Legislative and non-legislative policy options to promote the deployment of RE have been considered. The Impact Assessment (IA) carried out a detailed analysis of each policy option with a gradual approach from a baseline scenario (Op. 0) to more EU-comprehensive measures. No preferred options were chosen, in order to preserve the political discretion of the Commission to decide among options across the following five areas:
(i) Options to increase RE in the electricity sector (RES-E)
Common European framework for support schemes: 1 sole use of market mechanisms; 2 clarification of the rules through a toolkit; 3 mandatory move towards investments aid.
More coordinated regional approach: 1 mandatory regional support; 2 mandatory partial opening of support schemes to cross-border participation.
Renewable-focused financial instrument: 1 EU-level financial instrument with wide eligibility criteria; 2 EU-level financial instrument in support of higher-risk RES projects.
Administrative simplification: 1 reinforced provisions with "one-stop-shop", time ranges and facilitated procedures for repowering; 2 permitting procedures would be time limited, through automatic approval and simple notification for small projects.
(ii) Options to increase RE in the heating and cooling sector (RES-H&C):
Mainstream renewables in the heating and cooling supply: 1 RES H&C obligation on fossil fuel suppliers; 2 same obligation but for all fuel suppliers.
Facilitate the uptake of RE and waste heat in DHC systems: 1 best practice sharing; 2 energy performance certificates and creating access to local H&C; 3 measures under 2 + an additional reinforced consumer rights framework.
(iii) Options to increase RE in the transport sector (RES-T):
Mainstreaming renewables in the transport sector: 1 EU incorporation obligation for advanced renewable fuels; 2 EU incorporation obligation for all renewable fuels consumed in transport plus phase-out of food-based biofuels (sub-options: 2A a partial phase out of food based biofuels by 2030; 2B a total phase out of such biofuels by 2030; 2C a faster phase out of food based biodiesel and higher GHG savings by 2030); 3 Previous options plus specific EU incorporation obligation for renewable fuels consumed in aviation and maritime. 4 GHG emission reduction obligation (FQD) (sub-options: 4B overall fuels and electricity GHG reduction obligation; 4C advanced fuels and electricity GHG reduction obligation; 4D advanced fuels, electricity and lower GHG conventional fuels).
(iv) Options to empower and inform consumers of RE:
Empower consumers to generate self-consume and store renewable electricity: 1 EU guidance on self-consumption; 2 empowering citizens to self-consume and store renewable electricity; 3 distance self-consumption for municipalities.
Disclose information for renewable electricity: 1 strengthening GO system; 2 measures under 1 + GOs mandatory for disclosure; 3 measures under 2 + extension of GOs to all sources of electricity generation.
Trace renewable fuels used in heating and cooling and transport: 1 extended GOs to renewable gaseous fuels; 2 extended GOs to renewable liquid and gaseous fuels; 3 development of alternative tracking system for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels.
(v) Options to ensure the achievement of at least 27% RE in 2030:
2020 national targets: 2020 national targets as basis Vs. baseline.
Trajectory: Linear Vs. Non-linear.
Mechanisms to avoid an ambition gap to the EU RE target: 1 revise ambition of national plans; 2 include a review clause to propose additional EU level delivery mechanisms at a later stage if needed; 3 increase the ambition of EU wide measures; 4 introduce binding national targets.
Avoiding and fill a delivery gap: 1 revise national plans; 2 include a review clause to propose additional EU level delivery mechanisms at a later stage if needed; 3 increase the ambition of EU wide measures; 4 introduce binding national targets.