adopted a Climate Adaptation Strategy in 2012 17 . The Strategy is based on a thorough assessment of possible climate impacts and suggests possible means to adapt to and mitigate them.

Austria is also a member country of the Alpine Convention, a framework that sets out general measures for sustainable development in the Alpine region. A ministerial declaration 18 on climate change was adopted in 2006, followed in 2009 by an action plan 19 of measures for the Alpine region to contribute to the reduction of emissions affecting the climate and the development of strategies to adapt to a changing environment. Within the Alpine convention, guidelines have been developed on local climate adaptation in relation to water management and natural hazards in the Alps 20 . In addition, the recently established Advisory Committee on the Alpine Climate (Alpine Climate Board) 21 under the Alpine Convention gathers climate change specialists from the eight Alpine States and observer organisations. It aims to bundle the current contributions of the Alpine Convention to climate mitigation and adaptation. The Board will prepare recommendations for future reinforced action, for the attention of the next Alpine Conference in 2018, with the establishment of a climate-neutral Alpine space 2050 as the overarching goal.

A shared task of all Alpine countries is to intensify research work on the consequences of climate change. Joint activities are taking place in the EU Strategy for the Alpine Region (EUSALP) in Action Group 8 22 , which focuses on improving risk management and coping with climate impacts, including major natural risks prevention.

The EU Interreg project, C3-Alps aimed to foster transboundary cooperation with the focus on information and knowledge transfer 23 . During the course of the C3-Alps project (2012-2014), an informal exchange among ministerial representatives of all Alpine countries was initiated. Meetings took place twice per year and served the purpose of transnational coordination for issues of common concern. These activities are continuing.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

Data collection and provision is located at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) with meteorological stations measuring temperature, precipitation, wind, sunshine and many other meteorological parameters 24 . Since 1948, data about damage caused by extreme events have been recorded by ZAMG. The VIOLA (VIolent Observed Local Assessment) 25 project started in 2014 with the development of a digital extreme-weather-platform. It works like a search engine for extreme events and offers different search options. In the frame of the project damage.at (funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund), the feasibility for the development of an Austrian-wide damage-database for weather- and climate-related natural hazards is currently being assessed 26 .

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

New regional climate scenarios for Austria and its nine provincial states have been available since Autumn 2016. The scenarios are based on 13 EURO-CORDEX models, a 12.5km x 12.5 km grid, and use two greenhouse gas scenarios. Results are available via the Climate Change Centre Austria (CCCA) data portal 27 .

A scientific evaluation of the financial consequences of climate change in Austria was presented in January 2015 as results of an ACRP project, Costs of Inaction (COIN) 28 . The main results of two projects – PACINAS (Public Adaptation Costs: Investigating the National Adaptation Strategy) 29 and PACTCH:ES (Private Adaptation Threats and Chances: Enhancing Synergies with the Austrian NAS implementation) 30 – were published in mid-2017.

The ACRP also emphasises the social aspects of climate change. Projects, such as Capital-Adapt 31 , have used projections and collected data on a variety of indicators to assess the climate vulnerability of different parts of society.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

The Austrian NAS (2017) contains a qualitative vulnerability assessment for nine sectors (i.e. water, tourism, agriculture, forestry, electricity and energy, housing and construction, health, ecosystems and biodiversity and transport/infrastructure). It was carried out by the Environment Agency Austria in cooperation with the Institute of Meteorology of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences. The vulnerability reports fed into the NAS. Separate studies have not been carried out for the other five sectors (protection from natural hazards, disaster risk management, spatial planning, business/industry/trade, cities). Nevertheless, a descriptive vulnerability assessment has been included in the NAP 2017 for all 14 sectors, although it highlights the differences in the level of knowledge and detail across sectors.

The Austrian Panel on Climate Change (APCC) published a report in September 2014 32 , after the release of the IPCC Working Group III 5th Assessment Report. The APCC report consists of three volumes that present existing knowledge on climate change in Austria, and the needs and possibilities for mitigation and adaptation.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

The vulnerability assessments described in relation to Indicator 3c do not take transboundary risks into account. Nevertheless, as noted in relation to Indicator 2b, Austria is involved in a range of transboundary cooperation initiatives some of which address relevant transboundary risks; these primarily focus on the River Danube and the Alpine region.

4    Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

The Austrian Assessment Report 2014 (AAR14) 33 built an active network of Austrian research institutions, individual scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders to carry work on climate change forward. At the initiative of Austrian universities, the CCCA was formally established in 2011. The objective of the CCCA is to improve the quality and efficiency of Austrian climate research not only through networking and promoting cooperation, but also by enhancing its international visibility 34 .

A workshop with scientists was conducted, within the framework of the participatory process accompanying the development of the NAS 35 , to determine the research needs specifically for implementation of measures in the NAS. The aim was to facilitate a dialogue between scientists/researchers and politicians and other decision-makers. The 2015 progress report 36 on the NAS also indicated research needs. In addition, the CCCA Science Plan 2017 37 showcases the research needs and gaps identified by the Austrian scientific community. The research needs identified are being addressed in research programmes such as the ACRP of the Climate and Energy Fund and the national climate research programme StartClim 38 . The eleventh and most recent (June 2018) guide for calls for proposals of the ACRP 39 focuses especially on four thematic areas where knowledge gaps persist. These are ‘Understanding the climate system and consequences of climate change’, ‘Specific support for Austria’s policymakers’, ‘Systemic transformation – the human dimension’, and ‘Governance and institutions – towards systemic transformation’. Specific topics range from biodiversity and agricultural aspects to social dimensions of climate change. One special report discussing ‘Tourism, large cultural and sports events and climate change’ was funded in the frame of the tenth ACRP call for proposals.

5    Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

The website of the BMNT contains information on the NAS, various activities in climate adaptation including, for example, a brochure on good practices for municipalities 40 .

The national platform for climate adaptation 41 contains information on climate research, policies, proposed implementation measures and examples and support for municipalities, the Bundesländer and sectors. The databank is useful for finding relevant resources, e.g. sector-specific research or adaptation practice for a specific region. It is possible to subscribe to a newsletter 42 .

The climate research department of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) presents scientific information on climate change 43 .

CCCA’s website provides climate data and information on ongoing research activities 44 .

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated.

Yes / In progress / No

For raising public awareness on climate impacts and adaptation, the Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism has published a brochure for the general public 45 , “translating” the national adaptation strategy’s content into easily understandable language and providing concrete tips for individuals. This brochure has been sent to all municipalities in Austria and has been further distributed via contacts and networks.

A handbook with methods and tools that help to tackle the challenges of adaptation was published 46 to support politicians and experts in the public administration of provinces and cities, as well as actors in regional management in developing adaptation strategies. It provides guidance for the strategic and proactive examination of climate impacts. A practical guide on local adaptation is available 47 , which provides information on regional climate impacts and specific measures that can be implemented by cities. It also includes tools that can be used in workshops.

The NAS includes recommendations for communication and education of the wider public but does not provide information on the coordination of capacity building. The BMNT, together with the provincial states, have financed various capacity building activities at regional and local levels (e.g. workshops in regions, a brochure with 11 good-practice examples on adaptation from regions across Austria 48 ). Capacity building mostly functions through a cooperation-based network approach to vertical governance with predominantly voluntary instruments. Examples reflecting the nature of this cooperation-based network are dedicated workshops in the Bundesländer, which were financed by the Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism in cooperation with the Climate and Energy Fund. These workshops aimed to support the Bundesländer in building adaptive capacity, discuss means of implementation, and highlight research results relevant to the respective province, as a basis for deciding on concrete adaptation measures.

As mentioned above, a new pilot project to foster adaptation in Austrian regions started in September 2016 49 .

In 2016, a handbook for so-called ‘Multiplicators’ (i.e. Adaptation managers, Energy modelling managers, regional managers) was released to implement adaptation action at regional and municipal level 50 . Further trainings building on this guide and other study materials were provided to ‘Multiplicators’ up to the beginning of 2018 (“learning workshops”). Since April 2018, these Bundesländer-level consultants and advisors support municipalities and regions in the implementation of adaptation activities 51 .

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Adaptation options’ identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The NAS contains a qualitative vulnerability assessment for nine out of the 14 sectors (see Indicator 3c). For the remaining five sectors, the NAP presents a descriptive vulnerability assessment. Adaptation options are based on these assessments (including geographic specificities where relevant), stakeholder consultations and expert judgment. Adaptation measures are described in detail and interlinkages to other areas and links to existing instruments are indicated.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

Adaptation options have not been prioritised, but criteria for prioritisation are identified in the NAS. In general, measures that provide benefits independent of climate change (“win-win”) or measures that entail no disadvantages in case the actual climate trends do not correspond to projections (“no-regret”) should be prioritised, as well as flexible measures. Furthermore, prioritisation according to the “Europe 2020 – A strategy for intelligent, sustainable, and inclusive growth” is suggested.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

As an alpine country, Austria has been used to adapting and coping with environmental risks for centuries. The Federal Ministry of the Interior is responsible for the coordination of the State Crisis and Disaster Protection Management in Austria, whereas the BMNT is responsible for coordinating the national adaptation policy. One of the NAS actions aims at coordinating disaster protection management and adaptation policies, through a continuous review, modification, and implementation of the SKKM Strategy 2020 (Strategy for National Crisis and Disaster Protection Management) 52 , taking into account the effects of climate change. Regular exchange between the Ministries and working groups on the NAS as well as the progress report ensure bi-lateral coordination. Joint efforts to work on the 2nd National Risk Assessment, as well as on the upcoming national portal for the reduction of disaster risk in Austria 53 , leads to regular exchange and improved coordination.

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

The NAS does not include a dedicated budget (no numbers) or an expenditure commitment for adaptation activities to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action. The NAS only states that “the implementation of the recommendations must be achieved within the existing jurisdictions of all governmental authorities (federal, state, local)” and are to be “covered by the resources available in the applicable financial frameworks of the public sector (federal, state, local)”. While it is not possible to conclude directly that a critical mass of actions or consistent funding is in place for vulnerable sectors, the phrasing of the NAS does indicate that sufficient funding should be available for them.

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

Climate adaptation will be addressed by an amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in Austria in 2018. The guidance documents for conducting EIA Reports are currently being revised in order to comply with the requirements of the amended EIA Directive. However, neither the change to the Law nor to the guidance documents has been finalised at the time of writing this fiche. Legislation on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in Austria does not, currently, refer to climate adaptation or vulnerability in its list of criteria to assess.

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

The proposed measures in the NAP to improve natural disaster preparedness under climate change are based on experiences with natural disaster management in the past and expert judgement. One of the proposed actions in the NAP is developing knowledge of the projected change in natural processes and resulting possibilities for early warning systems. The other adaptation measures are mainly related to the precautionary principle, including through hazard zoning and promoting hazard and risk awareness, self-sufficiency and responsible behaviour.

The National Crisis and Disaster Protection Management Strategy 2020 54  does not include projected climate change effects and does not mention climate change as one of the major challenges for disaster protection management. One of the proposed actions in the NAP is to adapt and implement the SKKM Strategy 2020 in line with expected climate change impacts.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No 

The Bundesländer are responsible for spatial planning legislation. Therefore, the level at which climate impacts are taken into account varies in state-specific legislative documents. The 2015 progress report on the implementation of the NAS/NAP states that some aspects, such as flood risks and natural hazard management, are frequently mentioned in spatial planning legislations but zoning and green infrastructure are not 55 .

The Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK) developed the Austrian Spatial Planning Concept (ÖREK) in 2011 56 . This is a non-binding agreement signed by the national government, the Bundesländer, and the convention of municipalities. Among other things, the concept lays out pathways to integrate adaptation action (e.g. zoning, energy-efficient construction, flood management) into regional legislative documents. However, the 2018 mid-term evaluation of the ÖREK 57 does not report on progress in this endeavor.

The mainstreaming of climate adaptation into urban planning policies is more advanced. The Vienna urban development plan 2025 (STEP 2025) 58 mentions climate adaptation measures as an integral part of planning the management and enhancement of the city. The ‘Grünes Netz Graz’ (Green Grid Graz) 59 developed by the city of Graz is a further example of a municipal strategy paper for urban planning that places ecological and climate-specific measures at its core. Nonetheless, the overall incidence of such climate-focused urban planning policy documents and strategies across Austrian cities is low.

Austria does not have a coastline and, therefore, has no plans for maritime spatial planning.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

The NAS provides guidance for the development and amendment of national policy instruments at sectoral level to promote adaptation. However, it is recognised in the NAP (and its progress report) that only a few sectoral instruments explicitly address adaptation and other climate-relevant issues.

Institutional barriers and lack of political momentum currently hinder the implementation of cornerstone policies that include adaptation measures at sectoral level (e.g. in health and transport) 60 . Nevertheless, climate adaptation is being integrated into sectoral policies for agriculture (within the National Agricultural Programme, 2015), forestry, energy 61 , and biodiversity 62 . In addition, a 2018 study on the effects of climate change in the water sector 63 is set to inform climate-relevant policy development.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

Several recommendations proposed under relevant sectors (e.g. agriculture, protection from natural hazards, disaster risk reduction, health, business) in the NAP involve the insurance sector and refer to it as a key actor. Recommendations include the development of new risk assessment methods, development and extension of risk-sharing instruments, and awareness-raising. At present, there is limited information available about the extent to which these actions have been implemented. A standardisation of contributions for insurances against natural hazards in the agricultural sector is underway.

The ‘Österreichische Hagelversicherung’ is the main insurance company for agriculture against natural disasters, including hail, frost, storms, snow load, droughts, floods, and animal pests. Target groups are farmers, gardeners and wineries. ‘Hagelversicherung’ also initiates targeted climate action projects.

The NAP progress report indicates that the insurance of agricultural land has remained constant, no new instruments have been developed to promote further insurance in the sector (only new schemes under the ‘Hagelversicherung’ that focus more on droughts: ‘Dürreindex’). Furthermore, there has not been much progress in the drafting of the natural disaster insurance that was mentioned in the NAP (‘NatKat-Versicherung’). However, first steps towards the creation of a public-private partnership for risk transfers have been made. 64 In general, the progress report concludes that it is not yet clear to what degree climate adaptation is integrated within private risk management.

Thus, although insurance schemes incentivising investments in enhanced resilience and/or risk prevention are not yet in place, there are several ongoing activities and discussions in this field.

9    Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

The progress report evaluates the state of implementation of the proposed actions in the NAP. Several proposed measures have been implemented. They include mainstreaming of climate change in sectoral as well as regional policy documents, such as the National Agricultural Programme or, more recently, the Forest Strategy 2020+ (see Indicator 8d for more detail). Furthermore, several Bundesländer have published regional adaption strategies and action plans (see Sections A2 and B2 above).

Nonetheless, climate change and adaptation are not yet considered sufficiently in strategic policy documents throughout Austria. Institutional barriers and lack of political momentum still slow down and hinder the implementation of adaptation measures across sectors and regions 65 .

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

For vertical coordination throughout the implementation phase, existing committees, such as the National Climate Protection Committee, are important for regular exchange of information, experience, lessons learned and close contact between the Ministry and the provincial states. The Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism, together with all provincial states, established an implementation plan summarising specific adaptation measures to be implemented in close cooperation as a first step.

The Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism supports adaptation activities across regions or municipalities mainly by providing information 66 , via funding specific projects, or by developing tools and guidelines 67 . A number of ACRP-financed projects 68 (e.g. Capital-Adapt, FAMOUS, AdaptBehaviour, CcTalK!, Go-Adapt) are fostering regional cooperation in adaptation.

The measures described in the action plan identify key actors responsible for implementation, but the NAS does not prescribe a clear governance system that ensures necessary coordination for turning recommendations into specific actions. The Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism organised workshops in 2014 in order to increase adaptive capacity in the provinces. Due to their success, a second series of workshops was organised in Autumn 2016, focusing on building the capacity of regional and local stakeholders. In addition, the monitoring and evaluation scheme is designed to enable dialogue between stakeholders, leading to a more efficient distribution of responsibilities for implementation.

In September 2016, a new pilot project to foster adaptation in Austrian regions was initiated. In a first phase, regions apply for support in order to develop adaptation concepts and measures shaped to their special adaptation needs. Successful applications receive funding for an adaptation manager who is responsible for steering the process of implementing adaptation measures for a period of two years 69 .

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

The Institute for Meteorology published a document entitled ‘Strategic support for integrating climate change into project planning for large projects’ 70 , as part of the research project ENVISAGE-CC, funded by the ACRP. The project was successful in raising awareness of climate impacts with developers of large-scale infrastructure projects that are subject to EIA. A follow-up project named SPECIFIC (SPEcific Climate change ForesIght in projeCt design) 71 has broadened the target audience to environmental authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/ practitioners), and focuses on rail, highway and power grid projects, leading to the EIA climate-fit portal 72 .

A handbook with methods and tools that help to tackle adaptation challenges was published in order to support politicians and experts in the public administration of provinces, regions and cities, as well as actors in regional management, to develop adaptation strategies (see Indicator 5b). The handbook provides guidance for strategic examination of the consequences of climate change in all areas of action covered by the NAS. The handbook is one of the main results of the project FAMOUS (Factory of Adaptation Measures operated ad different Scales) 73 financed by the Climate and Energy Fund.

Another overarching guidance published at the end of 2014 is a communication strategy 74 focusing on practically oriented, target-group specific, and action-motivating recommendations for effectively communicating climate change and adaptation.

Several guidelines have successfully supported implementation of adaptation measures (see also Indicator 5b). An example is the climate change (adaptation) handbook for spatial planning 75 . Its tools have been widely tested and applied throughout the different Austrian alpine regions (as per the updated NAS). External handbooks (e.g. EU-level, transnational, national) and other forms of (national) guidance documents are mentioned by projects and plans and, thus, support the implementation of specific actions included in the NAP.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Although activities have taken place in the past and there are some activities currently underway and planned, it is unclear to what extent non-public administration stakeholders are being involved in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures. To improve the management of natural disasters, the NAP (via a specific action) mandates inclusion of all relevant civil society actors in the decision-making and execution processes.

The Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism, together with all of the Bundesländer, has established an implementation plan for the NAP. This plan summarises a few specific participatory measures to be undertaken as a next step. For example, a working group on increased private risk precaution in case of extreme weather events was established in Austria. In addition, it was agreed to make stronger joint efforts to support adaptation at regional level (e.g. through regional workshops, and a brochure with good-practice examples).

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

A progress report was published by the BMNT in 2015 76 on the state of implementation of the measures described in the NAP. Monitoring and evaluation of the NAS/NAP is pragmatic and comprises two modules: 1) a self-assessment approach using a stakeholder survey based on the NAP and sent to the key actors mentioned therein; 2) an indicator-based approach with qualitative and quantitative data collections  77 . No information is available on allocated budgets, but the cost of inaction was calculated by the ACRP project COIN in 2015 78 . The costs of public adaptation was calculated in the project PACINAS. 79 Furthermore, the role of private actors in adaptation was analysed by the project PATCH:ES 80 . All studies were reflected in the NAS and NAP 2017. The progress report is to be drafted and published at 5-year intervals. The next version is, therefore, due in 2020 81 .

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

The central progress report (see Indicator 10a) assesses the implementation of adaptation measures for 14 different sectors. Mainstreaming of climate adaptation into sector policies is one of the evaluation criteria of these sectoral assessments.

10c. Regional-, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

As mentioned in relation to Indicator 10a, the progress report is based on heavy input from regional (Bundesländer) and local stakeholders (self-assessment approach). This feedback mechanism allows for significant vertical flow of information, qualifying the central progress report as a proper monitoring tool for regional, sub-national, and local adaptation action.

11    Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

The concept note for the ‘presentation of progress’ (Konzept für die Fortschritts-Darstellung) 82 that lies at the heart of the central progress report (see Indicator 10a) provides an evaluation framework for both the NAS and the NAP. The evaluation takes place within a five-year cycle 83 .

There is no formal revision framework that dictates a specific process for amending the NAS or NAP periodically. However, the release of the 2015 progress report and other political developments at the time triggered a first revision and update of the NAS and NAP documents in 2017. Therefore, the review timeline is characterised by an ad-hoc revision based on the findings of the five-year recurring evaluation/progress report of the NAS and NAP.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Stakeholder involvement and engagement (cross-ministerial and regional) in the development of the central progress report qualifies as active participation in the monitoring and reviewing process. In both the self-assessment approach and the indicator-based approach, stakeholders provided information and were consulted. Additional workshops took place to jointly work on the interpretation of quantitative and qualitative data for the progress report and to find consensus in the findings. The 2015 progress report was adopted by the Council of Ministers and all Provincial Governors.



SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In Progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In Progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No



Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiche for

Belgium

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation action plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1. Coordination structure    

2. Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3. Current and projected climate change    

4. Knowledge gaps    

5. Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6. Adaptation options’ identification    

7. Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9. Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10. Monitoring, reporting and evaluation.    

11. Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    

List of abbreviations

AMICE     Adaptation of the Meuse to the Impacts of Climate Evolution

BELSPO     Belgian Federal Science Policy Office

CCIEP         Coordination Committee for International Environmental Policy

EIA         Environmental Impact Assessment

NAP         National Adaptation Plan

NAS         National Adaptation Strategy

NCC         National Climate Commission

RMI         Royal Meteorological Institute

SSD         Science for a Sustainable Development programme

SEA         Strategic Environmental Assessment

TIDE         Tidal River Development

VAP         Flemish Adaptation Plan

VMM         Flanders Environment Agency

WGA         Working Group on Adaptation



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Belgium is a federal state, composed of three regions and three language-based communities, each with its own executive and legislative bodies. These bodies intervene on an equal footing but in different areas of competence 84 . The federal state level is in charge of competences like foreign affairs, national defence and parts of national health 85 . This division of power means that what is considered as Belgium’s national climate adaptation policy is in fact the combination of the federal and three regional climate adaptation policies, which are those of the Walloon, the Flemish and the Brussels Capital region.

At the national level, the National Climate Commission (NCC) plays the main role in internal coordination of climate policy. The Coordination Committee for International Environmental Policy (CCIEP) deals with international environmental affairs. The NCC, and more specifically its Working Group on Adaptation (WGA), is responsible for the development, adoption and implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) and the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) 86 . The WGA is composed of representatives from the Federal Government and the three different regions, as mentioned above 87 , 88 :

·The Federal Government: Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (DG Environment) and Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation (DG Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid)

·Flemish region: Department of Environment and Spatial Development

·Walloon region: Agence wallonne de l’air & du climat

·Brussels region: Environment Brussels.

When describing the national climate adaptation policy in the analysis presented in this document, all relevant activities in each of the four governments are included. Intergovernmental mechanisms refer to collaborations between the Federal, Flemish, Walloon and Brussels Capital regions. Vertical mechanisms are mechanisms between these regions and the provincial and local level.

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy

Belgium has a National Adaptation Strategy (NAS), which was approved in 2010. The NAS describes the main climate impacts, the existing adaptation responses, a roadmap to the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) and some policy guidelines for a climate proof future. The priority sectors are health, tourism, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, ecosystems and water, coastal, marine and tidal areas, and production systems and physical infrastructure. The NAS pursues the improvement of the communication of and coherence between the adaptation activities among the different governments.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

The Federal Government and each of the three regional governments – the Walloon region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels Capital region – together contribute to the national adaptation policy. They do not have separate adaptation strategies, but are each responsible for part of the NAS relevant to their competences.

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation action plan

The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) was approved in April 2017. Priority sectors addressed in the NAP are agriculture, coastal areas, fishery, spatial planning and infrastructure, forests, biodiversity, energy, health, water management, tourism, industry and services, research and international cooperation 89 . The NAP complements the existing Flemish, Brussels Capital, Walloon and Federal adaptation plans. It includes some additional adaptation measures to improve the coordination and information exchange between the different governments, for example developing high-resolution climate scenarios and a roadmap for a Belgian Centre of Excellence on adaptation.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

On 2 May 2013, the Brussels Capital Region adopted its Air-Climate-Energy Code (known as COBRACE 90 ). It serves as a legal basis for its Integrated Air-Climate-Energy Plan, which was adopted on 2 June 2016 and which includes a section on adaptation 91 . Priority sectors are water management, infrastructure and built areas, energy, green areas and, forests. Other thematic plans that include adaptation measures are the 2012 Regional Water Management Plan 92 , including a flood prevention plan created in 2003. A second regional water management plan has been adopted for the period 2016-2020 and integrates consideration of floods and flood risks 93 . Furthermore, the region adopted the "Forêt de Soignes" management plan (2003) 94 and its Nature Plan (2016), which both include adaptation measures.

In January 2014, the Walloon government adopted its ‘Climate Decree’ 95 giving a legal framework for climate policy in Wallonia. The main implementation instrument is the ‘Air-Climate-Energy Plan 2016 – 2022’ 96 which contains a section on adaptation and was adopted on 21 April 2016 97 . This adaptation section summarises the impacts and vulnerability assessments, as well as detailed adaptation actions to deal with these impacts and vulnerabilities in the following sectors: agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water, health and tourism.

On 28 October 2016, the Federal Government adopted the Federal Contribution to the National Adaptation Plan 98 , which identifies federal adaptation actions in sectors like crisis management and transport.

In addition, some provincial and local governments have signed the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy and have developed adaptation plans, amongst others the Province of Antwerp, 99 the Province of Limburg 100 , and the City of Gent 101  

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

No sectoral adaptation plans have been identified. Sectoral adaptation measures from the different policy departments are, however, integrated in the national, federal and regional adaptation plans.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1. Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes/ No

In Belgium, the central administration body in charge of Belgian adaptation policy is the WGA 102 , which is part of the NCC. It is the responsibility of the WGA to develop the NAS and the NAP. Representatives of the four levels of the Government, i.e. the Federal Government and the three regional governments, form the WGA. All of these four governments are equal and there is no hierarchical relationship between the regions and the federal authority.

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes/ In progress/ No

Horizontal coordination among sectors is organised by each of the federal and regional governments via meetings in committees and contact groups. These groups bring together representatives of various sectoral policy departments that are likely to be affected by climate change, such as water, agriculture, nature and forests, agriculture, health, spatial planning, disaster risk management, etc. Horizontal coordination mainly includes identification and follow-up of priority goals and adaptation actions. Furthermore, it addresses information and data exchange and pursues communication and synergy between the different sectors. The WGA, mandated by the NCC, was the central actor for the drafting of the NAS and the NAP. The WGA is in charge of the consultation with and coordination of the different regional/federal sectors for the elaboration, implementation and monitoring of the NAP.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes/ In progress/ No

To develop the NAS, representatives of the different governments of the WGA met regularly and continue to do so in order to discuss progress of the NAS and the implementation of adaptation plans.

Vertical coordination in Belgium refers to coordination between the four governments, the ten provinces and the 589 local authorities. Vertical coordination is in place at some levels but not in a systematic manner. At the regional level, the departments involved in adaptation are in touch with provinces and local authorities, although not always through formal working groups or coordination mechanisms between the regional level and the provincial or the local authorities, but rather through cooperation mechanisms.

The federal level has no competence with regard to provinces and local authorities.

In Flanders, there is no formal coordination mechanism that vertically coordinates the provincial and local authorities, nevertheless coordination exists ad hoc and related to specific initiatives, such as the development of an adaptation portal. Furthermore, there was a pilot group with representatives of some local authorities and provinces that aimed to co-develop adaptation support tools, including a tool to explore adaptation measures 103 , good adaptation practices, and a climate portal (under development) that collects all data on climate impacts at a municipal level in Flanders 104 .

In contrast to Flanders, vertical coordination in Wallonia is formal. In July 2017, the Government signed a commitment to be a territorial coordinator of the Covenant of Mayors. In addition, the Walloon region has elaborated comparable adaptation support tools for local authorities 105 .

Vertical coordination is also planned to take place via the official territorial coordinators of the Covenant of Mayors. Eight out of ten Belgian provinces, and about 12 associations of municipalities (‘intercommunales’) have signed up as territorial coordinators. The main focus of this coordination so far is on mitigation, but it is expected that these administrations will also play a role in adaptation 106 .

There is no specific vertical coordination between Brussels Capital government and the local authorities.

2. Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

Stakeholders are involved in the preparation and implementation of adaptation policies in various ways.

In all four governments, focus groups that included representatives of the different policy departments were established to identify objectives and priority measures. In addition, other stakeholders have been consulted as well during the process. More specifically:

·At the level of the Federal Government, there was a public consultation on the federal plan ‘adaptation to climate change’ (later renamed ‘federal contribution to the NAP’) between 17 February and 18 April 2014. Stakeholders involved included citizens, NGOs and sectoral organisations. The plan was also submitted to the Federal Council for Sustainable Development that includes representatives of society, including environmental organisations, organisation for development cooperation, users’, employees’ and employers’ bodies, youth organisations and scientists.

·In Flanders, stakeholder consultation during the development of the adaptation plan was carried out twice via ‘roundtables’. The first roundtable presented preliminary ideas about the adaptation plan, while the second roundtable focused on the draft version of the plan to offer a platform for stakeholders to discuss it. Stakeholders included industry representatives, environmental organisations, farmer organisations and youth associations. Furthermore, the ‘MINAraad’ was consulted on the draft Flemish Climate Plan.

·In the Walloon region, there was a public consultation on the adaptation plan in the summer of 2014. Citizens, companies and local authorities took part in the consultation 107 .

·The Brussels adaptation plan went to public consultation in 2015.

The national adaptation plan was submitted for consultation to the federal and regional advice councils, which include stakeholders from all societal sectors, such as environment, industry, employee, and science.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes/ No

Transboundary cooperation is a priority in the NAP 108 . Action 10 of the NAP (“Promote transnational cooperation on adaptation”) aims to facilitate transnational cooperation on adaptation, covering both international cooperation between (neighbouring) countries and cross-border cooperation among countries with shared cross-border resources (e.g. water, protected areas) or other shared interests. The main foci for transboundary cooperation are disaster management, nature and water management. Cooperation mechanisms in these sectors already existed, nevertheless, it was recognised that further cooperation was needed. For instance, Belgium takes part in transboundary water management commissions of the Meuse and Scheldt. Belgium participated in Interreg projects, such as TIDE (Tidal River Development), AMICE, and Future Cities. Furthermore, the Flemish government coordinates the Interreg 2 Seas project PROWATER (protecting and restoring raw water sources through actions at the landscape scale), which is expected to start in September 2018.

