EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Back to EUR-Lex homepage

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document C(2019)1789

COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) …/... supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the deployment and operational use of cooperative intelligent transport systems

C/2019/1789 final

EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM

1.Policy context

The increasing volume of road transport in the European Union poses several challenges. Road transport is responsible for most emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from the transport sector as a whole. While road safety has improved in the EU over the past few decades, this trend has slowed down recently and it is unlikely that the EU will achieve its objective of a 50 % reduction in fatalities between 2010 and 2020. In addition, congested roads incur huge costs to the EU economy. Coordinated action across a number of fronts is required to tackle these issues and prevent them from bringing serious harm to Europe’s people, economy, environment and climate.

New technologies aimed at improving the efficiency, safety and environmental performance of road transport are playing a significant role in achieving the Commission’s goals in this area. One emerging field is that of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS), which enable vehicles to interact directly with each other and the surrounding road infrastructure. In road transport, C-ITS typically involves vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicleto-infrastructure (V2I) and/or infrastructure-to-infrastructure (I2I) communication, and communication between vehicles and pedestrians or cyclists (‘vehicle-to-everything’, V2X). This enables a wide range of information and cooperation services.

C-ITS are a category of ITS services, based on an open network that enables a many-to-many or peer-to-peer relationship between C-ITS stations. This means all C-ITS stations, as defined by this Regulation, can securely exchange messages with each other, and are not limited to exchanging messages with (a single) pre-defined station(s). ITS services which provide similar information, for instance over digital broadcast, cellular networks, or FM radio, but without the characteristics of an open network that enables a many-to-many or peer-to-peer relationship between C-ITS stations, are outside the scope of this Regulation.

The benefits of C-ITS span a range of areas and include better road safety, less congestion, greater transport efficiency, mobility and service reliability, reduced energy use, fewer negative environmental impacts, and support for economic development. At the same time, care must be taken to avoid potential negative effects, e.g. increased traffic demand because of these improvements, drivers experiencing information overload, or the additional data sharing leading to greater cybersecurity or privacy risks.

The past decade has seen remarkable new developments in technologies that facilitate CITS. Despite the potential benefits, however, these have not yet led to large-scale deployment. In 2011, EU vehicle manufacturers united in the CAR2CAR Communication Consortium issued a joint memorandum of understanding declaring their intention to start large-scale deployment by 2015, as the systems would be technologically ready by then. However, it became clear that this would not be possible unless the main stakeholders followed a common approach on both technical and non-technical aspects.

In 2014, the Commission responded by creating a platform for the deployment of cooperative intelligent transport systems in the EU (C-ITS platform), an expert group in which national authorities, C-ITS stakeholders and the Commission could work together on a shared vision and concrete implementation solutions for the interoperable deployment of C-ITS in the EU. The results of the extensive work of the platform and its working groups were summarised in the final reports 1 for phase I (2014-2016) and phase II (20162017).

Through the C-Roads platform 2 , a joint initiative of European Member States and road operators for testing and implementing C-ITS services in light of cross-border harmonisation and interoperability, and significant investments at national and EU level (EUR 199 million, of which EUR 107 million was co-funded through the Connecting Europe Facility), 16 Member States have worked together with the industry to harmonise V2I CITS services and make them interoperable so that, for example, messages about roadworks can be understood consistently across different geographical environments and vehicle manufacturers. This has been the result of cooperation between the CRoads platform and the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium, which has improved consistency in V2V and V2I messages and systems.

In 2016, automotive and telecommunication companies came together in the 5G Automotive Association on technology for connected and automated mobility including for C-ITS services. This has resulted in a situation where two technologies exist for short-range communication, at different levels of maturity and commercialisation, which are not interoperable at radio access level.

The work of the C-ITS platform was an essential input in the context of the European strategy on CITS 3 , which aimed to facilitate the convergence of investments and regulatory frameworks across the EU so that deployment could start as quickly as possible and, in particular, mature safetyrelated C-ITS services could be deployed from 2019. The strategy identified the need to adopt an appropriate legal framework at EU level by 2018, possibly through delegated acts under Directive 2010/40/EU (the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Directive) 4 or other legal instruments.

The purpose of this Delegated Regulation supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council is to create the minimal legal requirements for interoperability for C-ITS and to enable large-scale deployment of C-ITS systems and services from 2019. Directive 2010/40/EU (the ITS Directive) represents a policy and legal framework to accelerate the deployment of innovative transport solutions across Europe. The Directive focuses on intelligent transport systems for road and its interface with other modes of transport and empowers the Commission to adopt delegated acts in four priority areas. The definition of specifications for C-ITS is part of priority area IV of the Directive.

The focus of this Delegated Regulation is on ‘day 1’ services, i.e. C-ITS services to be deployed in the short term that will contribute particularly to road safety and traffic efficiency. Specifications and standards for interoperable priority ‘day 1’ services, and a common security solution are now available as a result of cooperation between a broad group of industry stakeholders and Member States’ authorities.

2.LEGAL BASIS, SUBSIDIARITY AND PROPORTIONALITY

2.1.Legal basis

This delegated act supplements Directive 2010/40/EU in compliance with its Article 7. A Regulation is the most appropriate legal instrument, as it does not call for national transposition measures and so ensures a greater degree of harmonisation, less administrative burden for the Member States, more legal certainty for public and private stakeholders and a swift entry into force.

2.2.Subsidiarity and proportionality

According to the principle of subsidiarity (Article 5(3) of the Treaty on European Union), EUlevel action should be taken only where the envisaged aims cannot be achieved satisfactorily by Member States acting alone and can therefore, in view of the scale or effects of the proposed action, be better achieved by the EU.

While C-ITS services are already being deployed through projects across the EU and several Member States and many vehicle manufacturers have indicated that they intend to move to largescale deployment, many have argued that a legal framework is needed at EU level. Industry-led standardisation through the European standardisation organisations (ESOs) contributes to interoperability, but it is voluntary and can allow for divergent, noninteroperable forms of implementation. With many different stakeholders and strong network effects, no stakeholder can introduce an interoperable solution on its own. Similarly, setting rules at national level would probably hinder the provision of continuous C-ITS services in the single European transport area.

Compatibility between infrastructure and vehicle solutions will need to be assured across the EU in order to reap the full benefits of C-ITS. In addition, a more harmonised approach at EU level is needed to ensure effective synergies with the deployment of new safety technologies and the roll-out of cooperative connected and automated mobility (CCAM) across the EU. Without an inclusive and future-proof EUlevel framework, deployment would probably remain fragmented, uncoordinated and incapable of ensuring the geographical continuity of C-ITS services throughout the EU and at its external borders.

Compliance with this Delegated Regulation would be mandatory only where C-ITS services or stations were deployed. While binding EU specifications do require existing C-ITS stations and new technological solutions to adapt to these specifications, such specifications are essential to ensure the EU-wide interoperability of C-ITS services, and the planned review allows for flexibility in the development of technological solutions. A Regulation is more stringent than a guideline or a recommendation, but the expected direct and indirect benefits are also proportionally higher. In that sense, this delegated act is proportional.

Another important effect of this Delegated Regulation is to ensure the authenticity and integrity of messages exchanged between CITS stations. This should make it possible to assess the trustworthiness of such information. At the same time, the impact on the privacy of road users should be minimised. Accordingly, the C-ITS platform has developed a security architecture supported by a public key infrastructure (PKI) using frequently changing pseudonym certificates. The resulting common security and certificate policy has been the subject of broad consultation and been agreed upon by all stakeholders concerned.

2.3.Fundamental rights

The right to the protection of personal data is guaranteed under Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Where the measures provided for in this Regulation entail the processing of personal data, they must be carried out in accordance with EU law on the protection of personal data, in particular the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 5 and the e-Privacy Directive 6 .

On 10 July 2017, as part of its preparatory work, the Commission services consulted the technology subgroup of the Article 29 working party established under the Data Protection Directive 7 . The subgroup’s opinion (October 2017) pointed to a number of actions required to support the lawful processing of personal data in the field of C-ITS. It was further clarified that, as this Regulation covers only the exchange of messages between C-ITS stations, it cannot by itself create a legal basis for the lawful processing of data. As a result, the obligations on data controllers and data processors remain fully applicable. However, this Regulation clarifies that without an appropriate, specific lawful basis, the personal data collected should not be (re)used, either for commercial purposes or as a new resource for law enforcement. Moreover, information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person should be processed in strict compliance with the principle of data minimisation and only for the purposes cited in this Regulation, and not stored longer than necessary. Finally, endusers should be informed clearly and in a comprehensive manner about the collection of data, and the arrangements for the periods during which it is kept.

3.Results of ex-post evaluations and impact assessments

   Ex-post evaluations/fitness checks of existing legislation

As there is no existing legislation in this area, no ex-post evaluation needed to be carried out.

   Collection and use of expertise

The Commission used the final reports of the C-ITS Platform Phases I and II. In addition, the Commission sought external expertise through a contract for an impact assessment support study with RICARDO Energy & Environment, supported by TRT and TEPR, which was launched in September 2017 and concluded in December 2018.

   Impact Assessment

The initiative is supported by an impact assessment which received a positive opinion with reservations after having been reviewed on 10 October 2018 by the Regulatory Scrutiny Board (RSB). The reservations of the RSB concerned two main aspects:

·The RSB was of the opinion that the report did not make sufficiently clear the need for a step-wise approach to reach the objectives of the initiative. As a result, the choice of the preferred option did not clearly flow from the analysis and presentation of the report.

·The RSB also considered that the report did not explain why it did not (yet) address stakeholder concerns on the safety of vulnerable road users and environmental impacts.

The following additions were made in the final impact assessment to address these reservations:

·The distinction between the different policy options and the considerations behind them have been reviewed and clarified throughout the Impact Assessment, in particular in sections 5.3, 7 and 8. The need for a separate impact assessment for potential follow-up legislative measures, including a V2V mandate, is explicitly discussed.

·The impact of C-ITS on vulnerable road users (VRUs) has been further clarified in section 6.1 and 6.5. It was underlined that VRU specific C-ITS services are not yet mature to be included in specifications and thus the policy options considered in this impact assessment. The stakeholder concerns have been described in more detail in Annex 2.

·Regarding the impacts, the sensitivity analysis in section 6.5 has been expanded to all policy options, and adjustments have been made throughout the report to better differentiate the policy options. Section 2 of Annex 4 has been updated to reflect that day 1 services have a strong focus on safety and to further clarify the limitations of the analysis.

·Section 6.4 has been added to discuss the data protection impacts of the different policy options. Annex 6 has also been updated in this regard.

The impact assessment examined three broad policy options:

PO1:    Light intervention based on non-legislative measures, including non-binding guidelines on the interoperability of ‘day 1’ services, secure communication, data protection and compliance assessment;

PO2:    Moderate intervention based on specifications under the ITS Directive. This would include elements similar to those in PO1, but make them legally binding through a Delegated Regulation. Nevertheless, Member States and industry remain free to decide whether or not to deploy C-ITS;

PO3:Strong intervention based on a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) mandate and the setting up of governance bodies. This option builds further on the legally binding specifications in a stepwise approach, by ensuring that all new vehicles are equipped with C-ITS stations, drastically increasing the uptake rate and thus meeting the threshold for effective service delivery (related to the network effect) much quicker. PO3 includes additional measures that support the deployment of C-ITS and cannot be introduced through a delegated act alone:

·a legislative measure can provide a legal basis for the lawful processing of personal data relating to C-ITS. This would increase legal certainty and probably result in the provision of more C-ITS services; and

·assigning governance roles to legal bodies will further ensure coordination and oversight on C-ITS deployment, thus ensuring that barriers to C-ITS uptake are reduced to a minimum.

The preferred approach is PO3 – a stepwise approach as provided for in the ITS Directive, where, after the adoption of specifications, a separate initiative for deployment will be considered, further analysing the efficiency and proportionality of a mandate based on the continued development of the C-ITS sector. This policy option is considered to most coherent and effective, delivering the highest reductions in accidents, congestion and CO2 emissions.

The expected impacts are as follows:

·The main benefits are a reduction of accidents and fuel costs, and travel time savings. In addition, there is a slight reduction in the external costs of CO2 emissions and air pollutants. Total monetised benefits come to EUR 78.9 billion over the period 2020-2035. This figure would rise to EUR 128.9 billion with the introduction of a V2V mandate.

·The main costs relate to C-ITS equipment in vehicles and in roadside infrastructure. Other compliance and administrative costs are assessed, but considered minor compared to the overall costs. Total monetised costs amount to EUR 19.1 billion relative over the period 2020-2035, or EUR 32.3 billion with the introduction of a V2V mandate. Thus the expected benefits strongly outweigh the expected costs.

·Although 90 % of the costs relate to equipping vehicle fleets, the cost of equipping infrastructure will largely be borne by the public sector. However, Member States remain free to decide whether or not to deploy.

4.RESULTS OF CONSULTATIONS

4.1.Meetings with experts nominated by Member States

Developing rules and requirements at EU level to support the deployment of C-ITS systems and services, and in particular the interoperability and continuity of EUwide V2V and V2I services, required close cooperation between stakeholders (manufacturers, service providers and competent authorities). EU Member States and the EFTA countries were asked to nominate experts to attend a series of 13 meetings with the Commission services in Brussels between 23 May 2017 and 3 October 2018 to help produce the draft Regulation. Experts from the European Parliament were also invited to take part and the Commission held a number of bilateral meetings with Member States.

4.2.Stakeholder consultation

A public consultation was open on the Commission’s website from 10 October 2017 to 12 January 2018 (13 weeks) receiving 139 responses. The public consultation was based on a questionnaire exploring stakeholders’ opinions on the key components of the impact assessment: the main problem, its drivers, possible policy measures and their likely impacts, and the relevance of EUlevel action.

A number of case studies were carried out as part of a support study:

·nine on EU C-ITS deployment projects; and

·three on C-ITS deployment in other countries (the United States, Australia and Japan); these involved interviews with senior representatives between October 2017 and February 2018.

All case studies focused on the following aspects of C-ITS deployment: objectives, progress, barriers, data collection and costs in the area concerned. In the EU case studies, respondents were also asked to provide feedback on the problem definition, policy measures and options, and the monitoring and evaluation of this policy initiative.

A stakeholder workshop was held on 9 February 2018 to gather specific information/data and experts’ and stakeholders’ views and suggestions. The workshop was well attended, with more than 140 participants.

On 6 September 2018 and 29 January 2019, the Commission presented the objective and scope of the Regulation to the members of the Transport and Tourism Committee.

The draft of the Regulation has been subject to a public consultation through the Better Regulation Portal from 11 January 2019 to 8 February 2019, receiving 100 responses.

4.3.C-ITS communication technologies

A particular important issue for C-ITS are the communication technologies that can be used for exchanging messages between C-ITS stations. This is directly linked to the need to ensure that everybody is able to talk to everybody (interoperability) and that everybody remains able to talk to everybody (compatibility).

Maximising benefits involves leveraging the distinct advantages of different, complementary technologies. The ‘hybrid communication’ approach combines two types of technologies:

·short-range communication technologies, which operate in a dedicated 5.9 GHz frequency band and are most relevant for time-critical services. ITS-G5 was developed specifically for this purpose and is now mature, tested and already deployed; and

·longer-range communication technologies, which leverage the coverage of existing networks and connect large areas, albeit for less time-critical V2I services. Cellular 3G/4G are mature technologies that already provide good coverage in large parts of the EU.

The practical implementation of the hybrid communication approach, combined with the need to ensure the interoperability and continuity of services, imposes certain technological choices. These are reflected in a minimum set of functional and technical requirements for the interoperable exchange of messages between C-ITS stations. As this should not hinder further innovation, this Regulation ensures that future technologies can be integrated in the ‘hybrid communication’ mix.

A review clause will facilitate the integration of several existing candidates, such as LTEV2X (a cellular-based short-range communication technology) and 5G, the set of technologies for nextgeneration cellular networks. The Commission will discuss possible amendments to this Delegated Regulation with an expert group in an open and transparent way and inform it regularly about the progress and possible next steps. Stakeholders that have already put C-ITS stations in service should cooperate in this process in good faith, in line with both Union and national competition laws, to ensure a level playing field between different technologies, and without hindering the development of new ones. In the interest of allowing future developments in this area, these stakeholders should also prepare their products for the integration of future technologies.

5.BUDGETARY IMPLICATIONS

This Regulation has some implications for the EU budget.

To ensure that the C-ITS network functions smoothly, certain tasks need to be carried out by central entities before the full governance framework can be established. Pending the establishment of such entities, the Commission will perform some of the tasks – mainly those relating to the EU C-ITS security credential management system, the EU’s CITS framework for the provision of trusted and secure communication on the basis of a PKI.

It is important to ensure that C-ITS stations can be enrolled in the security credential management system before being put in service and becoming operational. To this end, the tasks of the central point of contact, the trust list manager and the C-ITS certificate policy authority will be assumed by the Commission, as a shared task of JRC and DG MOVE.

This will have no impact in terms of human resources, as JRC and DG MOVE will use or redeploy staff as necessary. Also, JRC benefits from the ‘Security architecture for connected infrastructure and vehicles in Europe’ support action in the context of Commission Implementing Decision C(2016) 1966 8 , which assigns EUR 4 million for the implementation of phase I of the security credential management system (2018-2021). Should further support actions be needed, they could be financed under the Connecting Europe Facility.

COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) …/...

of 13.3.2019

supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the deployment and operational use of cooperative intelligent transport systems

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport 9 , and in particular Article 6(3) in conjunction with Article 7 thereof,

Whereas:

(1)Article 2(1) of Directive 2010/40/EU identifies the linking of the vehicle with the transport infrastructure as priority area IV for the development and use of specifications and standards. This involves inter alia developing and implementing cooperative (vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-infrastructure, where messages can originate both in the vehicle and or in the infrastructure, and infrastructure-infrastructure) systems based on: the facilitation of the exchange of data or information between vehicles, between infrastructures and between vehicles and infrastructure; the use of a standardised message format for the exchange of data or information between vehicles and infrastructure; and the definition of a communication infrastructure for data or information exchange between vehicles, between infrastructures and between vehicles and infrastructure.

(2)Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) use technologies that enable road vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure including traffic signals. C-ITS services are a category of ITS services based on an open network that enables a many-to-many or peer-to-peer relationship between C-ITS stations. This means all C-ITS stations, as defined by this Regulation, can securely exchange messages with each other, and are not limited to exchanging messages with (a single) pre-defined station(s). C-ITS stations do not need additional requirements such as: using the same software or having an account or contractual relationship with the same entity (e.g. the same vehicle manufacturer, road authority or service provider).

(3)The European CITS strategy 10 identified a risk of fragmentation of the internal market in the field of C-ITS and a need to lay down minimum requirements for C-ITS services to ensure their coordinated and coherent deployment. In this context, the Commission announced its intention, where appropriate, to make use of its mandate under Directive 2010/40/EU to adopt delegated act(s) by 2018 to ensure compatibility, interoperability and continuity of C-ITS services in the deployment and operational use of Union-wide CITS services based on trusted and secure communication.

(4)In order to foster and maximise all road safety and traffic efficiency benefits of C-ITS services, the specifications set out in this Regulation should apply to the entire road transport network. This includes its interfaces with other transport modes that are relevant to road safety or traffic efficiency, such as rail crossings, port areas, etc.

(5)The specifications laid down in this Regulation should apply to all CITS services without prejudice to particular specifications adopted in other acts under Directive 2010/40/EU, in particular Commission Delegated Regulations (EU) No 886/2013 11 and (EU) No 962/2015 12 .

(6)Directive (EU) 2016/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2016 13 concerning measures for a high common level of security of network and information systems across the Union (the "NIS Directive") puts in place requirements concerning national capabilities in the area of cybersecurity, establishes mechanisms to enhance strategic and operational cooperation between Member States, and introduces obligations concerning security measures and incident notifications across sectors. As the NIS Directive listed operators of Intelligent Transport Systems as defined in paragraph 1 of Article 4 of Directive 2010/40/EU as potential operators of essential services, the application of the NIS Directive and of the requirements imposed pursuant to the present Regulation may be in certain cases complementary.

(7)Commission Decision 2008/671/EC 14 harmonises the conditions for the availability and efficient use of the 5 875-5 905 MHz frequency band for safetyrelated applications of ITS in the Union.

(8)In response to standardisation mandate M/453 15 , the European standardisation organisations (ESOs) – the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) – have developed common standards for the deployment of C-ITS services, to which this Regulation refers. Those standards provide a basis for the effective provision of C-ITS priority services, enabling road traffic managers to take appropriate measures and preparing the ground for safer automation on EU roads. Standardisation work will continue, amongst others to integrate other technologies and further strengthen C-ITS. The relevant standardisation bodies and all stakeholders should therefore continue the work developed under standardisation mandate M/453 and jointly develop solutions that support interoperability and allow all technologies to play their role.

(9)To ensure interoperability, each C-ITS station requires a specific configuration of standards (‘system profile’) determining the implementation of various optional standards. The system profile describes external interfaces needed for communication between CITS stations. Each C-ITS station must comply with Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council 16 . Cooperation between industry and Member States’ authorities has led to the development of harmonised system profiles for vehicle C-ITS stations and roadside C-ITS stations communicating in the 5 8555 925 MHz frequency band. If all C-ITS services are to be received seamlessly across the Union, a ‘hybrid communication’ approach is needed, i.e. one that combines complementary communication technologies. In view of the pace of technological progress, industry and Member States are encouraged to develop – and harmonise across the Union – additional complementary and compatible system profiles for other types of C-ITS stations and technologies. Before using such new profiles or technologies, they should inform the Commission so that an update of this Regulation can be considered without delay. Such updates should be prepared in close cooperation with the Member States.

(10)The cooperative nature of C-ITS requires each C-ITS station to contribute information to the C-ITS network. C-ITS stations should not interfere with the provision of C-ITS priority services, European electronic toll services or the smart tachograph, nor with the functioning of other C-ITS stations.

(11)It is important that industry and Member States implement common technical solutions for the provision of C-ITS services. These should be developed in particular through the ESOs, in order to facilitate the introduction of C-ITS services, ensure the interoperability and continuity of the services throughout the Union, and reduce the costs of implementation. To ensure the compatibility, interoperability and continuity of Union-wide C-ITS services, the standards and system profiles referred to in this Regulation should be used where relevant as a reference for the development of future C-ITS technologies and services.

(12)As regards deployment, priority should be given to C-ITS services that contribute to road safety and traffic efficiency. Those that constitute roadsafetyrelated minimum universal traffic information services, as defined in Delegated Regulation (EU) No 886/2013, should where possible be provided as a universal service free of charge to endusers at the point of use in accordance with that Regulation.

(13)To ensure interoperability, each C-ITS service requires a specific configuration of standards, called a service profile, defining the implementation of various options of standards. C-ITS services should not interfere with the provision of the C-ITS priority services. The current vehicle-vehicle service profiles have been developed primarily for passenger cars. To enable the deployment of these or similar services for other vehicle categories, the development of additional service profiles, or an update of the service profiles in this Regulation, might be required.

(14)Decision No 768/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 17 lays down common principles and reference provisions to apply across sectoral legislation. It therefore constitutes a general horizontal framework for any new legislation harmonising the conditions for the marketing of products. Its reference provisions provide definitions and general obligations for economic operators and a range of conformity assessment procedures from which the legislator can select as appropriate. In order to ensure the safety of the market place, it also lays down rules for CE marking and reference provisions on procedures for dealing with products presenting a risk. As this Regulation covers the placing on the market of C-ITS stations, it is appropriate to use reference provisions in Annex I to that Decision that make the manufacturer responsible for ensuring inter alia compliance with all applicable legislation; that an EU declaration of conformity is drawn up; that the conformity marking is affixed and that appropriate technical documentation is prepared. The roles and responsibilities of other entities, such as the authorised representative, the importer and the distributor, should also be regulated.

(15)In this Regulation, C-ITS stations installed on vehicles, handheld or alongside the road infrastructure are considered as products that can be placed on the market as standalone assemblies or as parts of larger assemblies. The extent to which C-ITS stations to be installed on vehicles comply with the applicable requirements can be tested before or after installation. In the case of roadside C-ITS stations, this can be tested before installation, so they can be placed on the market as stand-alone products. With central C-ITS stations, the situation may be different, because they will often be integrated in traffic control centres that are not standardised. As such traffic control centres are constructed gradually in line with the development of the traffic areas they manage, it may be that they cannot be fully tested before being placed on the market. In any case, the level of security and trust should be the same for all C-ITS stations, including central ones.

(16)Before any C-ITS station is put in service and becomes operational, it is necessary to identify the entity that will check that it is accompanied by an EU declaration of conformity and, where applicable, that conformity marking has been affixed. This entity should register the station in the EU C-ITS security credential management system and ensure that it continues to comply with the technical requirements throughout the period of its use. The entity will be the operator of the C-ITS station and be in charge of relations with the user.

(17)For many C-ITS services, it is essential to ensure the authenticity and integrity of C-ITS messages containing information, such as position, velocity and heading. Therefore, one common European C-ITS trust model should be established for all C-ITS stations (all mobile C-ITS stations, same requirements for vehicle and personal, and all fixed C-ITS stations, same requirements for central and roadside), regardless of communication technologies used. The rules and requirements of this trust model are laid down in the certificate and security policy. The highest level of the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the European certificate trust list, which contains entries of all trusted root certification authorities in Europe.

(18)Some efforts have been made in the past in order to lead to a mutual recognition of security certificates of products in Europe. The most important example in this regard is the Senior Officials Group – Information Systems Security (SOG-IS) Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA). While it represents the most important model for cooperation and mutual recognition in the field of security certification, SOG-IS includes only part of the Member States of the Union. As security certification of C-ITS stations is an important element of the C-ITS certificate and security policy, the SOG-IS MRA is applied in the absence of other equivalent European cybersecurity certification schemes under the relevant European cybersecurity framework.

(19)Certain C-ITS stations placed on the market before the date of application of this Regulation, might not fully comply with C-ITS security related requirements of this Regulation, because technical deployment decisions might have already been taken at an earlier moment in time. To allow such C-ITS stations to become part of the C-ITS network after the date of application of this Regulation, a procedure should be provided to consider granting enrolment of such C-ITS stations in the C-ITS trust model.

(20)Article 6(6) of the Directive 2010/40/EU requires the Commission to adopt specifications complying with a set of principles, including the use of satellite-based infrastructures, or any technology providing equivalent levels of precision for the purposes of ITS applications and services that require global, continuous, accurate and guaranteed timing and positioning services. Therefore, it is appropriate to ensure the compatibility of C-ITS stations with the added value services provided by the Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (‘EGNOS’) programmes as set out in Regulation (EU) No 1285/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council in order to improve the reliability of the C-ITS stations.

(21)The platform for the deployment of C-ITS in the Union (C-ITS platform), which was set up in November 2014 and chaired by Commission departments, developed a common security and certificate policy, endorsed by all interested stakeholders. As the common security and certificate policy should be updated in line with technical progress and the development of the governance framework, the Commission should be reviewing this Regulation on an ongoing basis in order to maintain coherence and consistency.

(22)To ensure the smooth functioning of the C-ITS network, certain tasks need to be carried out by central entities before the full governance framework can be established. Pending the establishment of central entities, the Commission should be in charge of those tasks, including those relating to the C-ITS certificate policy authority, the trust list manager, and the C-ITS point of contact.

(23)Where the measures provided for in this Regulation entail the processing of personal data, they should be carried out in accordance with Union law on the protection of personal data and privacy, in particular Regulation (EU) 2016/679 18 , and, where applicable, Directive 2002/58/EC 19 . Such processing should have an appropriate legal basis, as listed in Article 6 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, which is not provided for by this Delegated Regulation.

(24)Without an appropriate legal basis, the personal data collected should not be reused for any other purposes, such as commercial purposes or as a new resource for law enforcement, unless on the basis of a law.

(25)Information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person should be processed in strict compliance with the principle of data minimisation and only for the purposes specified in this Regulation, and not stored longer than necessary. Security requirements on pseudonymisation that are provided for in this Regulation, contribute to reduce the risk of data misuse.

(26)End-users should be informed clearly and in a comprehensive manner on all relevant information on the processing of their personal data in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(27)As stated in the common security and certificate policy, developed within the context of the C-ITS platform, governance requires bodies in the form of common steering committees of stakeholders, including the Commission, Member States, road infrastructure operators, and C-ITS station manufacturers and operators. Pending the establishment of such bodies, the Commission, assisted by an expert group in which all relevant stakeholders are represented, should be in charge of the relevant tasks, including those relating to governance, supervision and the C-ITS certificate policy authority. This expert group should include in particular representatives of C-ITS station manufacturers and operators in the C-ITS network, as well as other concerned stakeholders and relevant authorities of the Member States.

(28)The broad and inclusive consultation process that led to the development of the security policy and governance framework and the certificate policy (with the support of all relevant public and private stakeholders) should also apply to the updating of this Regulation in line with technical progress and, where appropriate, with the development of the governance framework.

(29)Member States and root certification authorities should regularly provide the Commission with information enabling it to monitor the implementation of this Regulation.

(30)In order to take account of the rapid development of new markets, technologies and services, as already announced in the updated working programme of the ITS Directive, it is expected that this Regulation will be amended before the review of the implementation of this Regulation, which should be conducted three years following after its entry into force.

Prime candidate for such an amendment is the inclusion of existing 3G/4G networks to deliver the C-ITS priority services. In addition, specifications for LTE-V2X technologies have been finalised in 3GPP and prototype implementations are currently being validated. These technologies are currently being integrated into European norms and technical specifications, both for C-ITS priority services and for new emerging services. Finally, rapidly evolving new technologies such as 5G could also underpin C-ITS services.

Some of these developments could trigger one or more amendments of this Regulation, once a file with technically mature specifications is transmitted to the Commission. Such amendments should ensure an open and future-proof approach in standards and legislation. The Commission should consult an expert group on possible amendments to this Regulation in an open and transparent way and inform it regularly about the progress and possible next steps. To maintain the continuity of the C-ITS priority services, they should also ensure compatibility and interoperability with existing C-ITS stations, already put in service in accordance with this Regulation, or specify a suitable migration path taking into account also market and technology developments.

The Commission should analyse the file, and discuss it in the expert group without undue delay, in view of a possible amendment of this Regulation, examining whether a change to existing requirements is needed. Stakeholders that have already put C-ITS stations in service should cooperate in this process in good faith, in line with both Union and national competition laws, to ensure a level playing field between different technologies, and without hindering the development of new ones. In the interest of allowing future developments in this area, these stakeholders should also prepare their products for the integration of future technologies.

(31)The European Data Protection Supervisor was consulted in accordance with Article 28(2) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council 20 and delivered an opinion on … ,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Chapter I

General provisions

Article 1

Subject matter and scope

1.This Regulation establishes specifications necessary to ensure compatibility, interoperability and continuity in the deployment and operational use of Union-wide CITS services based on trusted and secure communication.

It lays down how vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-infrastructure and infrastructureinfrastructure communication is to be conducted by means of C-ITS stations and how C-ITS stations are to be placed on the market and put in service, to enable the provision of C-ITS services to ITS users.

2.This Regulation applies to all C-ITS stations in the field of road transport and to their interfaces with other modes of transport.

3.The deployment of C-ITS stations is carried out in accordance with Article 5 of Directive 2010/40/EU. Member States shall designate the part of their transport network infrastructure that is equipped with C-ITS stations.

Article 2

Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)‘cooperative intelligent transport systems’ or ‘C-ITS’ means intelligent transport systems that enable ITS users to cooperate by exchanging secured and trusted messages using the EU C-ITS security credential management system;

(2)‘C-ITS service’ means an ITS service provided through CITS;

(3)‘C-ITS station’ means the set of hardware and software components required to collect, store, process, receive and transmit secured and trusted messages in order to enable the provision of a C-ITS service. This includes personal, central, vehicle and roadside ITS stations as defined in EN 302 665 v 1.1.1;

(4)‘mobile C-ITS station’ means a C-ITS station installed in a vehicle or in the form of a personal handheld device;

(5)‘fixed C-ITS station’ means a C-ITS station installed in a central system or roadside infrastructure;

(6)'central C-ITS station' means a central server with integrated C-ITS station capabilities, such as in a traffic management centre;

(7)‘making available on the market’ means the supply of a C-ITS station for distribution or use on the Union market in the context of a commercial activity, either in return for payment or free of charge;

(8)‘placing on the market’ means the first making available of a C-ITS station on the Union market;

(9)the ‘putting in service’ of a C-ITS station means its first use in the Union for the purposes for which it was intended;

(10)‘shortrange communication’ means communication in the 5 8555 925 MHz frequency band;

(11)‘C-ITS priority service'’ means a C-ITS service that contributes to road safety or traffic efficiency and which is included in Annex I;

(12)‘system profile’ means a minimum set of functional and technical requirements for the interoperable exchange of messages between C-ITS stations;

(13)‘service profile’ means a set of functional specifications for interoperable messages to enable the provision of a C-ITS service;

(14)‘Global Navigation Satellite System’ (‘GNSS’) means an infrastructure composed of a constellation of satellites and a network of ground stations, which provides accurate timing and geolocation information to users having an appropriate receiver.

(15)‘manufacturer’ means any natural or legal person that designs and manufactures a C-ITS station or has a C-ITS station designed or manufactured, and markets that C-ITS station under its name or trademark;

(16)‘C-ITS station operator’ means any natural or legal person who is responsible for the putting in service and the operation of C-ITS stations in accordance with this Regulation;

(17)‘authorised representative’ means any natural or legal person established in the Union that has received a written mandate from a manufacturer to act on its behalf in relation to specified tasks;

(18)‘importer’ means any natural or legal person established in the Union that places a C-ITS station from a third country on the Union market;

(19)‘distributor’ means any natural or legal person in the supply chain, other than the manufacturer or the importer, that makes a C-ITS station available on the market;

(20)‘economic operator’ means the manufacturer, authorised representative, importer or distributor;

(21)‘recall’ means any measure aimed at achieving the return of a C-ITS station that has already been made available to the enduser;

(22)‘withdrawal’ means any measure aimed at preventing a C-ITS station in the supply chain from being made available on the market;

(23)'CE marking' means a marking by which the manufacturer indicates that the product is in conformity with the applicable requirements set out in the Union legislation providing for its affixing;

(24)'end-user' means a natural or legal person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a C-ITS station;

(25)‘market surveillance authority’ means an authority of a Member State responsible for carrying out market surveillance on its territory;

(26)'competent national authority' means any authority that is entitled to check the conformity of a C-ITS station with the applicable legislation;

(27)'EU C-ITS security credential management system' means the European Union C-ITS framework for the provision of trusted and secure communication using a public key infrastructure (PKI);

(28)‘enrolment authority’ means the legal and/or operational entity that authenticates a C-ITS station and grants it access to C-ITS.

(29)‘C-ITS network’ means all operational C-ITS stations in the Union;

Article 3

Making available on the market and/or putting into service

A C-ITS station shall only be made available on the market and/or put into service if, where properly maintained and used for its intended purpose, it complies with this Regulation.

Article 4

Free movement

Member States shall not prohibit, restrict or impede, for the reasons covered by this Regulation, the making available on the market or the putting into service in their territory of C-ITS stations which comply with this Regulation.

Chapter II

Technical requirements

Article 5

Requirements for C-ITS stations

1.Vehicle C-ITS stations designed for short-range communication shall comply with the requirements laid down in the system profile in Section 2 of Annex II.

2.Roadside C-ITS stations designed for short-range communication shall comply with the requirements laid down in the system profile in Section 3 of Annex II.

3.C-ITS stations shall send messages that enable the provision of at least one of the C-ITS priority services listed in Annex I.