So far, transboundary co-operation on adaptation in the BENELUX countries has been ad hoc. For instance, in 2016 the BENELUX secretariat organised workshops on adaptation concerning the following sectors: transport, energy, health and crisis management 109 . The expectation is that more formal transboundary cooperation will be established in the coming years 110 .

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3. Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress/ No

Belgium has observation systems that allow for long-term monitoring of temperature, precipitation and sea level. This monitoring work is carried out by the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) 111 and the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level.

Climate impacts are monitored by the different organisations:

·Different climate impact studies have been performed for Belgium in the framework of CORDEX.be project on: extreme precipitation; maximum snow height; urban parameters for Brussels (including outdoor labour productivity, excess energy consumption and heat stress due to heat waves); agricultural crop performance and yield as well as biogenic emissions.

·Impacts on forests and nature: by Brussels Environment 112 , Walloon Observatory of Forest Health 113 and the Research Institute for Nature and Forest in Flanders. 114

·Impacts on the oceans: the Flemish Hydrography and Royal Institute of Natural Sciences.

·Impact on water: flood, water quality and drought – Flanders Hydraulics Research, the Flemish water managers 115 , the Walloon Waterways 116 , the Walloon Flood Portal 117 , Brussels Environment, Royal Institute of Natural Sciences. Impact on extreme precipitation, heat waves, and droughts is collected by the RMI. In 2015, the RMI published “Vigilance climatique”. In 2015 the Flanders Environment Agency (VMM) published the ‘MIRA Climate Report 2015: About observed and future climate changes in Flanders and Belgium’. The indicators from the report are regularly updated on their website. Due to the dry conditions in Flanders, the VMM published a report on drought 118 based on hydrological and meteorological indicators in June 2017.

Since 1992 the EM-DAT database has recorded the number of victims (deaths and affected persons) of natural disasters in Belgium. Indicators are developed by the Federal Planning Bureau. 119 To conclude, observation systems for many climate impacts are in place, however, they sometimes are fragmentary and not always available for the whole of Belgium.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes/ In progress/ No

While Belgium does not formally have a national climate centre, the CORDEX.be project 120 (Combining regional downscaling expertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond 2015-2017) provided a platform for data exchange and communication among the Belgian climate modelling groups. CORDEX.be makes use of the most recent IPCC scenarios (2014). All impact assessments rely on these models. In the context of the CORDEX.be project, a wide range of climate model simulations have been performed that are collected on the CORDEX.be data hub at the RMI and will serve as the basis of future impact studies. The model simulations are thoroughly validated by comparison with past observations and GNSS-derived products.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes/ In progress/ No

The NAP provides sound climate risk and vulnerability assessments for 11 key sectors: agriculture, coastal areas, fishery, spatial planning and infrastructure, forests, biodiversity, energy, health, water management, tourism, industry and services. The assessments indicate the types and intensity of climate impacts on these sectors by a colour gradation from green to red (opportunity to threat). The assessment is carried out in a qualitative way and provides climate impact information for the periods 2030, 2050 and 2085 within wet, mean and dry scenarios. The assessment is the combination of the results of the different climate impact assessments carried out by the regional governments and impact studies at federal level. In addition, the Flemish Environment Agency has published a climate assessment report in 2015 121 and the research report on indicators for urban heat island effect in Flanders 122 .

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes/ In Progress/ No

Taking into account transboundary risks is not yet common practice in climate risk and vulnerability assessments in Belgium. It is mainly in the field of flood risk management where progress has been made, primarily as a result of joint projects. One of the examples is the Interreg AMICE project for which scientists from France, Belgium and the Netherlands have built a transnational scenario to evaluate climate impacts with regards to flood risks in the Meuse river basin. Another example is the ENDURE Interreg project, which aims to improve the adaptive capacity by focusing on the protection of sand dunes in the 2 Seas area. Furthermore, the Flemish drought and water scarcity indicator also considers risks of upstream parts of the international basins 123 .

4. Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes/ In progress/ No

Research for better understanding is part of the Belgian adaptation policy. Knowledge gaps are addressed by:

1)Conventional research funding organisations. Knowledge gaps are mentioned in a general way but researchers have some freedom to determine the focus of their research. The Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) financed several projects on climate impacts and adaptation through the former ‘Science for a Sustainable Development’ (SSD) programme 124 . Topics and sector-specific domains of interest addressed include transport, hydrological events, surface water, coastal management, fisheries and health. Several research projects have been launched to increase knowledge of climate impacts and adaptation through the BRAIN-be program me 125 . In 2014, the call for project proposals by BELSPO included climate adaptation as one of its four priority themes. Special attention was directed to two research activities: understanding sectoral climate impacts, and developing policy decision-support tools that aim at evaluating the effects of climate change. The BRAIN-BE call in 2016 included a call for proposals for developing scientific support for the development of climate services. Unfortunately, no projects were selected for funding.

In total five projects are funded in the framework of the ERA4CS Joint Call on Researching and Advancing Climate Services Development by (A) Advanced co-development with users (B) Institutional integration, linked to the JPI Climate (two cash-funded via BELSPO and three funded in kind via RMI).

2)Research and studies funded by the policy departments themselves. These studies are upon request and knowledge gaps are identified and specified. Examples of these studies are the study on climate proof spatial planning, or on the needs assessment for local authorities on climate adaptation planning.

3)A think tank consisting of academics and other experts on climate adaptation (Flanders only), which was subsidised by the Flemish government from 2015 – 2017 to develop and spread knowledge on adaptation across disciplines. Knowledge gaps were identified and addressed during meetings 126 , 127 .

5. Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes/ In progress/ No

Information that is useful for adaptation is available online and can be used by different types of stakeholders.

In Flanders, there are portals with abundant adaptation-relevant information, including:

·An overview of Flemish adaptation policy 128  

·Climate change information 129  

·Support for local authorities 130 .

A climate portal will also soon be launched that includes geographical climate impact information at a detailed level for all Flemish municipalities 131 . The main policy department in climate adaptation has initiated this data provision.

In Wallonia, it is the Walloon Agency for Air & Climate (AWAC) that provides the online information to support adaptation. This information mainly aims at different sectors and at local authorities 132  

The Brussels Capital region offers information on its website mainly limited to the policy plan 133 .

At the federal level, the website 134 provides information on climate change and climate adaptation policy at all levels as well as climate observations and impacts.

A dedicated national online platform 135 is planned (with a committed budget) at the national level, as mentioned in the NAP.

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes/In progress/ No

A limited number of specific education and training materials could be identified in the available sources of information. 136  

Some more generic materials, considering impacts and adaptation exist, such as the “KLIMOS” environmental sustainability toolkit for development cooperation, and educational files on climate change targeted to young students.

There has also been some capacity building of local authorities, particularly on how to develop adaptation plans. Several workshops were organised for the Walloon municipalities to disseminate these tools, within two frameworks: the Floods Directive and the elaboration of flood risk management plans; and the Walloon POLLEC Programme, which provides regional support to the cities in relation to the Covenant of Mayors objectives.

It is expected that the capacity building for public officers to develop adaptation plans will be developed in the near future in Flanders 137 as well. The Flemish Region and some Flemish provinces have organised a number of annual conferences, aiming at climate practitioners to share their experiences on mitigation and adaptation 138 .

In addition, national conferences and roundtables are organised in a coordinated way by regional and federal governments to implement the NAP (Measure 4 ‘Strengthening sectoral coordination at national level’). The 1st Conference ‘Adaptation to Climate Change: What is the Situation in Belgium’ was organised in November 2017 139 and was attended by around one hundred people.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6. Adaptation options’ identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

Relevant adaptation options for each sector in the national, the federal and regional adaptation plans were selected on the basis of sound sectoral risk and vulnerability assessments 140 . The options were identified by expert judgement of the relevant policy departments. Besides sectoral adaptation options, the regional, federal and national adaptation plans also mentioned ‘horizontal’ adaptation options like research, international collaboration and transversal affairs. These adaptation options result from ambitions to better coordinate adaptation actions and are related to identified adaptation needs 141 .

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

The selection of priority adaptation options for the NAP is the result of an extensive process. It was based on an analysis of the measures contained in the adaptation plans (three regions and the Federal Government) with the aim to identify the gaps and/or the opportunities for synergies. It was also based on the EU adaptation framework (particularly the EU Adaptation Strategy and its accompanying documents), and a study exploring potential national adaptation actions to be implemented jointly by the federal and regional authorities. The WGA of the NCC identified a set of measures based on this analysis. The relevance and feasibility of the measures were analysed in consultation with the relevant sectoral experts, according to criteria, such as the opportunity for implementation (focusing on the integration of adaptation into planned sectoral projects/process), the national added-value (i.e. the extent of benefits for all four entities) and the urgency of action.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In progress / No

There is some evidence available on coordination mechanisms between the authorities dealing with disaster risk management and adaptation policies. There has been increased coordination in the context of the Federal contribution to the NAP, as the Federal Government is in charge of crisis and emergency management.

Belgium fostered better coordination between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation by gathering the regional and federal crisis centre, adaptation experts, and climate services scientists in September 2017. Future coordination will build on the work realized in the framework of the cordex.be project and will look further into how to mainstream climate change in disaster risk prevention and management. This would be in line with implementation of Measure 11 of the NAP and Measure 5 of the Federal contribution to the NAP.

A national platform for disaster risk reduction (Sendaï platform) was established in 2016 (coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

7. Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

A dedicated budget is not attached to the NAS. Funding for climate adaptation is available at all levels within existing governmental budgets.

For 2017 and 2018, the NCC foresaw a dedicated budget for the implementation of the NAP. 142 The NAP actions are generally horizontal and, therefore, the budget is not dedicated to one specific sector but every sector can benefit from these measures (e.g. the budget to develop a web platform on adaptation where every sector will be integrated). The sectoral adaptation actions have to be financed by each of the relevant policy departments and need to be included in the annual department budget. Although there is no evidence of multi-annual funding for climate adaptation, the different governments allocate a part of their budget to implementing adaptation measures. For instance, in 2017, Flanders 143 and Wallonia 144 funded impact assessments and the development of adaptation support tools to help local authorities. Flanders funded the development of climate scenarios and assess climate impacts 145 . In addition, there was a think tank 146 in Flanders on adaptation, financed by the Department of Environment and Spatial Development to bring together expertise. The Federal Government has funded an impact assessment study as well as research projects (via BELSPO). There appears to be no climate adaptation funding in the Brussels Capital region.

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments 

Yes / No

At the federal level, the need for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was established in law on 13 February 2006 147 . The Federal Government has provided guidance on SEA via its website, since October 2017 148 , in order to ensure that assessments address climate adaptation.

At the Flemish level, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive 2014/52/EU was transposed into law via the Decree of 3 February 2017 149 . Consequently, climate adaptation is considered in EIA 150 .

In the Walloon region and Brussels-Capital region, the former EU directive 2011/92/UE is still used to guide EIA, so climate change is not yet always considered in practice 151 .

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes/ No

Disaster risk management is a shared responsibility between the local, provincial and federal levels. Disaster risk management plans do not include direct reference to climate change. The NAP 152 includes a measure for the 2018 risk analysis to include consideration of climate impacts in order to revise the disaster risk management plans 153 . Specific plans for the protection of critical infrastructure, as well as specific emergency management plans for floods 154 , heat waves 155 and forest fires, do consider climate change to a certain extent.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes/ No

Climate change is not yet completely integrated in land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime planning. However, there are a few policy instruments implemented in spatial planning in Flanders that aim to avoid new developments in flood risk areas (e.g. the ‘watertoets’ and the ‘Signaalgebieden’ in Flanders 156 ). However, these policy instruments are based on current flood risk information rather than flood risks arising from climate change. Climate change is mentioned in maritime spatial planning. It is being taken into account throughout the planning process and has led to specific spatial decisions directly or indirectly related to climate change, e.g. the designation of a zone for a test island for coastal protection and the designation of additional zones for offshore renewable energy. In addition, climate change is included in EIA.

Regional forestry policy instruments (e.g. the Walloon forest code, the Flanders forestry policy and the Brussels forest plans) aim to enhance the climate resilience of forests. Some major water and flood management initiatives with land-use implications consider climate change (e.g. the Walloon Plan PLUIES 157 and the Flemish SIGMA plan 158 ). However, no guidance related to climate proofing of buildings has been found 159 .

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes/ In progress/ No

The NAS, the federal contribution to the NAP and the regional adaptation plans promote the mainstreaming of climate change in different policy sectors. Evidence of mainstreaming in sectors is reported in the 7th National Communication report 160 across many sectors, including water management, coastal areas, biodiversity, agriculture, forests, fishing, infrastructure and urban environment, transport, tourism, health, industry and services, energy, and disaster risk management. The policy instruments are diverse, ranging from an information campaign to encourage water savings to integrating climate change in the coastal safety master plan to encouraging farmer actions via climatic agri-environmental measures. The NAS (2010) has been the sole driver of mainstreaming climate adaptation in these sectors.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes/ No

The draft federal contribution to the NAP 161 contains provisions to foster the consideration of climate risks in insurance and guarantee schemes, and to support the productive sectors in considering and addressing climate impacts and adaptation. However, this measure was not retained in the final version (‘Federal Contribution to the NAP’) adopted by the Federal Council of Ministers. Incorporating climate change in the insurance sector is also an ambition of the Flemish Adaptation Plan. However, the progress report 162 , 163 indicated that the insurance sector is not yet willing to include climate change in their products due to lack of a legal framework. No evidence was found of other incentives for investments in risk prevention.

9. Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes /In progress/ No

The NAS as well as the federal contribution to the NAP and the regional adaptation plans, have listed adaptation measures and actions. These actions are mainly defined by sectors and are implemented by the respective policy departments. There are also some overarching horizontal adaptation actions listed like carrying out research 164 , and establishing transnational cooperation 165 .

Many of the adaptation actions are being implemented 166 sectorally, i.e. in relation to water management, coastal areas, biodiversity, agriculture, forests, fishing, infrastructure and urban environment, transport, tourism, health, industry & services, energy and disaster risk management. Examples of adaptation actions include: awareness raising on the importance of healthy soils; connecting nature areas; setting up a centre of excellence on adaptation; considering climate change when restoring.

At the federal level, the adaptation actions have been implemented since 2016, so are in progress, as was planned.

At the Flemish level, implementation of adaptation actions started in 2013 and most actions are in progress, as was planned.

At the Walloon level, implementation of adaptation actions started in 2016 and most actions are in progress, as was planned.

In the Brussels Capital region, implementation of adaptation actions started in 2016.

At the national level, implementation started in 2017.

There are some adaptation actions that emerged autonomously and were implemented even before the adaptation plans were developed, like the SIGMA plan in Flanders in 2005 or Plan PlUIES in Wallonia in 2003.

In addition to the adaptation measures in the NAP, there are also some provinces and cities that have listed adaptation measures that will soon be implemented 167 .

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes/ No

Cooperation mechanisms at provincial and local levels are under development in Flanders and Wallonia. These are the regions that could benefit most from these cooperation mechanisms. The cooperation is being formalised in the Walloon.

In Flanders, the cooperation mechanism is provided by an adaptation support tool that was developed by the Flemish government with a pilot group of local authorities in order to support local authorities in the development of their adaptation plans. This support tool includes:

·A climate atlas that reveals the most vulnerable areas in Flanders

·A tool to explore adaptation measures 168 ; and

·Good practices about climate adaptation.

In the Walloon region, a comparable adaptation support tool for local authorities is available. 169

The Walloon region has recently signed a commitment to be a territorial coordinator of the Covenant of Mayors. Cooperation is, therefore, emphasized in a more formal way. Several workshops have been organized to present the tools available for the cities in the framework of the POLLEC Programme. This programme supports cities to develop action plans for the Covenant of Mayors. Wallonia also has more ad hoc cooperation, like the workshops organised in the framework of the Flood Directive and the elaboration of the flood risk management plans. These workshops were organised to disseminate information to cities, provinces and other actors in charge of the flood risk management the Walloon region. The adaptation tool for cities has been presented during these workshops.

Some provinces are planning to coordinate adaptation with the local authorities. However, as yet, no formalized coordination group has been established.

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes/ No

Measure 9 of the Federal contribution to the NAP is a cross-sectoral measure that foresaw mainstreaming of climate adaptation in the development of federal policies. This measure has been implemented through:

·Integration of adaptation in the analysis procedure for regulation (the so-called AIR – ‘analyse d’impact de legislation’) as well as in the manual for impact analysis for regulation.

·Development of guidelines to promote better integration of climate mitigation and adaptation (and biodiversity) in SEA and EIA in the North Sea. The guidelines were published in October 2017 170 . A (general) reference to the guidelines has been made in the Belgian EIA regulation for activities in the North Sea (Royal Decree of 9 September 2003). The existing guidelines 171 for SEA will be updated according to the guidance.

Flanders has already developed guidelines to consider climate in EIA.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Many of the adaptation plans are government-driven. Stakeholders have a limited role in the implementation of adaptation measures and are involved on an ad hoc basis, depending on the adaptation measure considered. Although it is proposed that measures to address climate impacts should be taken up by the private sector, there does not seem to be any public-private cooperation.

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10. Monitoring, reporting and evaluation.

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes/ No

Monitoring implementation of adaptation policy takes place every two to four years at the national level 172 . The WGA monitors the progress of implementation in a qualitative way by listing actions that are carried out by the different policy departments 173 . The monitoring indicators that are described in the different adaptation plans are used as guidance. Allocated budgets and other financial information are not monitored. The National Climate Commission integrates monitoring results into the National Communication report 174 .

Monitoring has been taking place since 2015, as part of the National Communication report. Results were disseminated in the 6th National Communication (2015-2016) 175 and in the 7th National Communication (2017-2018) 176 , and are accessible amongst others via the national website 177 and the federal website 178 .

A workshop for French-speaking technical staff working on climate adaptation in Africa was co-organised by Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, France, FAO and UNDP (Cluster Francophone) in May 2018 in Couala (Cameroun). The focus was on monitoring and evaluation of adaptation measures.

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

The monitoring results in National Communications are organised according to sectoral policies. However, the monitoring of the NAP is not specified per sector.

Nevertheless, at the Flemish level, the different policy sectors report on a bi-annual basis on the progress of their adaptation actions 179 . The first progress report was published for the period 2013-2015. The second report for the period 2015-2017 was approved in March 2018.

At the federal level, in the framework of the federal law on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), sectoral departments of the federal authority have to report on the implementation of their respective adaptation measures (taken or planned), particularly the actions provided for in the federal contribution to the NAP. Monitoring addresses the main objectives, the climate impact category targeted, the planned and allocated budgets, the degree of implementation and, to the extent possible, indicators (the Royal Decree implementing the Law is not published yet).

At the level of the Walloon and the Brussels Capital region, no evidence was found of how climate adaptation is monitored in sectoral policies.

10c. Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes/No

There is no systematic monitoring mechanism to collect and disseminate information on progress with the implementation of adaptation actions at the provincial or local levels.

11. Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes/No

A mid-term evaluation of the NAP will take place in 2018 and a final evaluation in 2020. This timing is aligned with the periodic National Communication and the development of the next NAP. Indicators identified in the NAP will be used in the evaluations. The mid-term evaluation will assess the progress of implementation and evaluate strengths and weaknesses. The final evaluation will mainly focus on identifying remaining gaps with regard to adaptation actions. 180 , 181

The regional level will contribute to the evaluation. The federal level has specified in the Federal Contribution to the NAP that an evaluation will take place to assess coherence between actions in the NAP and actions taken at the federal level.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes/No

No specific information on external stakeholder involvement in the monitoring, evaluation or review of the adaptation strategies or plans was found. It is expected that assessment, evaluation and review will be undertaken by the actors involved in the WGA and respective regional platforms.


SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In Progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In Progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiche for

Bulgaria

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1    Coordination structure    

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3    Current and projected climate change    

4    Knowledge gaps    

5    Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6    Adaptation options’ identification    

7    Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9    Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10    Monitoring and reporting    

11    Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    



List of abbreviations

EIA    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

IBRD    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

IPCC    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

NAS    National adaptation strategy

NAP    National adaptation plan

NAMRB    National Association of Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria

MoEW    Ministry of Environment and Water

SEA    Strategic Environmental Assessment



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

On May 4th, 2018, Bulgaria published a draft national adaptation strategy (NAS) 182 that covers the period until 2030. Using resources from the EU structural funds operational programme on Good Governance, the Government of Bulgaria commissioned the World Bank to provide advisory services on: Strengthening strategic planning on climate adaptation, including providing inputs for the preparation of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, together with an Action Plan – for the Ministry of Environment and Water”  183 . The objectives of this project were to:

·Assess options to address climate risks across the economy

·Formulate the NAS and national adaptation plan (NAP) for the period to 2030

·Strengthen capacity for implementation and cross-sector coordination on climate adaptation.

The draft NAS is intended to serve as a reference document, setting a framework for climate adaptation action and priority directions up to 2030, and identifying and confirming the need for climate adaptation action both at economy-wide and sectoral levels, while highlighting the consequences of no action.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

The draft NAS has adopted a sectoral rather than a regional approach to climate adaptation. Nevertheless, regional development plans 184 developed under the EU Cohesion Policy 185  each include a separate chapter on climate change related (mainly adaptation) measures relevant at the local level (see B2).

Additionally, a Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change for Sofia Municipality has been developed under the EU-funded project “Transitioning towards Urban Resilience and Sustainability (TURAS)” 186 . The Strategy has the following objectives: 1. To develop horizontal policies and strategic planning; 2. To increase institutional capacity and improve co-operation between institutions; 3. To support targeted research and monitoring to fill the knowledge gaps regarding anticipated climate impacts; 4. To improve citizens’ awareness through climate change information campaigns; 5. To identify additional benefits of risk prevention and adaptation.

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

A draft NAP was published as a chapter 187 within the draft NAS. The development of the draft NAP followed an iterative process to identify and select sectoral operational objectives and specify the underlying actions. This was based on a process of developing sector assessment reports for the nine key sectors and has been informed by the disaster risk management and macro-economic analysis reports. The process involved a series of stakeholder consultations that also included relevant government agencies. The stakeholder groups were organised using a multi-criteria analysis approach, following Climate-Adapt guidance 188 . In the selection of draft operational objectives and priority activities for these objectives, with associated implementation details, a consultation between the NAS and NAP writers and sectoral experts was carried out. The NAP, thus, includes operational objectives and priority options, an explanation of proposed activities, expected results and performance indicators.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

In 2013, the Council of Ministers adopted the 2014-2020 Regional Development Plans of Level 2 regions under the EU Cohesion Policy 189 . The plans outline the development of the Northeast, Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, North Central and South-Central Regions, featuring a section about the region's climate vulnerability. The sections include suggested adaptation measures at regional level. The sectors most vulnerable to climate change in the different regions include agriculture, biodiversity, tourism, water resources management, power generation, fisheries, and forestry.

Local authorities (municipalities) have an important role to play, particularly regarding the implementation of adaptation actions, which is reflected in the operational programmes 190 for the new programming period.

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

The draft NAS provides a list of strategic objectives for nine economic sectors, including agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystem services, energy, forestry, human health, tourism, transport, the urban environment (including infrastructure and construction) and water. The overarching objectives relate to mainstreaming adaptation in the policies and strategies within each sector, as well as to building capacity, raising awareness and increasing climate resilience. The process of integrating these objectives has not yet begun, as the NAS is not yet approved.

Outside the policy options planned as a part of the response to the EU Adaptation Strategy, the most recent river basin management plans in 2016 191 provide for the development of environmental protection and water management adaptation measures. These plans focus on the elaboration and implementation of drought management plans. This entails, inter alia, options for the construction of facilities to capture and use biogas in waste water treatment plants, water savings and efficiency, reduction of erosion in water catchment areas. In addition, it includes resilience selection criteria for project funding that are based on an assessment of climate impacts on water resources and water use.

Flood risk management plans 192  for all four river basins in the country were implemented on 29th December 2016 under the Floods Directive 193 . The plans were developed on the basis of preliminary flood risk assessments completed in 2011. The Ministry of Environment and Water has developed hazard and flood risk maps and methodologies for preliminary assessment of flood risks. The areas at significant flood risk were identified in 2013 in relation to disaster management.

In 2011, the “Programme of measures to adapt forests in the Republic of Bulgaria and mitigate the negative impact of climate change on them” 194 was adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry. Forestry is also covered by the draft NAS. To avoid overlap between policies, coordination between the 2011 forestry adaptation programme and the NAS is planned in the draft NAS. Finally, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest has adopted the National Forest Strategy 2013 – 2020 195 , 196 , which also includes measures to strengthen the climate resilience of forest ecosystems.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

In Bulgaria, a Climate Change Policy Directorate was established within the Ministry of Environment and Water (MOEW). The body is responsible for the transposition of all EU laws and policies relating to climate change into national law. It is also responsible for the coordination of the policy-making processes relating to the NAS. 197

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

Horizontal coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities in relation to climate adaptation measures. Article 3, paragraph 4 of the Climate Change Mitigation Act governs the establishment of the National Expert Council on Climate Change, as an advisory body to assist the MoEW in the implementation of state policy on climate mitigation and adaptation. The Council consists of representatives of the different governmental ministries, National Association of Municipalities in Republic of Bulgaria, Regional governmental authorities, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, environmental NGOs and businesses. In this sense, the body provides both horizontal and vertical coordination.

Furthermore, a National Coordination Council on Climate Change was created to support the coordination of the operational process relating to the implementation of climate mitigation and adaptation policies. It is led by the MoEW and involves representatives of all relevant ministries, at deputy minister level, and some agencies fostering the development of the NAS. The MoEW is also assisted by the National Expert Council on Climate Change referred to above.

Both bodies take part in the reviews of all reports prepared as a part of the NAS development, and are currently reviewing the draft NAS and NAP. 198 Within the Government, institutions with responsibilities for integration of climate change (both mitigation and adaptation) include: the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry; the Ministry of Transport, IT and Communications; the Ministry of Finance; the Ministry of Interior; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry of Health; the Ministry of Education and Science; the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy; and the Environment Executive Agency. Moreover, some adaptation measures have been taken up at the national level by the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Energy, and the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works. The draft NAS makes it clear that each individual Ministry would be responsible for implementing and mainstreaming the measures outlined in the NAS in their respective sector.

Further horizontal coordination is planned in the draft NAS to support capacity building activities, although it is not clear whether this would be done by the National Expert Council on Climate Change and National Coordination Council on Climate Change.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

At national level, the coordination of municipalities on different issues is carried out through a National Association of Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria (NAMRB). All municipalities are members of NAMRB (a total of 265). NAMRB’s activity is focused on three main areas:

·Representation of municipalities interests in central governmental affairs: research, analysis, evaluation and development of proposals for change and improvement of policy on local government; and lobbying

·Support to municipalities in executing their powers: studying of municipal opinions and developing consensus positions and strategies; providing a wide range of consulting services and training programs; issuing thematic and advisory guides; and providing its own training centre for municipalities

·Participation in Bulgarian and international forums; and organisational strengthening of NAMRB.

The NAMRB enables municipalities to influence the policy making process in climate adaptation policy through representatives in the National Expert Council on Climate Change (see Indicator 1b).

To ensure efficiency and coordination between competent institutions, the MOEW established a National Coordination Council on Climate Change. All relevant documents regarding the development of the NAS were presented to the Council and its representatives had the opportunity to review the documents and to give their opinions and remarks, which are reflected in the documents.

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

The NAS and NAP are being developed with wide public participation through ongoing public consultation and consideration of all key milestones in the development of the NAS at the National Expert Council on Climate Change. For this purpose, an operational body - the National Coordination Council on Climate Change (consisting of deputy ministers and experts from the competent departments) has been established to review, evaluate and deliver opinions and proposals on individual documents before submitting them for discussion to the National Expert Council on Climate Change. This is to provide support at all levels and in all sectors while developing the NAS and for the measures, which will be included in the NAP.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

The draft NAS does not include any explicit transboundary cooperation measures. Nevertheless, in the initial development of the draft NAS, a framework document was developed to underpin the preparation of the NAS: “National climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the sectors of the Bulgarian economy". This document assesses the risk of climate change related natural disasters in Bulgaria based on various climate models and scenarios. The economic sectors included are agriculture, water, urban environment (including urban infrastructure and construction), energy, transport, construction and infrastructure, ecosystems and biodiversity, human health and tourism. The framework document also includes a separate chapter on cross-border cooperation on issues related to climate impacts 199 .

In addition, Bulgaria is a member of various transboundary initiatives:

·Bulgaria is a member of The EU Strategy for the Danube Region which has facilitated transboundary cooperation between Bulgaria and Romania on issues relevant to climate adaptation. The actions include joint planning and capacity building and best practice sharing.

·Bulgaria also participates in the IPA Cross-border Cooperation Programmes: Bulgaria – Serbia 200  , Bulgaria-Turkey 201 and Bulgaria-Macedonia 202 . These programmes include a priority axis towards protecting the environment and promoting climate adaptation and mitigation, risk prevention and management.

·In 2013, under the IPA Bulgaria – Serbia programme, a project called "Click"-Climate change - Kick-off" was developed, which aims to raise public awareness of the climate impacts. It assessed how to adapt to climate change by developing the capacity of NGOs to participate actively in the preparation and implementation of measures and policies for adaptation.

·In relation to the preparation of Bulgaria’s regional river basins management plans for 2016-2021, Bulgaria has signed declarations on transboundary river cooperation with Greece and Turkey. These declarations have facilitated various meetings and exchange of information for the preparation of the regional river basins management plans (in Bulgaria). 203

·In addition, the Bulgaria-Romania Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2014-2020 204 supports joint action on tackling flood risks, desertification and heatwaves. This programme includes measures for promoting climate adaptation, risk prevention and management. The same type of programme is also running between Bulgaria and Greece 205 , and aims at maintaining a sustainable and climate adaptable cross-border area.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

Climate change is monitored by the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at Bulgarian Academy of Science (NIMH-BAS). 206  There is only one Global Atmosphere Watch station in the country (Rojen). Hydrological information is presented on a separate website 207 . The National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology has overall responsibility for research and operational activities in meteorology, agrometeorology and hydrology in Bulgaria.