4.C-ITS stations shall be compatible with C-ITS stations that send messages for the C-ITS priority services listed in Annex I.

5.C-ITS stations shall not interfere with the operation of the European electronic toll service as referred to in Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 21 and in Commission Decision 2009/750/EC 22 and the operation of the smart tachograph referred to in Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council 23 .

6.C-ITS stations shall be compatible with C-ITS stations that comply with the system profiles set out in Annex II.

7.When C-ITS stations are enabled with GNSS, they shall be compatible with the positioning and timing services provided by the Galileo and EGNOS systems. In addition, C-ITS stations may be compatible with other satellite navigation systems.

Article 6

Requirements for C-ITS services

1.The C-ITS priority services listed in Annex I shall comply with the requirements of the corresponding C-ITS service profile.

2.Each C-ITS service shall work without modification with all service profiles as set out in Annex I.

Chapter III

Placing C-ITS stations on the market

Article 7

Obligations of C-ITS station manufacturers

1.When placing C-ITS stations on the market, manufacturers shall ensure that they have been designed and manufactured in accordance with the requirements set out in Article 5.

2.Manufacturers shall draw up the technical documentation referred to in Part A of Annex V and carry out the conformity assessment procedure referred to in Part A of Annex V or have it carried out.

3.Where compliance of a C-ITS station with the applicable requirements has been demonstrated by the conformity assessment procedure referred to in Part A of Annex V, manufacturers shall draw up an EU declaration of conformity and affix the CE marking.

4.Manufacturers shall keep the technical documentation referred to in Part A of Annex V and the EU declaration of conformity for 10 years after the C-ITS station has been placed on the market.

5.Manufacturers shall ensure that procedures are in place for series production to remain in conformity with this Regulation.

6.To protect the health and safety of consumers, where deemed appropriate with regard to the risks presented by C-ITS stations, manufacturers shall:

(a)carry out sample testing of marketed C-ITS stations;

(b)investigate and, if necessary, keep a register of complaints, of nonconforming C-ITS stations and of C-ITS station recalls;

(c)keep distributors informed of any such monitoring.

7.Manufacturers shall ensure that C-ITS stations that they have placed on the market bear a type, batch or serial number or other element allowing their identification.

8.On the C-ITS station or, where that is not possible, on its packaging or in a document accompanying the C-ITS station, manufacturers shall indicate their:

(a)name;

(b)registered trade name or registered trademark;

(c)postal address, indicating a single point at which they can be contacted.

The contact details shall be in a language easily understood by both end-users and market surveillance authorities.

9.Manufacturers shall ensure that the C-ITS station is accompanied by instructions and safety information in a language that can be easily understood by endusers, as determined by the Member State concerned. Such instructions and safety information, and any labelling, shall be clear, understandable and intelligible.

10.Manufacturers that consider that a C-ITS station that they have placed on the market is not in conformity with this Regulation shall immediately take the necessary corrective measures to bring it into conformity, or to withdraw or recall it, as appropriate. Where the C-ITS station presents a risk, manufacturers shall immediately inform the market surveillance authorities of the Member States in which they have made it available, giving details, in particular, with regard to the non-compliance and any corrective measures taken.

11.On reasoned request from a competent national authority, manufacturers shall provide it with all information and documentation in paper or electronic form necessary to demonstrate the conformity of the C-ITS station, in a language which can be easily understood by that authority. They shall cooperate with that authority, at its request, on any action taken to eliminate the risks posed by C-ITS stations that they have placed on the market.

Article 8

Authorised representatives

1.A manufacturer may appoint an authorised representative by written mandate.

2.Authorised representatives shall perform the tasks specified in the mandate received from the manufacturer. The mandate shall allow the authorised representative to do at least the following:

(a)keep the EU declaration of conformity and the technical documentation at the disposal of national market surveillance authorities for 10 years after the C-ITS station has been placed on the market;

(b)on reasoned request from a competent national authority, provide it with all the information and documentation necessary to demonstrate the conformity of a CITS station;

(c)cooperate with the competent national authorities, at their request, on any action to eliminate the risks posed by C-ITS stations covered by their mandate.

The obligations laid down in Article 7(1) and the drawing up of technical documentation referred to in Article 7(2) shall not form part of the authorised representative's mandate.

Article 9

Obligations of importers

1.Importers shall place only compliant C-ITS stations on the Union market.

2.Before placing a C-ITS station on the market, importers shall ensure that:

(a)the manufacturer has carried out the conformity assessment procedure referred to in Article 7(2);

(b)the manufacturer has drawn up the technical documentation;

(c)the C-ITS station bears the required the CE marking ;

(d)the manufacturer has complied with the requirements set out in Article 7(7) and (8).

3.Where an importer considers that a C-ITS station is not in conformity with the requirements referred to in Article 5, it shall not place the product on the market until it has been brought into conformity. Where the C-ITS station presents a risk, the importer shall inform the manufacturer and the market surveillance authorities to that effect.

4.On the C-ITS station or, where that is not possible, on its packaging or in a document accompanying the C-ITS station, importers shall indicate:

(a)their name;

(b)their registered trade name or registered trademark;

(c)the address at which they can be contacted.

The contact details shall be in a language easily understood by end-users and competent national authorities.

5.Importers shall ensure that the C-ITS station is accompanied by instructions and safety information in a language that can be easily understood by end-users, as determined by the Member State concerned.

6.Importers shall ensure that, while a C-ITS station is under their responsibility, storage or transport conditions do not jeopardise its compliance with the requirements set out in Article 5.

7.To protect the health and safety of consumers, where deemed appropriate with regard to the risks presented by a C-ITS station, importers shall:

(a)carry out sample testing of the marketed C-ITS station;

(b)investigate and, if necessary, keep a register of complaints, of nonconforming C-ITS stations and of C-ITS station recalls;

(c)keep distributors informed of such monitoring.

8.Importers who consider that a C-ITS station that they have placed on the market is not in conformity with this Regulation shall immediately take the corrective measures necessary to bring that C-ITS station into conformity, or to withdraw or recall it, as appropriate. Where the C-ITS station presents a risk, importers shall immediately inform the competent national authorities of the Member States in which they have made it available, giving details, in particular, of the noncompliance and any corrective measures taken.

9.For 10 years after the C-ITS station has been placed on the market, importers shall keep a copy of the EU declaration of conformity at the disposal of the market surveillance authorities and ensure that the technical documentation can be made available to those authorities on request.

10.On reasoned request from a competent national authority, importers shall provide it with all information and documentation in paper or electronic form necessary to demonstrate the conformity of a C-ITS station in a language that can be easily understood by that authority. They shall cooperate with that authority, at its request, on any action to eliminate the risks posed by C-ITS stations that they have placed on the market.

Article 10

Obligations of distributors

1.When making a C-ITS station available on the market, distributors shall act with due care in relation to the requirements of this Regulation.

2.Before making a C-ITS station available on the market, distributors shall verify that:

(a)it bears the CE marking;

(b)it is accompanied by the instructions and safety information referred to in Article 7(9) in a language that can be easily understood by end-users in the Member State in which it is to be made available on the market;

(c)the manufacturer and the importer have complied with the requirements set out in Article 7(7) and (8) and Article 9(4).

3.Where a distributor considers that a C-ITS station is not in conformity with Article 5, it shall not make it available on the market until it has been brought into conformity. Where the C-ITS station presents a risk, the distributor shall inform the manufacturer or importer and the market surveillance authorities to that effect.

4.Distributors shall ensure that, while a C-ITS station is under their responsibility, storage or transport conditions do not jeopardise its compliance with the requirements in Article 5.

5.Distributors that consider that a C-ITS station which they have made available on the market is not in conformity with this Regulation or any other applicable Union legislation shall make sure that corrective measures are taken to bring it into conformity, or to withdraw it or recall it, as appropriate. Where the C-ITS station presents a risk, distributors shall immediately inform the market surveillance authorities of the Member States in which they made it available, giving details, in particular, of the non-compliance and of any corrective measures taken.

6.On reasoned request from a competent national authority, distributors shall provide it with all information and documentation necessary to demonstrate the conformity of a C-ITS station. They shall cooperate with that authority, at its request, on any action to eliminate the risks posed by C-ITS stations that they have made available on the market.

Article 11

Cases in which obligations of manufacturers apply to importers and distributors

Where an importer or distributor places a C-ITS station on the market under its name or trademark or modifies a C-ITS station already placed on the market in such a way that compliance with this Regulation may be affected, it shall be considered a manufacturer for the purposes of this Regulation and be subject to the obligations of the manufacturer under Article 7.

Article 12

Identification of economic operators

Economic operators shall, on request, identify the following to the market surveillance authorities;

(a)any economic operator who has supplied them with a C-ITS station;

(b)any economic operator to whom they have supplied a C-ITS station.

Economic operators shall be able to present the information referred to in the first paragraph for 15 years after they have been supplied with the C-ITS station and for 15 years after they have supplied with the C-ITS station.

Article 13

EU declaration of conformity

1.The EU declaration of conformity shall state that the fulfilment of requirements specified in Article 5 has been demonstrated.

2.The EU declaration of conformity shall be structured according to the model in Part B of Annex V, contain the elements specified in Part A of Annex V and be kept up to date. It shall be translated into the language or languages required by the Member State where the CITS station is made available on the market.

3.By drawing up the EU declaration of conformity, the manufacturer shall assume responsibility for the compliance of the C-ITS station with the requirements laid down in this Regulation.

4.Where a C-ITS station is subject to more than one Union act requiring an EU declaration of conformity, a single declaration shall be drawn up in respect of all such acts. That declaration shall identify the acts concerned, including their publication references.

Article 14

General principles of the CE marking

The CE marking shall be subject to the general principles set out in Article 30 of Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council 24 .

Article 15

Rules and conditions for affixing the CE marking

1.The CE marking shall be affixed visibly, legibly and indelibly to the C-ITS station or to its data plate.

2.The CE marking shall be affixed before the C-ITS station is placed on the market. It may be followed by a pictogram or any other mark indicating a special risk or use.

Article 16

Union market surveillance and control of C-ITS stations entering the Union market

Article 15(3) and Articles 16 to 29 of Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 shall apply to C-ITS stations.

Article 17

Procedure for dealing with C-ITS stations presenting a risk at national level

1.Where the market surveillance authorities of one Member State have taken action pursuant to Article 20 of Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 or where they have reason to believe that a C-ITS station presents a risk to the health or safety of persons or road safety and traffic efficiency, they shall carry out an evaluation of the C-ITS station concerned covering all applicable requirements of this Regulation. The relevant economic operators shall cooperate with them as necessary.

Where, in the course of the evaluation, the market surveillance authorities find that the C-ITS station does not comply with the requirements of this Regulation, they shall without delay require the relevant economic operator to take all appropriate corrective measures to bring it into compliance with those requirements, withdraw it from the market or recall it within a reasonable period, commensurate with the nature of the risk.

Article 21 of Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 shall apply to the measures referred to in the second subparagraph of this paragraph.

2.Where the market surveillance authorities consider that non-compliance is not restricted to their national territory, they shall inform without delay the Commission and the other Member States of the results of the evaluation and of the measures that they have required the economic operator to take.

3.The economic operator shall ensure that all appropriate corrective measures are taken throughout the Union in respect of all C-ITS stations concerned that it has made available on the Union market.

4.Where the economic operator does not take adequate corrective measures within the period referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1, the market surveillance authorities shall take all appropriate provisional measures to prohibit or restrict the making available of the C-ITS station on their national market, withdraw it from that market or recall it.

5.The market surveillance authorities shall inform the Commission and the other Member States of the provisional measures referred to in paragraph 4 without delay. That information shall include all available details, including:

(a)the data necessary to identify the non-compliant C-ITS station;

(b)the origin of the C-ITS station;

(c)the risk involved and the nature of the alleged noncompliance of the C-ITS with the requirements set out in this Regulation;

(d)the nature and duration of the provisional measures taken;

(e)the arguments put forward by the economic operator.

6.Member States other than the Member State initiating the procedure shall without delay inform the Commission and the other Member States of:

(a)any measures they have adopted;

(b)any additional information at their disposal relating to the non-compliance of the C-ITS station concerned;

(c)any objections they may have to the provisional measures taken by the Member State initiating the procedure.

7.Where, within three months of receiving the information referred to in paragraph 5, the other Member States or the Commission have raised no objection to a provisional measure taken by a Member State, that measure shall be deemed justified. Where the provisional measure is deemed justified, Member States shall ensure that appropriate restrictive measures are taken in respect of the C-ITS station concerned, such as its withdrawal from their market, without delay. 

Article 18

Union safeguard procedure

1.Where, on completion of the procedure set out in Article 17(3) and (4), objections have been raised against a provisional measure taken by a Member State, or where the Commission considers a provisional measure to be contrary to Union legislation, the Commission shall without delay enter into consultation with the Member States and the relevant economic operators and evaluate the provisional measure. On the basis of the results of that evaluation, the Commission shall decide whether the national measure is justified or not. 

The Commission shall address its decision to all Member States and immediately communicate it to the relevant economic operators.

2.If the provisional measure is considered justified in a Commission decision, all Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the non-compliant C-ITS station is withdrawn from their market and inform the Commission accordingly. If the provisional measure is considered unjustified, the Member State concerned shall withdraw it.

Article 19

Compliant C-ITS stations that present a risk to health and safety at national level

1.Where, after an evaluation pursuant to Article 17(1), the market surveillance authorities of a Member State find that, while in compliance with this Regulation, a C-ITS station presents a risk to the health or safety of persons or to other aspects of public interest protection, those authorities shall order the relevant economic operator to take one or more of the following corrective measures commensurate with the nature of the risk:

(a)to take all appropriate measures to ensure that the CITS station, when placed on the market, no longer presents that risk;

(b)to withdraw the C-ITS station from the market;

(c)to recall the C-ITS station.

The market surveillance authorities shall prescribe a reasonable period, commensurate with the nature of the risk, in which the economic operator is to take the measures referred to in the first subparagraph.

2.The economic operator shall ensure that the corrective measure is taken throughout the Union in respect of all such C-ITS stations that it has made available on the Union market.

3.The market surveillance authorities shall immediately inform the Commission and the other Member States of the corrective measures they have ordered pursuant to paragraph 1 and of all available details, including:

(a)the data necessary to identify the C-ITS station concerned;

(b)the origin and the supply chain of the C-ITS station;

(c)the nature of the risk;

(d)the nature and duration of the corrective measures.

4.The Commission shall without delay enter into consultation with the Member States and the relevant economic operators and evaluate the corrective measures ordered by the market surveillance authorities. On the basis of the results of the evaluation, it shall decide whether or not the measure is justified and, where necessary, propose appropriate measures.

5.The Commission shall address its decision to all Member States and immediately communicate it to the relevant economic operator or operators.

Article 20

Formal non-compliance

1.Without prejudice to Article 17, a Member State shall require the relevant economic operator to put an end to the noncompliance where it makes one of the following findings:

(a)the CE marking has been affixed in violation of Article 14 or 15;

(b)the CE marking has not been affixed;

(c)the EU declaration of conformity has not been drawn up;

(d)the EU declaration of conformity has not been drawn up correctly;

(e)technical documentation is either not available or not complete;

(f)the information referred to in Article 5(6) or Article 7(3) is absent, false or incomplete;

(g)any other administrative requirement provided for in Article 5 or Article 7 is not fulfilled.

2.Where the non-compliance referred to in paragraph 1 persists, the Member State concerned shall take all appropriate measures to restrict or prohibit the making available of the C-ITS station on the market or ensure that it is recalled or withdrawn from the market.

Chapter IV

Putting in service and operation of C-ITS stations

Article 21

Putting in service of central C-ITS stations

1.Before putting central C-ITS stations in service, the C-ITS station operator shall ensure that they have been designed and manufactured in accordance with the requirements set out in Article 5. To this end, it shall take either of the following actions:

(a)buy a central C-ITS station that was placed on the market in accordance with Chapter III. In that case, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall not apply;

(b)integrate the C-ITS station capabilities in a traffic control centre or central server. In that case, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall apply and Articles 7 to 20 shall not apply to the central C-ITS station.

2.C-ITS station operators shall draw up the required technical documentation referred to in Part C of Annex V and carry out the conformity assessment procedure referred to in Part C of Annex V. Where compliance of a central C-ITS station with the requirements set out in Article 5 has been demonstrated by that procedure, C-ITS station operators shall draw up an EU declaration of conformity in accordance with Part D of Annex V.

3.C-ITS station operators shall keep the technical documentation and the EU declaration of conformity as long as the central C-ITS station is in operation.

Article 22

Obligations of C-ITS station operators

1.C-ITS station operators shall ensure that all their C-ITS stations are put in service and operated in accordance with this Regulation.

2.Before putting a C-ITS station in service, the C-ITS station operator shall check that:

(a)it bears the CE marking

(b)the technical documentation referred to in Article 7 is available;

(c)the C-ITS station is certified in accordance with the requirements in Section 1.6.2 of Annex IV.

The obligations provided for in points (a) and (b) of the first subparagraph of this paragraph shall not apply to central C-ITS stations put in service in accordance with point (b) of Article 21(1).

Furthermore, before a C-ITS station is put in service, the C-ITS station operator shall enrol it in the EU CITS security credential management system in accordance with Article 23(3).

3.Before putting a C-ITS station in service, the C-ITS station operator shall agree with the owner of the C-ITS station on the rights and obligations with regard to the operation, maintenance and updating of the C-ITS station, including on how to inform the end-user.

4.Where a C-ITS station is enrolled in the EU C-ITS security credential management system, it shall be registered in a C-ITS station register of its enrolment authority together with the identification of its operator. The C-ITS point of contact shall maintain a list of C-ITS station registers.

5.The C-ITS station operator shall ensure that, while the C-ITS station is in use, it continues to comply with the requirements of Article 5, as applicable at the time of its putting in service.

6.Where a C-ITS station is to be upgraded either at the initiative of its operator or as required by an amendment to this Regulation, the operator shall ensure that the C-ITS station complies with the latest version of the relevant specifications referred to in Article 5.