A programme of the Ministry of Agriculture for adaptation of forests to climate change, established in 2011, includes systems for monitoring the following: (i) early detection and warning about forest fires, (ii) forest diseases, and (iii) grass coverage in high altitude mountains. The programme also outlines measures relating to improving forest health and resilience, and ensuring the availability of technology for land and air patrolling and fire control. 208

The National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Science publishes a monthly hydro-meteorological bulletin 209 . It provides a national overview of the main processes and phenomena of the meteorology, agrometeorology, hydrology and ecology. Operational information gathered from NIMH's national network enables a rapid and overall assessment of the impact of these phenomena and processes on different spheres of the economy and public life.

In addition, a National Report on the State of the Environment in Bulgaria is developed every year by experts of the of the Executive Environmental Agency, the MOEW and other institutions. The Report includes a chapter on climate change where current information can be found relating to rainfall, temperature and snow characteristics, assessment of indicators, climate phenomena and climate scenarios for Bulgaria. 210

No specific observation system is currently in place to monitor extreme weather events and their impacts.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

Much of the current knowledge regarding the observation of extreme climate events and their impacts derives from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC 2014) or from EU-funded projects (e.g. CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) project 211  funded by FP6).

The CLAVIER project supports research on linkages between climate change and its impact on weather patterns, air pollution, extreme events, and water resources. An evaluation of the economic impact on agriculture, tourism, energy supply and the public sector is conducted in this project as well.

The CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) project 212 provides high resolution simulations covering the region. It captures complex topographical and land-use features related to climate impacts on large urban and industrial areas, including hydrology, water quality, and water management (focusing on medium-sized river catchments and the Black Sea coast).

Scenarios and projections for the coming decades derive from the CLAVIER and CECILIA projects mentioned above or from the HadCM3 model.

The preparation of the “Assessment of the Vulnerability of the Sectors of the Bulgarian Economy to Climate Change” 213 included relevant research from the EU-funded PESETA and PESETA II projects implemented by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC).

The “National climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the sectors of the Bulgarian economy” (2014) was developed by using different scenarios and climate models. The assessments of expected changes in temperature and rainfall were based on IPCC SRES-scenarios using global (HadCM2, HadCM3 and ECHAM4, LMDZ v4, etc.) and regional (HIRHAM, REMO5.7, REMO5. 0, LMDZ-regional, etc.) climate models. The global models used were low resolution; a significantly higher resolution was achieved with the help of regional models. The surveys affecting Bulgaria are generally realized in international projects, which is why much of their results relate not only to Bulgaria but also to larger territories (mainly Central and South-Eastern Europe).

The draft NAS states that the IPCC SRES-scenarios in projections about air temperature and precipitation have been replaced by the IPCC Working Group II Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC 2014). For the purpose of this analysis, computer simulations of the expected changes in temperatures and rainfall in the four RCP- scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6 and RCP 8.5) of the IPCC AR5 (2013/2014) were performed. The results obtained were generated using the analytical tools of the Web-Based Research Platform Climate Explorer of the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI). The data sets used were GCM: CMIP5 (full set) and GCM: CMIP5 extremes (full set) respectively for the annual and seasonal values ​​and for the extreme values. CMIP5 (full set) was created during the Fifth Phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and assembled 42 global models used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Climate projections across the four climate variables scenarios cover three 20-year periods (2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100), which is consistent with the approach adopted in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

In early June 2014, a framework document “National climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the sectors of the Bulgarian economy” 214 was finalised. It addressed: agriculture, forestry, water, urban environment (including urban infrastructure and construction), energy, transport, construction and infrastructure, ecosystems and biodiversity, human health and tourism. A separate chapter on cross-border cooperation on issues related to climate impacts is included in the document.

The framework document on risk and vulnerability assessment should serve as a basis for the further development of the NAS. The competent authorities will be involved in the development of measures for each sector, as well as NGOs and the scientific community.

Another very important issue to be integrated in the NAS is insurance. The MOEW has already developed an analytical document "Financial disaster risk management and insurance options for climate adaptation in Bulgaria". The document was prepared with the financial and technical support of the World Bank. The document’s purpose is to analyse the role and importance of the insurance business for the prevention of risks that occur as a result of climate change and for the development of adaptation measures.

In accordance with the reimbursable advisory services agreement signed between the MOEW and the IBRD in July 2017, the Bank presented an interim report to the Ministry with the main findings from the draft sector assessments of the following sectors: agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystems, energy, forestry, human health, tourism, transport, urban environment (including urban infrastructure and construction), and water. In addition, a draft of NAS and NAP was presented in May 2018.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

In the publication "National climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the sectors of the Bulgarian economy", a separate chapter on cross-border cooperation on issues related to climate impacts is included.

The main objective of this report is to assess the risk of natural disasters typical of the Bulgarian geographical area on the basis of climate models and scenarios for the country nevertheless consideration is given to climate impacts that will have significant cross-border effect to the management of cross-border river basins. In this respect, due to the peculiarities of local geography, Bulgaria is less dependent on the distribution of water resources than neighbouring countries. However, in view of the expected climate change, it is projected that the cross-border river basins will face major challenges such as: deficiency of water resources and drought, flood risk management and expected pressure on water consumption.

Furthermore, the lead policy document on disaster risk management, the National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy 2014–2020 215 , supports the identification and prioritization of areas for trans-boundary and trans-regional cooperation, as well as long-term coordination of disaster risk reduction.

Finally, the draft NAS recognises that the development of transboundary adaptation measures would be required in the area of forestry.

4    Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

The draft NAS contains a chapter 216 on the knowledge gaps in relation to climate impacts and adaptation options for each of the nine sectors of interest (see Section B2 above). The sectoral measures in the NAP are prioritised according to the identified knowledge gaps and the aim is to address them.

One of the main knowledge gaps outlined by the NAS is the limited academic capacity in the field of climate change. The climate impacts in most sectors are under-researched. There are data gaps in climate and biodiversity models, which mean that the national projections are not detailed enough to support the implementation of adequate adaptation measures.

5    Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

All policy information and vulnerability assessments are published on the MoEW website, section Climate, subsection International Negotiations and Adaptation/Adaptation 217 .

The National Expert Council on Climate Change 218 serves as a science-policy interface, as it includes stakeholders, such as ministries, agencies, municipalities, NGOs and the scientific community (e.g. representatives of the Bulgarian Academy of Science).

The National Coordination Council on Climate Change comprises representatives of relevant ministries, at Deputy-Minister level, and some agencies. The Council supports the MoEW in the development of the NAS as well as in enhancing capacity to integrate adaptation considerations in policies, programmes and investments.

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

The draft NAS contains planned measures for capacity building and improving awareness on climate impacts and adaptation across the nine sectors of interest. The activities related to these measures have not yet begun, as the NAS has not been formally approved.

The World Bank is providing ongoing ‘advisory services’ to the Government, supporting capacity building and training in the delivery of the NAS. The Government is represented by the MoEW as an institutional coordinator of the preparation process 219 .

Since 2014, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" 220 started a Master’s programme "Climate Change and Water Management". The programme is focused on the preparation of specialists for analysis and assessment of climate change and integrated water resources management.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Adaptation options’ identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The draft NAS proposes sectoral measures based on the sectoral vulnerability assessments contained in the framework document “National climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the sectors of the Bulgarian economy” and the Draft Sector Assessments prepared by the World Bank, as a part of the reimbursable advisory services agreement signed between the MOEW and the IBRD (see Indicator 3c). The framework document covers the following sectors: agriculture, forestry, water, urban environment (including urban infrastructure and construction), energy, transport, construction and infrastructure, ecosystems and biodiversity, human health and tourism. Each sector is assessed by a system of indicators regarding vulnerability to future climate change in the period 2016-2035. The draft sector assessments propose a range of priority adaptation actions, arranged according to the following categories: information and knowledge, institutional capacity building, policy reform, and investments. For each of these measures, the section also includes cost-benefit analysis information and provides inputs on monitoring and evaluation (e.g. oversight, implementation, and reporting responsibility, indicator and target). Adaptation options will be prioritised whereas cross-cutting issues, trade-offs and synergies will be discussed.

No explicit reference is made to geographical specifies in the draft NAS or the vulnerability assessments.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

In the preparation of the draft NAS and in support of priority setting for the identified adaptation options, each sector undertook a prioritisation exercise. This included organising stakeholder meetings following a multi-criteria analysis approach. In addition, the information given in the sector assessment reports was used. The approach produced a tentative short list of priority actions for each sector. Additional assessment/ranking of priority options is provided for some sectors (including, biodiversity and ecosystems services, tourism, and water) based on expert judgment and/or additional feedback from stakeholders. 221  

 

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

The draft NAS builds on vulnerability assessments as well as the Disaster Risk Management Assessment report. In addition, disaster risk management is listed as an overarching cross-sectoral adaptation measure that should be taken into consideration in the development of all adaptation policies and measures 222 .

A Disaster Risk Reduction Council 223 was created as a permanent body to the Council of Ministers to ensure coordination and cooperation in the implementation of state policy in the field of disaster protection. The Council performs the functions of a national disaster risk reduction platform in implementation of the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015, and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.

The leading national document on disaster risk reduction, the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction 224 envisages to enhance coordination between stakeholders (e.g. the disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation community) by:

·The expansion of the scope of activities of the Consultative Council, which supports the work of the Council of Ministers, and transforming the former into an Active National Platform for reducing risks from disasters

·The establishment of an efficient mechanism for coordination and efficient flow of information among all stakeholders; and

·Development of systems for monitoring, forecasting and early warning in relation to disasters.

Finally, the National Coordination Council on Climate Change includes representatives from the Chief Directorate Fire Safety and Civil Protection (CD FSCP) at the Ministry of Interior.

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Regarding cross-cutting adaptation action, the World Bank is providing ongoing ‘advisory services’ to the Government; supporting capacity building and training in the delivery of the NAS. The draft NAS states that the implementation of adaptation measures would be supported by EU funding, state funding and, potentially, private funding from energy companies. Nevertheless, one of the key barriers to climate adaptation pointed out in the draft NAS is the lack of financial resources and over-dependence on the EU 225 . Each suggested measure in the draft NAS includes indicative investment cost estimates to support the funding allocation.

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

National frameworks for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 226 and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) 227 have been implemented because of Directives 2011/92/EU and 2001/42/EC. The definition of “environmental impact” adopted in both documents stipulates that any impacts on the environment should be considered, including human health, flora and fauna, biodiversity, soil, climate, air, water, land, natural landmarks and cultural heritage, and the interactions between them. However, no further reference to climate adaptation is made in the documents. Despite that fact, the draft NAS recognises that there is increased consideration of climate adaptation in EIA and SEA projects.

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

The National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction 228 was adopted in 2014. It recognises the impact of climate extremes related to increased occurrence of storms, floods, extended periods of drought, and devastating forest fires. However, there is no evidence of how future climate projections are considered in disaster risk management plans and associated risk analysis. The Ministry of Regional Development has issued an order 229 on the development of a thorough analysis and mapping of disaster risk that would also include climate impacts. Preparation of this analysis has already started and is being overseen by the Bulgarian Association of Science 230 .

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

Climate adaptation is considered in land-use and urban planning policies at national and regional levels. The National Concept for Spatial Development for the period 2013-2025 (NCSD) 231  is a mid-term strategic document, which outlines directions for land-use planning, governance and protection of national territory and waters. One of the key objectives of the NCSD is to align spatial planning of cities and regions with the threats and challenges of climate change, in addition to globalization, demographic changes, and energy dependence. The development plan for Northern Central Bulgaria is an example of how climate adaptation is being taken into account, including in relation to the enhancement of environmental protection. The TURAS project for the capital city of Sofia is an example of how spatial urban planning policies are seeking to enhance the sustainability of urban areas by promoting climate resilience. Plans for further mainstreaming of climate adaptation in urban and spatial planning is planned in the draft NAS. However, climate impacts have not yet been addressed in maritime spatial planning policies, and are not mentioned in the draft NAS.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

Coordinated actions to mainstream adaptation into national policies and policy instruments have not yet started. The Climate Change Act asks sectoral ministries to mainstream climate adaptation in their respective policies. Implementing this requirement in practice will require streamlining processes and much better interaction between the MoEW and the sectoral ministries, as well as between the sectoral ministries and the scientific community. In addition, the draft NAS includes planned measures to mainstream climate adaptation in policies related to the nine key sectors considered in the document. Each respective Ministry will be in charge of implementing adaptation policies and mainstreaming adaptation in other policies within their sector of expertise.

Despite mainstreaming of adaptation not being currently coordinated across sectors, the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works has included adaptation measures in the country’s six regional development plans, as described in relation to Indicator 8c. In addition, the National Forest Strategy 2013 – 2020 232 , adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest, includes measures to strengthen the climate resilience of forest ecosystems 233 .

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No    

The MoEW developed an analytical document entitled “Financial disaster risk management and insurance options for climate adaptation in Bulgaria”. The document was prepared with the financial and technical support of the World Bank and its purpose is to analyse the role and importance of the insurance business for the prevention of risks that result from climate change and for the development of adaptation measures. This document provides an entry point for enhancing further inclusion of insurance policies into the NAS. In addition, insurance mainstreaming within sectoral adaptation measures is planned in the draft NAS.

9    Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

Some autonomous adaptation actions are being carried out, for instance, by some cities or at sectoral level for agriculture, forestry, water management, and flood risk management. Examples of such regional actions have been provided earlier in the text, in relation to Indicator 8c and in Section A2.

At the same time, as the draft NAS was only published on 4th May 2018, implementation of policies and measures will not begin until the NAS is reviewed and officially approved.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

No clear mechanism has been set out in the draft NAS at this stage. Nevertheless, the National Expert Council on Climate Change includes regional representatives of the National Association of Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria (NAMRB).

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

Apart from various guidelines issued by the European Commission, no specific procedures or guidelines have been issued or used by the Bulgarian authorities for assessing climate impacts on major projects or programmes and for facilitating their adaptation. However, the development of sectoral climate adaptation guidelines is planned in the draft NAS.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Stakeholders were involved in the development of the draft NAS using a multi-criteria analysis (see Section B1). In addition, the draft NAS outlines key stakeholders for each sector of interest and states that stakeholders should be included in the process of developing measures. However, the mechanism for stakeholder involvement is not defined.

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

For the time being no system is in place for reporting on the implementation of the NAS and NAP pending their adoption.

Provisions for monitoring and evaluation are included in the draft NAS. Moreover, the NAP summarises the adaptation measures for all sectors identified in the NAS. The focus is on implementation of priority adaptation measures, including consideration of responsible institutions, resources, timeline, targets, and monitoring indicators. A full list of the monitoring indicators is contained in Annex 3 of the draft NAS 234 .

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

The draft NAS does not explicitly make clear how sectoral policy implementation will be monitored. The ministries are responsible for mainstreaming climate policies in their respective sectors and for developing and implementing adaptation measures for climate change, in coordination with the MoEW and in consultation with National Expert Council. Responsible ministries and governmental agencies include the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MAFF); the Ministry of Economy (MEc); the Ministry of Transport, Information Technology, and Communications (MTITC); the Ministry of Finance (MF); the Ministry of Interior (MI); the Ministry of Exterior (MEx); the Ministry of Health (MH); the Ministry of Education and Science; the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy; and the Executive Environment Agency (ExEA).

10c. Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

The draft NAS does not make clear how regional, sub-national or local action will be monitored.

11    Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

The draft NAS states that regular, five-yearly, updates of the NAS are planned, as a check on the direction that has been taken, together with a review of the actions that are being implemented and a revision of the NAP, as appropriate.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

No evidence seems to be available on what mechanism (if any) is going to be used for involving stakeholders in future evaluations of adaptation policy.

SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

Croatia

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1. Coordination structure    

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3. Current and projected climate change    

4. Knowledge gaps    

5. Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6. Adaptation options' identification    

7. Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9. Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10. Monitoring and reporting    

11. Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    



List of abbreviations

CCCCMA        Coordination Commission for Policy and Measures for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

CDRRP    Croatian Disaster Risk Reduction Platform

DHMZ    Meteorological and Hydrological Service

draft NAS        Draft Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Republic of Croatia for the period to 2040 with outlook to 2070

draft NAP        Draft Action Plan for implementing the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Republic of Croatia for the period from 2019 to 2023

DUZS    State Directorate for Protection and Rescue

EMFF    European Maritime and Fisheries Fund

EIA    Environmental impact assessment

EAFRD    European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development

ERDF    European Regional Development Fund

ESF    European Social Fund

ESIF    European Structural and Investment Funds

EU    European Union

EUSAIR    EU Strategy for the Adriatic-Ionian Region

EUSDR    EDU Strategy for the Danube Region

FZOEU    Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency

HAOP    Croatian Environment and Nature Agency

HZJZ    Croatian Public Health Institute

ICZM    Integrated Coastal Zone Management

IPCC    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

MFOP    Maritime and Fisheries Operational Programme 2014-2020

MMR Regulation    REGULATION (EU) No 525/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 21 May 2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision No 280/2004/EC

MZOE    Ministry of Environment and Energy of the Republic of Croatia

NAS    National Adaptation Strategy

NAP    National Adaptation Plan

NDRA    National Disaster Risk Assessment

OPCC    Operational Program Competitiveness and Cohesion 2014-2020

RCP    Representative Climate Pathways

RDP    Rural Development Program 2014-2020

RBMP    River Basin Management Plan

SEA    Strategic environmental assessment

UNEP/MAP    United Nations Environment Programme / Mediterranean Action Plan

UNFCCC    United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

ZZJZ    Public Health Institute dr. Andrija Štampar



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

The draft National Adaptation Strategy 235 (NAS) and the draft National Action Plan (NAP) 236 have been developed within a project funded through the EU Transition facility 237 . The project lasted from May 2016 to November 2017, and the official drafts of both documents were finalised and presented to the public in November 2017. The draft documents will first undergo a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedure in 2018, including a public hearing and public consultation, collection and addressing of comments. Finalisation of the draft NAS and NAP for submission to the governmental and the parliamentary adoption procedure is expected by end of 2018, and the documents are expected to come into effect in 2019 238 . The draft NAS is based on the Air Protection Act 239 , and covers the period until 2040 with a view to 2070, and is based on the results of climate modelling carried out for these two time-periods. Following consultations with key stakeholders in July 2017, the draft NAS document was finalised (White Paper) to include conclusions from e-consultations held in October 2017. The draft NAP has also been prepared for the first five years (2019-2023). The draft NAP and draft NAS focus on 10 sectors identified as most vulnerable to climate impacts: hydrology, water and marine resources, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, physical planning and coastal zone management, tourism, energy, fisheries, risk management and health. In addition, they include two supra-sectoral measures: strengthening capacities for applied research in the area of climate modelling, analysis, and interpretation, and development of impact indicators for vulnerable sectors.

Until the NAS and NAP are adopted, the 6th and 7th National Communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 240 (submitted in 2014 and in May 2018 respectively) formally set the overarching framework and preconditions for activities aiming at adaptation to climate change effects. These are primarily related to the upgrading and completion of a climate change monitoring and forecasting system, strengthening of applied research for adaptation measures, and building awareness and capacities.

Adaptation to climate change features as one of the general objectives in the country's 10-year Sustainable Development Strategy 241 , which was adopted in 2009.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

For the time being, there are no adaptation strategies being developed at subnational level.

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

The NAP covering a five-year period was drafted in November 2017, in parallel with the draft NAS. The national legal framework (Air Protection Act 242 ) foresees the adoption of a NAP by the Croatian Government.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

The national legal framework (Air Protection Act) requires that counties and towns adopt a programme for air and ozone layer protection and climate mitigation and adaptation. In addition, the Environmental Protection Act 243 requires that counties and towns adopt an environmental protection programme to implement the relevant measures from the national environmental protection plan. The majority of towns have fulfilled these obligations; regional and local government units (counties and towns) are also carrying out a number of activities that are relevant to climate adaptation: settlements and housing, municipal affairs, spatial and urban planning, protection and improvement of the natural environment, fire and civil protection. In addition, a number of adaptation projects have been carried out at local and regional level, in particular in the area of data gathering and awareness-raising of local and regional stakeholders on adaptation, and pilot vulnerability assessments for a coastal area.

Examples of adaptation planning activities at the local and regional level include:

·Within the European Commission’s project "Adaptation strategies for European cities" 244 the town of Zadar in 2013 developed their local Vision document on adaptation and an Action plan 245 . The focus is so far mainly on the energy sector, i.e. promoting sustainable energy practices among citizens.

·The  City of Zagreb carried out in 2013 an analysis of anticipated climate change effects. A set of 47 measures was defined with the goal of improving Zagreb's climate resilience. They include measures for protection against heat waves (buildings and green infrastructure), water management, adaptation of transport infrastructure, improvement of energy infrastructure and landslides.

·The UNEP/MAP’s project “Integrating impacts of climate variability and change into integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)” prepared for Šibenik-Knin County an ICZM Plan 246 as a tool to address climate variability and change impacts by adaptation measures.

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

The national legal framework requires that adaptation measures are implemented in the following vulnerable sectors: water resources, agriculture, land and marine biodiversity and ecosystems, coastal management, tourism and public health. However, there are very limited adaptation actions embedded in sectoral strategies and action plans (some actions are embedded in the energy and water sectors).

Climate impacts on the water regime were considered qualitatively during the preparation of the 2016-2021 River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) 247 . However, the methodology for assessing the climate impacts on water regime changes has not yet been adopted. The RBMP specifies that all planning documents in the water sector shall be aligned with the NAS.

The Flood Risk Management Plan for the 2016-2021 planning period (part of the RBMP) contains a measure of the analysis of the climate impact on the concepts of protection from adverse effects of water and flood risk management, and a revision of the programme of measures is intended to include measures for climate adaptation.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1. Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

The responsibility for climate change policy in Croatia falls within the competence of the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MZOE), Directorate for climate activities, sustainable development and protection of air, soil and of light pollution. This includes development of strategic and planning documents and carrying out the work of a national contact authority for reporting to EU bodies and other international bodies on climate adaptation policy. MZOE is responsible for the development and implementation of the NAS and NAP, supported by the two organisational units under the responsibility of MZOE (Croatian Environment and Nature Agency – HAOP 248 , and Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund - FZOEU), as well as the Meteorological and Hydrological Service 249 (DHMZ).

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

The Government of Croatia established the Inter-Sectoral Coordination Commission for Policy and Measures for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (CCCCMA) for the first time in Autumn 2014 250 . The new Decision on establishment of the CCCCMA came into force in January 2018 251 , that no longer includes names of technical working group members but leaves its set up at the discretion of the minister for environment, as the CCCCMA chairman. The purpose of the CCCCMA, which is administratively supported by MZOE, is to give recommendations to the Government, monitor and evaluate the implementation and planning of mitigation and adaptation policy and measures in Croatia, in line with the Air Protection Act and to improve the horizontal coordination in climate change policy making among the state sectoral actors. The CCCCMA is organised at two levels:

·The Coordination Group, nominated from the lines of public officials (assistant ministers) from the following sectoral ministries: environment (including energy and nature protection), labour, foreign affairs, science and education, economy and entrepreneurship, regional development and EU funds, finance, sea, transport and infrastructure, agriculture, construction and physical planning tourism, health, and demography

·Two technical groups: one for climate adaptation, and another for low carbon development, set up from the lines of practitioners in sectoral ministries, expert institutions, economic actors and NGOs working on climate-relevant issues – the new technical groups are still to be nominated by the Minister for Environment.

Based on the opinions and proposals of technical working groups, the Coordination Group makes recommendations on the overall policy and measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change to the Croatian government, providing support in the implementation of policies and measures and promoting synergies and mainstreaming climate change into other public policies.

The CCCCMA was instrumental in deciding on strategic goals, policies, measures and methodologies for dealing with adaptation, which started the process of development of an adaptation strategy and action plan. The draft NAS proposes that the existing CCCCMA takes the leading role in coordinating the NAS and NAP implementation and monitoring, as well as coordinating a more active involvement of sectoral/resource ministries in the implementation of NAS.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes / In progress / No

Regional and local planning for adaptation is carried out by the respective regional and local administrations. As the adaptation policy process is in formulation, a temporary coordination mechanism has been set up between national, regional and local stakeholders in the form of participation of regional and local governments in public consultation during the process of drafting the NAS and NAP.

Although not specifically for adaptation, there are mechanisms in place that provide vertical coordination between local, regional and national level in development, spatial planning and SEA procedures, as well as in standard legislation and policy making structures. For the efficient operation of local and regional government units in climate adaptation, the draft NAS acknowledges the necessity to significantly strengthen their capacities, both strategically (through developing regional development plans and spatial plans that will include consideration of climate adaptation), as well as technical training by experts in specific areas of climate adaptation.

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

Based on the initial inter-sectoral consultation that was carried out through the CCCCMA 252 , which brings together national authorities, academia, business, industry and non-governmental organisations, a public consultation process was implemented. The public consultation is required by the national legal framework (Air Protection Act 253 ) for the drafts of strategies and plans, and so it was planned and carried out in the frame of the technical assistance project “Strengthening the capacity of the Ministry of Environment and Energy for adaptation to climate change and preparation of the Draft Climate Change Adaptation Strategy”.

Within the process of drafting the NAS, a series of 10 workshops for experts in the sectors covered under the NAS (see Section A1) were carried out regarding climate modelling, applying the results of modelling and scenarios for impact and vulnerability assessment, assessing measures, etc. Another series of 10 workshops was aimed at civil servants at national, regional and local level and the public concerned (Gospić 254 , Osijek, Rijeka 255 , Zadar 256 , Varaždin 257 , Dubrovnik 258 , four events in Zagreb) 259 . The aim was to discuss and raise awareness of climate impacts, inform on the process of development of the NAS and engage stakeholders. The key topics included information on expected climate change, impacts, vulnerability and possible climate adaptation in key sectors for the geographical area of the workshops.

The working version of the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (Green Paper) was prepared and published on the project website in July 2017 260 , with a call to stakeholders and interested public to give their opinion, suggestions and comments to improve and harmonise the document. In addition, meetings were organised with ministries and agencies from sectors covered by the NAS to present and discuss the Green Paper. Comments were considered during preparation of the final draft of NAS (White Paper 261 ).

The White Paper was also published on the project page and passed an internet consultation with the interested public.

Finally, the public will also have an opportunity for participation through public hearing and e-consultation during the strategic environmental assessment procedure that will be carried out for the NAS, planned during 2018.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Transboundary cooperation in terms of climate adaptation is present but limited to river basin management issues, in the context of international river commissions for Sava and Danube Rivers, especially on floods.

Croatia also takes part in the implementation of the two macro-regional strategies (EU Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian Region, EUSAIR; and EU Strategy for the Danube Region, EUSDR) by participating in regional cooperation projects to address various climate-related challenges shared in the region, through research, knowledge transfer, capacity building and awareness activities, such as DriDanube – Drought Risk in the Danube Region 262  project.

The Water and Climate Adaptation Plan for the Sava River Basin 263 (covering five countries including Croatia) was developed by the International Sava River Basin Commission (ISRBC) in 2015, as a guidance document for adaptation measures in navigation, hydropower, agriculture, flood protection, economic evaluation of climate impacts. It suggests a methodology to examine effects of (only) climate change on those sectors, although the integrated effects have not been considered due to lack of data. A joint operational flood forecasting and early warning system for the riparian countries in the Sava River Basin 264 was launched in June 2016 265 and should be finalised by September 2018. In addition, a Joint Flood Risk Management Plan for the Sava River Basin is in preparation, scheduled for finalisation by July 2018. An Outline of the Climate Adaptation Strategy and basin-wide priority measures for the Sava River Basin  266 was prepared in January 2018 for ISRBC, for consultation purposes.

Transboundary cooperation has been addressed in the draft NAP through one measure for the water sector: “Development of international cooperation in the implementation of monitoring of the state of the inter-state watercourses and the Adriatic Sea with the aim of sustainable management and protection” in terms of project cooperation and knowledge exchange within existing international processes/commissions and bilateral cooperation with neighbouring countries.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3. Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

The Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service conducts meteorological observations to monitor the impacts of climate change for general climate indicators. There is still work needed to expand the set of climate change indicators (e.g. to coastal, marine, biodiversity etc.). There is a need to modernise the existing climate observation and prediction system, namely improving the quality and availability of meteorological data (including climatological and hydrological data) and infrastructure that will allow a better understanding of climate change and as a result enable adequate adaptation policy measures. Modernisation of the meteorological network – METMONIC 267 started in 2015 and is planned to go on until 2022. Contributions to this project are made by DHMZ, HAOP, the Croatian Waters and other research and monitoring institutions through EU-funded and bilateral donor projects.

Meteorological data are available on extreme weather events of climate change relevance, such as heatwaves, floods, strong winds and thunderstorms causing forest fires, and snow and ice. Furthermore, there are data on related health impacts and infrastructural damage costs, all with varying degrees of detail. Data on heatwaves and their impacts have been systematically monitored since 1983 by the Public Health Institute dr. Andrija Štampar” (ZZJZ) but only for the Zagreb City area. Data on floods are available from the early 20th century onwards for the entire country’s territory by Croatian Waters, and data on forest fires is available from 1981 (State Directorate for Protection and Rescue - DUZS). DHMZ provides climate monitoring data on extreme weather events (systematically covering period from 1961 onwards) and cooperates with DUZS and other sectoral institutions to provide warnings for citizens and set up precautionary, protection and rescue measures, including transboundary actions and data exchange for cases of floods and fires 268 .