7.Where a C-ITS station is to be upgraded at the initiative of the manufacturer or its authorised representative, the manufacturer or its authorised representative and the C-ITS station operators shall cooperate with a view to ensuring that the C-ITS station complies with the latest version of the relevant specifications referred to in Article 5.

Chapter V

Security

Article 23

Enrolment of C-ITS stations in the EU C-ITS security credential management system

1.The EU C-ITS security credential management system is set up for the provision of trusted and secure communication between C-ITS stations.

2.The functioning of the EU C-ITS security credential management system shall comply with the requirements in:

(a)Annex III (certificate policy), which sets out the requirements for the management of public key certificates for C-ITS services by issuing entities, and their usage by end-entities;

(b)Annex IV (security policy), which sets out the requirements for the management of information security in C-ITS.

3.All C-ITS stations shall be enrolled in, and comply with the rules of, the EU C-ITS security credential management system, in accordance with the specifications laid down in Annexes III and IV.

Article 24

C-ITS certificate policy authority

1.The C-ITS certificate policy authority shall be responsible for managing the certificate policy and the PKI authorisation in accordance with the certificate policy set out in Annex III.

2.The Commission shall act as the C-ITS certificate policy authority until a dedicated entity is established. 

Article 25

Trust list manager

1.The trust list manager shall be responsible for generating and updating the European Certificate Trust List (‘ECTL') in accordance with the certificate policy set out in Annex III and for regular activity reporting to the C-ITS certificate policy authority as regards the overall secure operation of C-ITS trust model.

2.The Commission shall act as the trust list manager until a dedicated entity is established.

Article 26

C-ITS point of contact

1.The C-ITS point of contact shall be responsible for handling all communication with root certification authority managers and publishing the public key certificate of the trust list manager and the ECTL in accordance with the certificate policy set out in Annex III.

2.The Commission shall act as the C-ITS point of contact until a dedicated entity is established.

Article 27

Information security management system

Each C-ITS station operator shall operate an information security management system in accordance with ISO/IEC 27001 and the additional requirements in Section 1.3.1 of Annex IV. 

Article 28

Compliance with the security policy

C-ITS station operators shall periodically request and obtain certification in accordance with the requirements in Section 1.7 of Annex IV. 

Chapter VI

Implementation

Article 29

Implementation of the C-ITS network

1.The Commission shall have the following tasks in the implementation of the C-ITS network:

(a)governance tasks:

(1)preparing updates to the C-ITS governance framework;

(2)supporting the development of common principles for the lawful processing of personal data by data controllers and processors in the C-ITS network;

(3)acting as contact point on the implementation of the C-ITS network for C-ITS station operators and manufacturers, ITS users groups and third country stakeholders;

(4)reviewing the following:

(a)C-ITS assessment criteria to be used by testing laboratories and other assessment organisations during the compliance assessment process;

(b)C-ITS reference specifications, including basic and test standards to be used during the various steps of the assessment process.

(b)supervision tasks: to supervise the management of largescale and highseverity security incidents that impact the entire C-ITS network (including disaster recovery situations where the cryptographic algorithm is compromised).

(c)the C-ITS certificate policy authority tasks:

(1)certificate policy management;

(2)PKI authorisation management.

2.In carrying out the tasks referred to in paragraph 1 the Commission shall be assisted by an expert group with representatives from public and private stakeholders, in particular C-ITS station manufacturers and operators in the C-ITS network.

Chapter VII

Final provisions

Article 30

Interim measures

In the event of an emergency situation jeopardising the proper functioning of the C-ITS network and having a severe direct impact on road safety, cyber security or the availability and integrity of C-ITS services, the Commission may adopt a decision introducing interim measures in order to remedy that situation. That decision shall be strictly limited to addressing the causes and consequences of that situation. It shall apply until this Regulation is amended to remedy that situation.

Article 31

Reporting

1.Member States shall monitor the implementation of this Regulation on their territory and report on the progress made in its implementation in the regular reporting referred to in Article 17(3) of Directive 2010/40/EU. In particular, the reporting shall cover:

(a)a description of the relevant public and public-private initiatives for C-ITS deployment, including their objective, timescale, milestones, resources, lead stakeholder(s) and status;

(b)the coverage of the road network by road type for each vehicle-to-infrastructure C-ITS priority service listed in Annex I;

(c)the number of roadside and central C-ITS stations deployed on their territory.

The Member States shall report for the first time by 27 August 2020.

2.Root certification authorities listed in the European certificate trust list specified in Annex III shall notify to the Commission by 31 December 2020 and by 31 December every year thereafter the number of enrolled and operational mobile and fixed CITS stations under their authority.

Article 32

C-ITS stations placed on the market before 31 December 2019

1.C-ITS stations placed on the market at the latest 31 December 2019, which do not fully comply with the C-ITS security related requirements of this Regulation, and C-ITS stations of the same type/model placed on the market at the latest 30 June 2021, may be granted enrolment in the C-ITS trust model by the C-ITS certificate policy authority on a case by case basis, provided that the conditions set out in paragraph 2 are fulfilled. C-ITS stations of the same type/model used for the replacement of defective or broken C-ITS stations referred to in the first sentence, may also be granted enrolment under the same conditions.

2.The C-ITS certificate policy authority may enrol the C-ITS stations referred to in paragraph 1 in the C-ITS trust model under the following conditions:

(a)the same level of security and trust as required by this Regulation is established;

(b)it is demonstrated that the respective C-ITS stations, and the envisaged enrolment procedure, pose no additional risks to the C-ITS network.

3.The C-ITS certificate policy authority shall take its decision on the basis of the report of an accredited PKI auditor and a security vulnerability assessment conducted by a conformity assessment body.

Article 33

Review

1.By [OP: Insert the date: 3 years after the entry into force of this Regulation], the Commission shall review the implementation of this Regulation and, if appropriate, adopt new common specifications within the scope of this Regulation.

2.Where stakeholders intend to deploy a new or updated communication method or service, or other innovative solutions, including technologies for which prototypes are currently being tested, in the C-ITS network, they shall first submit to the Commission a file containing the technical specifications and information on degree of maturity and compatibility of the innovative solution with this Regulation. Those technical specifications shall be developed in line with the principles of openness, consensus and transparency as defined in Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012.

The Commission shall then analyse the file without undue delay and start discussing the file with the expert group referred to in Article 29(2) within 2 months, in view of a possible amendment of this Regulation. The group of experts shall assess the need for common specifications integrating the new solutions into the C-ITS network and provide an opinion, at the latest 6 months after receiving the file. Where appropriate, the Commission’s Joint Research Centre shall support the relevant discussions with an independent technical assessment.

The submission of innovative solutions to the Commission and, where appropriate, the subsequent amendment of this Regulation may intervene at any time following the entry into force of this Regulation.

3.To maintain the continuity of the C-ITS priority services listed in Annex I, any future amendments shall ensure compatibility and interoperability with existing C-ITS stations put in service in accordance with this Regulation, or specify a suitable migration path.

Article 34

Entry into force

This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It shall apply from 31 December 2019.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 13.3.2019

   For the Commission

   The President
   Jean-Claude JUNCKER

(1)    https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/its/c-its_en
(2)     https://www.c-roads.eu
(3)    Commission Communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on A European strategy on cooperative intelligent transport systems, a milestone towards cooperative, connected and automated mobility (COM/2016/0766 final).
(4)    Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport (OJ L 207, 6.8.2010, p. 1).
(5)    Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1).
(6)    Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) (OJ L 201, 31.7.2002, p. 37).
(7)    Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (Data Protection Directive) (OJ L281, 23.11.1995, p.31).
(8)    Commission Implementing Decision of 7 April 2016 amending Commission Implementing Decision C(2014) 1921 establishing a Multi-Annual Work Programme 2014-2020 for financial assistance in the field of Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) - Transport sector for the period 2014-2020.
(9)    OJ L 207, 6.8.2010, p. 1.
(10)    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on A European strategy on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems, a milestone towards cooperative, connected and automated mobility (COM(2016) 766 final).
(11)    Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 886/2013 of 15 May 2013 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to data and procedures for the provision, where possible, of road safety-related minimum universal traffic information free of charge to users (OJ L 247, 18.9.2013, p. 6).
(12)    Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EUwide real-time traffic information services (OJ L 157, 23.6.2015, p. 21).
(13)    OJ L 194, 19.7.2016, p. 1.
(14)    Commission Decision 2008/671/EC of 5 August 2008 on the harmonised use of radio spectrum in the 5 8755 905 MHz frequency band for safety-related applications of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (OJ L 220, 15.8.2008, p. 24).
(15)    M/453: Standardisation mandate addressed to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of co-operative systems for intelligent transport in the European Community
(16)    Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC (OJ L 153, 22.5.2014, p. 62).
(17)    Decision No 768/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on a common framework for the marketing of products, and repealing Council Decision 93/465/EEC (OJ L 218, 13.8.2008, p. 82).
(18)    Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1).
(19)    Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) (OJ L 201, 31.7.2002, p. 37).
(20)    Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data (OJ L 8, 12.1.2001, p.1).
(21)    Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community (OJ L 166, 30.4.2004, p. 124)
(22)    Commission Decision 2009/750/EC of 6 October 2009 on the definition of the European Electronic Toll Service and its technical elements (OJ L 268, 13.10.2009, p. 11)
(23)    Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 February 2014 on tachographs in road transport, repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 on recording equipment in road transport and amending Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the harmonisation of certain social legislation relating to road transport (OJ L 60, 28.2.2014, p. 1).
(24)    Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 setting out the requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 339/93 (OJ L 218, 13.8.2008, p. 30).
Top

ANNEX I

1.Introduction

This Annex contains the service profiles for the C-ITS priority services. A service profile is a specific configuration of standards, defining the implementation of various options of standards.

1.1.References

The following references are used in this Annex:

TS 102 894-2    ETSI TS 102 894-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Users and applications requirements; Part 2: Applications and facilities layer common data dictionary, V1.3.1 (2018-08)

EN 302 637-2    ETSI EN 302 637-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 2: Specification of Cooperative Awareness Basic Service, V1.4.0 (2018-08); this reference shall be read as the reference to version 1.4.1 from the date of the publication of that version.

EN 302 637-3    ETSI EN 302 637-3, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 3: Specifications of Decentralized Environmental Notification Basic Service, v1.3.0 (201808); this reference shall be read as the reference to version 1.3.1 from the date of the publication of that version.

ECE 13    Regulation No 13 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE), Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles of categories M, N and O with regard to braking [2016/194]

ECE 13H    Regulation No 13H of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE), Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to braking [2015/2364]

ECE 48    Regulation No 48 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE), Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the installation of lighting and light-signalling devices [2016/1723]

ECE 121    Regulation No 121 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE), Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the location and identification of hand controls, tell-tales and indicators [2016/18]

ISO/TS 19321    ISO/TS 19321, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Dictionary of in-vehicle information (IVI) data structures (15 April 2015)

ISO 639-1    Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code

ISO/TS 14823    ISO/TS 14823:2017. Intelligent transport systems – Graphic data dictionary

1.2.Notations and abbreviations

The following notations and abbreviated terms are used in this Annex:

ABS                Anti-lock Braking System

ASR                Anti-Slip Regulation

AT                Authorization Ticket

CAM                Cooperative Awareness Message

C-ITS            Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems

DCC                Decentralized Congestion Control

DEN                Decentralized Environmental Notification

DENM            Decentralized Environmental Notification Message

GNSS            Global Navigation Satellite System

I2V                infrastructure-to-vehicle

IRC                Impact Reduction Container

IVI                Infrastructure to Vehicle Information

MAP                Topology information for the intersection

SPAT                Signal Phase and Timing

SREM            Signal Request Extended Message

SSEM            Signal Request Status Extended Message

TC                Traffic Class

TMS                Traffic Management system

TOC                traffic operations centre

TRCO            Triggering condition

TTC                Time to Collision

V2V                vehicle-to-vehicle

1.3.Definitions

The following definitions are used in this Annex:

(a)‘stationary vehicle’ means a vehicle with an absolute speed <= 8 centimetres per second. This state shall be determined by internal vehicle sensors;

(b)‘emergency vehicle’ means a vehicle that is designated and authorised to respond to an emergency. Emergency vehicles are often permitted by law to break conventional road rules in order to reach their destinations in the fastest possible time, such as (but not limited to) driving through an intersection when the traffic lights are red or exceeding the speed limit.

2.List of priority services

Service category

Service

Service profile

Vehicle-to-vehicle services

Traffic jam

Dangerous end of queue

Section 3

Traffic jam

Traffic jam ahead

Section 4

Stationary vehicle warning

Stopped vehicle

Section 5

Stationary vehicle warning

Broken-down vehicle

Section 6

Stationary vehicle warning

Post-crash

Section 7

Special vehicle warning

Emergency vehicle in operation

Section 8

Special vehicle warning

Stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle

Section 9

Special vehicle warning

Stationary recovery service warning

Section 10

Exchange of IRCs

Request IRC

Section 11

Exchange of IRCs

Response IRC

Section 12

Dangerous situation

Electronic emergency brake light

Section 13

Dangerous situation

Automatic brake intervention

Section 14

Dangerous situation

Reversible occupant restraint system intervention

Section 15

Adverse weather conditions

Fog

Section 16

Adverse weather conditions

Precipitation

Section 17

Adverse weather conditions

Traction loss

Section 18

Infrastructure-to-vehicle services

In-vehicle signage

Dynamic speed limit information

Section 19

In-vehicle signage

Embedded VMS ‘free text’

Section 20

In-vehicle signage

Other signage information

Section 21

Hazardous locations notification

Accident zone

Section 22

Hazardous locations notification

Traffic jam ahead

Section 23

Hazardous locations notification

Stationary vehicle

Section 24

Hazardous locations notification

Weather condition warning

Section 25

Hazardous locations notification

Temporarily slippery road

Section 26

Hazardous locations notification

Animal or person on the road

Section 27

Hazardous locations notification

Obstacle on the road

Section 28

Road works warning

Lane closure (and other restrictions)

Section 29

Road works warning

Road closure

Section 30

Road works warning

Road works — mobile

Section 31

Signalised intersections

Green light optimal speed advisory

Section 32

Signalised intersections

Public transport prioritisation

Section 33

3.Traffic jam — dangerous end of queue

3.1.Description of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) service

This C-ITS service transmits vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) information on a situation where an ego vehicle detects the end of a traffic jam (‘dangerous end of queue’). Such a situation exists when the traffic lane of the ego vehicle is blocked and the vehicle cannot proceed in its lane. Urban environment is not considered in this service.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘dangerous situations — electronic emergency brake light’.

3.2.Triggering conditions

3.2.1.Preconditions

(1)The following preconditions shall be satisfied every time before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)the ego vehicle is located in a non-urban environment, as determined in at least one of the following ways:

·the velocity is greater than 80 km/h for a time block of at least 30 s in the 60 s prior to each detection and the absolute value of the steering wheel angle is less than 90 ° for a time block of at least 30 s in the 60 s prior to each detection (‘dangerous end of queue’ should not be detected in a nonmotorway environment);

·an on-board camera sensor indicates non-urban environment;

·an on-board digital map indicates non-urban environment.

(2)The vehicle velocity and deceleration shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The filtered vehicle velocity (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle velocity and deceleration analysis.

(3)The velocity and angle values shall be measured continuously. The conditions shall be satisfied throughout the measurement duration. The process shall start over again if the conditions are not satisfied within measurement duration.

3.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(4)If the preconditions in point (1) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a Decentralised Environmental Notification Message (DENM) shall be triggered:

·TRCO_0 AND (TRCO _2 OR TRCO _3 OR TRCO _4 OR TRCO _5 OR TRCO _6)

·TRCO_1 AND TRCO_2.

Table 1: ‘Traffic jam — dangerous end of queue’ servicespecific conditions

Count

Triggering condition (TRCO)

Status

TRCO_0

The ego vehicle is driving with an initial velocity exceeding 80 km/h and the initial deceleration is equal to or below 0.1 m/s². The driver reacts to the dangerous end of queue by reducing the velocity from initial to target velocity of 30 km/h or less. The duration between initial and target velocity shall be 10 s or less. An instant deceleration between initial and target velocity exceeding 3.5 m/s² is detected.

driver reaction

TRCO_1

Passengers of the ego vehicle react to the traffic jam by enabling hazard lights for at least 3 s

driver reaction

TRCO_2

At least three other vehicles with a velocity of at least 7 km/h have hazard lights enabled for at least 3 s, as indicated by:

·an on-board camera sensor; or

·CAMs.

environment or on-board sensors

TRCO_3

At least one DENM corresponding to the ‘Traffic jam - Dangerous end of queue’ C-ITS service has been received.

environment

TRCO_4

At least five different DENMs (i.e. with different actionIDs) corresponding to the ‘traffic jam - traffic jam ahead’ CITS service have been received from the downstream traffic.

environment

TRCO_5

At least one DENM corresponding to the ‘Special vehicle warning - Static safeguarding emergency vehicle’ C-ITS service has been received, with linkedCause equal to Traffic Condition or Dangerous End of Queue.

environment

TRCO_6

On-board sensors of the ego vehicle recognise that the vehicle is facing a dangerous end of queue.

on-board sensors

(5)A new DENM shall not be requested within the Detection Blocking Time. The Detection Blocking Time is launched after the event is detected and a DENM to that effect has been requested. In this way, a single event is not able to flood the transmission channel. The Detection Blocking Time shall be 60 s no matter how the event is detected. The detection period between two detected events shall be at least equal to the Detection Blocking Time. The detection algorithm may run during Detection Blocking Time.

Note: No period for the braking manoeuvres is presented, because the initial ego vehicle velocity has no upper restriction.

(6)A condition shall be valid as long as it is active and for an extra period of 5 s (the period increases the determinism of the detection algorithm). The validity shall decrease from the moment the condition is no longer satisfied, thus facilitating the combination of triggering conditions.