The Ministry of Finance records damage due to natural disasters, in cooperation with the State Commission for the Assessment of Natural Disasters 269 . The statistical data on extreme weather events, coupled with climate scenarios, provide for more precise projections and can result in stronger prevention and response measures, which will be further elaborated in the future strategy for disaster risk reduction. Improvement of data integration, inventorying and monitoring of climate-related environmental indicators has, therefore, been included among the priority measures in the draft NAS.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

Within the project of the draft NAS and draft NAP development, in addition to the historical climate simulation for the period 1971-2000, scenarios and projections have been produced for Croatia. In these scenarios, the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service took geographical specificities into account using the regional climate model RegCM on the basis of the calculated change (forecasts) for the future climate in two periods: 2011-2040 and 2041-2070, using the IPCC AR5 scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The spatial integration domain covered the wider Europe area (Euro-CORDEX) combined with marginal conditions from four global climate models (GCM, Cm5, EC-Earth, MPI-ESM, HadGEM2). Climate simulations until the end of the century were done with a 50 km horizontal resolution 270 . For climatological parameters with higher spatial variability (precipitation, snow cover, wind, etc.) or depending on the different characteristics of small spatial scales (orography, land-sea contrast), a finer horizontal resolution of 12.5 km was planned. However, due to the complex orography, particularly in the coastal belt of Croatia, this demanding numerical modelling extends beyond the NAS drafting process, and is expected to be finalised by the end of 2018.

A comprehensive assessment of climate impacts and vulnerabilities was carried out as part of the NAS development process in May 2017, using the climate projections until 2040 and 2070. The measures of the Croatian draft NAS were determined according to the moderate RCP4.5 scenario, as the most common scenario used in drafting adaptation strategies.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes / In progress / No

A vulnerability assessment was developed in May 2017 271 in the framework of the NAS development covering the eight most vulnerable sectors and two cross-sectoral thematic areas, including economic, social and environmental impacts.

The Air Protection Act 272 recognises sectors exposed to climate impacts and prescribes the obligation of undertaking adaptation measures in those sectors (hydrology and water resources, agriculture, forestry, biological diversity and natural inland ecosystems, biological diversity and marine ecosystems, coast and coastal area, tourism, and human health). Vulnerable sectors are also defined in the 6th National Communication to the UNFCCC (2014) 273 and in the 7th National Communication to the UNFCCC (2018) 274

Eight key sectors and two cross-sectoral thematic areas have been selected for vulnerability analysis 275 for which the climate impacts were described in the framework of the NAS drafting process: hydrology; water and marine resources; agriculture; forestry; fisheries; biodiversity; energy; tourism; health; spatial planning and coastal areas management; and disaster risk management. Vulnerability assessment was based on modelling results and scenarios based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway RCP4.5 medium scenario and regional climate model RegCM, as well as previous research on climate impacts and adaptation in Croatia per sector (including sectoral environmental, social and economic impacts, impacts on infrastructure – buildings, transport, energy – and transboundary climate change risks assessment). Projections and assessment results provided the insights on climate impacts per sector, as well as impact interactions between different sectors, and listed the possible responses to the challenges identified. The Risk Assessment for the Republic of Croatia was adopted in November 2015 276 . Its revision is planned by Autumn 2018, together with the assessment of risk management capacities for eight major risks, followed by a Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction, which is planned for drafting in the last quarter of 2018 and adoption in 2019. Three questions were addressed within the risk assessment: 1) How does climate change affect risks? 2) What is the expected timeframe for the effects? 3) What are the reference documents that the analysis is based on? Eleven risks have been processed (earthquake, flood, plant diseases, animal diseases, soil salinisation, drought, industrial accidents, open space fires, extreme temperatures, snow and ice, and epidemics and pandemics), nine of which are related to climate change. Climate change is treated as a driver for events (such as drought, extreme temperatures, extreme precipitations, soil salinisation and floods) and is, therefore, an important factor in the risk analysis, as it affects either the intensity or frequency of the event. In addition to an analysis of threats, calculation includes analysis of vulnerability of society to disasters.

A risk and vulnerability assessment was also conducted for the human health sector on heatwaves. Every year, the protocol on procedure and recommendations for protection from heat is adopted (last in July 2017 277 ), with the goal to reduce risk to individuals and institutions during heat waves by implementing necessary preparedness and response procedures at the national and local level. A heatwave alert system is established for the entire territory of the Republic of Croatia and is active in the period from May to October. During that period, DHMZ constantly monitors the temperature and, in the case of 70% chance that the temperature will exceed the threshold (about 35°C, depending on region), informs the Ministry of Health and the Croatian Institute for Public Health (HZJZ) on the occurrence of a heatwave, which then forwards the alert.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

Some information on transboundary risks is given for relevant sectors in the May 2017 vulnerability assessment, including hydrology and water resources, forestry (forest fires), biodiversity and energy. The draft NAP addresses transboundary risks through one single measure in the water sector: “Development of international cooperation in the implementation of monitoring of the state of the inter-state watercourses and the Adriatic Sea with the aim of sustainable management and protection”, in terms of project cooperation and knowledge exchange within existing international processes/commissions and bilateral cooperation with neighbouring countries

Furthermore, transboundary risks are also considered in some of the transboundary cooperation initiatives mentioned in Indicator 2b.

4. Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

As part of the draft NAS development, analysis of research activities was carried out and presented in the document “Overview of research on impacts of climate change and adaptation” 278 . This information was used to identify gaps in knowledge and information, and for identifying the topics for future research. Based on approximately 200 references from research projects, reports, studies, articles and databases analysed (collectively referred to as “research”), the research for individual sectors was found to be fragmentary, lacking a comprehensive analysis of an entire sector or of an entire climate impact phenomenon. In all vulnerable sectors there are ample data; however, research is focused on, for example, individual species or crops, individual activity types, narrow geographic areas, specific health impacts etc. In consultation with key sectoral experts and institutions, extensive recommendations were collected for future research needed in each sector to fill the current knowledge gaps. Examples include: to focus research on larger populations (health), to complete the inventory of species (biodiversity, forestry), and to improve data integration in cross-cutting areas, such as disaster risk management. The assessment showed a big gap in the research on economic impacts of climate change and cost-effectiveness of various adaptation measures.

The recently finalised project: "Capacity Building of the Ministry of Environment and Energy for climate adaptation and preparation of the Draft Strategy for adaptation to climate change" 279 aimed at strengthening technical knowledge on individual aspects of adaptation.

5. Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means)

Yes / In progress / No

Two specific webpages/portals provide resources and information on climate adaptation issues:

·Draft NAS development – Project webpage 280

·MZOE – Adaptation to Climate Change 281

The draft NAS development website contains resources prepared as a part of drafting the NAS, such as the report on climate modelling, impact and vulnerability assessment reports, analysis of available research on climate change and adaptation, a capacity building needs assessment, a brochure for the general public, an overview of the NAS and NAP drafting process and the final drafts of NAS and NAP. General information on adaptation policy issues, adaptation activities in Croatia and internationally is provided on the MZOE’s page on Adaptation to Climate Change. Climate data (historical data, climate projections, publications etc.) are available through the Meteorological and Hydrological Service 282 .

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

There are ongoing actions on capacity building, mainly related to one-off projects for participation, but so far not in a coordinated manner in the absence of a NAS having been adopted. Preparation of education and training materials on climate adaptation concepts and practices as well as further trainings are envisaged by several draft NAS measures in all 10 vulnerable sectors.

·MZOE plans to implement climate-change resilience and climate adaptation schemes at national and local level to create the preconditions for implementing the NAS and NAP, funded through EU funds. 283 The recently finalised project: "Capacity Building of the Ministry of Environment and Energy for climate change adaptation and preparation of the Draft Strategy for adaptation to climate change" 284 produced an assessment of capacity building needs for addressing climate adaptation at all governance levels and among key public and private stakeholders across 10 vulnerable sectors. The draft NAS defines the following major areas for capacity building: Increasing human (professional), material and financial resources for the implementation of planned adaptation measures, especially through available programs for which EU funds are already secured.

·Further education of public and private sector experts on climate change and sector-specific adaptation needs.

·Targeted training of civil society experts for further education of the public.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6. Adaptation options' identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The official final draft of the NAS (White Paper) published in November 2017 proposes a set of 80 adaptation measures and activities for eight vulnerable sectors and two cross-sectoral thematic areas, as well as two measures that can be considered as multi-sectoral (climate modelling, and development of the implementation impact indicators for the NAS), in response to sectoral risks and geographical specificities identified.

The largest number of proposed measures falls within the so-called “non-structural” measures (administrative, political, legislative, technical and planning measures, measures to raise awareness of the need for climate adaptation, data gathering, monitoring and scientific-research work). A relatively small number of so-called “structural” measures includes certain technical interventions such as construction of protective dams and walls, construction of hydro-technical facilities, as well as afforestation, building of green infrastructure, strengthening the absorption capacity of land for the absorption of excess water, etc.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

Options for vulnerable sectors were identified taking into account climate modelling and the impact and vulnerability assessment. Possible measures were discussed in workshops with over 130 stakeholders: sectoral experts, as well as local and regional authorities and interested general public, together with the criteria for selection of priority measures. The resulting 80 so-called ‘sectoral’ measures were divided into five groups based on the national priorities of the NAS, which were identified by stakeholders during the process of harmonising the concept of climate adaptation in the Republic of Croatia and prioritised as very high, high, or medium priority for implementation, using multi-criteria analysis 285 .

Five national priorities have been identified, within which climate adaptation measures are to be implemented:

1.Ensuring sustainable regional and urban development

2.Ensuring preconditions for the economic development of rural areas, coastal areas and islands

3.Ensuring sustainable energy development

4.Strengthening of the management capacities through a networked monitoring and early warning system

5.Ensuring continuity of research activities that were assessed with very high priority.

Most measures ranked as “very high importance” in the draft NAS were at the same time identified under the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programming priorities for the period 2014-2020, for which funding is available under Operational Program Competitiveness and Cohesion (OPCC) 2014-2020, the Rural Development Program (RDP) 2014-2020 and the Maritime and Fisheries Operational Programme (MFOP) 2014-2020. The revision of programming documents for the use of ESIF for the period 2014-2020 is envisaged in 2018. As such, some financial resources may be provided for priority measures in the “very high importance” category, which would have been contracted in the period up to 2020. This primarily relates to the use of funds from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF), where financing of climate adaptation measures is defined in Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, but also includes European Social Fund (ESF).

The selection of measures in the draft NAP 2019-2023 has covered 42 (out of 82) sectoral measures that satisfy the ‘very high importance’ criterion from the draft NAS, and at the same time fall under the funding priorities of the three national operational programmes (OPCC, RDP and OMFP) for 2014-2020 funded through ESIF (ERDF, EAFRD and EMFF). As such, implementation of most measures could start relatively soon upon adoption of the draft NAS.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress /No

The Croatian Disaster Risk Reduction Platform (CDRRP) is a country-level coordination mechanism led by DUZS, organised in working groups according to 11 major risk groups identified in the National Disaster Risk Assessment (NDRA). Each working group is led by one or more relevant sectoral institutions. MZOE is a permanent member in the CDRRP Committee 286 and an active member in the Risk Assessment Working Group. At the national level, the impact of climate change on disaster risk has been addressed in developing the NDRA, which serves as a good practice example of a process where all stakeholders were actively involved and tasked to undertake risk reduction under their competence. The Platform serves as an active body for developing a disaster risk reduction strategy, which will include adaptation of risk assessment and intervention plans to account for current and projected climate extremes.

Disaster risk reduction has been addressed through six measures in the draft NAS, out of which the following three have been included in the draft NAP for the period 2019-2023:

·Mapping of water sources outside the public water supply system

·Multi-sectoral risk assessment for various threat/risk scenarios associated with climate change

·Expansion of NDRRP to include climate change-related indicators for the development of an early warning system.

Measures for strengthening capacities for disaster and accident assessment and recovery, and developing models for coverage of risks and damages related to climate change will be addressed in later stages.

7. Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

Activities to promote climate adaptation are defined within the framework of the OPCC 287 2014 – 2020 (thematic objective ‘Promoting climate adaptation, risk prevention and management’). Until adoption of the draft NAS, the framework for climate adaptation activities is determined in accordance with the 6th and 7th National Communication to the UNFCCC. OPCC interventions are focused on improvement of the system for monitoring and evaluation of climate change, improvement of the disaster management system and addressing flood management risks. In addition, the RDP includes climate adaptation measures in the agriculture sector.

Croatia uses financial resources from the sale of emission allowances through the FZOEU to co-finance national component priorities, for the period until 2020, relating to air quality, biodiversity and climate, including cross-cutting adaptation measures and various applied research activities in the field of climate adaptation.

The draft NAS envisages total implementation costs of EUR 3 680 000 000 (EUR 780 000 000 for the first five-year NAP), out of which State Budget resources would account for 0.23%, and the remainder would be financed from the ESIF and private sector (including public-private partnership). More than half of the estimated amount refers to implementation of "structural" measures, particularly in the sectors of agriculture and forestry ("no regret measures"), and to a lesser extent in energy and tourism. The average annual cost of implementing the draft NAS is estimated at EUR 70 million. Compared to average annual damage costs in the period from 1980 to 2015 resulting from extreme weather events (around EUR 80 million per year), benefits of implementing the draft NAS will be significant despite the high costs.

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

Amendments to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment 288 (EIA) were adopted to transpose the EIA Directive in January 2017. Developers are expected to assess climate change impacts and vulnerabilities of each project, and EIA reports are also assessed against potential climate-driven disaster risks. Similarly, the national SEA regulation 289 also requires consideration of aspects related to climate adaptation.

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

Croatia has started to adapt risk assessment and intervention plans to account for current and projected climate extremes. At the national government level, the impact of climate change to disaster risk has been addressed in developing the NDRA. Intense periods of rainfall and severe droughts have been taken into account 290 , as the most frequent climate extremes in Croatia. The NDRA will be used to inform development of the national disaster risk reduction strategy. Drafting of the strategy is planned for last quarter of 2018, with adoption expected in 2019. Early warning systems are in place for all major hazards, with outreach to communities.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

The July 2017 amendments to spatial planning legislation 291 include provisions related to spatial plans covering marine areas where due attention must be paid to long-term changes caused by climate change and to increasing climate resilience. The National Spatial Development Plan 292 stipulates that the spatial planning policy should include consideration of climate impacts and disaster risk reduction needs, however, this policy is not yet followed in practice. Other land use, spatial and urban planning policies do not yet specifically address climate impacts.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

The Air Protection Act 293 recognises vulnerable sectors exposed to climate impacts and obliges integration of integrating adaptation measures in those sectors. However, adaptation considerations are only included currently in the water management sector (the RBMP and Flood Risk Management Plan for the 2016-2021 planning period) and, since 2017, in spatial planning through updates to sectoral legislation 294 , although there is not yet concrete evidence of adaptation considerations being included in planning documents. Integration of adaptation in these sectors was driven by EU legislation, combined with policy recommendations arising from the work of international river commissions in which Croatian authorities actively participate.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

No evidence could be found that adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention. Such a measure is planned in the frame of the draft NAS, but not for the first five-year implementation period.

9. Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In progress / No

In the absence of a NAS or a NAP, it can be concluded that coordinated implementation of the adaptation measures, as defined in action plans, has not yet started.

Adaptation considerations have only recently been included in two sectors: physical planning legislation and water management sectoral plans. Implementation in both sectors is at the moment only planned.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

Pending the adoption of the draft NAS and draft NAP, systematic cooperation mechanisms for fostering adaptation at local or regional level do not seem to be yet in place. Adaptation is limited to one-off participation in European projects and initiatives, such as the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy, in which 13 Croatian towns and municipalities are signatories with adaptation commitments 295 . A regional ORIENTGATE project 296 (2012-2015) created a partnership in 13 countries to network and exchange data on the impacts of climate variability and climate change on water regimes, forests and agro-ecosystems, which includes 2 Croatian partner institutions.

In the frame of international river commissions, data and experience exchange is enabled at sub-regional level among the countries with regard to development of joint operational flood forecasting, and early warning system and a Joint Flood Risk Management Plan for the Sava River Basin.

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

The EU “Guidance on integrating climate change and biodiversity into EIA 297 and SEA” 298 , is translated into Croatian, as well as the EU “Guidance for project managers: How to increase resilience of vulnerable investments to climate change” 299 , are available on the MZOE website and actively recommended to developers and EIA/SEA experts. The purpose of the “Guidance for project managers” is to help manage additional climate change risks and to complete the EIA reports. It is designed as a tool that can help reduce climate-induced losses in different kinds of investments, thus, increasing the resilience of investment projects and economies. Authorised professionals use the guidance when drafting EIA and SEA reports.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures

Yes /No

As the process of formulating national adaptation policy is in its early phases, there do not seem to be many opportunities for stakeholders’ involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures. However, processes for stakeholder involvement in policymaking are laid down in general laws regulating public policy development, and are systematically implemented at all governance levels; no specific additional measures are envisaged for adaptation.

The draft NAS generally acknowledges importance of stakeholder awareness raising and participation. In this respect, strengthening of local and regional government capacities is planned, both strategically (development of regional development plans and spatial plans that will include the component of climate adaptation), as well as through technical training in specific areas of climate adaptation.

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10. Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

No reports on adaptation at the central level have been published, as the NAS and NAP are yet to be adopted.

According to Air Protection Act with its 2014 amendments 300 , reports on implementation of adaptation measures are to be submitted to the European Commission in line with Article 15 of the EU Regulation No. 525/2013 301 . Upon adoption of the NAS and NAP, reporting on the implementation of the NAS will follow formats and deadlines for reporting under EU legislation. Wherever possible, reporting procedures will rely on existing systems, with the necessary further development of the MZOE and HAOP capacities for monitoring and reporting. Currently, most of HAOP's activities in the field of climate change are related to greenhouse gas data collection and monitoring of climate impacts on species and habitats. These activities will need to expand and a database will need to be created based on the indicators proposed for monitoring the individual measures and activities listed in the draft NAS and draft NAP.

Eighty-one indicators have been proposed for monitoring adaptation measures in the priority sectors. There are an additional 15 climate indicators, most of which are already included in the National List of Indicators prepared by HAOP. The legal basis of the list is defined by the Environmental Protection Act 302 and the Regulation on the Environmental Information System 303 .

The draft NAS and draft NAP propose that CCCCMA will monitor the implementation of the NAP at its sessions, review reports and propose measures to remove obstacles and improve implementation.

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

No reports on adaptation in vulnerable sectors have been published, as the NAS and NAP are yet to be adopted. Nevertheless, according to Article 118a of the Air Protection Act, central state administration bodies and other public authorities that are competent in relation to a range of activities (meteorology, environmental protection, agriculture, fishery, forestry, water management, energy, physical planning, nature protection, sea, tourism and protection of human health) have an obligation to submit periodical five-year reports to the ministry responsible for environmental protection on their activities related to climate adaptation. These reports feed into periodical reporting to the European Commission on implementation of adaptation measures. The first reporting was conducted at the beginning of 2015.

Integration of climate adaptation into sectoral strategies and planning documents has been generally planned in the draft NAS, and the draft NAP specifically lists measures to integrate adaptation into several vulnerable sectors (tourism, spatial planning system, biodiversity, forestry). The adaptation measures will be coordinated between the MZOE and respective sectoral ministries. Upon adoption of the draft NAS and draft NAP the relevant national authorities will be required to integrate them in their policies and secure sufficient funding for implementation.

From the draft NAP or draft NAS, it is unclear how the dissemination of monitoring results will be organised.

10c. Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

The national legal framework requires reporting between different levels of government (national, counties and cities) on issues such as legislation and development planning.

Specifically, for climate adaptation, a five-year reporting obligation (see Indicator 10b) includes regional and local-level authorities in the listed sectors. First reporting was conducted in early 2015 and included a review of the implementation of measures and actions, their impacts, and identification of obstacles. The resultant report served as a basis for creating new action plans.

From the draft NAP or draft NAS, it is unclear how the dissemination of monitoring results of sub-national actions will be organised.

11. Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

The first interval for evaluation will be after the first NAP 2019-2023 has expired. Any subsequent revisions of the NAS will depend on the information that will be generated by the implementation monitoring system, as well as the general climate change monitoring system.

Nevertheless, given the unusually long lifespan of the draft NAS, until 2070, a periodic review of all adaptation actions has not been clearly defined.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

No evidence of stakeholder engagement in monitoring, evaluation or review is available, as implementation of the NAS and NAP has not yet started. In the draft NAS and draft NAP, stakeholder involvement is not specifically planned. Nevertheless, as indicated above, reporting is planned on implementation by sectoral ministries, and local and regional governments coordinated by the CCCCMA.

SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress /No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes /No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

Cyprus

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at sub-national levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1.    Coordination structure    

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3    Current and projected climate change    

4    Knowledge gaps    

5    Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6    Adaptation options’ identification    

7    Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9    Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10    Monitoring and reporting    

11    Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    

List of abbreviations

ARI        Agricultural Research Institute

CCRA        Climate Change Risk Assessment

CYCOFOS    Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System

DFMR        Department of Fisheries and Marine Research

DRR        Disaster Risk Reduction

ESIF        European Structural and Investment Funds

MCA        Multi-Criteria Analysis

MS        Member States

NAP        National adaptation plan

NAS        National adaptation strategy

NOA        Greek National Observatory of Athens

NTUA    National Technical University of Athens

MARDE    Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment

PA        Partnership Agreement

SGL        State General Laboratory

 

POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

Cyprus prepared a combined national adaptation strategy (NAS) and national adaptation plan (NAP) in 2014 304 . An updated NAS has been developed recently and formally adopted by the Cypriot Government in 2017 305 , which includes an evaluation of the effects of climate change on 11 vulnerable policy areas (sectors) in Cyprus. Moreover, the updated NAS identifies adaptation measures and actions for each vulnerable sector and states clearly the need for revision and evaluation of the NAS at regular intervals.

The adaptation policy process has been aided by the CYPADAPT 306 project, which was co-financed by the EU through the LIFE+ instrument. This project started in September 2011 and was completed in March 2014. The beneficiary was the Department of Environment of the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment (MARDE), the authority responsible for climate change in Cyprus.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at sub-national levels

For the time being there is no centralised information or evidence about adaptation strategies being developed at regional, sub-regional or local levels 307 . However, local actions are taking place. MARDE is in contact with the Union of Municipalities and the Union of Communities to collect this information and organise training days to inform the local authorities on the adaptation actions relevant to their regions.

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

An updated NAP was adopted in 2017 308 . The combined NAS/NAP mentioned the adaptation measures for each vulnerable policy area (sector) in Cyprus, as they were identified using the CYPADAPT software tool. The updated NAP follows the same methodology as the combined NAS/NAP but is a more detailed document that lists potential climate impacts along with their potential risk/hazard, the competent authority and the timeline for the completion of each measure.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

No sub-national adaptation plans have been adopted. Some activities related to climate adaptation have taken place at the local level but not as part of a programmed/planned process under the framework of the NAP.

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

Sectoral adaptation plans have been included in the NAP for each of the 11 policy areas mentioned above, including a set of adaptation measures that have been prioritised.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1.    Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

In Cyprus, MARDE is the central body coordinating the adaptation policy-making process and has led the preparation and adoption of the NAS. The adaptation policy process has been aided by the CYPADAPT project, (2011-2014), which was co-financed by the EU through the LIFE+ instrument and was coordinated by the Department of Environment of MARDE. The Ministry was also responsible for preparing a combined NAS/NAP in 2014, which was updated and formally adopted in May 2017.

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

As indicated above, the responsible authority for the development and implementation of the NAS and NAP is the Department of Environment of MARDE.

During the development of the NAS, an ad-hoc consultation process was in place with the relevant authorities, academic research institutions and the private sector.

The responsibility for the implementation of specific sectoral actions lies within the responsible authorities for each specific action (e.g. the Department of Agriculture for agricultural issues). In November 2017, meetings with all relevant stakeholders took place to assess the status of implementation of the activities included in the NAP 309 . Previously, a CYPADAPT Adaptation Steering Committee (established in November 2011) facilitated and monitored the progress of NAS. The Committee was further divided into thematic sub-committees. The Environment Department was the coordinator, bringing together government departments, local authorities, universities, research institutions, consultants, NGOs and consumer organisations.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes / In progress / No

Vertical coordination mechanisms are not currently operational beyond the national level coordination of cities and communities. It is anticipated that further vertical coordination will be applied by the responsible organisation for each thematic topic to support the implementation phase.

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

The active engagement of stakeholders and experts (relevant ministerial departments, associations, non‐governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, etc.) was recognised from the beginning of the NAS development as a key element for the assessment of vulnerability, the identification and evaluation of adaptation measures and most importantly, for the development of the NAS. Stakeholders were involved in several phases of the CYPADAPT project, particularly during: Phases 2 and 3 (respectively, assessment of current and future impact; adaptation and vulnerability assessment); Phases 4 and 5 (identification and assessment of the adaptation measures); and Phase 6 (development of the NAS).

The 6th National Communication to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 310 indicates that the outcome of the evaluation of proposed adaptation measures would, after public consultation, be finalised and used for the elaboration of the NAS. The draft NAS went through two different consultation phases before it was published. The 1st phase presented the draft NAS to the sectoral Steering Committees of the LIFE project for comments. The 2nd phase consisted of a public consultation for a period of 2 months, which sought feedback on the evaluation criteria, the scoring system and the adaptation measures as well as input to the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool database.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Transboundary cooperation to address common challenges with relevant neighbouring countries (cooperation between Mediterranean countries) is currently under development. The NAS states that Cyprus will pursue cooperation with neighbouring countries with the aim to prevent and tackle sea pollution. However, no specific planned actions are described. Nevertheless, a proposal to support adaptation actions between EU and non-EU neighbouring countries has been recently submitted for EU funding under the LIFE Integrated Projects programme. Moreover, the cooperation agreements between Cyprus-Greece-Israel and Cyprus-Greece-Egypt consider climate adaptation. 311 However, the limited scope of plans for transboundary cooperation do not qualify for a positive score.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

 

Yes / In progress / No

The Meteorological Service of Cyprus has a well-established database on observed key climate variables (temperature, rainfall, sunshine) that provides valuable information for climate impact studies.

The Cyprus Oceanographic Centre carries out ocean research and studies, forecasts and monitors the deep-sea water characteristics. It operates the Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System (CYCOFOS) and the online marine database Cyprus Oceanographic Online Database (BYTHOS), providing scientific data on Eastern Mediterranean.

The Department of Fisheries and Marine Research (DFMR) carries out research and monitors marine ecology and biodiversity, the coastal/marine water quality and the marine aquaculture.

The Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) conducts research in agriculture, plant and livestock science, proposes and evaluates new scientific and technological methods and suggests new procedures for the sustainable utilisation of natural resources and the improvement of animal and plant production.

The State General Laboratory (SGL) carries out research to support the development and application of policies and to provide solutions to existing or emerging problems mainly in the areas of food safety, environment and public health. Detailed analysis of observed and potential climate impacts has been included in the CYPADAPT project. 

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

 

Yes / In progress / No

The Meteorological Service has acquired the PRECIS model from the UK for running climatic forecasts. Future climate has been projected by using PRECIS16 as the main Regional Climate Model and the A1B emissions scenario 312 . The climate projections were examined in two future periods: the near future period 2021-2050 and the distant future period 2071-2100. The derived values of various climatic parameters in Cyprus for both future stages were compared to the reference values for the control period 1960-1990. The climate projections for the 2021- 2050 period were made by using six additional simulation models of the ENSEMBLES prediction system beside PRECIS16, whereas for the 2071-2100 period the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios were used in addition to A1B. For scenarios and projections, the draft NAS considers the future period 2021-2050. This has been chosen specifically in order to assist stakeholders and policymakers to consider impacts, assess vulnerabilities and plan adaptation measures.

Geographical specificities have been taken into account on a country-wide basis in some sectors, such as water resources. Geographical issues within Cyprus have also been considered for some sectors, particularly in relation to biodiversity and forestry.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes / In progress / No

A first vulnerability assessment on the most important economic sectors was made within the CYPADAPT project. Key climate change risks and priority policy areas were identified. Past research had already indicated that the sectors that would require priority attention on the design and application of adaptation actions for Cyprus would be water resources, coasts, biodiversity and tourism.

Cyprus’s first detailed Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) was published in 2016 313 . It provides an overview of potential risks and opportunities of climate change for Cyprus until 2100 and its findings will inform the development of adaptation plans by the Government and the competent authorities. The vulnerability assessment 314 has focused on 11 priority sectors. These include water resources, land use, seaside areas, biodiversity, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, energy, infrastructure and public health.

The selection of the policy areas was based on the categorization of policy areas for integrating adaptation, as these were identified in the European Commission’s White Paper entitled “Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action”. The general concept of the methodology followed was adopted by the “Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability” Assessment Reports of the IPCC (2001) while the assessment was further elaborated by the CYPADAPT project team. The main sources of information used at international and European levels were technical reports of the IPCC, the European Commission, the European Environment Agency and the Joint Research Centre. In addition, an extensive literature review was undertaken, several academic/research institutions and private companies in Cyprus were consulted, and communication with numerous national authorities and organizations in Cyprus was established. Finally, various departments contributed, such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment, the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism, the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Labour, Welfare and Social Insurance of Cyprus.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

While there are transboundary cooperation mechanisms in place (see Indicator 2b) no specific assessments have yet been completed 315 . Transboundary cooperation is mentioned in the NAS with regard to tackling marine pollution, but without specific mechanisms being planned.

4    Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

Some knowledge gaps were identified during the development of the NAS, and during the meetings with all stakeholders that took place after the adoption of the NAS. The combined NAS/NAP document states that: “An interdisciplinary team will conduct periodic reviews of the literature review on the climate change effects and the adaptation measures on the health sector” (p236) 316 .

The work carried out in the preparation of the Cyprus NAS under the CYPADAPT project had two research institutions as key partners, the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), and the Greek National Observatory of Athens (NOA), working together with MARDE. The vulnerability assessment carried out to inform the NAS (see Indicator 3c) identifies many research needs to properly inform the country's adaptation policy.

Some research into the assessment of existing and future impacts on vulnerable economic sectors is being financed and carried out through one-off projects. It has been decided to assess all knowledge gaps related to climate impacts and adaptation and identify possible sources of funding for their research.

5    Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means)

Yes / In progress / No

During the development of its NAS, Cyprus developed a CYPADAPT portal 317 to support the dissemination of information on climate adaptation. The platform was designed to be a knowledge base and communication platform for adaptation, linked to Climate-ADAPT and other platforms. The potential users identified were the government, local authorities, universities, research institutions, NGO’s and other stakeholders and citizens. The platform was expected to provide access and share information and views on many different issues concerning adaptation options, climate impacts, vulnerability, case studies, research activities, legislation, financing opportunities, tools for adaptation planning and useful links. However, the platform has not been updated since 2014.