(7)CAMs and DENMs from remote vehicles used for evaluating servicespecific conditions as described above shall be relevant for the ego vehicle. The relevance shall be determined in one of these ways:

(a)a digital map indicates that the event and the ego vehicle are separated by a distance of less than 500 m and share the same driving direction;

(b)a path history match indicates that the event and the ego vehicle are separated by a distance of less than 500 m and share the same driving direction;

(c)the Euclidean distance between the event and the ego vehicle is less than 500 m and the absolute value of the heading difference is less than 10 °. The traffic jam reference positions according to the DENMs are located in an area spanning from -45 ° to +45 ° starting at the ego vehicle’s longitudinal axis.

Note: When counting vehicles or events, Authorization Ticket (AT) change should be considered in such a way that no vehicle or event is counted multiple times.

3.2.3.Information quality

(8)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the situation is detected. TRCOs (see point (4)) are divided into groups: driver reaction, vehicle dynamics, environment and on-board sensors. The informationQuality value shall be set according to the following table. The highest possible value shall be used.

Table 2: Information quality of ‘traffic jam — dangerous end of queue’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

At least one TRCO from the driver reaction AND environment group is fulfilled.

1

At least one TRCO from the driver reaction AND on-board sensors group is fulfilled.

2

At least one TRCO from the driver reaction AND environment AND on-board sensors group is fulfilled.

3

3.3.Termination conditions

(9)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

3.3.1.Cancellation

(10)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

3.3.2.Negation

(11)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

3.4.Update

(12)An update DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

3.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(13)New DENMs shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 20 s with a repetitionInterval of 0.5 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the Decentralised Environmental Notification (DEN) basic service shall be set according to the above values.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving CITS station.

3.6.Traffic class

(14)New DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

3.7.Message parameters

3.7.1.DENM

(15)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 3: DENM data elements of ‘traffic jam — dangerous end of queue’

Data Field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set according to [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-Timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

referenceTime

TimestampIts-Timestamp at which a new DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

relevanceDistance

lessThan1000 m(4)

relevanceTrafficDirection

upstreamTraffic(1)

validityDuration

20s (it is expected that vehicles will be facing a different traffic situation 20 s after detection)

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (8)

causeCode

dangerousEndOfQueue(27)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

3.7.2.Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM)

(16)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

3.8.Network and transport layer

(17)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

3.9.Security layer

(18)If the triggering conditions are fulfilled as described in point (4), an AT change shall be blocked for new DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

4.Traffic jam — traffic jam ahead

4.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a situation where an ego vehicle detects a traffic jam. Such a situation exists if the ego vehicle is surrounded by stationary traffic or a heavy volume of traffic. This service does not apply to urban environments.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

   ‘stationary vehicle warning — stopped vehicle’;

   ‘stationary vehicle warning — broken-down vehicle’;

   ‘stationary vehicle warning — post-crash’;

   ‘special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning’.

4.2.Triggering conditions

4.2.1.Preconditions

(19)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is initialised:

(a)no ‘stationary vehicle warning’ service (see sections 4 to 6) is detected;

(b)no ‘special vehicle warning’ service (see sections 7 to 9) is detected;

(c)the ego vehicle is located in a non-urban environment. The location shall be determined in at least one of these ways:

(a)the velocity is greater than 80 km/h for a time block of at least 30 s in the 180 s prior to each detection and the absolute value of the steering wheel angle is less than 90 ° for a time block of at least 30 s in the 60 s prior to each detection (traffic jams should not be detected on motorways);

(b)an on-board camera sensor indicates non-urban environment;

(c)an on-board digital map indicates non-urban environment.

(20)The vehicle velocity shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle velocity (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle velocity analysis.

(21)The velocity and angle values shall be measured continuously. The conditions shall be satisfied throughout the measurement duration. The process shall start over again if the conditions are not satisfied within measurement duration.

4.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(22)If the preconditions in point (19) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

·TRCO_0;

·TRCO _1 AND (TRCO _2 OR TRCO _3 OR TRCO _4 OR TRCO _5)

Table 4: ‘Traffic jam — traffic jam ahead’ servicespecific conditions

Count

Triggering condition

Status

TRCO_0

The ego vehicle is moving with an average velocity of 30 km/h or less and more than 0 km/h (this threshold is introduced to avoid overlap and to distinguish TRCO_0 and TRCO_1). The average velocity shall be calculated over a period of 120 s (the duration condition excludes frequently changing traffic states from triggering).

Note: This TRCO covers the scenario where the ego vehicle is surrounded by stopandgo traffic.

vehicle dynamics

TRCO_1

The ego vehicle velocity is equal to 0 km/h for at least 30 s.

Note: This TRCO covers a scenario in which the ego vehicle is stationary and surrounded by other road users.

vehicle dynamics

TRCO_2

At least one DENM corresponding to the ‘traffic jam - traffic jam ahead’ C-ITS service with the same driving direction has been received.

environment

TRCO_3

At least one traffic jam notification with the same driving direction has been received by means of mobile radio.

environment

TRCO_4

CAMs indicate a velocity of 30 km/h or less of at least five other vehicles within 100 m and with the same driving direction.

environment

TRCO_5

On-board sensors indicate a velocity 30 km/h or less of at least five other vehicles within 100 m and with the same driving direction.

on-board sensor

(23)A new DENM shall not be requested in the Detection Blocking Time. The Detection Blocking Time is launched after the event is detected and a DENM to that effect has been requested. In this way, a single event is not able to flood the transmission channel. The Detection Blocking Time shall be 180 s no matter how the event is detected. The detection period between two detected events shall be at least equal to the Detection Blocking Time. The detection algorithm may run during Detection Blocking Time.

(24)A condition shall be valid as long as it is active and for an extra period of 5 s (the period increases the determinism of the detection algorithm). The validity decreases from the moment the condition is no longer satisfied, thus facilitating the combination of triggering conditions.

(25)CAMs and DENMs from remote vehicles used to evaluate servicespecific conditions as described above shall be relevant for the ego vehicle. The relevance shall be determined in one of these ways:

(a)a digital map indicates that the event and the ego vehicle are separated by a distance of less than 500 m and share the same driving direction;

(b)a path history match indicates that the event and the ego vehicle are separated by a distance of less than 500 m and share the same driving direction;

(c)the Euclidean distance between the event and the ego vehicle is less than 500 m and the absolute value of the heading difference is less than 10 °. The traffic jam reference positions according to the DENMs are located in an area spanning from -45 ° to +45 ° starting at the ego vehicle’s longitudinal axis.

Note: When counting vehicles or events, AT change should be considered in such a way that no vehicle or event is counted multiple times.

4.2.3.Information quality

(26)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the situation is detected. TRCOs (see point (22)) are divided into groups: driver reaction, vehicle dynamics, environment and on-board sensors. The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table. The highest possible value shall be used.

Table 5: Information quality of ‘traffic jam — traffic jam ahead’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Al least one condition from the vehicle dynamics group is fulfilled, i.e. condition TRCO_0 is fulfilled.

1

At least one condition from the vehicle dynamics AND environment group is fulfilled.

2

At least one condition from the vehicle dynamics AND on-board sensor group is fulfilled.

3

At least one condition from the vehicle dynamics AND environment group AND on-board sensor group is fulfilled.

4

4.3.Termination conditions

(27)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

4.3.1.Cancellation

(28)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

4.3.2.Negation

(29)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

4.4.Update

(30)An update DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

4.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(31)New DENMs shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 60 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the values above.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

4.6.Traffic class

(32)New DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

4.7.Message parameters

4.7.1.DENM

(33)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 6: DENM data elements of ‘traffic jam — traffic jam ahead’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

relevanceDistance

lessThan1000m(4)

relevanceTrafficDirection

upstreamTraffic(1)

validityDuration

60 s (a traffic jam situation is expected to last at least 60 s)

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (26).

causeCode

trafficCondition(1)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

4.7.2.CAM

(34)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

4.8.Network and transport layer

(35)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

4.9.Security layer

(36)If the triggering conditions are fulfilled as described in point (22), an AT change shall be blocked for new DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

5.Stationary vehicle warning - stopped vehicle

5.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a situation where a vehicle has stopped, without particular information about the reason.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning’;

·‘stationary vehicle warning — broken-down vehicle’;

·‘stationary vehicle warning — post-crash’.

(37)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as being met. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new, update or cancellation DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

5.2.Triggering conditions

5.2.1.Preconditions

(38)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)no breakdown warning message that prevents the driver from continuing driving (e.g. red warning symbols, in accordance with [ECE 121]) is shown on the instrument cluster.

Note: This service is not required to check ignition terminal 15 status for triggering (can be on or off). Operation of the service is optional when ignition terminal 15 is off.

(39)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the ‘broken-down vehicle’ and/or ‘post-crash’ C-ITS services are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘post-crash’ (highest priority);

(b)‘broken-down vehicle’;

(c)‘stopped vehicle’ (lowest priority).

5.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(40)If the preconditions in point (38) and all of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the ego vehicle has enabled hazard lights;

(b)the vehicle is stationary;

(c)the Triggering Timer has expired.

(41)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle speed analysis.

(42)If the vehicle has enabled hazard lights and is stationary, the Triggering Timer shall be set to 30 s and started. The Triggering Timer shall be reduced if the following situations arise:

(a)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the automatic transmission (AUT) is set to ‘park’ for at least 3 s;

(b)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the gear box is set to idle for at least 3 s;

(c)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the parking brake is enabled for at least 3 s;

(d)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if an arbitrary number of seatbelt buckles change from ‘connected’ to ‘disconnected’ for at least 3 s;

(e)the timer shall be set to 0 if an arbitrary number of doors are open for at least 3 s;

(f)the timer shall be set to 0 if the ignition terminal is switched from on to off for at least 3 s;

(g)the timer shall be set to 0 if the boot is open for at least 3 s;

(h)the timer shall be set to 0 if the bonnet is open for at least 3 s.

(43)All abovelisted procedures for the timer reduction shall be applied only once during initial detection. If the Triggering Timer has been counted down to 0, no further reduction is necessary in the current detection cycle.

(44)During the runtime of the Triggering Timer, the hazard lights shall be enabled and the vehicle shall be stationary. Otherwise, the detection shall be cancelled.

5.2.3.Information quality

(45)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (42)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 7: Information quality of ‘stationary vehicle — stopped vehicle’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

None of the conditions a) — h) are fulfilled.

1

At least one condition of a) — d) is fulfilled.

2

At least one condition of e) — h) is fulfilled.

3

(46)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated. In the update phase, only the conditions that would lead to a timer reduction shall be evaluated, but not the timer itself.

5.3.Termination conditions

(47)This C-ITS service is terminated by a cancellation of the originating C-ITS station. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

5.3.1.Cancellation

(48)If at least one of the following conditions is satisfied before the period set in the data element validityDuration has expired, the generation of a cancellation DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the vehicle is no longer stationary for a duration of 5 s;

(b)the hazard lights are disabled;

(c)the position of the vehicle has changed more than 500 m (e.g. because the vehicle has been towed away).

Note: The cancellation condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that cancellation condition.

5.3.2.Negation

(49)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

5.4.Update

(50)If the previously triggered DENM for a detected Stopped Vehicle was not cancelled, the generation of an update DENM shall be triggered every 15 s.

(51)In the update phase, only the triggering conditions shall be checked (further evaluation of timers shall not be executed).

(52)New values shall be assigned to data fields or elements in the DENM according to the changed event (e.g. detectionTime or informationQuality).

Note: The update condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that update condition.

5.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(53)DENMs that are new, have been updated or have been cancelled shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 15 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 30 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

5.6.Traffic class

(54)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

5.7.Message parameters

5.7.1.DENM

(55)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 8: DENM data elements of ‘stationary vehicle warning — stopped vehicle’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new, update or cancellation DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set in the case of new or update DENM. Shall be set to isCancellation(0) in the case of a cancellation DENM.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan1000m(4)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

30 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (45). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

stationaryVehicle(94)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set in accordance with the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

5.7.2.CAM

(56)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

5.8.Network and transport layer

(57)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

5.9.Security layer

(58)If the triggering conditions as described in point (40) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new, update and cancellation DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new, update and cancellation DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

6.Stationary vehicle warning — broken-down vehicle

6.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a broken-down vehicle. Though various reasons could cause a vehicle breakdown, such as bursting tires, lack of fuel or engine failure, this section focuses on reasons indicated by breakdown warning messages in the instrument cluster.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning’;

·‘stationary vehicle warning — stopped vehicle’;

·‘stationary vehicle warning — post-crash’.

(59)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new, update or cancellation DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

6.2.Triggering conditions

6.2.1.Preconditions

(60)The following precondition shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)a breakdown warning message that prevents the driver from continuing driving (e.g. red warning symbols, in accordance with [ECE 121]) is shown on the instrument cluster.

Note: This service is not required to check ignition terminal 15 status for triggering (can be on or off). Operation of the service is optional when ignition terminal 15 is off.

(61)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the ‘stopped vehicle’ and/or ‘post-crash’ C-ITS services are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘post-crash’ (highest priority);

(b)‘broken-down vehicle’;

(c)‘stopped vehicle’ (lowest priority).

6.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(62)If the precondition in point (60) and all of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the ego vehicle has enabled hazard lights;

(b)the vehicle is stationary;

(c)the Triggering Timer has expired.

(63)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle speed analysis.

(64)If the vehicle has enabled hazard lights and is stationary, the Triggering Timer shall be set to 30 s and started. The Triggering Timer shall be reduced if the following situations arise:

(a)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the automatic transmission (AUT) is set to ‘park’ for at least 3 s;

(b)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the gear box is set to idle for at least 3 s;

(c)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if the parking brake is enabled for at least 3 s;

(d)the timer shall be reduced by 10 s if an arbitrary number of the seatbelt buckles change from ‘connected’ to ‘disconnected’ for at least 3 s;

(e)the timer shall be set to 0 if an arbitrary number of doors are open for at least 3 s;

(f)the timer shall be set to 0 if the ignition terminal is switched from on to off for at least 3 s;

(g)the timer shall be set to 0 if the boot is open for at least 3 s;

(h)the timer shall be set to 0 if the bonnet is open for at least 3 s.

(65)All abovelisted procedures for the timer reduction shall be applied only once during initial detection. If the Triggering Timer has been counted down to 0, no further reduction is necessary in the current detection cycle.

(66)During the runtime of the Triggering Timer, the hazard lights shall be enabled and the vehicle shall be stationary all the time. Otherwise, the detection shall be cancelled.

6.2.3.Information quality

(67)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (64)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 9: Information quality of ‘stationary vehicle — broken-down vehicle’

Event detection

Value of informationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

None of conditions a) — h) are fulfilled.

1

At least one condition of a) — d) is fulfilled.

2

At least one condition of e) — h) is fulfilled.

3

(68)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated. In the update phase, only the conditions that would lead to a timer reduction shall be evaluated, but not the timer itself.

6.3.Termination conditions

(69)This C-ITS service is terminated by a cancellation of the originating C-ITS station. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

6.3.1.Cancellation

(70)If at least one of the following conditions is satisfied before the period set in the data element validityDuration has expired, the generation of a cancellation DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the vehicle is no longer stationary for a duration of 5 s;

(b)the hazard lights are disabled;

(c)the position of the vehicle has changed more than 500 m (e.g. because the vehicle has been towed away).

Note: The cancellation condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that cancellation condition.

6.3.2.Negation

(71)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

6.4.Update

(72)If the previously triggered DENM for a detected Broken-down Vehicle was not cancelled, the generation of an update DENM shall be triggered every 15 s.

(73)In the update phase, only the triggering conditions shall be checked (timers shall not be evaluated further).

(74)If the ignition terminal 15 is switched from on to off, an update DENM shall be triggered immediately.

(75)New values shall be assigned to data fields or elements in the DENM according to the changed event (e.g. detectionTime or informationQuality).

Note: The update condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that update condition.

6.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(76)DENMs that are new, have been updated or have been cancelled shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 15 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

(77)In the case of an enabled ignition terminal 15, the validityDuration shall be set to 30 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: The validityDuration is set to a higher value in the case of a disabled ignition terminal 15 than in the case of an enabled ignition terminal 15. This is due to the fact that update DENM cannot be triggered and can no longer be sent. Therefore, the last DENM shall be kept alive longer.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

6.6.Traffic class

(78)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

6.7.Message parameters

6.7.1.DENM

(79)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 10: DENM data elements of ‘stationary vehicle warning — broken-down vehicle’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new, update or cancellation DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set in the case of a new or update DENM. Shall be set to isCancellation(0) in the case of a cancellation DENM.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan1000m(4)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

·Ignition terminal 15 enabled: 30 s

·Ignition terminal 15 disabled: 900 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (67). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

stationaryVehicle(94)

subCauseCode

vehicleBreakdown(2)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set according to the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

6.7.2.CAM

(80)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

6.8.Network and transport layer

(81)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

6.9.Security layer

(82)If the triggering conditions as described in point (62) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new, update and cancellation DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new, update and cancellation DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

7.Stationary vehicle warning — post-crash

7.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a vehicle that is stationary as the result of a traffic accident.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

   ‘stationary vehicle warning — stopped vehicle’;

   ‘stationary vehicle warning — broken-down vehicle’.

(83)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new, update or cancellation DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

7.2.Triggering conditions

7.2.1.Preconditions

(84)No specific preconditions apply for this C-ITS service.

(85)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the C-ITS services ‘stopped vehicle’ and/or ‘broken-down vehicle’ are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘post-crash’ (highest priority);

(b)‘broken-down vehicle’;

(c)‘stopped vehicle’ (lowest priority).

7.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(86)If the preconditions in point (84) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)an eCall has been triggered manually by an occupant of the vehicle by the eCall button and the vehicle becomes stationary within 15 s. If the vehicle is already stationary, the condition is fulfilled immediately;

(b)a lowseverity crash is detected without the activation of an irreversible occupant restraint system (e.g. high-voltage battery cut-off, door unlock) and the vehicle becomes stationary within 15 s. If the vehicle is already stationary, the condition is fulfilled immediately;

(c)a pedestrian collision is detected with the activation of at least one irreversible pedestrianprotection system (e.g. popup bonnet, outside airbag) and the vehicle becomes stationary within 15 s. If the vehicle is already stationary, the condition is fulfilled immediately;

(d)a highseverity crash is detected with the activation of at least one irreversible occupantrestraint system (e.g. pyrotechnic belt-tightener, airbag).