MARDE’s Department of Environment launched an online blog in Greek (ClimateCY 318 ), where news, information and positions relating to adaptation were uploaded. However, the latest news update was in 2012.

As part of the CYPADAPT project, in preparing development of the NAS, there has been wide interaction between academia and policymakers, including through steering committees and working groups. However, it is unclear how the NAS or NAP will facilitate further dialogue and exchange between academia, policy and decision-makers.

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

The NAP mentions certain actions that support capacity building. More specifically, the NAP includes provisions for a campaign to raise awareness among farmers on the importance of preserving water and the opportunities from using recycled water, as well as appropriate plant and animal species for different climate conditions. However, education materials or specific training activities to build adaptation capacity or to help stakeholders to adapt to climate change are not yet available. The NAP also includes an action to use the media to raise awareness among the general public on how to protect against heatwaves and a campaign on the effects of climate change on human health.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Adaptation options’ identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

Overall, over 200 measures for enabling adaptation to the impacts of climate change across 11 policy sectors are included in the NAS, which take account of the geographical specificities of Cyprus. The various measures identified in the NAS aim to address all of the identified policy sectors and risks identified in the 2016 CCRA. These measures range in character from policy plans, strategies, legislative actions, guidelines, economic incentives to new infrastructure, knowledge dissemination activities or research.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

In order to prioritise the options and facilitate the choices per sector, an MCA tool was developed. The NAS development also involved opinion surveys for the qualitative prioritisation of adaptation options in all of the 11 selected sectors. The MCA tool covered all of the identified adaptation measures. The criteria selected for the evaluation of the adaptation measures were:

·Efficiency of the measure

·Environmental concerns

·Supporting the prevention of climate impacts

·Urgency for implementing the measure

·Usefulness of implementation irrespective of climate change

·Technical viability

·Economic viability

·Public acceptance

The MCA tool processes stakeholders’ evaluations on the proposed adaptation measures and produces alternative adaptation scenarios, based on: the degree of climate vulnerability, the weights assigned to the evaluation criteria, and the weights assigned to the different stakeholder groups (competent national authorities, relevant national authorities, research institutes, NGOs, sectoral unions and associations and civil society organisations). The adaptation measures with the highest performance against the evaluation criteria are identified and integrated into the NAP.

In the NAS, a "Sustainable Adaptation Scenario" is presented, which assigns equal weight to the technical, environmental and social criteria. As the economic evaluation of measures is a more complicated process, economic criteria have not been taken into account during this phase. A separate cost‐benefit analysis for the selected adaptation measures will be conducted.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

 

Yes/ In Progress / No

Disaster risk reduction practitioners are involved in adaption planning. The disaster risk reduction planning has started at a strategic level and is part of the responsibilities of the Department of Defence 319 .

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

The NAS mentions budgetary allocations to climate adaptation actions, such as the development of a detailed risk assessment (see Indicator 3c) or the development of a national adaptation platform (see Indicator 5a). Other elements such as coordination, governance, capacity building, indicators and projections do not yet seem to have specific resources allocated in the NAS, as yet.

Costs of climate impacts and costs/benefits of adaptation, in general, have yet to be identified. The Cyprus Audit Office stressed that the CYPADAPT proposed measures should be prioritized according to a cost-benefit analysis, and those with the lower cost and the highest contribution to adaptation should be implemented first. According to the After-LIFE Communication Plan 320 , which complemented the NAS, the adaptation measures identified have been included under the funding priorities foreseen in the Partnership Agreement (PA) 2014-2020 of the Republic of Cyprus, a comprehensive strategic document for the utilisation of the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF).

Step D: Implementing adaptation action 

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

 

Yes / No

As the revised Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive 321 is now in place, the Cypriot authorities have started to harmonise national legislation and mainstream adaptation. The deadline for transposition was May 2017. A national law, reflecting the revised EIA Directive, is drafted and is now undergoing a third reading in the House of Representatives 322 . Climate adaptation will be included in the next revision of the national law on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

Plans for disaster risk reduction do not factor in projected climate extremes that may occur in the future. In addition, the NAS does not mention specific disaster preparedness plans or how these account for climate adaptation. The NAP does, however, mention that emergency preparedness plans, in general, should account for managing injuries and diseases that may occur as a result of climate change.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No 

A description of land use, spatial or urban planning policies where adaptation is mainstreamed is lacking. There is reportedly a coastal area management programme (CAMP-Cyprus) within the framework of implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe. However, there is no evidence of the programme mainstreaming consideration of climate impacts and vulnerability.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

Specific measures have been included in the NAP, so that future updates to water policy (such as the Cyprus River Basin Management Plan 323 ), spatial planning and infrastructure will take adaptation into account.

There is some initial progress in the forestry sector, as the Ministry's Department of Forests has been developing a 10-year action plan regarding the adaptation of Cyprus forests to climate change. In addition, the Cyprus Institute presented a Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the Pedieos River Basin to the Environment Committee of the Cyprus Parliament in February 2017.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

 

Yes / No

No evidence could be found that adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance policies or alternative policy instruments to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention.

9    Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

 

Yes / In Progress / No

Cyprus has in place a separate NAP document to address sectoral adaptation measures. The implementation of several adaptation measures in the 11 vulnerable sectors has begun but there is no further information on the extent of their completion. The measures with an immediate deadline (by 2018) refer to soil resources, coastal zones, tourism, biodiversity, health and energy sectors. However, the timeline for other measures varies between end of 2020, 2040 or more vague deadlines and no start dates are specified.

Some autonomous adaptation actions are being undertaken at sectoral level. For example, the Institute of Agricultural Research and the Ministry's Department of Forests are undertaking projects which facilitate adaptation. Moreover, the Cyprus Institute presented a Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the Pedieos River Basin to the Environment Committee of the Cyprus Parliament in February 2017.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, sub-national)

 

Yes / No

Even though some implementation is underway, co-operation mechanisms have not yet been fully developed. However, the NAP sets out a few actions for different government departments and other authorities, such as the Ministries of Environment, Health, Agriculture, Public Infrastructure, Planning and Housing, local authorities and the National Meteorological Service.

There are a number of instances of cooperation with wider regional authorities 324 , municipalities, community groups and private local enterprises, including:

·CAMP-Cyprus, which is implementing activities in the southern peri-urban coastal area of Larnaca town with regard to: (i) biodiversity, (ii) capacity assessment, (iii) strategic environmental assessment and (iv) environmental economics and economic instruments. It involves the co-operation of Larnaca municipality and the communities of Pervolia, Meneou and Kiti

·The COASTANCE project for coastal zone adaptation, which includes an assessment of the coastal risks and management measures for the pilot case of Mazotos area in Larnaca District

·The MAREMED project on adaptation in coastal areas in which the Larnaca District Development Agency is partnering with 14 regions from five countries. 325

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure



Yes / No

Apart from various guidelines issued by the European Commission, there are no specific procedures or guidelines issued or used by the Cyprus authorities for assessing climate impacts on major projects or programmes and for facilitating their adaptation.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures

Yes / No

Stakeholders have been defined during the development of the NAS and NAP and were involved throughout the process of their development. The Department of Environment continuous to involve all relevant stakeholders in the process of developing the implementation and implementation of the NAS and NAP.

The active engagement of stakeholders and experts (from ministerial departments, associations, non-governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, etc.) was recognised from the beginning of the NAS development as key to the assessment of vulnerabilities, the identification and evaluation of adaptation measures and, most importantly, for the development of the NAS. Stakeholders were involved in several phases of NAS development, particularly during: assessment of current and future impacts, assessment of vulnerabilities, identification and assessment of adaptation measures. Moreover, the MCA tool processes stakeholders’ evaluations on the proposed adaptation measures.

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

A Monitoring Strategy 326 was developed to complement the NAS, and proposed the establishment of a Monitoring Team. The results of the Monitoring Strategy are expected to provide the basis for the preparation of the second NAP. Monitoring reports are scheduled every year from 2017 to 2019. The preparation of the 2018 update has just started but it has not yet been published. All the stakeholders have been included throughout the process and particularly during monitoring the progress of the implementation of the adaptation measures.

The preparation of four monitoring reports by the Monitoring Team was foreseen for the periods:

·Τ1: 01/09/2014 – 30/11/2015

·Τ2: 01/12/2015 – 28/02/2017

·Τ3: 01/03/2017 – 31/05/2018

·Τ4: 01/06/2018 – 31/08/2019

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

 

Yes / No

Evidence for monitoring of integration climate adaptation in sectoral policies has not been published yet.

10c. Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

 

Yes / No

There is no mention in the NAS or NAP of a requirement or expectation for sub-national organisations to report on their progress on adaptation to the national Government or the general public.

11    Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

 

Yes / No

The Council of Ministers’ decision, which adopted the NAS and NAP in May 2017, clearly states that the NAS will be reviewed annually.

Data are collected for each adaptation measure and a review is being prepared. The deadline for submitting the review to the Department of Environment was 15th May 2018. The preparation of an updated NAS and NAP will then follow, which will be sent to the relevant stakeholders and then to the Council of Ministers for adoption.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the monitoring and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Reviews coordinated by the Department of Environment involve all stakeholders, as stated in the Council of Ministers’ decision that adopted the NAS and the NAP in May 2017. The process of the review follows the following steps:

·Previous version of the NAP/NAS are sent to all involved stakeholders

·Sectoral meetings take place with directly involved stakeholders

·Overall meetings take place for the overview of the NAS/NAP review

·The final draft version of the reviewed NAS/NAP is forwarded for final comments to all stakeholders

·The final draft version of the reviewed NAS/NAP is forwarded to the Council of Ministers for adaptation.

SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No 

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

The Czech Republic

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1    Coordination structure    

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3    Current and projected climate change    

4    Knowledge gaps    

5    Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6    Adaptation options’ identification    

7    Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: implementing adaptation action    

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9    Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10    Monitoring and reporting    

11    Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    

List of abbreviations

CHMI        Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

CR        Czech Republic

DRR        disaster risk reduction

EIA        Environmental Impact Assessment

EUMETNET    European Meteorological Services Network

MMR        Mechanism for Monitoring and Reporting

NAP        National Adaptation Plan

NAS        National Adaptation Strategy

RBMP        River Basin Management Plans

RCM        regional climate model

SEA        Strategic Environmental Assessment

V4        Visegrad group

WRI        T.G. Masaryk Water Research Institute



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

The National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) 327 of the Czech Republic was adopted in October 2015 by Government Resolution No. 861 328 . The NAS assesses the climate impacts prevalent in the Czech Republic and defines appropriate adaptation measures, including their linkages to mitigation. The priority sectors are forest management, agriculture, water regime in landscape and water management, urban landscape, biodiversity and ecosystem services, health, tourism, transportation, industry and energy, emergencies and protection of the population and environment.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

One regional and six adopted local adaptation strategies cover a population of 1 884 707, i.e. 18 % of the Czech population. The one adaptation strategy at regional level on which the Ministry of the Environment, currently, has information is for the City of Prague and was adopted in 2017. Prague is both a municipality and a greater territorial self-governing unit (region) 329 and the strategy addresses ca. 12% of the country’s total population. Two (Kopřivnice in 2017 330 , Hlučín in 2017 331 ) adaptation strategies were adopted by the relevant municipal councils and four adaptation strategies (Hrádek nad Nisou in 2016 332 , Nový Bor in 2016 333 , Plzeň in 2017 334 , Brno in 2016 335 ) were presented to the municipal council and are used as non-binding documents for the ongoing elaboration of comprehensive development strategies of municipality or spatial planning. The city of Krnov is also preparing a conceptual note on climate adaptation and has run a public consultation within the frame of a project (which ran until the end of 2017). 336 Currently, two additional cities are in the process of developing an adaptation strategy – Ostrava 337 and Opava. 338

The Czech Republic has to date five signatories to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy (CoM) with respect to adaptation: Prague (population 1 246 780), Liberec (106 000), Litoměřice (24 101), Písek (29 800) and Brno (377,973) 339 . Some other cities and towns are preparing their adaptation strategies as well.

In addition to the development of an adaptation strategy, cities and towns often include adaptation considerations within their other strategic documents, such as development plans.

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

The Czech Republic adopted its National Action Plan on Adaptation to Climate Change (NAP) in January 2017 340 by Government Resolution No. 34 341 . The NAP aims to implement the NAS and is structured according to climate impacts identified in the Czech Republic: long-term droughts; floods and flash floods; temperature increase; extreme meteorological events (heavy rainfall, extremely high temperatures and heat waves; extreme wind); and wild fires. The NAP contains 33 specific targets and one cross-cutting target focused on education and awareness-raising. These targets will be implemented through 52 priority measures detailed into 160 priority tasks. 

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

As noted above, there are five cities in the Czech Republic that are signatories to the CoM with respect to adaptation. Although some of these Czech cities have started preparing an adaptation action plan, none have been implemented yet.

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

The Strategy for Environmental Safety 2016-2020 with an outlook to 2030, implements the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. This strategy includes measures for disaster risk reduction connected with climate impacts, notably extreme meteorological events.

The Policy of Protection from Impacts of Drought and Water Scarcity was adopted by the Government in July 2017. The document describes the main adverse trends in climate and hydrological conditions in the last three decades, as well as future expected climate impacts on water balance. The document identified strategic goals, such as increased knowledge of current and future drought and water scarcity risks, better preparedness based on operational plans and measures, increased public awareness, a balance between the availability of water resources and water demand across all sectors, and a restored natural water regime of the landscape.

The climate impacts are considered in the second river basin management plans (RBMP), when assessing the trends of water use up to the year 2021. The programme of measures contains a "Drought and water scarcity" measure, which defines climate change risks. Due to the fact that the second RBMP was adopted whilst the NAS was being drafted, the NAS is not fully reflected in the second RBMP. The outcomes of the NAS and the NAP will be taken into account in the third RBMP. Flood risk management plans, as well as the Action Plan for Organic Farming 2016-2020, also take into account climate change issues. The Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 supports the implementation of adaptation measures within the agricultural sector.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

In the Czech Republic, the Ministry of the Environment is the national coordinator for NAS development, adoption, implementation and evaluation. 342 The Department of General Nature and Landscape Protection was responsible for the coordination and preparation of the document and the Department of Energy and Climate Protection was actively involved in the NAS preparatory phase, including consultations with the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI).

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

During the development phase of the NAS, interdepartmental groups of experts from all relevant ministries and institutions for each sector were established. The work was conducted in 12 working groups covering specific sectors (biodiversity, forest management, agriculture, water balance in landscape and water management, industry and energy, health and hygiene, crisis management, etc.) coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment.

The main stakeholders involved in the preparation of the NAS were national-level institutions, i.e. relevant ministries: the Ministry of Agriculture (water, agriculture, forestry), the Ministry of Health (health and hygiene), the Ministry of Transport (adaptation of transportation), the Ministry of Industry and Trade (supply of electricity), the Ministry of Regional Development (spatial planning and regional development), the Ministry of the Interior (civil protection and warning systems), the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and selected scientific and research institutions, e.g. the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) and the T.G. Masaryk Water Research Institute (WRI).

Each of the 12 working groups consisted of representatives from relevant ministries, expert departments of the Ministry of the Environment, and in some cases also the CHMI and WRI. A coordinator from the Ministry of the Environment facilitated each working group. The institution responsible for each sector developed inputs related to the specific sector (e.g. water issues were prepared by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, forest management by the Ministry of Agriculture, etc.).

With regard to the coordination mechanism during the implementation phase, an inter-ministerial working group on climate change issues was established in January 2015. This group cooperates, consults and works further on the basis of the NAS and was involved in the preparation process of the NAP. An adaptation platform was established in January 2016 within the framework of this working group and its preparation of the NAP. This platform continues to actively operate and is currently used for the purpose of the evaluation of the NAP. The Ministry of the Environment, as the main coordinator of this process, is actively communicating with other relevant ministries and actors within the frame of the current evaluation of the NAP.

Relevant ministries are also responsible for their respective implementation tasks defined in the NAS as well as in the NAP.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

Stakeholders, including representatives from regions and municipalities, had a chance to participate directly in preparation of the NAP through the inter-ministerial consultations. Some of them actively participated in this process and submitted written comments.

The main target of the communication strategy of the NAP is not only to ensure access to information but also to include public and other stakeholders in the implementation of the NAS. In the future, the evaluation and monitoring of the NAS and adaptation measures set in the NAP will be secured through the inter-ministerial working group on climate change issues, which has also some members from non-governmental non-profit organisations. Furthermore, the communication strategy aims to use two-way communication (bottom-up and top-down communication) between the Ministry of the Environment and public, including National Network of Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic, or Union of the Towns and Municipalities of the Czech Republic. The inter-ministerial working group on climate change issues will be serving as communication mediator for this communication.

In order to enhance coordination, the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic became a national coordinator of the CoM in 2017.

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

The development of the NAS involved only the sectoral national ministries and the relevant scientific and research institutions, such as the Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CzechGlobe) and Charles University Environment Centre. These stakeholders were also consulted on the final draft of the NAS. Business, non-governmental sectors, interest groups and other stakeholders did not participate in the formulation of the NAS.

However, the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process of the NAS allowed the general public to provide written comments, and included a public hearing. Stakeholders also had the opportunity to participate directly on the preparation of the NAP via the inter-ministerial consultations and participation in thematic working groups. Several stakeholders provided written comments, including Chamber of Commerce and Confederation of Employers and Business Union, Czech Geological Survey, Association of Municipal and Private Forest Owners, Forest Management Institute, Institute of Botany AS CR, The Water Supply and Sewerage Association of the Czech Republic, Green Circle (network of NGO dealing with environmental issues), Chance for Buildings and others.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Transboundary cooperation for climate adaptation was considered when drafting the NAS and NAP. The national experts from the Czech Republic and Slovenia organised meetings where they exchanged experiences and lessons learned from the preparation of the NAS and NAP. In addition, an onsite exchange of adaptation practice was organised in the Czech Republic.

Furthermore, the Czech Republic has frameworks for bilateral cooperation with neighbouring countries, i.e. Germany (Czech-German Commission on Environment and its working groups), Austria, Slovakia and Poland. There is close cooperation in the field of water management. The Czech Republic has bilateral commissions with all neighbouring states in relation to transboundary rivers and their management (e.g. transboundary early warning systems, flood prevention measures etc.). The Czech Republic participates actively in the activities of the international commissions for Elbe, Oder and Danube river basins. Transboundary projects are supported through the Interreg EUROPE 2014-2020 (Bavaria, Saxony, Poland, Austria and Slovakia) in the fields of risk prevention, flood management systems and cooperation of rescue services.

The Visegrad group (V4) also addresses issues related to climate adaptation in specific sectors (water management, nature protection etc.) at a political level and within its working groups.

The Czech Republic is actively involved in the EU Strategy for the Danube Region and in the activities of its Priority Area 5, Environmental Risks, which, among others, addresses the challenges of water scarcity and droughts and focuses on the implementation of Danube-wide flood risk management plans, taking into account potential climate impacts as well.

The Czech Republic is a Party to the Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians (Carpathian Convention). In 2014, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Carpathian Convention adopted the Strategic Agenda on Adaptation to Climate Change in the Carpathian Region, which is being implemented mainly through the activities of the Working Group on Adaptation to Climate Change under the Convention. 343 In October 2017, a new article (Article 12bis) on “Climate Change” was adopted at the Fifth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties. 344

Within the macro-regional strategies, the Czech Republic is a member of European Meteorological Services Network (EUMETNET).

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

The Czech Hydro-Meteorological Institute (CHMI) provides information on actual weather conditions and alerts to extreme hydrological and meteorological situations. It also publishes data and information on climate change science, observations, scenarios and impacts. Regarding climate impacts, a general qualitative description of impacts with some key figures from the modelling analysis is given.

Monitoring of water courses undertaken by the CHMI, based on specific indicators, provides different applicable data series showing climate impacts. The CHMI performs the function of a state institute for the area of air quality protection, hydrology, water quality, climatology and meteorology, with a competence to establish and operate State monitoring and observation networks, including international data exchange pursuant to the WMO principles.

Regarding climate extremes, the warning system has been further improved on the basis of the innovated Integrated Warning Service System in the Czech Republic. This system includes forecast warning information on 26 dangerous phenomena and each phenomenon is assigned a danger level (low, medium, extreme). A large number of stations with operative presentation of measured data and forecasts have been placed on the website of the reporting and forecasting flood service. 345

Observation and collection of information on climate change and its impacts (i.e. droughts) is supported by several institutions: the Committee on the Environment of the Czech Academy of Sciences and its institutes (CzechGlobe and others 346 ), the National Forestry Committee, University departments and sectoral institutes.

Currently the indicators showing effects of extreme weather events are developed for floods, such as Return Period of Floods and Flood Effects. Indicators for climate impacts and extreme weather events, such as damage, casualties, and financial losses are currently being developed for the NAP.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

A Comprehensive Study on Impacts, Vulnerability and Risks Sources Connected to Climate Change in the Czech Republic from November 2015 was conducted for the Ministry of the Environment by EKOTOXA. 347 It provides an assessment of impacts and vulnerabilities to climate adaptation in the Czech Republic at a general level as well as per adaptation-related sector. This assessment is mainly based on a study from 2011, analysing the results of a research project that developed scenarios and projections to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change. The assessment also includes information on indicators and a cost-benefit analysis. 348

The main model used for climate scenarios to date in the Czech Republic is the ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ regional climate model. The basis for the estimates of impacts is a specific project allowing the integration of the regional climate model (RCM) ALADIN–CLIMATE/CZ with the A1B emissions scenario for 1961-2100 at a horizontal resolution of 25 km, completed in 2011. The projections (which do not cover key uncertainties due to climate models or socioeconomic scenarios) have been used to screen the environmental impacts of climate change in specific sectors (water management, agriculture and forestry sectors) and to inform the initial identification of potential adaptation options.

The Comprehensive Study on Impacts 349 mentioned above also has a section with an overview of the latest developments in this field, mentioning several recent projects involved in modelling climate change impacts in the Czech Republic, and/or projects developing systems to monitor and share data on such impacts. An example is the CzechAdapt project (2015-2016) 350 which developed a regularly updated online database to show the impacts of climate change, vulnerability assessments and adaptation measures for the Czech Republic based on the best available methods, e.g. GCM CMIP5 models and regional models coming from another project, EUROCORDEX – a coordinated downscaling programme. 351 There are also a couple of regional projects, focusing on specific Czech regions and adaptation sectors (AdaptaN 352 , UrbanAdapt 353 ).

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

Some assessments of risks and vulnerabilities have been carried out through research projects. The most complex one so far has been the aforementioned research project from 2011 on “Specification of existing estimates of climate change impacts in hydrology, water management, agriculture and forestry sectors and proposals for adaptation measures” coordinated by the CHMI 354 . The outcomes were used in the preparation of the NAS, as mentioned above.

The Comprehensive Study on Impacts, mentioned above 355 , provides an assessment of climate risks / vulnerability for all ten priority sectors of the NAS. Further analysis of the expected impacts of water regime / water management, agriculture, forestry, health, urbanised landscape and biodiversity in the Czech Republic is done by the CHMI.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

For the time being, climate risks and vulnerability assessments within the framework of the NAS and NAP do not take transboundary risks into account. Nevertheless, this issue is partially covered through transboundary cooperation of the Czech Republic with the neighbouring states in the field of water management (transboundary water protection in the framework of the UNECE and in the international basins of Danube, Elbe and Oder rivers), as described in Indicator 2b. However, it is yet to be defined how this transnational cooperation will address climate change, and how it will relate to the NAS and NAP. Both the NAS and NAP will be updated in 2020.

4    Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

There is cooperation between policy-makers within the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, and scientific organisations in defining and working on research priorities. Accordingly, the NAS contains a number of measures to improve the knowledge base on adaptation and research focus areas. There is also a list of institutions that focus on climate adaptation research. Some of them participate in the National Climate Programme, which creates research teams and publishes results.

The NAP contains the same research priorities mentioned in the NAS and mentions that the National Policy on Research, Development and Innovation for 2016-2020 includes research in global changes, i.e. also on climate adaptation. Moreover, the research and development strategy of the Ministry of the Environment for 2016-2025 is coherent with this national research policy.

In addition, there are several funding programmes which are indirectly linked with the research gaps. The national programme ADAPT operated between the 2008-2016. Since then the financing of this programme has stopped. The main objective of the programme was the modernisation of the monitoring system in order to secure more accurate projections of extreme weather events and to adapt to them. The final evaluation report of this programme was submitted to the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic on 31st July 2017 but has not yet been approved. There is no plan to continue this programme in the future. 356 Other programmes were funded by Norwegian grants between 2009-2014, with some work to be continued in the 2015-2021 funding period.

5    Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

The Ministry of the Environment publishes general and specific information on its website regarding climate adaptation, key documents and links to other relevant sources. 357 CHMI publishes climate adaptation information on key climate impacts and scenarios in the Czech Republic. 358 It also provides questions and answers, a glossary, the main international documents and other basic facts, besides the hydro-meteorological information.

There are several other web portals with information on climate change and climate adaptation. 359  

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

A general communication strategy is part of the NAS and the NAP. The former specifies types of awareness-raising events related to the relevant sectors, targeted activities for media and the public. The NAS includes a general approach to environmental education and the legal basis for it (i.e. programmes for schools, awareness raising campaigns, exhibitions, etc.), which involves cooperation between the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

The NAS also defines the need to mainstream climate adaptation into educational programmes and relevant strategic materials, and attributes the ministries responsible for doing so. There is no mentioning of training.

To improve capacity building in the field of climate adaptation, as announced in the NAS and NAP, a State Programme for environmental education and awareness raising for 2016-2025, adopted in 2016, incorporates climate change as a focal area. 360 The aim of this State Programme’s climate objective is to raise awareness about climate change and its impacts in the Czech Republic and to encourage support for education programmes and campaigns in this field.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Adaptation options’ identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The NAS sets general directions and examples of suitable adaptation measures for all ten priority sectors. Risk and vulnerability assessments carried out through various research projects and the comprehensive study have been taken into account when defining measures.

The adaptation options considered are usually based on existing practices and measures, where win-win value or low-regrets options are considered (e.g. fighting floods, rural development, agro-environmental measures, etc.). The adaptation options take into account local conditions and also include the potential link to other sectors and to mitigation measures in that sector.

The NAP identifies the main climate risks and analyses the impacts and adaptation measures for each climate risk. As such, targets and measures for a certain climate risk are analysed for a variety of sectors. The annex to the NAP provides adaptation measures in detail, including the sector, responsible body, timeline of delivery, link to sectorial policy and financial needs.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

The selection of adaptation options in the NAS has been based on expert judgement. The prioritisation of adaptation measures proposed in the NAP per sector was made according to a robust multi-criteria analysis, in consultation between different ministries and thematic working groups. The priority was given to measures with positive impact on climate adaptation and positive spill over and cross-cutting effects on sectors and on the whole economy. The NAP measures were prioritised according to four criteria: (1) multiple adaptation effects to tackle climate impacts, (2) spill over social, economic or mitigation impacts, (3) impact on the environment and ecosystems, and (4) financial needs for implementation. Criterion (1) was evaluated by the thematic working groups and was attributed a value twice as important as criteria (2), (3) and (4). The latter were assessed by external consultants. Based on this multi-criteria analysis, adaptation measures were categorised into priority one measures and priority two measures.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

Through the thematic working groups for the NAS and NAP development, inter-sectoral coordination between disaster risk management and climate adaptation has been established. Experts from the Safety and Crisis Management Department of the Ministry of the Environment who are responsible for disaster risk management have been involved in the preparation of the relevant NAS and NAP chapters. The Strategy of Environmental Safety 2016-2020 with an outlook to 2030 361 , which implements the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, has also been prepared by climate adaptation experts. The strategy includes measures for disaster risk reduction for disasters caused by climate change, mainly extreme meteorological events.

A multi-sectoral national platform on disaster risk reduction (DRR) to coordinate actions and activities related to disaster risk reduction (Sendai Framework DRR) and climate change was established in February 2015.

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Both the NAS and the NAP identify existing and potential economic instruments to fund proposed adaptation measures. Besides the EU funds, there are several national programmes available for specific sectors: for instance, “Programme on landscape protection” and “Programme for restoration of natural functions of landscape”. Both of these programmes have a high potential value for vulnerable sectors (agriculture, water management, forestry and biodiversity adaptation), as their actions might increase climate resilience. In addition, several programmes supporting the building and/or reconstruction of fish ponds, small water reservoirs, improvement of water courses and support of the irrigation facilities are administrated by the Ministry of Agriculture, including a long-term programme for the prevention of floods.

However, there is no specific budget available for financing cross-cutting/coordinated adaptation action, or a dedicated fund to finance adaptation actions proposed in the NAS and the NAP. Most actions carried out to date have been implemented through one-off specific projects.

Step D: implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

Legislation transposing the new Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive came into force on 1 November 2017. It requires assessment of projects in relation to: project impacts, i.e. on climate, vulnerability to climate change, risks of major accidents and/or disasters caused by climate change, and climate adaptation.

With regard to the SEA, the EU Directive is transposed through Act No. 100/2001 and its amendments. 362 The Act considers climate impacts and adaptation within its framework for systematically examining and assessing systematic examination and assessment potential environmental impacts.

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

The Czech Republic has developed a very comprehensive multi-hazard system based on an integrated early warning system connected with a special rescue and response system. The overall system was tested on past weather extremes (floods in the last 15 years). Currently, it considers risk scenarios for floods, flash floods, drought, extreme wind and extreme high temperatures. These risk scenarios were prepared for the needs of ministries and regional governments and cities. As outlined in Indicator 6c, disaster risk reduction strategies take into account climate change risks and impacts and their future projections, particularly related to extreme weather events. The Strategy of Environmental Safety 2016-2020 with an outlook to 2030 363 , mentioned in Indicator 6c is an example of such a strategy.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

The Ministry of Regional Development, responsible for spatial planning, is involved in the inter-ministerial working group on adaptation, and the NAS and NAP contain several actions for spatial planning. The Spatial Development Policy of the Czech Republic 364 from 2015 does not mention climate adaptation explicitly. However, it contains several priorities relating to spatial planning for sustainable development, which deal with climate adaptation, e.g. in the field of flood damage prevention and biodiversity reinforcement. It also sets out the specific spatial planning tasks with a territorial projection of areas suitable for the accumulation of surface water and for dams. The Strategy of Regional Development of the Czech Republic 2014 to 2020 365 contains explicit references to climate impacts and the need to tackle them. Moreover, the Action Plan for the Regional Development Strategy 2017-2018 366 does contain specific references to climate impacts and the need for climate adaptation.

The Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of the Environment (in line with the national Water Act) developed a general plan that defines a suite of protected sites that are morphologically, geologically and hydrologically suitable for accumulation of surface water. 

This general plan serves as one of the documents supporting spatial planning.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

As the NAP was adopted in 2017, there is only limited evidence of adaptation being mainstreamed in sectoral policies to date. However, there is progress in some sectors, i.e. agriculture, water management, disaster risk management and education. For example, measures for water retention in forests and restoration of small water reservoirs have been implemented, RBMPs include adaptation measures, and the State Programme for Environmental Education and Awareness Raising contains specific targets and measures focused on education and dissemination of information regarding climate adaptation. The NAS/ NAP drive the integration of adaptation at sectoral level.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

Only limited evidence could be found that adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance policies or alternative policy instruments to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention. There are some insurance schemes in the agriculture sector that cover some specific current extreme events. Use of agriculture-related insurance is supported by the Relief and Guarantee Farming and Forestry Fund and a new fund is in preparation to cover those risks for farmers that are not insurable commercially. However, prevention and adaptation are mentioned as a tool, rather than insurance, to reduce further damage by extreme events.

9    Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

There are already some sectoral action plans drafted that take climate adaptation into account, as mentioned in Indicator 8b, in particular in disaster risk reduction, water management and regional development planning. These plans have been adopted recently.

 

The NAP was adopted in 2017. During the NAP drafting process, existing and new adaptation actions were identified in order to ensure the continuity and improvement of adaptive capacity of the Czech Republic to future climate conditions. Implementation of the NAP is planned to be evaluated in 2019, as a basis for the preparation of an updated NAS. In the current NAS, the tasks for ministries to implement sector-specific actions have been allocated, and possible funding for adaptation actions is clearly identified. As specified in Indicator 8d, the Czech Republic adopted the State Programme for Environmental Education and Awareness Raising in 2016. It contains specific targets and measures focused on education and dissemination of information regarding climate mitigation and adaptation.

Activities in the NAP that have already been implemented include measures for water retention in forests and promotion of restoration of the water management function of small water reservoirs.

In addition, some measures undertaken by various Ministries and Departments in the agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, human health and water management sectors could also be considered relevant to climate adaptation.

The RBMPs introduced support to the implementation of the adaptation measures identified in the 2004 National Programme to Abate the Climate Change Impacts in the Czech Republic. Reportedly, the revision of the RBMPs takes due consideration of an increased frequency of floods and adds other flood risk management measures. For example, the context of climate change has been considered in the second RBMPs in order to assess the trends of water use up to the year 2021. The programme of measures contains a "Drought and water scarcity" measure, which is defining climate change risks.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

Currently there is no cooperation framework at regional or local levels. Nevertheless, the Czech Republic Strategic Framework 2030 and Czech Republic Strategy for Regional Development 2021+ identify that cooperation mechanisms need to be established at a subnational level. There is, however, cooperation through the help of NGOs and through the development of a variety of documents (methods, catalogues of measures, information sources, etc.). Implementation of adaptation measures at local and subnational levels is also supported through funding programmes under the Ministry of the Environment. 367

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

We could not find any procedures or guidelines for assessment of potential climate impacts on major projects or programmes aside from the EIA and SEA frameworks addressed in Indicator 8a.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Currently, the involvement of stakeholders is through the National Network of Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic and the national platform of Healthy cities of the Czech Republic, as stated in the NAP. This concerns particularly the following sectors: environment, water management and disaster risk management. Moreover, the topic of climate change is also one of the main topics of calls of the Ministry of the Environment for the support of Environmental Education and Consulting. However, the calls do not specify in which sectors or areas supported activities should be taking place. Current evidence shows that it concerns, for example, a measure in the area of water management, or implementation of local adaptation platforms for the initiation of adaptation activities. 368

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

There is a system in place to monitor the implementation of the NAP on an annual basis. However, for the time being it is only used for internal purposes by the Ministry of the Environment. The overall monitoring of the NAP and the publication of the results will only happen in 2019, 369  since the NAP was adopted in 2017 and the NAS in 2015. A set of indicators to measure vulnerabilities to climate change and adaptation will be tracked and evaluated.

To date, one relevant publication is the report on national adaptation actions under Article 15 of the Mechanism for Monitoring and Reporting from 2015.

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

A set of indicators to measure climate vulnerabilities and adaptation in priority sectors has already been developed and is being piloted. Monitoring and the publication of the results based on these indicators will happen in 2019 for data in the period of 2014-2018. 370  

10c. Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

Currently there is no monitoring and reporting system in place at regional or local levels. Nevertheless, the Strategic Framework of the Czech Republic 2030 establishes the creation of a monitoring and reporting system at subnational level as one of its tasks.

11    Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

The NAS will be reviewed and updated in 2020. From then onwards, the NAS will be reviewed once every ten years.

The NAP will be evaluated in 2019 and this evaluation will form the basis for the revision of the NAS. From then onwards, the NAP will be reviewed every 4-5 years, depending on the reporting obligations of the Czech Republic within the framework of its international commitments.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Current monitoring is undertaken by the Ministry of Environment (see Indicator 10a). Evaluation and review of the NAS/NAP is expected in 2019-2020. Evaluation of the NAS and adaptation measures set out in the NAP will be shaped through the inter-ministerial working group on climate change. Its members include regional and local authorities’ associations, research institutions, professional or non-governmental and non-profit organisations. The communication strategy aims to use two-way communication between the Ministry of the Environment and public, including the National Network of Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic or the union of the cities and municipalities. The inter-ministerial working group on climate change will serve as a mediator of communications.



SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In Progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In Progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes/ In Progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In Progress / No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In Progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, sub-national or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

Denmark

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at subnational level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1. Coordination structure    

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3. Current and projected climate change    

4. Knowledge gaps    

5. Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6. Adaptation options' identification    

7. Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9. Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10. Monitoring and reporting    

11. Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    

List of abbreviations

DEMA    Danish Emergency Management Agency

DKK    Danish Krone

DMI    Danish Meteorological Institute

EIA    Environmental Impact Assessment

EPA    Danish Environmental Protection Agency

EUR    Euros

IPCC    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

KFT    Koordineringsenhed for Forskning i klimatilpasning (Coordination Unit for        Research in Climate Change Adaptation)

NAS    National Adaptation Strategy

NAP    National Adaption Plan

MEF    Danish Ministry of Environment & Food

MUDP    Environmental Technology Development and Demonstration programme

SEA    Strategic Environmental Assessment



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

In Denmark, the National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) was adopted in March 2008 371 . The NAS included a description of the vulnerability of those sectors where climate change was expected to have significant consequences. The NAS focused on what would be attainable in the individual sectors within the next 10 years. It was intended that measures should be scientifically, technically and socio-economically appropriate for implementation within the given period. No revision is presently foreseen.

The NAS was based on the notion that climate adaptation is a long-term process, and that it is still uncertain what the consequences of climate change will be and how soon they will take effect. The NAS included a targeted information campaign and creation of a web portal 372 with the aim of ensuring that climate change was incorporated into planning and development, so that public authorities, businesses and citizens had the best possible basis for considering whether, how and when climate change should be considered.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

Adaptation strategies have not been adopted at the subnational level but all municipalities have adopted local adaptation action plans in line with the national adaptation plan (NAP).

Although not a formal responsibility or obligation, four of five regions have incorporated adaptation into their regional climate strategies: South Denmark 373 , North Jutland, 374 Region Zealand 375 and the Capital Region 376 . Central Denmark Region leads the EU-funded project ‘Coast to Coast Climate Challenge’, which has a goal of formulating and implementing a coordinated adaptation strategy for the region between 2017 and 2022 377 .

The NAS outlined eleven sectors (Coastal management, dikes, ports etc; Buildings and infrastructure; Water supply; Energy supply; Agriculture and forestry; Fisheries; Nature management; Land use planning; Health; Rescue preparedness; Insurance) in which climate impacts may be significant. The relevant ministries have developed sectoral adaptation strategies for transport, 378 roads, 379 and coasts 380 .

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) was adopted in 2012. As of May 2018, no update is planned.

The Action Plan for a Climate-Proof Denmark 381 was launched in December 2012 and is the first NAP in Denmark. The NAP is based on the notion that a responsible climate policy must do more than just work to address climate change in the long term, it must also ensure necessary action is taken now to adapt our society to a climate that is already changing, and that all parts of society contribute to climate adaptation. Dealing with the climate challenge requires collaboration between authorities, organisations, private enterprises and individuals, regardless of whether the project is maintenance of existing roads, coastal protection, construction, or investments in new infrastructure.

The Government itself has a responsibility as the owner of infrastructure, buildings and land. However, the principal role for the Government is to establish an appropriate framework for local climate adaptation by, for example, adapting laws and regulations, but also by ensuring coordination and providing information. The Government requested all municipalities to develop their own adaptation action plans within two years. A solid framework for the efforts must support the specific parties involved, so that they can address the challenge in a socio-economically appropriate manner at the right time.

In the NAP, the Government commits to creating the basis for continued technological and knowledge development, so that Denmark will have a strong position on the global market for climate adaptation.

The NAP presents 64  382 new initiatives within five general areas of initiative: an improved framework for climate adaptation; more consultation and a new knowledge base; strengthened collaboration and coordination; green transition; and international climate adaptation.

This fiche does not cover Greenland and the Faroe Islands 383 .

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at subnational level

The NAP required all municipalities to develop an action plan for climate change by the end of 2013. The Government formally agreed with the association of Danish municipalities in 2012 that all municipalities should develop an adaptation action plan by the end of 2013. 384 To support municipalities and local-level decision makers in their work, the Danish Nature Agency issued a guidance document in 2013. All 98 Danish municipalities finalised their action plans by 2014. Each plan includes a flood risk mapping and sets the priorities for local climate adaptation measures. The content of the plans was evaluated by the Government in 2017 385 , finding that although all municipalities had completed their plans, the level of detail and scope of the plans was uneven.

The Copenhagen Climate Adaptation plan 386 was adopted in 2011 in response to the extreme, water-related consequences of climate change to which the city is exposed. In July 2011, Copenhagen experienced a cloudburst and the damages were estimated to be approximately 5 to 6 million DKK. This prompted the city to develop a specific Cloudburst Management Plan in 2012. 387 The plan was used to develop 300 specific projects and a detailed management plan, which was approved in 2015 and will be implemented over the next 20 years. 388 In 2017, a storm surge plan was developed for Copenhagen 389 . Seven other local cloudburst plans were developed in 2013.

Two out of five Danish regions have carried out studies on climate impacts and risks, as the basis for regional strategic planning for adaptation. Sectors most covered include health, water management, transport, and buildings. The Capital Region of Denmark has established a cooperation organisation with the aim of supporting municipalities, water utilities and hospitals in their effort to move from plan to action within the field of adaptation 390 .

Denmark currently has six signatories to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy in relation to adaptation 391 .

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

A few sectors, such as transport, roads and coastal protection, 392 have dedicated adaptation plans.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1. Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

The overall responsibility for coordinating the integration of adaptation policy into national legislation and planning lies with the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within the Ministry of the Environment and Food (MEF) 393 .

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

To ensure a coordinated effort among public authorities in preparing the NAP, an organisational framework outlined in the NAS was in place from 2008 to 2011, including a horizontal inter-ministerial coordination forum on adaptation (KoK 394 ). The forum had representatives of nine national ministries, the sectoral organisation for municipalities, and the Danish regions 395 . Its role was to ensure coordination of effort between authorities, and a common knowledge base and report on sectoral initiatives 396 . Parallel work groups were set-up to support the work of the coordination forum 397 along with a research coordination group, and group setting up the information portal.

With regards to the implementation phase, coordination is taking place in a more ad-hoc manner. For instance, in 2012 a Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation, set up to advise the coordination forum, evaluated climate vulnerabilities and potential impacts in Denmark. The report: ‘Mapping climate change – barriers and opportunities for action’ 398 addresses fourteen sectors: construction and housing, coasts and ports, transport, water, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, tourism, nature, health, emergency preparedness, insurance and spatial planning. This report is used in preparing sectoral priorities and serves as a decision-making tool across sectors.

Furthermore, at the beginning of 2017, a cross-ministerial committee (Ministry of Environment & Food, Ministry of Industry, Business & Financial Affairs, Ministry of Energy, Utilities, and Climate) was set up to propose and implement new initiatives to support municipalities and property owners in establishing cost-effective and holistically planned coastal flood protection and erosion protection. 399 The Government and municipalities have agreed that municipalities and property owners will take decisions and implement coastal adaptation measures with funding from the Government, 400 and in-line with the relevant risk assessment 401 and guidance documents. 402

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes / In progress / No

Vertical coordination of adaptation policy is in place at some levels and there is a specific focus on flooding.

Municipalities have the main planning competencies and are identified in the NAS as the level of implementation of adaptation policy. In line with the NAS, development of detailed action plans was mandated to municipalities in 2013 after the negotiation of the Financial Agreement for Municipalities 2013 between the Government and the sectoral organisation for municipalities. 403 The Government provided support through the establishment of a national task force with detailed and specific expertise in local adaptation issues, as well as a web-based mapping of risks for flooding, rain fall and storm surges in various time perspectives, modelled according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 scenarios 404 .

Furthermore, a team of subject specialists on adaptation, flooding, and erosion has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency and Coastal Authority 405 . Its purpose is to advise, guide, support, and help coordinate municipalities in implementing adaptation solutions as well as to gather information about their experience. The team offers training, workshops, seminars, and customised advice to municipalities throughout the country in order to help them implement their adaptation plans.

Previously in 2011, the Ministries of the Environment and Transport identified 10 flood prone areas according to the Danish Flood Risk Act, which relates to the Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Union on the assessment and management of flood risks. The 10 flood risk areas involved 22 municipalities, which had to prepare flood risk management plans in order to reduce the flood risk through mitigation and adaptation measures. Furthermore, the plans had to be coordinated with municipal climate adaptation plans and take into account flood-related climate impacts.

A cooperation forum also exists within which the Ministry of Transport, which works together with, amongst others, the municipalities in the Greater Copenhagen area to tackle the traffic-related challenges in the area, in particular flooding of major approach roads.

Regions have no formal responsibilities in the field of adaptation but have started tackling it through their regional climate and development plans. Two regions in particular, the Capital Region and Central Denmark, have specific coordination bodies for municipalities and other stakeholders (see Section A2 & B2). These bodies have had a clear impact on the degree to which municipalities in those regions cooperate formally with each other and with the region on adaptation projects. 406

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

In general, all major public policy initiatives in Denmark are open to public consultation and stakeholder involvement. The Danish Environmental Protection Act has a provision that authorises the Minister for the Environment and Food to stipulate regulations regarding public consultation in the preparation and amendment of plans and programmes within the scope of the Act.

Publication on a web portal 407 is mandatory for all draft laws, decisions, and bills by all ministries in the Government at the time of parliamentary hearings. Relevant stakeholders are contacted directly by email. Public comments are compiled by the relevant authority in a memorandum and amendments are considered in light of the comments. All relevant hearing materials are collated on the public web portal.

While the above processes provide a general overview of stakeholder involvement, only ad-hoc examples are available specifically on how stakeholders are involved in the preparation of adaptation policies.

For instance, the Ministry of the Environment established a ‘National Dialogue Forum’ on adaptation in 2012, which met several times to discuss climate adaptation policy and solutions, develop the sector as a growth area for new technology and jobs, and advise the minister. Seventeen members were selected from business, universities, NGOs, municipalities, and interest organisations 408 .

Following storm surges in December 2016 and January 2017, the Minister for the Environment and Food held several stakeholder meetings focusing on climate adaptation, coastal protection and erosion. Afterwards, new initiatives 409 were adopted as part of the work of a cross-ministerial committee set up at the beginning of 2017. These included, for instance, the establishment of a new flood and erosion task force to serve for a three-year period and guide municipalities in the establishment of holistically-planned solutions and the development of a central-government risk analysis tool, which will be based on previous events and guidance.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

International cooperation is highlighted as a priority action under the NAP. The Ministry of the Environment and Food collaborates with Germany and the Netherlands on climate adaptation of the Wadden Sea through the existing Trilateral Cooperation on the Protection of the Wadden Sea 410 . Under the guidance of this cooperation forum, the three Governments developed a common Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (CCAS) in 2014 411 . The objective of the trilateral cooperation in implementing the CCAS is to focus on activities with the highest trilateral relevance, particularly the exchange of knowledge and best practice between experts and policy makers, as well as the support of trilaterally coordinated studies and pilot projects covering sites across the entire Wadden Sea. The CCAS deals with coastal risk management, nature protection and spatial planning. A monitoring report on the CCAS was published in December 2017 412 .

Through the Nordic Council of Ministers, Denmark has contributed to collaboration and knowledge-building in Nordic research networks on climate adaptation 413 , through the top-level research initiative – Impact studies and adaptation to climate change (‘Effektstudier og tilpasning til klimaændringer’).

Denmark is also a member of the European Network of the Heads of Environment Protection Agencies (EPA) Interest Group Climate Change and Adaptation 414 .

Between 2010 and2013, Denmark participated in the Baltadapt project, with the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) as lead partner. Funded by the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013, it had a total budget of EUR 2.86 million, of which EUR 2.1 million was ERDF co-financed and EUR 0.75 million was partners’ contributions. The project developed a transnational Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Region and a subsequent Action Plan, presented in 2013 415 . The project was followed by The Baltic Sea Region Climate Dialogue Platform which aims to support a shared understanding of climate change challenges and promotes adaptation solutions through joint projects and actions in the Baltic Sea region.

The Danish Coastal Authority also participates in the EU funded project, Building with Nature 416 , with the goal of making coasts, estuaries and catchments of the North Sea Region more adaptable and resilient through a number of "living laboratories", and by creating a joint transnational monitoring programme, using state-of-the-art analysis methods and developing improved designs and business cases.

The City of Copenhagen has entered into a cooperation agreement with New York City on transferring the ideas and results from the Climate Resilient Neighbourhood in Østerbro to a district of New York. The city has another cooperation agreement with Beijing on exchange of experience of solutions for the management of everyday rain and torrential downpours 417 .

Finally, a number of Danish municipalities and stakeholders are participating in Interreg adaptation projects in the North Sea Region, 418 including in (FRAMES) 419 dealing with flood resilience, and TOPSOIL 420 dealing with soil and water resilience.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3. Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

There is an elaborate system in place for the observation of weather variables, including sea level and storm surges. Some of the data is publicly available, e.g. on the web portal 421 of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). The DMI is also known globally for regional climate modelling (RCM) and is the leading national authority on regional climate projections. DMI uses Global Climate Models to monitor interactions and feedback mechanisms between atmosphere, ocean, land surface and ice on a larger scale.

DMI keeps detailed records of all weather-related events in Denmark in line with international standards. There is no clear public information on what climate-related impacts are being tracked, though information seems to be supplied to EEA, so there must be a programme in place. The economic damage caused by the Copenhagen cloudburst of 2011 was estimated at approximately 5 to 6 million DKK.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

In 2014 the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) prepared a report on the expected climate change in Denmark, focusing on climate change towards the end of this century. The assessment of future climate change is based on the scenarios used by the IPCC 5th Assessment Report 422 . DMI presented the results based on the most recent IPCC, BACC, European studies and the Danish CRES project where a number of climate simulations were performed with several regional and global climate models.

The Danish EPA prepared an analysis and summary of the Working Group II Contribution to the 5th Assessment Report from IPCC, with special focus on implications for Denmark, for policy makers. 423

In 2012, the Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation prepared an analysis to map climate impacts in Denmark, as well as the opportunities and challenges they present. The report was based on the scenarios used by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report 424 . 

The DMI will prepare datasets and indicators (Climate Atlas) 425 based on IPCC's 5th Assessment Report. The datasets will be provided to the municipalities from the end of 2019 and will be further developed and updated up to 2021. Data will comprise projections and indicators of temperature, precipitation, extreme rainfall, sea level and storm surges.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes / In progress / No

The 2012 report by the centrally convened Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation called ‘Mapping climate change – barriers and opportunities for action’ conducted a sectoral and cross-sectoral analysis of climate risks/vulnerability 426 . It analysed 14 sectors: construction and housing, coasts and ports, transport, water, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, tourism, nature, health, emergency preparedness, insurance, and spatial planning. For each sector, it presented a basic analysis of important effects of climate change, relevant division of responsibilities between the authorities and private citizens, possibilities for adaptation, initiatives planned and in progress, and barriers and opportunities for future action. The report was based on the scenarios used by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report.

A detailed risk assessment regarding erosion and flooding was conducted for the entire Danish coastline by the MEF in 2016. 427 It will be used as a basis for planning the significant coastal adaptation initiatives being laid out in 2017/18. DMI estimates based on the IPCC 5th Assessment Report were used as a basis for the assessment.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

The available climate risks and vulnerability assessments indicated under Indicator 3c do not take transboundary risks into account.

Nevertheless, as indicated in Indicator 2b, Denmark is involved in a range of transboundary cooperation initiatives some of which by nature consider transboundary risks as part of the vulnerability assessments conducted. These initiatives primarily focus on the Baltic Sea.

4. Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

The Coordination Unit for Research in Climate Change Adaptation (in Danish: Koordineringsenhed for Forskning i klimatilpasning - KFT) was established under the NAS. KFT was mandated to strengthen the coordination of national research activities in the context of climate adaptation, to ensure that synergies across a broad range of different research areas were harvested. KFT was a joint endeavour of the National Environmental Research Institute at the Aarhus University, the Danish Meteorological Institute, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), the University of Copenhagen and Denmark's Technical University. KFT reported to the inter-ministerial ‘Coordination Forum on Adaptation’ and provided science-based knowledge to a national web portal on climate adaptation, at that time hosted by the Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy.

KFT aimed to collate and transfer knowledge within all Danish (and international) research areas that worked on the issue of climate adaptation, and helped coordinate information access at the science-policy interface. This activity built on strong cooperation across a wide range of scientific disciplines as well as regular interaction with both the policy-makers and other stakeholders. In addition, KFT fostered national and international networks; identified and described knowledge gaps as input for future strategic research programmes.

In 2013 the activities of KFT were transferred to a network of research activities on climate adaptation. The network meets on a yearly basis and keeps up network activities. The website is no longer active.

The Ministry of Environment and Food (MEF) has regular meetings with universities in order to highlight needs for further research on climate adaptation. Recent work is being done on adaptation knowledge regarding local level planning and coastal impacts.

The Environmental Technology Development and Demonstration Programme (MUDP) is run by the MEF. The Programme supports development, testing and demonstration of environmentally efficient technology, including applications to adaptation. Its total budget for environmental technology efforts in 2018 is about DKK 85 million. 428

5. Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means)

Yes / In progress / No

The Danish web-portal 429 for climate adaptation, established after the NAS in 2008, contains news, cases about climate adaptation and interactive tools. It is managed by the Ministry of Environment and Food and EPA in cooperation with a number of other governmental bodies. Different online tools are targeted at municipalities, enterprises and individuals. These tools can be used to assess risks from rising sea levels and to climate-proof buildings, among other things. Other available information includes: updated data and maps of temperatures, precipitation, sea and groundwater; articles and guidance about various sectors affected by climate changes; practical advice on climate adaptation; examples of calculations of how climate change may be included as a basis for important decisions; analysis and assessment tools for the public and decision-makers; information on financing adaptation projects; maps; an overview of municipal climate action plans; and information about the latest research and development into climate adaptation. An English version is available with an English newsletter.

DMI has a web page aimed at the general public with climate change related information, including information on adaptation and climate data. 430 A dedicated page for research is available. 431

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

At an earlier stage of implementation, the Danish Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan provided for capacity building at central, municipal, and citizen levels. A mobile team (2012-2013) was established as part of the Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation. This team offered guidance and facilitated collaboration between municipal authorities and other stakeholders in the field, for example, with regard to preparing the municipal climate adaptation plans.

A new mobile team of subject specialists on adaptation, flooding, and erosion has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency and Coastal Authority 432 . Its purpose is to advise, guide, support, and help coordinate municipalities in implementing adaptation solutions. The team is at the disposal of municipalities and offers training, workshops, seminars, and customised advice throughout the country at the request of municipalities.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6. Adaptation options' identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The Danish adaptation policy addressed a risk assessment of 14 sectors 433 . A detailed risk and adaptation analysis was made by the Coastal Authority focusing on the effects of a future changing climate on the Danish coasts 434 . These documents have been used to develop detailed plans in conjunction with local authorities.

The Mobile Team, established in 2017, helps to ensure coherence and use of best practices in all contexts. The Team consists of experts from the Danish Coastal Authority and the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Team provides information on legal issues as well as solutions that include synergies in terms of nitrogen reduction in combination with recreational benefits. The Team also encourages cooperation across municipalities and brings knowledge from other ministries.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

The studies and projections referred to in relation to Indicators 3b and 3c form the basis for prioritising adaptation options. Stakeholder consultations form a central part of the policy formulation process as outlined in Section 2a.

At local level, a new tool, PLASK, that calculates the socioeconomic benefits from climate adaptation, has been developed and can be found on the Government web portal 435 . The tool is now being tested in municipalities. The tool calculates the costs of damage in the project area. It is calculated for different land use types in the case of flooding. Historical values of insurance payments are combined with standard values. The tool also incorporates the long-term and short-term investment and maintenance costs of the different flooding prevention structures or solutions. Using this data, the tool executes a cost-benefit analysis to calculate the level of climate adaptation that is optimal to protect the area and discounts the values over the lifespan of the project to provide a net present value of the different solutions/projects. The tool helps users to compare climate adaptation projects better and faster. The distribution of benefits and effects, in addition to economic value, is also shown by the tool. The tool shows different options for achieving the same level of protection against flooding and what the effects are in terms of, for example, biodiversity, energy-efficiency and public health. A new version of the tool will be available in September 2018.

In line with Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks, 22 at risk municipalities had to prepare flood risk management plans in order to reduce the flood risk through mitigation and adaptation measures, with the assistance of mapping and data tools from the Government.

The Copenhagen Cloudburst Management Plan is also, for example, based on a rigorous analysis of flood risks and priorities, as well as socio-economic economic assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 436

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress /No

There is some evidence that climate impacts and projections are taken into consideration in disaster risk reduction planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) assists in ensuring knowledge about climate change and extreme weather events is considered in the risk-based design of local Fire and Rescue Service, as well as planning on a local level.

The Danish web portal 437 on adaptation includes information on the link to disaster risk management 438 . The web portal provides information regarding preparedness 439 .

The National Risk Profile for Denmark provides a common ground for further coordination of both risk management and climate adaptation considerations. The most recent version of the National Risk Profile was published in January 2017 and explicitly discusses the risks posed by climate change with regard to changing wind patterns, increased sea level, and more frequent extreme weather events among other risks 440

7. Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

The NAS outlined funding for the development of socio-economic modelling tools for adaptation in 2008. The NAP outlined a number of funding initiatives, among others: an agreement between the Government and municipalities to increase investment in the wastewater area by DKK 2.5 billion in 2013; DKK 2.7 million for eight projects in which local collaboration partners created solutions for climate adaptation; DKK 60 million set aside for the Environmental Technology Development and Demonstration programme (MUDP) for projects in 2012, where climate adaptation and water was one of five main themes; DKK 30 million set aside by the innovation fund for development and market preparation of new generic climate adaptation solutions for export; DKK 122.6 million for green technology in 2013, including adaptation.

Funding is available for financing cross-cutting adaptation action (e.g. national scenarios and climate services, capacity building, website). Information on the various sources (including domestic public finance, private finance, and EU-level funds and grants) is provided on the Government’s adaptation web portal 441 . Various funding sources are available to finance adaptation projects, including a number of private funding sources, such as: the MUDP, a subsidy for home owners to conduct renovations; Denmark’s Green Investment Fund to co-finance green solutions; the Market Maturation Fund to help develop and market green solutions; and the Innovation Fund that provides grants for the development of knowledge and technology, that leads to the strengthening of research and innovative solutions for the benefit of growth and employment.

In the 2018 budget, money is specifically set aside to support municipalities and property owners to develop coastal protection in connection with climate adaptation between 2018-21. 442 This follows an agreement on the management of coastal adaptation between the sectoral organisation for municipalities and a detailed sectoral analysis by the Coastal Protection Directorate. 443 Some additional funding for related support activities has also been made available following the work of the inter-ministerial committee established to study the issue. Total funding will be approximately DKK 68 million 444 .

The Danish Ministry for Environment and Food granted DKK 34.4 million in 2016 to 15 blue-green projects in which municipalities will take care of climate proofing, establish new recreational facilities and ensure better environmental conditions and less nitrogen in the aquatic environment. 445

Local adaptation projects dealing with watercourses in cities and by roads are most often financed directly by the water utilities and municipalities. Until March 2016, water utilities could cover 100% of the cost of jointly managed projects, but new rules set a maximum of 75% financing by the utility. A governmental assessment shows that this has somewhat slowed investment in these projects 446 .The Danish Coastal Authority participates in the EU Interreg co-financed project on adaptation in the North Sea, ‘Building with Nature’ 447 with funds from the ERDF. Furthermore, a number of Danish municipalities and stakeholders are participating Interreg adaptation projects, 448 including in (FRAMES) 449 dealing with flood resilience, and TOPSOIL 450 dealing with soil and water resilience.

Finally, several recent LIFE projects in Denmark have adaptation dimensions 451 , particularly the Inter-municipal cooperation on ‘Water Management and Climate Change Adaptation for The Stream of Usserød’ 452 and the Central Denmark Region leads the EU-funded project ‘Coast to Coast Climate Challenge’, which has a goal of formulating and implementing a coordinated adaptation strategy for the region between 2017 and 2022 453 .