(87)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle speed analysis.

Note: The conditions need to be checked only if the necessary power supply is present. This means that crashsecure implementation of the system is not required.

7.2.3.Information Quality

(88)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (86)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 11: Information quality of ‘stationary vehicle — post-crash’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition (a) is fulfilled.

1

Condition (b) or (c) is fulfilled.

2

Condition (d) is fulfilled.

3

(89)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

7.3.Termination conditions

(90)This C-ITS service is terminated by a cancellation of the originating C-ITS station. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

7.3.1.Cancellation

(91)Once at least one of the following conditions is satisfied before the period set in the data element validityDuration has expired, the generation of a cancellation DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the ego vehicle is not stationary for a duration of 15 s;

(b)the position of the vehicle has changed more than 500 m (e.g. because the vehicle has been towed away).

Note: The cancellation condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that cancellation condition.

7.3.2.Negation

(92)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

7.4.Update

(93)An update DENM shall be triggered every 60 s if the C-ITS service has not been cancelled.

(94)If the ignition terminal 15 is switched from on to off, an update DENM shall be triggered immediately.

(95)New values shall be assigned to data fields or elements in the DENM according to the changed event (e.g. detectionTime or informationQuality).

Note: The update condition does not imply that the C-ITS station needs to be permanently operational or extend its operation during that update condition.

7.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(96)DENMs that are new, have been updated or have been cancelled shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 60 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

(97)In the case of an enabled ignition terminal 15, the validityDuration shall be set to 180 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: The validityDuration is set to a higher value in the case of a disabled ignition terminal 15 than in the case of an enabled ignition terminal 15. This is due to the fact that update DENM cannot be triggered and can no longer be sent. Therefore, the last DENM shall be kept alive longer.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

7.6.Traffic class

(98)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

7.7.Message parameters

7.7.1.DENM

(99)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 12: DENM data elements of ‘Stationary Vehicle Warning — Post-Crash’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new, update or cancellation DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set in the case of new or update DENM. Shall be set to isCancellation(0) in the case of a cancellation DENM.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan5km(5)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

·Ignition terminal 15 enabled: 180 s

·Ignition terminal 15 disabled: 1 800 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (88). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

stationaryVehicle(94)

subCauseCode

postCrash(3)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set according to the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

 

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

7.7.2.CAM

(100)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

7.8.Network and transport layer

(101)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

7.9.Security layer

(102)If the triggering conditions as described in point (86) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new, update and cancellation DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new, update and cancellation DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

8.Special vehicle warning — emergency vehicle in operation

8.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on an emergency vehicle moving to an operation scene, which is signalled by the use of the light bar.

(103)As soon as the C-ITS service is triggered, a DENM shall be transmitted by the emergency vehicle C-ITS station and parts of CAM data fields shall be set in accordance with section 8.7.2.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’;

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning’.

(104)The default C-ITS service for an emergency vehicle C-ITS station is ‘emergency vehicle in operation’. A change to the ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’ C-ITS service shall be triggered only under the conditions set out in section9.

8.2.Triggering conditions

8.2.1.Preconditions

(105)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)the stationType is confirmed to be a special vehicle (stationType of CAM is set to specialVehicles(10)). The C-ITS service is restricted to emergency vehicles;

(b)the triggering conditions regarding ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’ shall not be satisfied (see section 9.2).

8.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(106)If the preconditions in point (105) and the following condition are satisfied, the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the light bar is in use.

(107)The level of information quality can be improved by the following conditions:

(b)the siren is in use;

(c)the vehicle is not stationary.

(108)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used.

8.2.3.Information quality

(109)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see points (106) and (107)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 13: Information quality of ‘emergency vehicle in operation’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition a) is fulfilled

1

Conditions a) and b) are fulfilled

2

Conditions a) and c) are fulfilled

3

Conditions a), b), and c) are fulfilled

4

(110)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

8.3.Termination conditions

(111)The C-ITS service shall be terminated when the light bar is no longer in use. At the termination of the C-ITS service, updating of DENMs shall be terminated. The vehicleRole shall be set to default(0) if the light bar is no longer in use.

8.3.1.Cancellation

(112)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

8.3.2.Negation

(113)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

8.4.Update

(114)The generated DENM shall be updated every 250 ms if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. The data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 14 below.

8.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(115)A repetition of the DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

8.6.Traffic class

(116)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

8.7.Message parameters

8.7.1.DENM

(117)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 14: DENM data elements of ‘emergency vehicle in operation’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this CITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan1000m(4)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (109). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

emergencyVehicleApproaching(95)

subCauseCode

emergencyVehicleApproaching(1)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set according to the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

 

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

8.7.2.CAM

(118)The vehicleRole shall be initialised at a ‘default’ setting (vehicleRole of CAM set to default(0)). If at least one of the triggering conditions in point (106) is satisfied, the vehicleRole shall be set to emergency(6).

(119)The following table specifies the data elements of the CAM that shall be set if the C-ITS service is triggered.

Table 15: CAM data elements of ‘emergency vehicle in operation’

Data field

Value

CoopAwareness

generationDeltaTime

Time corresponding to the time of the reference position in the CAM, considered as time of CAM generation.

Shall be set in accordance with [EN 302 637-2].

BasicContainer

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

referencePosition

Position and position accuracy measured at the reference point of the originating CITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

HighFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerHighFrequency

heading

Heading direction of the originating C-ITS station in relation to true north.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

speed

Driving speed of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

driveDirection

Vehicle drive direction (forward or backward) of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleLength

Length of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleWidth

Width of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

longitudinalAcceleration

Vehicle longitudinal acceleration of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvature

Curvature of the vehicle trajectory and the accuracy.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvatureCalcMode

Describes whether the yaw rate is used to calculate the curvature for a reported curvature value.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

yawRate

Yaw rate of vehicle at a point in time.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

LowFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerLowFrequency

vehicleRole

emergency(6)

exteriorLights

Describes the status of the exterior light switches of a vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

pathHistory

Represents the vehicle’s movement over a recent period and/or distance.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

SpecialVehicleContainer shall be set to EmergencyContainer

lightBarSirenInUse

lightBarActivated bit shall be set to 1(onChange), if the usage of the light bar is detected; otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

sirenActivated bit shall be set to 1, if usage of the siren is detected; otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

emergencyPriority

Is not required

causeCode

As specified in point (117)

subCauseCode

As specified in point (117)

8.8.Network and transport layer

(120)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

8.9.Security layer

(121)If the triggering conditions as described in point (106) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

9.Special vehicle warning — stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle

9.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a stationary emergency vehicle safeguarding a hazard area.

(122)As soon as the C-ITS service is triggered, a DENM shall be transmitted by the emergency vehicle C-ITS station and parts of CAM data fields shall be set in accordance with section 9.7.2.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘special vehicle warning — emergency vehicle in operation’;

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning’.

9.2.Triggering conditions

9.2.1.Preconditions

(123)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

·the stationType is confirmed to be an emergency vehicle (stationType of CAM is set to specialVehicles(10)). The C-ITS service is restricted to emergency vehicles;

·the Standstill Timer shall be initialised with zero.

(124)The default C-ITS service for an emergency vehicle C-ITS station is ‘emergency vehicle in operation’. A change to the C-ITS service ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’ shall be triggered only under the conditions defined in section 9.2.2.

9.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(125)If the vehicle is stationary and the light bar is in use, a Standstill Timer shall be initialised with zero and started. If the light bar is no longer in use or the vehicle is no longer stationary, the Standstill Timer shall be stopped and reset to zero.

(126)If the preconditions in point (123) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the light bar is in use and engine relay is activated;

(b)the light bar is in use, the hazard lights are activated and the parking brake is activated or (in the case of automatic transmission) ‘park’ is selected;

(c)the light bar is in use, the hazard lights are activated and the Standstill Timer is 60 s or more.

(127)The level of information quality can be improved by the following conditions:

(d)the status of at least one door, or the boot, is ‘open’;

(e)the driver’s seat is detected, by one of the following techniques, as being ‘not occupied’:

(1)passenger compartment camera;

(2)state-of-the-art technique for seat occupation used in seatbelt reminder.

(128)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle speed analysis.

(129)If the C-ITS service is triggered due to fulfilment of condition (a) or (b) in point (126), the Standstill Timer shall be stopped and set to 60 s. In the update phase, only the conditions shall be checked, but no timer shall be started.

9.2.3.Information quality

(130)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see points (126) and (127)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 16: Information quality of ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition (c) fulfilled

1

Condition (b) fulfilled

2

At least one of conditions (b) or (c) fulfilled and condition (d) fulfilled

3

At least one of conditions (b) or (c) fulfilled and condition (e) fulfilled

4

Condition (a) fulfilled

5

(131)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

9.3.Termination conditions

(132)This C-ITS service is terminated by a cancellation of the originating C-ITS station. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

9.3.1.Cancellation

(133)If the following condition is satisfied before the period set in the data element validityDuration has expired, the generation of a cancellation DENM shall be triggered:

(a)all the C-ITS servicespecific conditions (a) to (c) in section 9.2.2 are no longer satisfied.

The vehicleRole shall be set to default(0) if the light bar is no longer in use.

9.3.2.Negation

(134)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.    

9.4.Update

(135)The generated DENM shall be updated every 60 s if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. All data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 17 below.

9.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(136)DENMs that are new, have been updated or have been cancelled shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 60 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 180 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

9.6.Traffic class

(137)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

9.7.Message parameters

9.7.1.DENM

(138)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 17: DENM data elements of ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new, update or cancellation DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set in the case of new or update DENM. Shall be set to isCancellation(0) in the case of fulfilment of cancellation conditions; see point (133).

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan5km(5)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

180 s

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (130). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

rescueAndRecoveryWorkInProgress(15)

subCauseCode

emergencyVehicles(1)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set according to the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

 

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

9.7.2.CAM

(139)The vehicleRole shall be initialised at a ‘default’ setting (vehicleRole of CAM set to default(0)). If at least one of the triggering conditions defined in point (126) is satisfied, the vehicleRole shall be set to emergency(6).

(140)The following table specifies the data elements of the CAM that shall be set if the C-ITS service is triggered.

Table 18: CAM data elements of ‘stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle‘

Data field

Value

CoopAwareness

generationDeltaTime

Time corresponding to the time of the reference position in the CAM, considered as time of CAM generation.

Shall be set in accordance with [EN 302 637-2].

BasicContainer

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

referencePosition

Position and position accuracy measured at the reference point of the originating CITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

HighFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerHighFrequency

heading

Heading direction of the originating C-ITS station in relation to true north.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

speed

Driving speed of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

driveDirection

Vehicle drive direction (forward or backward) of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleLength

Length of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleWidth

Width of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

longitudinalAcceleration

Vehicle longitudinal acceleration of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvature

Curvature of the vehicle trajectory and the accuracy.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvatureCalcMode

Describes whether the yaw rate is used to calculate the curvature for a reported curvature value.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

yawRate

Yaw rate of vehicle at a point in time.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

LowFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerLowFrequency

vehicleRole

emergency(6)

exteriorLights

Describes the status of the exterior light switches of a vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

pathHistory

Represents the vehicle’s movement over a recent period and/or distance.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

SpecialVehicleContainer shall be set to EmergencyContainer

lightBarSirenInUse

lightBarActivated bit shall be set to 1(onChange), if the usage of the light bar is detected, otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

sirenActivated bit shall be set to 1, if usage of the siren is detected, otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

emergencyPriority

Is not required

causeCode

As specified in point (138)

subCauseCode

As specified in point (138)

9.8.Network and transport layer

(141)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

9.9.Security layer

(142)If the triggering conditions as described in point (126) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new, update and cancellation DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new, update and cancellation DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

10.Special vehicle warning — stationary recovery service warning

10.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a recovery service vehicle supporting a broken-down vehicle. The C-ITS service of the moving recovery service, e.g. carrying a brokendown vehicle, is covered by the common CAM.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘special vehicle warning — emergency vehicle in operation’;

·‘special vehicle warning — stationary safeguarding emergency vehicle’.

10.2.Triggering conditions

10.2.1.Preconditions

(143)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

·the stationType is confirmed as an emergency vehicle (stationType of CAM is set to specialVehicles(10)). The C-ITS service is restricted to recovery service vehicles;

·the Standstill Timer shall be initialised with zero.

10.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(144)If the vehicle is stationary and the light bar is in use, a Standstill Timer shall be initialised with zero and started. If the light bar is no longer in use or the vehicle is no longer stationary, the Standstill Timer shall be stopped and reset to zero.

(145)If the preconditions in point (143) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the light bar is in use, the hazard lights are activated and the parking brake is activated or (in the case of automatic transmission) ‘park’ is selected;

(b)the light bar is in use, the hazard lights are activated and the Standstill Timer is 60 s or more.

(146)The level of information quality can be improved by the following conditions:

(c)the status of driver door is ‘open’;

(d)the driver’s seat is detected, by one of the following techniques, as being ‘not occupied’:

(1)passenger compartment camera;

(2)stateoftheart technique for seat occupation used in seatbelt reminder.

(147)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used. This requirement shall be applied for all subsequent occurrences of vehicle speed analysis.

(148)If the C-ITS service is triggered due to fulfilment of condition (a) in point (145), the Standstill Timer shall be stopped and set to 60 s. In the update phase, only the conditions shall be checked, but no timer shall be started.

10.2.3.Information quality

(149)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (145) and (146)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 19: Information quality of ‘stationary recovery service warning’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition (b) fulfilled

1

Condition (a) fulfilled

2

At least one of conditions (a) or (b) fulfilled and condition (c) fulfilled

3

At least one of conditions (a) or (b) fulfilled and condition (d) fulfilled

4

(150)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

10.3.Termination conditions

(151)This C-ITS service is terminated by a cancellation of the originating C-ITS station. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

10.3.1.Cancellation

(152)If the following condition is satisfied before the period set in the data element validityDuration has expired, the generation of a cancellation DENM shall be triggered and the vehicleRole shall be set to default(0):

(a)C-ITS servicespecific conditions (a) and (b) in point (145) are not satisfied.

10.3.2.Negation

(153)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.    

10.4.Update

(154)The generated DENM shall be updated every 60 s if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. All data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 20 below.

10.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(155)DENMs that are new, have been updated or have been cancelled shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 60 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 180 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

10.6.Traffic class

(156)New, update and cancellation DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

10.7.Message parameters

10.7.1.DENM

(157)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 20: DENM data elements of ‘stationary recovery service warning’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new, update or cancellation DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set in the case of new or update DENM. Shall be set to isCancellation(0) in the case of fulfilment of cancellation conditions, see point (152).

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan5km(5)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

 

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

 

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

180 s

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (149). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

causeCode

rescueAndRecoveryWorkInProgress(15)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Alacarte Container: StationaryVehicleContainer

stationarySince

Shall be set according to the duration in minutes of the detecting C-ITS station being stationary. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

 

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

10.7.2.CAM

(158)The vehicleRole shall be initialised at a ‘default’ setting (vehicleRole of CAM set to default(0)). If at least one of the triggering conditions defined in point (145) is satisfied the vehicleRole shall be set to rescue(5).

(159)The following table specifies the data elements of the CAM that shall be set if the C-ITS service is triggered.

Table 21: CAM data elements of ‘stationary recovery service warning‘

Data field

Value

CoopAwareness

generationDeltaTime

Time corresponding to the time of the reference position in the CAM, considered as time of the CAM generation.

Shall be set in accordance with [EN 302 637-2].

BasicContainer

stationType

specialVehicles(10)

referencePosition

Position and position accuracy measured at the reference point of the originating CITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

HighFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerHighFrequency

heading

Heading direction of the originating C-ITS station in relation to true north.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

speed

Driving speed of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

driveDirection

Vehicle drive direction (forward or backward) of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleLength

Length of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

vehicleWidth

Width of vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

longitudinalAcceleration

Vehicle longitudinal acceleration of the originating C-ITS station.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvature

Curvature of the vehicle trajectory and the accuracy.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

curvatureCalcMode

Describes whether the yaw rate is used to calculate the curvature for a reported curvature value.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

yawRate

Yaw rate of vehicle at a point in time.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

LowFrequencyContainer shall be set to BasicVehicleContainerLowFrequency

vehicleRole

rescue(5)

exteriorLights

Describes the status of the exterior light switches of a vehicle.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

pathHistory

Represents the vehicle’s movement over a recent period and/or distance.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

SpecialVehicleContainer shall be set to SafetyCarContainer

lightBarSirenInUse

lightBarActivated bit shall be set to 1(onChange) if the usage of the light bar is detected; otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

sirenActivated bit shall be set to 1 if usage of the siren is detected; otherwise, it shall be set to 0.

causeCode

As specified in point (157)

subCauseCode

As specified in point (157)

10.8.Network and transport layer

(160)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

10.9.Security layer

(161)If the triggering conditions as described in point (145) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new, update and cancellation DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new, update and cancellation DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

11.Exchange of IRCs — request IRC

11.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a critical driving situation where a crash between two vehicles is highly likely or unavoidable. The ego vehicle recognises a potential collision and sends its own IRC to get the IRC of the collision opponent in response.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘exchange of IRCs — response IRC’;

(162)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new DENM. If the triggering conditions are not met, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

11.2.Triggering conditions

11.2.1.Preconditions

(163)No specific preconditions apply to this C-ITS service.

11.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(164)If both the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)the ‘time to collision’ (TTC) calculated by an on-board measurement device algorithm is < 1.5 s. The acceptable tolerance for the calculated TTC value is 10 %;

(b)the relative speed between two potential collision opponents exceeds 20 km/h.