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

Recent transposition of the revised Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive (Law number 448/2017) includes a provision that EIA should assess whether projects impact significantly on climate, and consider climate adaptation. It is unclear what consideration of adaptation is taken in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The Ministry of Environment and Food is currently developing a guidance document. 454  

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

According to Section 24 of the Danish Emergency Management Act, ministries and underlying authorities are to plan the retention and continuation of vital societal functions within their sector in the event of accidents and disasters. This obligation includes the timely development of preparedness plans 455 . The plans have to be revised to the extent made necessary by development, and at least once every four years. The municipal and regional councils adhere to the same planning obligation in accordance with Section 25 of the Danish Emergency Management Act. 

The Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) coordinates the overall national disaster risk management planning and is responsible for the inspection and counselling of state authorities, municipalities, and regions regarding their general disaster risk management planning and preparedness plans. Plans have to be inspected by the DEMA at least once every four years or once during each municipal and regional parliamentary term.

The DEMA’s counselling is based, among other things, on the ‘National Risk Profile’ 456 , which identifies hurricanes, strong storms, coastal flooding, and extreme rainfall as the climate-related risks that pose the greatest threat to Danish society and that need to be paid the closest attention by all authorities with disaster risk management responsibilities.

In addition to the ‘National Risk Profile’, the DEMA has produced other key guidance documents to support the agency’s advisory and regulatory functions. In the guide 'Comprehensive Preparedness Planning' 457 , it is recommended that authorities and organisations include all of their critical functions in their disaster risk management planning, and build general capabilities to protect their critical functions and values in the event of any type of accident or disaster, including those that are climate-related.

The guidance also recommends that authorities and organisations keep up-to-date with the current threats to Danish society, as described in the ‘National Risk Profile’. In addition, critical functions should be mapped, continual identification and monitoring of threats should be established, and risk and vulnerability analyses should be conducted regularly to create an overview of the threats that constitute the biggest risks to the organisation, as well as the vulnerabilities that the organisation experiences in relation to these threats. Risk and vulnerability analyses can hereby form the basis for implementing counter measures against the identified threats.

The ‘National Accident and Disaster Prevention Strategy’ 458 emphasises the growing risk of extreme weather phenomena and the ever more complex climate-related challenges facing Danish society. The Strategy also underlines the need to initiate preventive measures and develop resilience amongst the general population, as well as among authorities with disaster risk management responsibilities. The Strategy contains a number of examples of prevention projects, for instance, concerning municipal climate plans.

In Denmark, the primary focus is on building general disaster risk management capabilities and preparedness plans that can be used in connection with a wide range of incidents; this is reflected in the National Preparedness Plan. The DEMA has noted that several government authorities, municipalities and regions are inspired by the ‘National Risk Profile’ in their disaster risk management planning and have developed preparedness plans that specifically focus on climate-related accidents and disasters.

The DEMA is currently working on operationalizing the climate-related challenges in the ‘National Risk Profile’ through the development of climate-related scenarios that are meant to form a basis for climate-related disaster risk management planning and exercises. Another purpose of the climate-related scenarios is facilitating the DEMA’s supervision and counselling activities in relation to the size, scope and development of the municipal fire and rescue services. The overall purpose of the project and the operationalisation of the ‘National Risk Profile’ is to increase the resilience of the municipal fire and rescue services by strengthening cohesion and the utilisation of capabilities more optimally in dealing with complex climate-related accidents and disasters. This requires cooperation between the national and the municipal fire and rescue services.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

The Planning Act and associated guidance was amended in June 2012, so that municipalities could address climate adaptation directly in local development/land-use plans. The ability of wastewater companies to invest in climate adaptation was clarified by an amendment to the Water Sector Act in Spring 2012. This is important because water management companies are separate entities from the municipalities. Since most adaptation policies in Denmark are associated with water management, it was important to clarify the institutional responsibilities, capabilities and funding options of the water utilities and the municipal administrations with regard to adaptation 459 .

In response to the EU Floods Directive, Denmark implemented a flooding risk assessment. The 22 municipalities identified as being in the 10 areas at high risk of flooding were subsequently required to develop flood risk management plans to establish areas where new building should be avoided and plans for flood protection measures 460 . These flood risk management plans should be revised every six years.

Changes to the Planning Act were adopted in April 2018. With the changes in place, municipalities have to revise or develop local flood and erosion risk maps and adopt guidelines for flood response measures 461 . The Coastal Authority will provide a national map of these risks in coastal areas to help in the planning process 462 and the DMI has provided a Climate Atlas and future climate scenarios based on IPCCs 5th Assessment Report. 

Copenhagen, among other cities, has a detailed plan for the city’s future urban planning with adaptation at its core 463 . Approximately 300 specific projects addressing adaptation are proposed, and a ‘climate-resilient neighbourhood’ is being developed as a demonstration project with adaptation built into every aspect of its design 464 .

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

The primary implementation instruments have focused on coastal and flood protection at municipal level as outlined in relation to Indicator 8c. The sectoral organisation for municipalities negotiates a financial agreement with the Government every year. This agreement often outlines the specific details and requirements of climate adaptation policy for a given year. The most significant steps, such as the municipal plans, and changes to the planning laws were made in response to the NAP.

A wide number of laws now include consideration of adaptation, particularly: 465

·Water Sector Law

·Act on Watercourses

·Flood Protection Act

·Coastal Protection Act

·Nature Protection Act

·Environmental Goals Act

·Act on payment rules for wastewater supply companies

·Roads Act

·Emergency Management Act

·Planning Act

The Ministry of Transport is working with the municipalities, in line with their climate action plans, to improve the design of roads where necessary. 466 The Ministry undertakes regular risk analysis and includes adaptation in EIAs for all major infrastructure projects.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

There is clear awareness of the role to be played by insurance, which is mentioned in the NAS, and is well covered by the Danish adaptation portal. 467

Many insurance companies offer a discount if policyholders make investments in risk prevention. If the damage occurs, policyholders can apply for compensation from the Danish Storm Council 468 . The Danish Storm Council handles cases concerning three types of natural catastrophes: storm surge, flooding from waterways and lakes and windfall.

The trade organisation for insurance has collected a variety of data and information on climate damage, which is presented on their homepage on climate adaptation.

9. Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In progress / No

The NAP presented 64 initiatives: 62 are either planned or implemented; two have been cancelled. An overview of implementation has not been published.

All 98 municipalities have adopted adaptation plans as required. Practical implementation has begun but it is uneven. For example, at the time of evaluation in 2016, many municipalities did not have a detailed implementation plans or financial analysis of planned measures. Some have not addressed guidelines for new buildings in at risk areas. Practical cross-boundary cooperation is still not in place in many municipalities and coordination is often lacking. 469 Lack of financing and complex rules may hold back investments in some areas, as most investment in adaptation measures is still decided locally. 470 Implementation of adaptation measures is also still hindered by a lack of coordination and certainty at municipal level, 471 and varying levels of political engagement with the issue. 472 Nonetheless, a large number of projects have been implemented across the country, and the situation has improved significantly since the introduction of the NAP.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

Central to climate adaptation efforts is a strong interaction between state and municipalities. A new national Mobile Team with a focus on flooding and erosion has been established by the MEF to help share knowledge, best practices and enhance cooperation, primarily with municipalities. 473  

A formal municipal climate adaptation network exists to help share knowledge and solutions between municipalities. 474

‘Water in Urban Areas’ is an “innovation network” of knowledge institutions, government agencies, utilities and private companies. Its aim is to develop, document and present climate adaptation technologies and associated planning tools for transformation of existing urban areas in Denmark. 475 At the same time, Water in Urban Areas supports network members in developing their export potential to climate adaptation for the rest of Europe and the world. The network is funded by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology, and Innovation.

See Section A2 and B2, for details of regional cooperation. Nonetheless, several studies (see Indicator 9a) have pointed to the need for enhanced cooperation at local and regional level, as practical cooperation between municipalities is still not as widespread as it should be, given the stated aims of the NAP. One study for example found that 42% of municipalities were still not cooperating, or considering cooperation with other municipalities regarding their adaptation plans and challenges. 476

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

Procedures and guidelines to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes are mentioned in the NAS. Guidelines are continuously being developed by the Mobile Team to help municipalities to start the implementation of initiatives identified in the climate adaptation plans.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures

Yes / No

A number of networks exist to involve stakeholders (municipalities, regions, universities, companies, NGOs & other civil society organisations) in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures. These include: Water in Urban Areas (see Indicator 9b); the regional cooperation projects (see Sections A2 and B2); CLEAN, a cluster for green technology enterprises to share knowledge, work together and find “green” solutions including to adaptation challenges 477 ; the Danish Water Forum 478 ; Danish Industry’s Adaptation Network 479 ; Innovation Network for Environmental Technologies (Inno-MT) 480 ; and the now concluded partnership, ‘Water from the Country’ 481 .

One clear example of stakeholder engagement in the implementation of adaptation-related policy is in the creation of river basin management plans (RBMP). In 2014, the Government created 23 water councils, involving a number of stakeholders (agricultural, industrial organisations, NGOs, water companies, hunters and anglers’ associations) to advise local authorities on these plans. 482

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10. Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

No monitoring is ongoing with regard to the 62 of the 64 initiatives in the NAP that have been implemented (two were cancelled). The results of initial monitoring were disseminated to the participating ministries. Nevertheless, no overview of implementation has been published.

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

No systematic monitoring of results of sectoral policies is conducted or disseminated.

10c. Regional-, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

Subnational adaptation actions are monitored centrally rather than by the subnational administrations themselves.

In the period February to August 2016, a cross-ministerial working group carried out an evaluation of the municipal climate adaptation efforts. The evaluation (which was published in 2017) 483 of all 98 municipalities' climate adaptation plans showed that all municipalities had adopted adaptation plans but that the level of detail and themes covered were uneven.

The Danish adaptation web portal compiles a wide range of adaptation information at central and municipal levels 484 . Many municipal websites contain information about the local climate adaptation measures.

11. Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

Currently there is no systematic evaluation and review framework in place but there are ad hoc reviews based on findings of evaluations. The Government is expected to continuously take stock of the progress of the initiatives in the action plan and is expected to assess whether or not a review is needed.

A review of the NAP took place in 2013 and 2015 in an inter-ministerial process.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

There is no systematic involvement of stakeholders in the monitoring, evaluation and review of NAP actions.

SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress /No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In progress / No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

Estonia

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

B. Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at subnational level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1. Coordination structure    

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3. Current and projected climate change    

4. Knowledge gaps    

5. Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6. Adaptation options' identification    

7. Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9. Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10. Monitoring and reporting    

11. Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    



List of abbreviations

AECM    Association of Estonian Cities and Rural Municipalities

CoM    Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy

EEA    European Economic Area

EIA    Environmental Impact Assessment

EUAS    EU Adaptation Strategy

IPCC    Intergovernmental Climate Change Panel

NAS    National adaptation strategy

NAP    National adaptation plan

NUTS    Nomenclature of Territorial Units

MoE    The Estonian Ministry of Environment

MS    Member State

SEA    Strategic Environmental Assessment

UNFCCC    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change



POLICY FRAMEWORK

A1. National adaptation strategy

The national adaptation strategy (NAS) – “Development Plan for Climate Change Adaptation until 2030” 485   486 – was adopted by the Government on 2nd March 2017.

The NAS was developed under a project "Elaboration of Estonia's Draft National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan" agreed between the Ministry of Environment and the Estonian Environmental Research Centre, with support from the European Economic Area (EEA) Financial Mechanism. Contributions were received from the representatives of relevant ministries, local government, non-governmental organisations and research institutions.

The NAS presents a framework for action, which serves as a basis for reducing the vulnerability of Estonia to climate change 487 . The goal of the NAS is to increase readiness and the ability to adapt to climate impacts at national, regional and local levels. The overall target is that by 2030 at least 35% of people should acknowledge the risks of climate change and take appropriate measures. The NAS calls for eight sub-goals for the following priority areas, which align with the country’s economic and administrative structure:

1.Human health and rescue preparedness

2.Land use and spatial planning, including coastal areas, other flood-risk areas, landslide risk areas, land reclamation, and planning of cities

3.Natural environment, including biodiversity, terrestrial ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems and environment, marine ecosystems and environment, and ecosystem services

4.Bio-economy, including agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, tourism, and peat production

5.The economy, including insurance, banking, employment, businesses and industry

6.Societal awareness and cooperation, including education and science, and international relations and cooperation

7.Infrastructure and buildings, including transport and transport infrastructure, technical support systems, and buildings

8.Energy and energy supply systems, including energy independence, energy security, energy resources, energy efficiency, heat production and electricity generation. 

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

There is no information or evidence about adaptation strategies existing at relevant subnational levels. Climate adaptation is, however, considered in the county and local municipal level risk assessments and crisis management plans. In addition, the capital city, Tallinn, and the municipalities of the cities of Rakvere, Jõgeva, Tartu, Viimsi and Rõuge have established processes for developing strategies and action plans for climate adaptation, and are signatories to the Covenant of Mayors (CoM). Action plan development has only started in Tallinn (approximately 34% of the population) and the plan is expected to be adopted by the end of 2018, with implementation not expected to be completed before 2019. In other cities, the development of adaptation plans has not yet been actively started. 488

So far, the majority of climate adaptation activities at the subnational level have occurred through EU funded projects, such as ASTRA 489 , BaltCICA 490 , BalticClimate 491 and BaltAdapt 492 (see Indicator 9a below). Implementation is carried out through devolved government offices in the 15 counties, which are a subdivision of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units (NUTS) level III, and at the municipal level.

Traditionally, the regional level has not been very relevant in Estonia. Regions currently have no defined role in climate adaptation but local authorities (municipalities) may play an important role, particularly in implementation.

B. Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

The detailed national adaptation plan (NAP) to implement the NAS was developed in parallel by the EEA project mentioned above. The NAP was adopted by the Government in March 2017 493 . The NAP includes specific costed activities and measures in the eight sectors identified in the NAS. Costs are identified for four years, distributed by year and by responsible authority.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at subnational level

Some activities related to climate adaptation have taken place at the local level in several municipalities, but not as part of a systematic process. The capital city, Tallinn, and the municipalities of the cities of Rakvere, Jõgeva, Tartu, Viimsi and Rõuge have started the process of elaborating adaptation strategies and action plans. Some cities, such as Pärnu, Tartu, Tallinn that have been influenced by extreme weather conditions (e.g. a particularly strong storm in 2005), have been implementing adaptation measures. These include establishment of a flood warning system 494 for Pärnu City within the ASTRA project, which sought to develop a Baltic Adaptation Strategy. The aim of the flood warning system is to notify citizens about potential hazards and what actions to take in case of significant sea-level rise. Since 2008, a 24-hour weather monitoring system has been used in Tallinn to inform citizens of extreme weather conditions, especially those that could cause floods.

At the moment no subnational or regional adaptation strategy has been adopted, but Tallinn has started the process of elaborating an adaptation strategy and action plan. In county-regions, risk assessments and crisis management plans have to be in place and be up-dated regularly. Cities also participate in regional crisis committees. They have performed risk analyses, which include extreme weather events, such as storms, floods and heavy rain. Local action plans have been developed to minimise the risks (flood boundaries, flood construction level, etc.).

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

Some adaptation measures have been included in sectoral development plans, action plans and laws (e.g. “The Estonian Forestry Development Plan until 2020”, “The Nature Conservation Development Plan until 2020”, the Water Act, the Emergency Act and risk analyses for emergencies, “The Action Plan for Mitigation and Adaptation to the Impact of Climate Changes in the Agricultural Sector”, “The Public Health Development Plan for 2009–2020”, “The Estonian Rural Development Plan for 2014–2020”, “The National Security Concept of Estonia until 2020”).

The Estonian low-carbon strategy named ”General principles of Climate Policy until 2050“ 495 , which was approved by the Parliament on 5th April 2017, set sectoral guidelines for adapting to the effects of climate change. The strategy considers: energy, infrastructure and buildings, health, economy, bio-economy, society, awareness and cooperation, land use and planning, and natural environment sectors

The entry into force of the NAS was originally planned to take place at the end of 2016, with implementation of the adaptation measures listed in the NAP beginning in 2017. However, due to a slight delay in adoption of the NAS, implementation is expected to begin in 2018 instead. 496  

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1. Coordination structure

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

The Estonian Ministry of Environment (MoE) is the institution responsible for all climate mitigation and adaptation-related activities in Estonia, including developing national policies, implementing measures, transposing EU legislation and integrating climate policy objectives and concerns into sectors that are not the MoE’s responsibility.

Within the MoE, the Climate and Radiation Department is responsible for coordinating reporting activities under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), its Kyoto Protocol and EU legislation, as well as for the development and implementation of climate mitigation and adaptation policies.

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

A Steering Committee was formed for the development and general management of the NAS 497 . The Steering Committee was led by the Estonian Environmental Research Centre, and included representatives of concerned government authorities, associations and organizations, including: Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Rural Affairs, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Education and Science, Government Office, Rescue Authority, Estonian Association of Municipalities, Association of Estonian Cities, Estonian Science Agency, Estonian Academy of Sciences, and Estonian Fund for Nature.

All ministries are responsible for coordinating the implementation of activities that fall under their responsibility in the NAP. The MoE is responsible for annual reporting to the Government on the implementation of the NAP and for the coordination of adaptation-related ministerial communication.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes / In progress / No

The Estonian Association of Municipalities and the Association of Estonian Cities were part of the Steering Committee that led development of the NAS. Local governments have co-responsibility for implementation of relevant actions in the NAP, coordinated by the relevant ministries responsible.

The Association of Estonian Cities and Rural Municipalities (AECM) is the voluntary union established for representing the common interests and arranging co-operation of cities and rural municipalities. This association disseminates information about the CoM to the local municipalities.

2. Stakeholders' involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

In the process of developing the adaptation policy in Estonia, stakeholders from national governmental bodies as well as the scientific research communities were consulted. Some information was collected from regional-level governmental stakeholders.

The development of the NAS was promoted and followed up by a Steering Committee (see Indicator 1b). Several science and research institutions were included in the Steering Committee, including the Estonian Science Agency and the Estonian Academy of Sciences.

There was a 3-week period for public review of the NAS draft (in parallel with the public review of the strategic environmental assessment, SEA, report) with a public hearing at the end of the period. The draft NAS was published for public consultation through an online portal, and several public information seminars were held.

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

The need for transboundary cooperation is acknowledged in the NAS, especially regarding the fishing sector in the Baltic Sea and Lake Peipus context 498 . However, no specific measures have been implemented yet. Nevertheless, Estonia participates in various transboundary initiatives and programmes.

Under the EEA Financial Mechanism project "Elaboration of Estonia's Draft National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan", bilateral cooperation contracts were signed between the Estonian Environmental Research Centre and the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (donor country). The aim of the bilateral contract was to transfer Norwegian know-how on climate adaptation to Estonia and to provide consultation. The aforementioned research groups that developed adaptation research studies also had partners from EEA Financial Mechanism donor countries: Agricultural University of Iceland, Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, NIBR.

The Ministry of Environment participates in the Baltic Sea Region working group on climate adaptation 499 . Furthermore, Estonia takes active part in the implementation of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR, 2009) 500 and is a member of the Baltic Sea Region Climate Dialogue Platform 501 .

Several projects on climate adaptation in the Baltic Sea region have been implemented. Estonia has taken part in several transboundary projects, including Astra 502 , Baltadapt 503 , BaltCICA 504 , BalticClimate 505 , Baltclim 506 , RADOST 507 , iWater 508 .

Under the Joint Operational Programme of Estonia-Russia Cross-Border Cooperation 2014-2020 509 , a provision on transboundary cooperation concerning climate adaptation in the Baltic Sea and Lake Peipus is contained. The aims of the provision include preserving biodiversity on joint natural assets and fostering shared actions in risk management and a readiness to cope with environmental disasters.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3. Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

Climate observations of the Estonian Environment Agency weather service comprise systematic meteorological, atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial monitoring. Ensuring operative and continuous provision of meteorological and hydrological forecasts, warnings and monitoring of data for the public and for authorities is the strategic objective of the Estonian Environment Agency weather service.

Other institutions involved in climate observations include Tartu Observatory 510 , the Estonian Marine Institute of the University of Tartu 511 and the Marine Systems Institute of Tallinn University of Technology 512 .

The Estonian Environmental Agency Weather Service publishes data and climatological information on weather observations and scenarios, weather events and climate science. The Estonian Weather Service publishes the climate averages, weather warnings, weather events, anomalies and weather records data 513 . The Weather Service also alerts the public to the possible occurrence of severe weather, such as heavy rain with risk of flooding, severe thunderstorms, gale-force winds, heat waves, forest fires, fog, snow or extreme cold with blizzards, avalanches or severe coastal tides (this information is also published on the European extreme weather alert portal 514 and is based on country awareness reports).

The on-line Sea Level Information System run by the Marine Systems Institute at Tallinn University of Technology provides information about the sea level status, trends, projections and water temperatures in different coastal regions of Estonia.

The Estonian Rescue Board website 515 publishes practical emergency instructions, also for extreme weather conditions (like storms, thunderstorms, extremely cold weather conditions, and floods).

There is no evidence of monitoring of climate impacts on Estonian society.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

Alongside development of the NAS and NAP, the Estonian Environment Agency developed a report of short-term and long-term climate scenarios for Estonia and described past trends 516 . The Estonian-specific future climate scenarios provide an overview of the projections and assessments up to 2100. They use calculations of 28 global climatic models according to the Intergovernmental Climate Change Panel (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report, the Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, results of the Baltadapt project, and IPCC special report SREX (Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation), which are downscaled to the Baltic region. This report presents an overview of observed climate changes during the 19th and 20th centuries in Estonia, as well as assessments and projections of future climate until the year 2100. The report gathers existing scientific knowledge concerning the surface and atmospheric climate changes in Estonia and the Baltic Sea region. The report focuses on two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, which are recommended as a basis for development of the Estonian NAS and NAP:

·RCP4.5 – recommended as a main scenario; moderate, significant mitigation measures are expected from the countries

·RCP8.5 – recommended as an additional scenario; pessimistic, weak international cooperation and mainly carbon-based economy.

The future climate scenarios are used as a basis for developing the NAS and NAP for Estonia.

While the available climate projections and socio-economic scenarios were used in the development of the NAS, it cannot be verified if they were consistently used for assessing the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change.

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes / In progress / No

The NAS was prepared based on comprehensive studies and analyses, which were carried out by experts and scientists from different institutions. These studies and analyses determined the potential climate impacts on priority areas and the adaptation measures that need to be taken in the short term until 2030, as well as in relation to a long-term vision until 2100.

To date, there have been few risk analyses concerning climate vulnerability at national level in Estonia, however, the NAS/NAP is an independent policy document (development plan) with a comprehensive analysis of sectoral climate impacts, including a risk and vulnerability assessment.

The NAS was drawn up based on four in-depth scientific studies 517 , 518 , 519 , 520 , which identified the sectoral climate impacts and vulnerabilities and determined the measures for climate adaptation in a short-term perspective (up to 2030) and long-term perspective (up to 2050 and 2100). The analysed sectors in these scientific studies, and also in the NAS, were as follows:

1.Health and rescue capability

2.Land use and planning, including coastal areas, other areas with a risk of flooding, areas with a risk of landslides, land improvement, and towns

3.Natural environment, including biodiversity, land ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems and environment, marine ecosystems and environment, and ecosystem services

4.Bioeconomy, including agriculture, forestry, fishing industry, hunting, tourism, and peat production

5.Economy, including insurance, banking, employment, entrepreneurship and industry

6.Society, awareness and cooperation, including awareness, education and science, international relations and cooperation

7.Infrastructure and buildings, including transport and infrastructure of transport, technical support systems, and buildings

8.Energy and security of supply, including energy independence, security, resources, efficiency, and heat and electricity production.

A thorough overview of the expected effects of climate change in Estonia is also given in the document “Estonia’s Sixth National Communication Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”. 521  

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

Climate risk/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risk into account in some sectors, such as fishing, especially in the Baltic Sea and Lake Peipus context. However, it is not clear whether transboundary risks are taken into account by the risk and vulnerability assessments for other relevant sectors.

The NAS identifies international relations and development cooperation as essential areas to promote adaptation to the effects of climate change, but it is not clear whether transboundary risks are enshrined in the NAS.

Estonia has engaged in a number of transboundary initiatives relating to climate impacts, as described in Indicator 2b. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, within the framework of the Baltic Sea Region Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, which focuses on such sectors as food supply (including fishery and agriculture), coastal infrastructure and coastal tourism. 522

4. Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

The NAS and four in-depth scientific studies aimed to contribute to a more climate-resilient Estonia. This was the first time that Estonia developed a coherent approach to adaptation and assembled all the available knowledge about different climate impacts in the region. Previously, information on climate impacts in different sectors was fragmented and scattered between different authorities and institutes, but since NAS adoption, Estonia can plan and implement its climate adaptation policy comprehensively through one development plan.

The MoE has conducted the four in-depth sectorial adaptation studies. This sector-specific research also contains an approach for addressing the knowledge gaps and dealing with uncertainties.

The adaptation measures in the NAS and NAP aim to increase the awareness and resilience, as well as to implement the precautionary principle. An important principle of the NAS/NAP is to increase the awareness of the general public and to reduce the knowledge gaps and the uncertainty related to climate change.

5. Knowledge transfer

5a. Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means)

Yes / In progress / No

The national climate adaptation web portal is part of the MoE's website. This website (in Estonian) is regularly updated with new information regarding the NAS, with relevant adaptation procedures and NAS/NAP materials and guidelines. There is also adaptation information on the Estonian Environmental Research Centre homepage 523 . Additionally, all of the NAS baseline studies have their own websites, which contain more detailed information on sectoral climate adaptation 524   525   526   527 .

5b. Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

The capacity-building activities were implemented in the development of the NAS and NAP, as one of the priority sections is "society, awareness and co-operation".

The EEA Financial Mechanism project "Elaboration of Estonia's Draft National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan" organised several public awareness and knowledge transfer events, the most recent of which was in 2016 528 . The seminars aimed to raise awareness with regard to climate impacts in Estonia, and the importance of adaptation measures and ways to adapt. Some of the sectors addressed were health, rescue preparedness, spatial planning and land use, economy, natural environment, Buildings, infrastructure and energy supply systems.

The NAS Sub-objective 6 is to increase the awareness of the risks and opportunities presented by climate change. It elaborates on measures to achieve this sub-objective, such as disseminating updated adaptation knowledge to schools, education institutes and public bodies.

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6. Adaptation options' identification

6a. Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

The NAS/NAP is an independent policy document (development plan) including: identification and description of adaptation options, assessments of adaptation options and forecasting costs, and development of actions for the adaptation options.

The NAS identifies the domains that are most climate vulnerable and specifies the actions that improve Estonia's readiness and capability to cope with climate change. In each scientific baseline study, the scientists and experts mapped the current situation, i.e. described problems, opportunities, and threats in thematic areas/sectors, set the objectives and listed the most crucial measures for adaptation, as well as impacts of past weather events. Existing adaptation measures were also analysed. Risks, vulnerabilities and climate impacts on the topical areas and their sub-themes were assessed. Recommendations for future research were also given. The baseline studies created a set of scientifically-based suggestions for developing the national climate adaptation policies. The baseline studies also created a network of scientists and stakeholders who have the potential for knowledge co-generation in this field.

Before the elaboration of the NAS and its baseline studies, knowledge on climate change in Estonia concerned mainly water-related issues. The NAS and Estonian future climate scenarios 2100 provide more knowledge about sea-level rise, coastal erosion, floods and increased precipitation.

6b. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

The adaptation options and measures in NAS are based on the analysis of existing scientific literature, (national) policies and legislation and information from different databases, as well as expert knowledge also gathered in the expert groups for the baseline studies. The selection of priority adaptation options is based on multi-criteria analyses, stakeholder consultations, and the opinion of the inter-ministerial committee.

6c. Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress / No

Measure 1.2. of the NAP provides for an increase in rescue capacity. This measure will underline coordination between disaster risk management and climate adaptation, and its implementation will begin in 2019. The implementation of this measure would include improvement of risk management, risk communication, institutional capacity and the acquisition of equipment to address climate change-related emergencies. 529 Crisis management in Estonia is regulated by the Emergency Act, which entered into force in 2009. It provides the legal basis for crisis management, including ensuring the continuous operation of vital services, preparing for and resolving emergencies. Each ministry is responsible for implementation of the activities related to crisis management in their field of governance, coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior. Under the Emergency Act, emergency risk assessment and response plans must be prepared.

Estonia is planning work for further coordination between climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction. In the NAS, Objective 5.1 deals with "health and rescue capability," and has as a sub-goal to improve rescue capacity and the ability of people to protect their health and property, as well as reduce the negative effects of climate change on health and the quality of life. An identified measure is to improve risk management, for example, in relation to climate change. This entails, amongst others, early warning to the public, increasing hazard awareness, and cooperation between the civil and military institutions, as well as between public authorities and the private sector.

The Ministry of the Environment has initiated the formation of a working group and the main body responsible for conducting meetings is the Ministry of the Environment and the following members are appointed from the Commission: Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Rural Affairs, Ministry of Education and Research, State Chancellery, Rescue Board, Association of Estonian Rural Municipalities, Estonian Research Agency, Association of Estonian Non-profit Organizations and Foundations and Estonian Village Movement Kodukant. The task of the working group is to coordinate the implementation and changes of the NAP. The working group will monitor the implementation of the development plan and make recommendations, if necessary. In addition, it will resolve open issues related to the development plan and discuss the implementation plan of the development plan before it is submitted for approval to the Government 530 .

7. Funding resources identified and allocated

7a. Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

The cost estimation for the implementation of the NAS for the period 2017–2030 is EUR 43,745,000. The implementation of measures and activities takes into consideration the objectives and development plans from other fields, including the Estonian Rural Development Plan for 2014–2020, Operational Programme for the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund for 2014–2020, and Operational Programme for Cohesion Policy Funds 2014–2020. Many activities related to adaptation together with their budget are also reflected in the implementation plans of the development plans of many other fields, such as the Nature Conservation Development Plan Until 2020, Estonian Forestry Development Plan Until 2020, Internal Security Strategy 2015–2020, National Transport Development Plan 2014–2020, and Development Plan for the Energy Sector Until 2030. Awareness raising is one of the objectives of the NAS and, as such, cross-cutting adaptation actions also have funding allocations.

The NAP determines the implementation of the objectives set in the NAS through specific activities. The NAP also includes financial forecast on the cost of these measures, as well as information on who are the responsible authorities for the incurred costs. The total cost of the NAP activities is expected to be EUR 6,700,000, of which the state contribution is planned to be EUR 3,310,000 and the support from the environmental programme of the Environmental Investment Centre and foreign sources is planned as EUR 3,390,000. Financing of the activities from the state budget is ensured within the cost limits of the implementing agencies.

The Estonian NAS and NAP has been developed in the framework of the EEA Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 program’s “Integrated Marine and Inland Water Management” project “Elaboration of Estonia’s Draft National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan” with a total budget of EUR 1.3 million (10% nationally co-financed) 531 .

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a. Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

Consideration of climate adaptation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and SEA is addressed by the Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management System Act 532 .

8b. Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

The Estonian Rescue Board has prepared risk analyses for emergency events that may occur as a result of extreme climate events and circumstances: “Floods on Densely Populated Areas”, “Extremely Cold Weather”, “Extremely Hot Weather” and “Extensive Forest or Landscape Fires”. An “Epidemic Emergency Risk Assessment” has been prepared under the guidance of the Health Board. It is, however, unclear how future climate projections are factored into disaster risk management plans.

The “Internal Security Strategy 2015–2020“ notes the increased risk of extreme weather conditions caused by climate change. The Water Act 533 establishes the obligation to prepare maps of flood risk areas, give an assessment of flood risks and prepare risk management plans for flood risks. Early warning systems are operating, and risk-prone communities receive timely, understandable warnings of impending hazard events. Some websites provide information to stakeholders:

·The Estonian Rescue Board website is used by government agencies and authorities to publish notices about their response to emergencies and provide guidance on how to cope with various emergencies, including extreme weather conditions

·The real-time sea-level information system 534  provides information for various parts of Estonia.

8c. Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No 

The NAS includes "spatial planning and land use" as a priority area with sub-sectors including:

·Coastal areas

·Other areas with risk of flooding or soil instability

·Landscape planning, irrigation and drainage

·Planning of cities

The NAS does not include specific mainstreaming measures with regard to spatial planning and land use, rather it identifies the need for further research and development of guidance materials, including climate-proofing design criteria to be used by policy makers, land owners, and planners and developers. Nevertheless, climate adaptation is mainstreamed through Article 11 of the Planning Act 535 . It states that planners should consider relevant information that has an influence on spatial development, including emergency risk analyses (e.g. in relation to flood risks in densely populated areas). No measures relating to maritime planning have been included in the NAS.

8d. National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

The NAS outlines eight sectors where measures should be implemented, and adaptation should be considered in policy development. However, no specific policy instruments have taken adaptation into account as a result of the NAS at this stage.

The list of strategic documents below includes indirect adaptation measures, mostly related to disaster risk reduction (based on the Emergency Act and the Water Act). The Estonian Environmental Strategy Until 2030 also focuses on the health of people and the development of knowledge. The Nature Conservation Development Plan Until 2020 and the MoE’s development plan for 2017–2020 address awareness, as well as the development of environmental education and climate research.

As regards Estonian legislation, climate adaptation is addressed primarily in the Emergency Act, which is the basis for the Rescue Board having prepared risk analyses for emergency events, including extreme weather. The effects of climate change are also addressed by the Water Act, which establishes an obligation to assess flood risks and prepare risk management plans and maps of flood risk areas.

Climate adaptation is included, to varying degrees, in the following national development plans, vision documents and strategies:

·Estonian low-carbon strategy “General Principles of Climate Policy until 2050”

·Estonian Forestry Development Plan until 2020 and its action plan

·Strategy for Estonian Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid 2016–2020

·Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020

·Estonian National Strategy on Sustainable Development "Sustainable Estonia 21

·Estonian National Development Plan for the Energy Sector Until 2020 and Development Plan for the Energy Sector 2030+

·Estonian Environmental Strategy Until 2030

·Estonian Rural Development Plan for 2014–2020

·Action plan 2012–2020 for mitigation of and adaptation to climate change for agricultural sector 2012–2020

·Programme of Measures of the Estonian Marine Strategy

·National Renewable Energy Action Plan Until 2020

·Estonian Research and Development and Innovation Strategy “Knowledge Based Estonia 2014–2020

·Development plan for the Ministry of the Environment for 2017–2020

·Nature Conservation Development Plan Until 2020

·Internal Security Strategy 2015–2020

·Estonian Regional Development Strategy 2014–2020

·Action programme of the Government of the Republic 2015–2019

·Estonian National Health plan 2009-2020

·Aquaculture Sector Development Strategy for 2014–2020

·National plan 'Estonia 2030+'

·Water Act and River Basin Management plans 2015-2021

·Emergency Act and national risk analysis.

The agricultural sector has been relatively active in raising awareness of climate impacts. In accordance with the Ministry of Agriculture’s Directive 24 (2011), a working group was established to draw up an action plan for climate mitigation and adaptation in agriculture, including by mapping and analysing the possibilities of revising existing measures, and making proposals for their improvement.

Under the steer of the Ministry of Finance and the Government Office, a guidance document for drafting development plans entitled ‘Mandatory topics of all area-based development plans’ is being updated to include climate adaptation.

8e. Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

In the NAS, one of the priority sectors is economy, which also includes insurance. Although the insurance sector has evolved into one of the most important economic sectors relevant to adaptation, the volume of the Estonian insurance market is small, and the population is rather poor, which is why the compulsory and semi-compulsory types of insurance are prevalent in the country (e.g. motor third party liability insurance, home insurance). So far, the Estonian insurers have not dealt with spreading the climate risk.

9. Implementing adaptation

9a. Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress / No

The implementation of Estonia’s adaptation policies has begun. For instance, in the spring of 2018, the MoE submitted an application for financial implementation of the EEA 2014-2021 programme for financing some parts of the implementation plan for 2018. In addition, MoE are also reviewing and updating nationally other sectoral development plans and their implementation plans for adaptation. 536

Some autonomous adaptation actions are being undertaken and measures have been developed in the areas of agriculture, forestry, floods and human health, but their efficiency and sustainability has not yet been analysed. 537

Some activities related to climate adaptation have taken place in several municipalities or at county level, but not as part of a systematic process. Some major cities, such as Pärnu, Tartu, and Tallinn that have been influenced by extreme weather conditions (a particularly strong storm in 2005) have been most active in implementing adaptation measures. These measures include the flood warning system that was established in Pärnu City within the Astra project. The aim of the system is to notify the citizens about potential hazards and what actions to take in case of significant sea-level rise. Since 2008, there has been a 24-hour weather monitoring system used in Tallinn to inform citizens of extreme weather conditions, especially those that could cause floods.

9b. Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

The MoE has initiated the development of a working group to implement the NAS and the NAP, which is expected to foster and support adaptation at the subnational level. The working group of the NAS will be formed by representatives from the following different institutions: the MoE, the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, the Ministry of Rural Affairs, the Ministry of Education and Research, the Republic of Estonia Government Office, the Rescue Board, the Association of Municipalities of Estonia, the Association of Estonian Cities, the Estonian Research Council, the Network of Estonian Non-profit Organisations, and Kodukant (the Estonian Village Movement). It is expected that the first meeting of the working group will take place in June 2018 538 .

9c. Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

In addition to the various guidelines issued by the European Commission, the MoE is planning to issue guidelines for assessing climate impacts on spatial planning, including recommendations for climate-proofing implementation of design criteria.

9d. There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures

Yes / No

The involvement of stakeholders in implementation of adaptation policies and measures is expected through the working group described in Indicator 9b.

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10. Monitoring and reporting

10a. NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

Annual reporting of NAS and NAP implementation was planned to begin on 1st March 2018. However, as the NAS entered into force in March 2017 rather than in November 2016 (the expected date), reporting has been postponed by a year and will begin on March 1, 2019 instead. 539  

The MoE will organise annual reporting on the NAS and will coordinate the exchange of adaptation-related information between the ministries. The working group of the NAS, with the chair of the MoE, will discuss the NAP once a year before presenting it to the Government for approval, monitor the implementation of the NAS, give recommendations for changing the NAS and, if necessary, solve open issues related to the NAS.

As of 2019, the MoE is expected to report annually to the Government an overview about the execution of the development plan and the achievement of its objectives by 1 March, also making proposals about amending or changing the development plan, if necessary.

10b. The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

As of May 2018, no sectoral reporting has taken place. The sectoral mainstreaming is expected to be monitored and reported annually with the centralised single NAS/NAP report (see Indicator 10a), which is organised by the MoE and presented to the Government for approval. The first report is expected to be published by March 2019.

10c. Regional, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

There is no formal regional/local level-specific reporting commitment, but the feedback from the subnational to national level will be collected via the working group of the NAS, in which members from the Association of Municipalities of Estonia, the Association of Estonian Cities and Kodukant (the Estonian Village Movement) are involved. This information will also be published in the annual NAS/NAP report from March 2019.

11. Evaluation

11a. A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

As explained in 10a, from 2019 the NAS and NAP will be reviewed annually following the presentation of a report on execution and implementation presented by the MoE to the Government.

11b. Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

It is planned that the stakeholders in the NAS working group (see Indicator 9b) will be involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy. Nevertheless, as indicated in Indicators 10a and 11a, monitoring and evaluation has not started yet.

SUMMARY TABLE

Adaptation Preparedness Scoreboard

No.

Indicator

Met?

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1    Coordination structure

1a

A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

1b

Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

1c

Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making.

Yes / In progress / No

2    Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a

A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

2b

Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3    Current and projected climate change

3a

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

3b

Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

3c

Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making.

Yes / In progress / No

3d

Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

4    Knowledge gaps

4a

Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

5    Knowledge transfer

5a

Adaptation relevant data and information is available to all stakeholders, including policy makers (e.g. through a dedicated website or other comparable means).

Yes / In progress / No

5b

Capacity building activities take place; education and training materials on climate change adaptation concepts and practices are available and disseminated

Yes / In progress / No

Step C: Identifying adaptation options

6    Identification of adaptation options

6a

Adaptation options address the sectoral risks identified in 3c, the geographical specificities identified in 3b and follow best practices in similar contexts

Yes / No

6b

The selection of priority adaptation options is based on robust methods (e.g. multi-criteria analyses, stakeholders' consultation, etc.) and consistent with existing decision-making frameworks

Yes / No

6c

Mechanisms are in place to coordinate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation and to ensure coherence between the two policies

Yes / In progress / No

7    Funding resources identified and allocated

7a

Funding is available to increase climate resilience in vulnerable sectors and for cross-cutting adaptation action

Yes / In progress /No

Step D: Implementing adaptation action

8    Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes

8a

Consideration of climate change adaptation has been included in the national frameworks for environmental impact assessments

Yes / No

8b

Prevention/preparedness strategies in place under national disaster risk management plans take into account climate change impacts and projections

Yes / No

8c

Key land use, spatial planning, urban planning and maritime spatial planning policies take into account the impacts of climate change

Yes / No

8d

National policy instruments promote adaptation at sectoral level, in line with national priorities and in areas where adaptation is mainstreamed in EU policies

Yes / In progress / No

8e

Adaptation is mainstreamed in insurance or alternative policy instruments, where relevant, to provide incentives for investments in risk prevention

Yes / No

9    Implementing adaptation

9a

Adaptation policies and measures are implemented, e.g. as defined in action plans or sectoral policy documents

Yes / In Progress 

/ No

9b

Cooperation mechanisms in place to foster and support adaptation at relevant scales (e.g. local, subnational)

Yes / No

9c

Procedures or guidelines are available to assess the potential impact of climate change on major projects or programmes, and facilitate the choice of alternative options, e.g. green infrastructure

Yes / No

9d

There are processes for stakeholders' involvement in the implementation of adaptation policies and measures.

Yes / No

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities

10    Monitoring and reporting

10a

NAS/NAP implementation is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10b

The integration of climate change adaptation in sectoral policies is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

10c

Regional-, subnational or local action is monitored and the results of the monitoring are disseminated

Yes / No

11    Evaluation

11a

A periodic review of the national adaptation strategy and action plans is planned

Yes / No

11b

Stakeholders are involved in the assessment, evaluation and review of national adaptation policy

Yes / No

Adaptation preparedness scoreboard for

Finland

Table of contents

List of abbreviations    

POLICY FRAMEWORK    

Adaptation strategies    

A1. National adaptation strategy    

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels    

Adaptation action plans    

B1. National adaptation plan    

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level    

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans    

SCOREBOARD    

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation    

1. Coordination structure    

2. Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development    

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change    

3. Current and projected climate change    

4. Knowledge gaps    

5. Knowledge transfer    

Step C: Identifying adaptation options    

6. Adaptation options’ identification    

7. Funding resources identified and allocated    

Step D: Implementing adaptation action    

8. Mainstreaming adaptation in planning processes    

9. Implementing adaptation    

Step E: Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation activities    

10. Monitoring and reporting    

11. Evaluation    

SUMMARY TABLE    



List of abbreviations

AMAP

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

CBSS

Council of the Baltic Sea States

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

ELASTINEN

Proactive management of weather and climate related risks project

EU

European Union

FinLTSER

Finnish Long-Term Socio-Ecological network

FICCA

Finnish Research Programme of Climate Change

FMI

Finnish Meteorological Institute

GCM

General Circulation Model

ISTO

Climate Change Adaptation Research Programme 

LUKE

Natural Resources Institute Finland

NAP

National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022

NAS

National Adaptation Strategy

NESA

Finnish National Emergency Supply Agency

RCM

Regional Climate Model

SEA

Strategic Environmental Assessment

SYKE

Finnish Environment Institute



POLICY FRAMEWORK

Adaptation strategies

A1. National adaptation strategy

In Finland, a national adaptation strategy (NAS) was adopted in 2005 540 , as an independent element of the wider National Energy and Climate Strategy 541 . The evaluation process resulted in a government resolution and publication of a new national climate adaptation framework in November 2014, known as the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022 542 (NAP). This NAP replaced the 2005 NAS. Finland's Climate Act 543 (approved on 6 March 2015) stipulates that the Government approves long-term and medium-term strategic mitigation plans and that it will approve a national plan on adaptation at least every ten years.

The NAP focuses on the horizontal aim that the Finnish society should have the capacity to manage the risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate. Based on this aim, the following objectives are set for the period to 2022:

·Adaptation should have been integrated into the planning and activities of both the various sectors and their actors

·The actors should have access to the necessary climate change assessment and management methods; and

·Research and development work, communication, and education and training should have enhanced the adaptive capacity of society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate adaptation.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was responsible for the preparation of the NAP (the updated NAS), with the practical work steered by a broadly-based coordination group appointed by the Ministry.

A2. Adaptation strategies adopted at subnational levels

Already 125 municipalities (approximately 40% of all municipalities) have a climate strategy 544 and 60% of those reported that both climate mitigation and adaptation are part of their climate measures. By the end of 2012, 16 out of 18 regions had published a climate strategy that includes some recognition of adaptation 545 .

The Helsinki Metropolitan Area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen) has a dedicated adaptation strategy for the period 2012-2020 546 , which includes measures for land use, traffic and technical networks, buildings and construction, water and waste management, rescue services and safety, health care and social services and research and information. Some other bigger cities have also focused on climate adaptation and vulnerability to extreme weather events (Pori, Turku) or by planning green infrastructure (Lahti, Jyväskylä). Other Finnish municipalities have climate change strategies which mostly focus on mitigation. Three Finnish cities are signatories to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy in relation to adaptation 547 .

Adaptation action plans

B1. National adaptation plan

The NAP aims to identify the most important tasks to promote adaptation nationally and in each sector in the next few years, and to ensure that Finnish society has the capacity to manage the risks relating to climate change and adapt to the changes.

B2. Adaptation plans adopted at sub-national level

The NAP calls for municipalities to integrate climate proofing reviews into emergency preparedness and security of supplies planning. The Plan tasks the joint regional offices (ELY-keskus) of the Ministry of Employment and Economy, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to develop climate resilience guidance for municipalities.

In 2017, most of the municipalities implemented systematic climate actions and, although predominantly focused on climate mitigation, climate adaptation was also promoted. By the end of 2015, regional flood risk management plans were published for every significant flood risk areas (21 areas) and implementation of identified measures is ongoing. In addition, several bigger cities and municipalities are active in adaptation, e.g. the city of Helsinki (in vulnerability assessment) and the city of Vantaa (nature-based solutions in runoff water management).

B3. Sectoral adaptation plans

The NAP aims to incorporate adaptation into regular planning and activities of all sectors and actors. Adaptation is included in the Climate Act (approved on 6 March 2015). According to this Act, the State authorities must, as far as possible, promote the implementation of the NAP in their actions.

The Action Plan for the Adaptation to Climate Change of the Environmental Administration (2016) 548  covers the period up to 2022. It replaces the Ministry of the Environment's Action Plan in 2008, which was later supplemented by an update in 2011, following an assessment undertaken in 2013 (Assessment of the Environmental Administration's Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change). The action plan sets measures concerning biodiversity, land use, buildings and construction, environmental protection and the use and management of water resources. The plan also sets targets for research activities and communications.

The action plan for the Adaptation to Climate Change of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2011 to 2015 will be revised in 2017 to 2018, building on a comprehensive study 549 of vulnerability and adaptation in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, game and reindeer husbandry sectors that was completed in 2017 by Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke).

The Climate Programme for Finnish Agriculture – Steps towards Climate Friendly Food (2014) 550 presents climate adaptation and mitigation measures relating to the food system. The objectives of the National Forest Strategy 2025 551 (replacing the National Forest Programme) include “increasingly diverse sustainable forest management supports climate mitigation and adaptation'.

The Climate Policy Programme for the Ministry of Transport and Communications’ administrative sector for 2009–2020 aims to adapt to climate change without lowering the current service level in transport and communications. To attain this goal, the Ministry’s together with the Transport Agency will update its instructions about transport infrastructure construction, maintenance and management, outline an action plan for exceptional circumstances and invest in research.

In addition, there is the Energy and Climate Programme of the Finnish Defence Forces (2014), updated in 2018.

SCOREBOARD

Step A: Preparing the ground for adaptation

1.Coordination structure 

1a. A central administration body officially in charge of adaptation policy making

Yes / No

In Finland, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is responsible for adaptation policy-making and coordination at the central government level. This includes, for instance, appointing and chairing the monitoring group for climate adaptation.

1b. Horizontal (i.e. sectoral) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, with division of responsibilities

Yes / In progress / No

The NAP was prepared by a coordination group appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, with representatives from the Prime Minister’s Office and the relevant ministries (Ministry of Environment, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Economy and Employment, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health), research institutes (Finnish Meteorological Institute; Finnish Environment Institute and the Natural Resources Institute) and regional actors (ELY, Municipalities). 552 In 2017, the group was updated with new expert organisations in fire and rescue services, and financial services. In addition, experts from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defence and from other organisations participate in the meetings, if needed.

The various ministries are responsible for the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the plan within their respective administrative branches. A national monitoring group is appointed to follow and evaluate the implementation of the adaptation plan, with representatives from the relevant ministries, research institutions, regional and local bodies and other actors. The group is responsible for the implementation, follow-up and communication relating to the adaptation plan.

1c. Vertical (i.e. across levels of administration) coordination mechanisms exist within the governance system, enabling lower levels of administration to influence policy making

Yes / In progress / No

The vertical coordination mechanisms within the governance system are in place and regional actors participated in the drafting of the NAP 553 (see Indicator 1b). Representatives of municipalities (the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities) and the Helsinki Metropolitan Region are also included in the coordination group. In addition, a significant share of the practical adaptation measures is taking place in the regions or at local level. The NAP also includes a key measure of promoting local and regional adaptation studies. 

In Finland, the Covenant of Mayors initiative does not have dedicated coordination at national or regional level. However, the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (Kuntaliitto) is an advocate for all Finnish municipalities and regions. In addition, the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities and Ecofellows Ltd./City of Tampere are supporting partners in the Covenant of Mayors. In 2017, 12 Finnish municipalities were part of the Covenant of Mayors but only three had signed up to the adaptation commitment, available since 2015.

2. Stakeholders’ involvement in policy development

2a. A dedicated process is in place to facilitate stakeholders' involvement in the preparation of adaptation policies

Yes / No

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was responsible for the preparation of the NAP, with the practical work steered by a broadly-based coordination group appointed by the Ministry.

The preparation of the NAP involved a wide range of stakeholder consultations, including 554 :

·A “stock taking” questionnaire in Spring 2013, sent to a wide group of stakeholders on climate impacts and risks, recognised sectoral or regional vulnerabilities and views about the strategic goals and other relevant aspects to be taken into consideration in the revision process

·An open “mid-process” seminar (29 October 2013) on the draft strategic goals

·The draft NAP (7 March 2014) was sent for comments; 63 organisations representing administration (national, regional), research institutes and universities, NGOs and interest groups sent comments. At least 57 organisations commented on the draft NAP

·Presentation and discussions on the draft NAP in different fora

·An open seminar (“public hearing”) 10 April 2014 of the NAP.

·The draft NAP was in the “Have your say” –eParticipation forum for public (April-May 2014).

2b. Transboundary cooperation is planned to address common challenges with relevant countries

Yes / No

Transnational cooperation is one of the actions of the NAP. The action focuses on the development of the Finnish, Norwegian and Russian nature conservation cooperation in the Fennoscandia Green Belt, and on threats to the ecosystem services from climate change. There is also an intention to step up cooperation with Russia on climate adaptation, especially focusing on transboundary water use and management, and on invasive species. An Action Programme of the Joint Finnish-Russian Commission on the Utilisation of Frontier Waters on Risk Management in Case of Adverse Hydrological Conditions in the Vuoksi River Basin District was accepted in Commission’s meeting on 20 October 2017. Climate change was one of the key drivers for the establishment of this action programme. Invasion of Finnish inland waters by an alien moss animal was discussed in a Commission’s working group meeting in April 2018.

Adaptation is also part of transnational cooperation (e.g. Arctic Council 555 , Barents Euro-Arctic Council 556 , cooperation in the Baltic Sea region 557 ). Finland has supported the development of the Arctic Resilience Action Framework 558 during 2015-2017 with the Arctic Council and the implementation of this framework has started during Finland’s chair period 2017-2019. The first Arctic Resilience Forum will take place in Rovaniemi, Finland in September 2018. 559  

Finland has also participated in the cooperation with the Baltic2030 expert group of Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) 560 related to sustainable development, climate adaptation and resilience. The transboundary river agreements between Finland and its neighbouring countries include prevention of flood damages.

Step B: Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change

3. Current and projected climate change

3a. Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts

Yes / In progress / No

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme weather events and their impacts and are conducted by:

·The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI): Weather observations. FMI established a Climate Service Centre unit in 2014 561 . The Centre offers operational climate services and studies weather and climate, and their socio-economic aspects. FMI also monitors extreme weather events and their impacts.

·The Flood Centre of the Finnish Environment Institute and Finnish Meteorological Institute 562 was established on 1 January 2014 and is responsible for flood forecasts and warnings and maintaining a national situation awareness on floods.

·Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) 563 : Monitoring for physical, chemical and biological state of inland waters and marine waters.

·Finnish Museum of Natural History 564 , Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) 565 , state enterprise Metsähallitus 566 , and SYKE: Collecting information on the changes taking place in ecosystems and habitats, species and species communities, and genes and genotype.

FMI produces a monthly climate monitoring bulletin and web material with information on extreme weather events. FMI is also collecting information on impacts of weather events, especially high-impact events, which cause negative impacts on health, property or critical functions of the society. Information is based on data gathered by authorities, research institutes and/or private sector. Information on impacts of weather are produced sector-wise, e.g. rescue operations, electricity distribution network failures, railway passage delays and cancellations. This data is located within operators but FMI has been developing its own weather impacts data base.

Information on floods and their impacts is mainly collected by SYKE. SYKE acts as a coordinating body for the Finnish Long-Term Socio-Ecological network (FinLTSER). The Network brings together the Finnish research sites and scientists that conduct research on long-term socio-ecological processes and issues. FinLTSER currently consists of nine research platforms, representing the main ecosystems (marine, terrestrial, lake, sub-arctic, urban) in Finland, which provide a national infrastructure for long-term site-based ecosystem and biodiversity research in Finland, including climate impacts.

The Forest Centre collects data on damage to forests including weather related damages. The forest damage advisory service at Luke is responsible for monitoring forest pests and diseases and their damage, some of which may be related or initiated by weather events, especially storms.

THL is a Finnish expert agency that provides reliable information on health and welfare for decision-making and activities in the field. THL monitors the incidence of infectious diseases through use of several surveillance systems. THL is also collecting information on impacts of weather events and climate change on drinking water security and human health, heatwave-associated health impacts and other climate-related health effects.

3b. Scenarios and projections are used to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change, taking into account geographical specificities and best available science (e.g. in response to revised IPCC assessments)

Yes / In progress / No

Climate projections based on the most recent (RCP-based/AR5) GCM and RCM simulations have been analysed for Finland and are explained in Ruosteenoja et al. (2016) 567 . Various datasets have been developed to fulfil the needs of different user groups, such as impact and vulnerability studies. Some of the climate scenarios have been developed on a 10x10 km grid. Ensemble-based climate scenario analysis has been common in most studies in Finland. Work is currently being undertaken to develop national SSP-based socioeconomic scenarios, e.g. in the Academy of Finland funded project PLUMES 568 .

Various climate impact and vulnerability studies are using these projections. Some of these results (e.g. from hydrological models) are also being portrayed in the national climate change portal, Climate Guide 569 .

3c. Sound climate risks/vulnerability assessments for priority vulnerable sectors are undertaken to support adaptation decision making

Yes / In progress / No

A general assessment of vulnerability across sectors was the basis for the NAS in 2005. For the publication of the NAP, a comprehensive study of the impacts of climate change and vulnerability of sectors was conducted in 2013 570 . After the publication of the NAP, more detailed and systematic vulnerability assessments 571 have been done in specific sectors or specific environments and include water, indirect economic effects owing to floods, forestry, biodiversity, agriculture, transport, health, and for the Arctic Region. Most of these were coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; sector ministries are responsible for their administrative branches.

There are various studies on climate impacts and vulnerability assessments in different sectors. For example, the Academy of Finland funded the Finnish Research Programme of Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) 572 . This programme produced several research projects, which covered flooding, urban water management, energy, forest, biodiversity, marine ecosystem and spatial planning, agriculture, transport, health, the Arctic region and urban planning. 

The vulnerability of natural resources sectors (agriculture, forestry, game and fisheries and reindeer management) was thoroughly analysed as a part of the State of adaptation assessment project (Sopeutumisen tila 2017 by Luke).

In central level active management of weather-related and climate-related risks, project ELASTINEN (2015–2016) 573 provided information and sought solutions for strengthening the capabilities of different sectors to assess and manage risks related to weather, climate, and the economy. The assessment and development project SIETO 574 (2017–2018) funded by the Government's analysis, assessment and research activities has prepared a national weather and climate risk assessment as well as a plan on how to develop the production and collection of information and data for future vulnerability and risk assessments.

3d. Climate risks/vulnerability assessments take transboundary risks into account, when relevant

Yes / In progress / No

Vulnerability assessments have been conducted as parts of regional cooperation, i.e. for the Barents Region, the Arctic or the Baltic Sea (BACC II) 575 . Finland is a participant in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), which is an intergovernmental monitoring and research programme under the Arctic Council. The main goal of AMAP is to provide reliable and sufficient information on the status of, and threats to, the Arctic Environment. Assessing climate impacts on the Arctic environment is one of the priority areas. 576 Transboundary risks and transnational cooperation are also considered in the NAP.

Vulnerability studies consider transboundary effects where relevant, for example, trade flows in a project conducting a study on adaptation of the food sector and socio-economic impacts of climate change in North-East Europe 577 .

4. Knowledge gaps

4a. Work is being carried out to identify, prioritise and address the knowledge gaps

Yes / In progress / No

The NAP calls for practical research on implementation of adaptation measures. The knowledge gaps identified throughout the policy process have triggered periodic research, programmes and projects. They have produced comprehensive knowledge on, e.g., climate impacts and vulnerabilities in different sectors for planning of the adaptation measures. Examples include the Climate Change Adaptation Research Programme ISTO (2006–2010) with about 16 research projects, and the Proactive management of weather and climate related risks project ELASTINEN (2015–2016), which provided information and solutions for strengthening the capabilities of different sectors to assess and manage risks related to weather, climate, and the economy.

The Academy of Finland (i.e. the national research council) has a climate change research portfolio of tens of millions of Euros as part of its annual grants and other annual funding. The national climate change research programme (FICCA) 2011–2014, funded by the Academy of Finland, responded to a broad range of scientific knowledge gaps posed by climate change including adaptation research.

The main examples of the current projects on adaptation include the assessment and development project SIETO (2017–2018) funded by the Government's analysis, assessment and research activities. The project has prepared a plan to develop the production and collection of information and data for future vulnerability and risk assessments.

The TASAPELI-project (2018-2019), which is funded by the Government, develops nature-based solutions for regional adaptation. The national Strategic Research Council (SRC) has large programmes that identify and include adaptation and resilience for sustainable growth. A large consortium project funded in an SRC programme is Sustainable, climate-neutral and resource-efficient forest-based bioeconomy FORBIO 578 (2015–2020). It will provide smart means, solutions and tools needed to sustainably improve resource-efficiency and climate-neutrality of Finnish forests and to adapt to the changing environment. Another large research project is From Failand to Winland 579 (2016–2019) which provides insight into possible futures with the help of scenarios, decision analysis and co-creation methods. The project studies how water, food and energy related pressures, shocks and policy responses affect Finland’s overall security.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is funding projects to fill knowledge gaps regarding climate adaptation. The analysis of knowledge gaps and research needs was funded in 2017 580 . Other current research initiatives include the ones by the Climate Research Centre at the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Flood Centre of the Finnish Environment Institute and the Finnish Meteorolo