Note: Calculating the TTC on the basis of the GNSS position only, as delivered from stateoftheart GNSS-receivers, is not reliable enough for this service.

11.2.3.Information quality

(165)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected. The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 22: Information quality of ‘exchange of IRCs — request IRC’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Otherwise

1

11.3.Termination conditions

(166)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

11.3.1.Cancellation

(167)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

11.3.2.Negation

(168)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

11.4.Update

(169)An update DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

11.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(170)New DENMs shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 300 ms (100 ms three times in a row) with a repetitionInterval of 100 ms. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: As it is not guaranteed that a sent IRC will reach the receiver (e.g. because of channel load, temporarily out of range, etc.), the sender sends the IRC three times in a row. This is equivalent to a repetitionDuration of 300 ms.

Note: The estimated duration for transmitting (application to application) an IRC (repetition not included) over automotive WLAN is 200300 ms. If only the third attempt is received (worst case), in both cases (request and response), the information will be available for both vehicles after 1 second (2 * (300 ms + 100 ms (@10 Hz) + 100 ms (@10 Hz))). Therefore, the trigger parameter TTC < 1.5 s is sufficient. Sending the IRC three times in a row is considered a good compromise between channel load and ensuring successful transmission.

Note: Only the first DENM will be sent without Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) constraints. The second and third DENMs may be affected by DCC (based on current channel load).

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

11.6.Traffic class

(171)New DENMs shall be set to traffic class 0.

11.7.Message parameters

11.7.1.DENM

(172)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 23: DENM data elements of ‘exchange of IRCs — request IRC’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating CITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

relevanceDistance

lessThan100m(1)
Note: This shall also cover the worst
case scenario of driving at nearly 250 km/h towards a dangerous end of queue (s = v*t = 69.4 m/s * 1.5 s = 104.2 m).

relevanceTrafficDirection

allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s
Note: Shall be larger than TTC.

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (165)

causeCode

collisionRisk(97)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container: ImpactReductionContainer

heightLonCarrLeft

Height of left longitudinal carrier of the vehicle from base to top. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

heightLonCarrRight

Height of right longitudinal carrier of the vehicle from base to top. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posLonCarrLeft

Longitudinal distance from the centre of vehicle front bumper to the front of the left longitudinal carrier of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posLonCarrRight

Longitudinal distance from the centre of vehicle front bumper to the front of the right longitudinal carrier of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

positionOfPillars

Vehicle pillars refer to the vertical or nearvertical support of vehicle, designated respectively as A, B, C or D. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posCentMass

Perpendicular distance from the centre of mass of an empty load vehicle to the front line of the vehicle bounding box. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

wheelBaseVehicle

Perpendicular distance between front and rear axle of the wheel base of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

turningRadius

The smallest circular turn (i.e. U-turn) that the vehicle is capable of making. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posFrontAx

Perpendicular distance between the vehicle front line of the bounding box and the front wheel axle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

positionOfOccupants

BitString that indicates whether a passenger seat is occupied or whether the occupation status is detectable. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

vehicleMass

Mass of an empty load vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

requestResponseIndication

request(0)

11.7.2.CAM

(173)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

11.8.Network and transport layer

(174)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

11.9.Security layer

(175)If the triggering conditions as described in point (164) apply, an AT change shall be blocked as long as the validityDuration has not expired.

12.Exchange of IRCs — response IRC

12.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on a critical driving situation where a crash between two vehicles is highly likely or unavoidable. The ego vehicle has received an IRC from another vehicle and sends its own IRC in response.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘exchange of IRCs — request IRC’.

(176)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new DENM. If the triggering conditions are not met, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

12.2.Triggering conditions

12.2.1.Preconditions

(177)An IRC as described in Table 23 has been received.

12.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(178)If the precondition in point (177) and both the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)requestResponseIndication in the received IRC is set to request(0);

(b)the perpendicular distance between the requesting vehicle (event position in the IRC) and the ego vehicle (reference position as defined in CAM) is less than 100 m.

Note: When an IRC is received, the receiver has to check that it was actually requested before responding with its own IRC. This can be done on the basis of the requestResponseIndication. To avoid unnecessary load on the transmission channel from multiple transmitted IRCs, only vehicles in the immediate vicinity (within 100 m) respond to the request.

12.2.3.Information quality

(179)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected. The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 24: Information quality of ‘exchange of IRCs — response IRC’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Otherwise

1

12.3.Termination conditions

(180)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

12.3.1.Cancellation

(181)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

12.3.2.Negation

(182)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

12.4.Update

(183)An update DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

12.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(184)New DENMs shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 300 ms (100 ms three times in a row) with a repetitionInterval of 100 ms. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: As it is not guaranteed that a sent IRC will reach the receiver (e.g. because of channel load, temporarily out of range, etc.), the sender sends the IRC three times in a row. This is equivalent to a repetitionDuration of 300 ms.

Note: The estimated duration for transmitting (application to application) an IRC (repetition not included) over automotive WLAN is 200300 ms. If only the third attempt is received (worst case), in both cases (request and response), the information will be available for both vehicles after 1 second (2 * (300 ms + 100 ms (@10 Hz) + 100 ms (@10 Hz))). Therefore, the trigger parameter TTC < 1.5 s is sufficient. Sending the IRC three times in a row is considered a good compromise between channel load and ensuring successful transmission.

Note: Only the first DENM will be sent without DCC constraints. The second and third DENMs may be affected by DCC (based on current channel load).

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

12.6.Traffic class

(185)New DENMs shall be set to traffic class 0.

12.7.Message parameters

12.7.1.DENM

(186)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 25: DENM data elements of ‘exchange of IRCs — response IRC’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating CITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

relevanceDistance

lessThan100m(1)

relevanceTrafficDirection

allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (179).

causeCode

collisionRisk(97)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

roadType

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container: ImpactReductionContainer

heightLonCarrLeft

Height of left longitudinal carrier of the vehicle from base to top. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

heightLonCarrRight

Height of right longitudinal carrier of the vehicle from base to top. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posLonCarrLeft

Longitudinal distance from the centre of vehicle front bumper to the front of the left longitudinal carrier of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posLonCarrRight

Longitudinal distance from the centre of vehicle front bumper to the front of the right longitudinal carrier of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

positionOfPillars

Vehicle pillars refer to the vertical or near vertical support of vehicle, designated respectively as A, B, C or D. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posCentMass

Perpendicular distance from the centre of mass of an empty load vehicle to the front line of the vehicle bounding box. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

wheelBaseVehicle

Perpendicular distance between front and rear axle of the wheel base of vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

turningRadius

The smallest circular turn (i.e. U-turn) that the vehicle is capable of making. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

posFrontAx

Perpendicular distance between the vehicle front line of the bounding box and the front wheel axle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

positionOfOccupants

BitString that indicates whether a passenger seat is occupied or whether the occupation status is detectable. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 8942].

vehicleMass

Mass of an empty load vehicle. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

requestResponseIndication

response(1)

12.7.2.CAM

(187)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

12.8.Network and transport layer

(188)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

12.9.Security layer

(189)If the triggering conditions as described in point (178) apply, an AT change shall be blocked as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

13.Dangerous situation — electronic emergency brake light

13.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on an emergency brake by the driver, e.g. as a reaction to a stationary or slower vehicle in front. The ego vehicle itself becomes a possible local danger zone.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘dangerous situations — automatic brake intervention’;

·‘dangerous situations — reversible occupant restraint system intervention’.

13.2.Triggering conditions

13.2.1.Preconditions

(190)No specific preconditions apply for this C-ITS service.

(191)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the ‘automatic brake intervention’ and/or ‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’ C-ITS services are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘electronic emergency brake light’ (highest priority);

(b)‘automatic brake intervention’;

(c)‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’ (lowest priority).

(192)If a higher-priority C-ITS service is triggered, any related lowerpriority C-ITS service transmission that has already been triggered and is still active regarding update, shall be aborted. In addition, the generation of a new DENM for the higherpriority C-ITS service shall be requested.

13.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(193)If the following condition is satisfied, the triggering conditions for this CITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered.

(a)a signal representing the request for the electronic emergency brake light is detected. The conditions for such a request are set out in [ECE 48], [ECE 13] and [ECE 13H].

Vehicles may also use the following alternative triggering condition:

(b)the current vehicle speed is above 20 km/h and the current acceleration is below -7 m/s² for a minimum of 500 ms.

(194)The acceleration of the vehicle shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered acceleration with respect to sensor noise shall be used.

13.2.3.Information quality

(195)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (193)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 26: Information quality of ‘electronic emergency brake light’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

0

Condition (a) fulfilled

1

Condition (a) fulfilled and current filtered longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle < -4 m/s^2

2

Condition (b) fulfilled

3

(196)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

13.3.Termination conditions

(197)The C-ITS service shall be terminated when condition (a) or (b) is no longer valid. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

13.3.1.Cancellation

(198)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

13.3.2.Negation

(199)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

13.4.Update

(200)The generated DENM shall be updated every 100 ms if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. All data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 27 below.

13.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(201)A repetition of the DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

13.6.Traffic class

(202)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 0.

13.7.Message parameters

13.7.1.DENM

(203)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 27: DENM data elements of ‘electronic emergency brake light’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan500m(3)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction 

0

allTrafficDirections(0) 

1

upstreamTraffic(1) 

2

allTrafficDirections(0) 

3

upstreamTraffic(1) 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (195).

causeCode

dangerousSituation(99)

subCauseCode

emergencyElectronicBrakeEngaged(1)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/nonurban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

13.7.2.CAM

(204)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

13.8.Network and transport layer

(205)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

13.9.Security layer

(206)If the triggering conditions as described in point (193) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

14.Dangerous situation — automatic brake intervention

14.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on an autonomous emergency braking intervention by the vehicle. The ego vehicle itself becomes a possible local danger zone.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘dangerous situations — emergency electronic brake light’;

·‘dangerous situations — reversible occupant restraint system intervention’.

14.2.Triggering conditions

14.2.1.Preconditions

(207)No specific preconditions apply for this C-ITS service.

(208)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the ‘electronic emergency brake light’ and/or ‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’ C-ITS services are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘electronic emergency brake light’ (highest priority);

(b)‘automatic brake intervention’;

(c)‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’ (lowest priority).

(209)If a higher-priority C-ITS service is triggered, any related lower-priority C-ITS service transmission that has already been triggered and is still active regarding update, shall be aborted. In addition, the generation of a new DENM for the higher priority C-ITS service shall be requested.

14.2.2.Servicespecific conditions

(210)If the following condition is satisfied, the triggering conditions for this CITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)a signal representing a request for the intervention of an autonomous emergency braking system is detected.

(211)The acceleration of the vehicle shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered acceleration with respect to sensor noise shall be used.

14.2.3.Information quality

(212)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (210)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 28: Information quality of ‘automatic brake intervention’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

0

Condition (a) fulfilled

1

Condition (a) fulfilled and current filtered longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle < -4 m/s^2

2

(213)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

14.3.Termination conditions

(214)The C-ITS service shall be terminated when condition (a) is no longer valid. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

14.3.1.Cancellation

(215)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

14.3.2.Negation

(216)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

14.4.Update

(217)The generated DENM shall be updated every 100 ms if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. All data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 29.

14.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(218)A repetition of the DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

14.6.Traffic class

(219)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 0.

14.7.Message parameters

14.7.1.DENM

(220)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 29: DENM data elements of ‘automatic brake intervention’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan500m(3)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction 

0

allTrafficDirections(0) 

1

upstreamTraffic(1) 

2

allTrafficDirections(0) 

3

upstreamTraffic(1) 

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (212)

causeCode

dangerousSituation(99)

subCauseCode

aebEngaged(5)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/nonurban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate of the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

14.7.2.CAM

(221)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

14.8.Network and transport layer

(222)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

14.9.Security layer

(223)If the triggering conditions as described in point (210) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

15.Dangerous situation — reversible occupant restraint system intervention

15.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on an active intervention of a reversible occupant-restraint system (e.g. reversible belt-tightener) in the ego vehicle due to a critical driving situation.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘dangerous situations — electronic emergency brake light’;

·‘dangerous situations — automatic brake intervention’.

15.2.Triggering conditions

15.2.1.Preconditions

(224)No specific preconditions apply for this C-ITS service.

(225)Parallel activation with the other related C-ITS services shall be avoided. Where the ‘electronic emergency brake light’ and/or ‘automatic brake intervention’ C-ITS services are triggered simultaneously, the C-ITS services shall be prioritised as follows:

(a)‘electronic emergency brake light’ (highest priority);

(b)‘automatic brake intervention’;

(c)‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’ (lowest priority).

(226)If a higher-priority C-ITS service is triggered, any related lower-priority C-ITS service transmission that has already been triggered and is still active regarding update, shall be aborted. In addition, the generation of a new DENM for the higher priority C-ITS service shall be requested.

15.2.2.Service-specific conditions

(227)If the following condition is satisfied, the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(a)a signal representing a request for the active intervention of a reversible occupantrestraint system (e.g. reversible belt-tightener) is detected due to a critical driving situation.

15.2.3.Information quality

(228)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (227)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 30: Information quality of ‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCO-compliant implementation

0

Condition (a) fulfilled

1

Condition (a) fulfilled and current filtered longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle < -4 m/s^2

2

(229)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

15.3.Termination conditions

(230)The C-ITS service shall be terminated when condition (a) is no longer valid. At the termination of the C-ITS service, update DENM request shall be terminated.

15.3.1.Cancellation

(231)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

15.3.2.Negation

(232)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

15.4.Update

(233)The generated DENM shall be updated every 100 ms if the triggering conditions are still satisfied. All data fields that are assigned new values are defined in Table 31 below.

15.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(234)A repetition of the DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

15.6.Traffic class

(235)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 0.

15.7.Message parameters

15.7.1.DENM

(236)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 31: DENM data elements of ‘reversible occupant restraint system intervention’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for every update DENM.

relevanceDistance

lessThan500m(3)

relevanceTrafficDirection

If the roadType is known, the value shall be set as follows:

RoadType

Direction

0

allTrafficDirections(0)

1

upstreamTraffic(1)

2

allTrafficDirections(0)

3

upstreamTraffic(1)

Otherwise, the value shall be set to allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

2 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (228).

causeCode

dangerousSituation(99)

subCauseCode

preCrashSystemEngaged(2)

Location container

eventSpeed

Speed of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

eventPositionHeading

Heading of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/nonurban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

Alacarte container

lanePosition

If the lanePosition is provided by an on-board sensor (e.g. radar, camera), the value shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2]. Use of GNSS and a digital map to estimate the lane number is not legitimate for this version of the triggering condition.

If the lanePosition is unknown, the data element shall be omitted.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

15.7.2.CAM

(237)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

15.8.Network and transport layer

(238)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

15.9.Security layer

(239)If the triggering conditions as described in point (227) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs as long as the validityDuration has not expired. Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

16.Adverse weather conditions — fog

16.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on fog that may impede the driver’s vision.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘adverse weather conditions — precipitation’.

(240)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new or an update DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

16.2.Triggering conditions

16.2.1.Preconditions

(241)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)the vehicle speed is greater than 7 km/h;

(b)the vehicle speed is less than 80 km/h.

(242)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used.

16.2.2.Service-specific conditions

(243)If the preconditions in point (241) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(1)driver reaction and light status:

(a)the driver enables the rear fog-light and the low-beam light is enabled. All these conditions must be valid for more than 20 s (to minimise risk of misuse by driver, conditions have to be valid for a longer period);

(b)the driver enables the rear fog-light, the low-beam light is enabled and the vehicle velocity is less than 60 km/h. All these conditions must be valid for a duration greater than 20 s;

(2)visibility range measurement device:

(a)the visibility due to fog is less than 80 m +/- 40 m tolerance for more than 5 s (the obscured view has to be detected for a reasonable period. The period is shorter than for conditions (a) and (b) due to more reliable information);

(b)the visibility due to fog is less than 80 m +/- 40 m tolerance and the vehicle velocity is less than 60 km/h (if the vehicle is in a nonurban area, this speed could be an indication of reduced visibility) for more than 5 s.

(244)A new or update DENM shall not be generated in the Detection Blocking Time. The Detection Blocking Time is launched after the event is detected and a DENM to that effect has been triggered. In this way, a single event cannot trigger a series of DENMs. For the visibility range measurement device (conditions (c) and (d)), the Detection Blocking Time shall be 15 s. For the other conditions there shall be no Detection Blocking Time.

(245)In order to ensure consistent functional behaviour for the different triggering conditions and the Detection Blocking Time, the Minimum Detection Interval between two detected events shall be 20 s.

16.2.3.Information quality

(246)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (243)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 32: Information quality of ‘adverse weather condition — fog’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCOcompliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition (a) is fulfilled

1

Condition (b) is fulfilled

2

Condition (c) is fulfilled

3

Condition (d) is fulfilled

4

(247)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

16.3.Termination conditions

(248)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

16.3.1.Cancellation

(249)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

16.3.2.Negation

(250)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

16.4.Update

(251)The appropriate update procedure of the DENM shall be determined on the basis of the following conditions:

(a)at least one of the conditions in point (243) is fulfilled after the Minimum Detection Interval specified in section 16.2.2;

(b)the validityDuration of the former DENM has not expired;

(c)neither the value of the data element DeltaLatitude nor that of the data element DeltaLongitude, representing the distance between the current detected event and the former detected event, exceeds the threshold that can be covered by the data elements DeltaLatitude and DeltaLongitude.

(252)If conditions (a), (b) and (c) as specified in point (251) are fulfilled, an update DENM shall be generated. The information of the former DENM data elements (eventPosition, eventDeltaTime, informationQuality) shall be stored in the eventHistory as an additional eventPoint.

The event points shall be ordered in ascending order with respect to their lifetime, with the most recent eventPoint in first position. Event points in the eventHistory with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration shall be deleted from the eventHistory for the update DENM. If the distance covered by the eventHistory exceeds the threshold allowed by the security, the oldest event points shall be deleted from the eventHistory.

The information of the current detected event shall be assigned to the DENM data fields of the updated DENM.

Note: It is up to the receiver to handle event points with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration after the update DENM has been generated.

(253)If conditions (a) and (b) are fulfilled, but condition (c) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated. Instead, an additional new DENM shall be generated. The information of the current detected event shall be assigned to the DENM data fields of the additional new DENM. The former DENM shall continue to be transmitted as long as the repetitionDuration of the former DENM does not expire.

(254)If condition (a) is fulfilled, but condition (b) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated, but a new DENM according to the currently detected event shall be generated.

Note: In this case, the transmission of the former DENM has already been terminated, because the repetitionDuration of the former DENM has expired.

(255)If condition (a) is not fulfilled, the generation of an update DENM is not necessary.

16.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(256)DENMs that are new or have been updated shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 180 s with a repetitionInterval of 4 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 300 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

16.6.Traffic class

(257)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

16.7.Message parameters

16.7.1.DENM

(258)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 33: DENM data elements of ‘adverse weather condition — fog’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. The timestamp reflects the beginning of the detection of the current event. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the detection time of the current event.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this C-ITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

relevanceDistance

·New DENM: lessThan1000m(4)

·Update DENM: lessThan5km(5) (By using updates, the distance covered by the eventHistory becomes longer. To address all relevant ITS stations, the relevanceDistance is longer in this case.)

relevanceTrafficDirection

allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

300 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (246). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM and set to the informationQuality of the current event point.

causeCode

adverseWeatherCondition-Visibility(18)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0) or fog(1)

eventHistory

This element shall be used for update DENMs only (see section 16.4).

Location container

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station with reference to the current event point.
Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

16.7.2.CAM

(259)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

16.8.Network and transport layer

(260)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

16.9.Security layer

(261)If the triggering conditions as described in point (243) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs for 15 minutes (starting from the moment the new DENM was generated). Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

(262)If the AT changes and there is an active DENM transmission (new or update DENM), the transmission shall be stopped. In addition, the EventHistory and the PathHistory shall be deleted. The regular DENM generation process shall then continue.

17.Adverse weather conditions — precipitation

17.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on precipitation that may impede the driver’s vision.

The following C-ITS services are related to this service, because they share similar triggering conditions:

·‘adverse weather conditions — fog’.

(263)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new or an update DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

17.2.Triggering conditions

17.2.1.Preconditions

(264)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)the vehicle velocity is greater than 7 km/h;

(b)the vehicle velocity is less than 80 km/h;

(c)the windshield washer function is not active.

(265)The vehicle speed shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS. The filtered vehicle speed (with respect to sensor noise) shall be used.

17.2.2.Service-specific conditions

(266)If the preconditions in point (264) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered.

(1)wiper level and light status:

(a)the wiper operates at its maximum speed level. The low-beam light is enabled. All these conditions must be valid for more than 20 s;

(b)the wiper operates at its maximum speed level and the vehicle velocity is less than 60 km/h. The low-beam light is enabled. All these conditions must be valid for more than 20 s;

(2)rain measurement device, wiper level and light status:

(a)the quantity of rainfall is at least 90 % of the maximum output of the measurement device and the wiper operates at its maximum speed level. The low-beam light is enabled. All these conditions must be valid for more than 20 s;

(b)the quantity of rainfall is at least 90 % of the maximum output of the measurement device and the wiper operates at its maximum speed level. The low-beam light is enabled and the vehicle velocity is less than 60 km/h. All these conditions must be valid for more than 20 s.

(267)The Minimum Detection Interval between two detected events shall be 20 s.

17.2.3.Information quality

(268)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (266)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 34: Information quality of ‘adverse weather condition — precipitation’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCO-compliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition (a) is fulfilled

1

Condition (b) is fulfilled

2

Condition (c) is fulfilled

3

Condition (d) is fulfilled

4

(269)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

17.3.Termination conditions

(270)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

17.3.1.Cancellation

(271)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

17.3.2.Negation

(272)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

17.4.Update

(273)The appropriate update procedure of the DENM shall be determined on the basis of the following conditions:

(a)at least one of the conditions in point (266) is fulfilled after the Minimum Detection Interval specified in section 17.2.2;

(b)the validityDuration of the former DENM has not expired;

(c)neither the value of the data element DeltaLatitude nor that of the data element DeltaLongitude, representing the distance between the current detected event and the former detected event, exceeds the threshold that can be covered by the data elements DeltaLatitude and DeltaLongitude.

(274)If conditions (a), (b) and (c) as specified in point (273) are fulfilled, an update DENM shall be generated. The information of the former DENM data elements (eventPosition, eventDeltaTime, informationQuality) must be stored in the eventHistory as an additional eventPoint.

The event points shall be ordered in ascending order with respect to their lifetime, with the most recent eventPoint in first position. Event points in the eventHistory with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration shall be deleted from the eventHistory for the update DENM. If the distance covered by the eventHistory exceeds the threshold that is allowed by the security, the oldest event points shall be deleted from the eventHistory.

The information of the current detected event must be assigned to the DENM data fields of the updated DENM.

Note: It is up to the receiver to handle event points with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration after the update DENM has been generated.

(275)If conditions (a) and (b) are fulfilled, but condition (c) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated. Instead, an additional new DENM shall be generated. The information of the current detected event must be assigned to the DENM data fields of the additional new DENM. The former DENM shall continue to be transmitted as long as the repetitionDuration of the former DENM does not expire.

(276)If condition (a) is fulfilled, but condition (b) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated, but a new DENM according to the currently detected event shall be generated.

Note: In this case, the transmission of the former DENM has already been terminated, because the repetitionDuration of the former DENM has expired.

(277)If condition (a) is not fulfilled, the generation of an update DENM is not necessary.

17.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(278)DENMs that are new or have been updated shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 180 s with a repetitionInterval of 4 s. Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set according to the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 300 s. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

17.6.Traffic class

(279)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

17.7.Message parameters

17.7.1.DENM

(280)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 35: DENM data elements of ‘adverse weather condition — precipitation’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. The timestamp reflects the beginning of the detection of the current event point. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the detection time of the current event point.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this CITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the position of the current event point.

relevanceDistance

·New DENM: lessThan1000m(4)

·Update DENM: lessThan5km(5) (By using updates, the distance covered by the eventHistory becomes longer. To address all relevant ITS stations, the relevanceDistance is longer in this case.)

relevanceTrafficDirection

allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

300 s

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (268). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM and set to the informationQuality of the current event point.

causeCode

adverseWeatherCondition-Precipitation(19)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0), heavyRain(1) or heavySnowfall(2)

eventHistory

This element shall be used for update DENMs only (see section 17.4).

Location container

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station with reference to the current event point.
Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the roadType of the current event point.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / Non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

17.7.2.CAM

(281)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

17.8.Network and transport layer

(282)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

17.9.Security layer

(283)If the triggering conditions as described in point (266) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs for 15 minutes (starting from the moment the new DENM was generated). Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

(284)If the AT changes and there is active transmission of a new or update DENM, the transmission shall be stopped. In addition, the EventHistory and the PathHistory shall be deleted. The regular DENM generation process shall then continue.

18.Adverse weather conditions — traction loss

18.1.Description of C-ITS service

This C-ITS service transmits V2V information on slipperiness that may impact driving behaviour.

(285)A DENM signal shall be sent to the stack only if the triggering conditions described in this section are evaluated as valid. Such a signal prompts the stack to generate a new or an update DENM. If the triggering conditions are not fulfilled, a DENM signal shall not be generated.

18.2.Triggering conditions

18.2.1.Preconditions

(286)The following preconditions shall be satisfied before this C-ITS service is triggered:

(a)reverse gear is not enabled;

(b)no errors concerning engine, drive train and braking system are reported.

18.2.2.Service-specific conditions

(287)If the precondition in point (286) and at least one of the following conditions are satisfied, the triggering conditions for this C-ITS service are fulfilled and the generation of a DENM shall be triggered:

(1)on the basis of positive acceleration:

(a)on the basis of Anti-Slip Regulation (ASR), acceleration pedal, vehicle acceleration and vehicle velocity. An ASR request must be active for at least 200 ms (as for other safety functions depending on ASR). The acceleration pedal is pressed on average more than 30 % while ASR intervention is active. The acceleration of the vehicle (acceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 40 % of the vehicle acceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85)) at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre. (In order to cover different drive configurations, e.g. twowheel vs. four-wheel drive, no detailed values have been put here);

(b)on the basis of ASR, acceleration pedal, vehicle acceleration and vehicle velocity. An ASR request must be active for at least 200 ms. The acceleration pedal is pressed on average more than 30 % while ASR intervention is active. The acceleration of the vehicle (acceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 20 % of the vehicle acceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85))at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre;

(c)on the basis of ASR, acceleration pedal, vehicle acceleration and vehicle velocity. An ASR request must be active for at least 200 ms. The acceleration pedal is pressed on average more than 30 % while ASR intervention is active. The acceleration of the vehicle (acceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 10 % of the vehicle acceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85)) at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre;

(d)on the basis of ASR and acceleration pedal. An ASR request must be active for at least 200 ms. The acceleration pedal is pressed on average less than 30 % (so as not to cause an ASR intervention on ground with high friction value) while ASR intervention is active;

(2)on the basis of negative acceleration (deceleration):

(a)on the basis of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), braking pressure and deceleration. ABS intervention is active for more than 200 ms (according to other safety functions depending on ABS). Braking pressure is more than 20 % of maximum capable braking pressure. The deceleration of the vehicle (deceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 50 % of the vehicle deceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85)) at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre;

(b)on the basis of ABS, braking pressure and deceleration. ABS intervention is active for more than 200 ms. Braking pressure is more than 20 % of maximum capable braking pressure. The deceleration of the vehicle (deceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 25 % of the vehicle deceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85)) at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre;

(c)on the basis of ABS, braking pressure and deceleration. ABS intervention is active for more than 200 ms. Braking pressure is more than 20 % (so as not to cause an ABS intervention on ground with high friction value) of maximum capable braking pressure. The deceleration of the vehicle (deceleration according to filtered vehicle bus signal) is less than 10 % of the vehicle deceleration on a surface with high friction coefficient (such as dry asphalt (typical µ = 0.85)) at the same start speed and driving manoeuvre;

(d)on the basis of ABS and braking pressure. ABS intervention is active for more than 200 ms. Braking pressure is less than 20 % of maximum capable braking pressure;

(3)on the basis of friction coefficient estimation:

(a)the friction coefficient is less than 0.3 for at least 5 s (the friction coefficient of ice is < 0.2; for snow and loose chippings, it is approx. 0.4. The friction coefficient needs to be detected for a certain period);

(b)the friction coefficient is less than 0.2 for at least 5 s.

(288)If conditions 1a-c or 2a-c are evaluated as valid, the vehicle acceleration/deceleration shall be determined by the vehicle bus signal, not by GNSS analysis.

(289)A new or update DENM shall not be generated in the Detection Blocking Time. The Detection Blocking Time is launched after the event is detected and a DENM to that effect has been triggered. This way, a single event is not able to trigger a series of DENMs. For friction coefficient estimation (conditions 3a and 3b), the Detection Blocking Time shall be 15 s. For the other conditions the Detection Blocking Time shall be 20 s.

(290)In order to ensure consistent functional behaviour for triggering conditions (a)(d) and the Detection Blocking Time, the Minimum Detection Interval between two detected events shall be 20 s.

18.2.3.Information quality

(291)The value of the data element informationQuality in the DENM depends on how the event is detected (see point (287)). The informationQuality value shall be set in accordance with the following table (highest possible value shall be used):

Table 36: Information quality of ‘adverse weather condition — traction loss’

Event detection

Value of InformationQuality

No TRCO-compliant implementation

unknown(0)

Condition 1a or 2a is fulfilled

1

Condition 1b fulfilled

2

Condition 1c or 2b is fulfilled

3

Condition 2c fulfilled

4

Condition 1d or 2d fulfilled

5

Condition 3a is fulfilled

6

Condition 3b is fulfilled

7

(292)If the triggering conditions change between two updates, the informationQuality shall not be changed until the next update. If the changed conditions are still fulfilled while the DENM is updated, the informationQuality shall be updated.

18.3.Termination conditions

(293)A termination of the C-ITS service shall not be considered.

18.3.1.Cancellation

(294)A cancellation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

18.3.2.Negation

(295)A negation DENM shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

18.4.Update

(296)The appropriate update procedure of the DENM shall be determined on the basis of the following conditions:

(a)at least one of the conditions in point (287) is fulfilled after the Minimum Detection Interval specified in section 18.2.2;

(b)the validityDuration of the former DENM has not expired;

(c)neither the value of the data element DeltaLatitude nor that of the data element DeltaLongitude, representing the distance between the current detected event and the former detected event, exceeds the threshold that can be covered by the data elements DeltaLatitude and DeltaLongitude.

(297)If conditions (a), (b) and (c) as specified in point (296) are fulfilled, an update DENM shall be generated. The information of the former DENM data elements (eventPosition, eventDeltaTime, informationQuality) must be stored in the eventHistory as an additional eventPoint.

The event points shall be ordered in ascending order with respect to their lifetime, with the most recent eventPoint in first position. Event points in the eventHistory with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration (see point (303)) shall be deleted from the eventHistory for the update DENM. If the distance covered by the eventHistory exceeds the threshold that is allowed by the security, the oldest event points shall be deleted from the eventHistory.

The information of the current detected event must be assigned to the DENM data fields of the updated DENM.

Note: It is up to the receiver to handle event points with lifetimes that exceed the validityDuration after the update DENM has been generated.

(298)If conditions (a) and (b) are fulfilled, but condition (c) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated. Instead, an additional new DENM shall be generated. The information of the current detected event shall be assigned to the DENM data fields of the additional new DENM. The former DENM shall continue to be transmitted as long as the repetitionDuration of the former DENM does not expire.

(299)If condition (a) is fulfilled, but condition (b) is not fulfilled, no update DENM shall be generated, but a new DENM according to the currently detected event shall be generated.

Note: In this case, the transmission of the former DENM has already been terminated, because the repetitionDuration of the former DENM has expired.

(300)If condition (a) is not fulfilled, the generation of an update DENM is not necessary.

18.5.Repetition duration and repetition interval

(301)By default, DENMs that are new or have been updated shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 300 s with a repetitionInterval of 1 s.

However, if the DENM is triggered in an urban area, as determined by a digital map or an on-board sensor algorithm, it shall be repeated for a repetitionDuration of 180 s with a repetitionInterval of 4 s.

Therefore, the interface parameters Repetition duration and Repetition interval between the application and the DEN basic service shall be set in accordance with the above values.

Note: The validityDuration is set to 600 s or 300 s respectively. Therefore, one can prevent a gap of DENMs if the repetitionDuration of the original DENM has expired and the update has not yet been received.

Note: Where two DENMs with the same causeCode originate from the same C-ITS station, the case shall be managed by the receiving C-ITS station.

18.6.Traffic class

(302)New and update DENMs shall be set to traffic class 1.

18.7.Message parameters

18.7.1.DENM

(303)The following table specifies the data elements of the DENM that shall be set.

Table 37: DENM data elements of ‘adverse weather condition — traction loss’

Data field

Value

Management container

actionID

Identifier of a DENM. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

detectionTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which the event is detected by the originating C-ITS station. The timestamp reflects the beginning of the detection of the current event point. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the detection time of the current event point.

referenceTime

TimestampIts-timestamp at which a new DENM or an update DENM is generated. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

termination

Shall not be set, because neither negation nor cancellation are to be used in this CITS service.

eventPosition

ReferencePosition. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the position of the current event point.

relevanceDistance

·New DENM: lessThan1000m(4)

·Update DENM: lessThan5km(5) (By using updates, the distance covered by the eventHistory becomes longer. To address all relevant ITS stations, the relevanceDistance is longer in this case.)

relevanceTrafficDirection

allTrafficDirections(0)

validityDuration

Default: 600 s

In urban areas, as determined by digital map or on-board sensor algorithm: 300 s (If the vehicle has no information about the urban/non-urban status, the default value shall be used.)

stationType

The type of the originating C-ITS station. Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Situation container

informationQuality

See point (291). Shall be refreshed for every update DENM and set to the informationQuality of the current event point.

causeCode

adverseWeatherCondition-Adhesion(6)

subCauseCode

unavailable(0)

eventHistory

This element shall be used for update DENMs only (see section 18.4).

Location container

traces

PathHistory of the originating C-ITS station with reference to the current event point.
Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2].

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM.

roadType

RoadType of the road on which the detecting C-ITS station is situated.

Shall be refreshed for an update DENM and set to the roadType of the current event point.

Shall be set in accordance with [TS 102 894-2] in combination with the following rules:

Urban / non-urban

Structural separation

Data element

Urban

No

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Urban

Yes

urban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(1)

Urban

Unknown

urban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(0)

Non-urban

No

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

Non-urban

Yes

nonUrban-WithStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(3)

Non-urban

Unknown

nonUrban-NoStructuralSeparation ToOppositeLanes(2)

If the information about the urban/non-urban status cannot be determined, the data element shall be omitted.

18.7.2.CAM

(304)CAM adaption shall not be used for this C-ITS service.

18.8.Network and transport layer

(305)The interface parameter DENM destination area between the DEN basic service and the networking and transport layer shall be equal to a circular shape with radius equal to relevanceDistance.

18.9.Security layer

(306)If the triggering conditions as described in point (287) apply, an AT change shall be blocked for new and update DENMs for 15 minutes (starting from the moment the new DENM was generated). Corresponding new and update DENMs shall be sent with the same AT.

(307)If the AT changes and there is active transmission of a new or update DENM, the transmission shall be stopped. In addition, the EventHistory and the PathHistory shall be deleted. The regular DENM generation process shall then continue.

19.In-vehicle signage — dynamic speed limit information

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using IVI) on the currently valid speed limit, by segment, lane or vehicle category, continuously, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(308)The information shall be consistent with the currently valid dynamic traffic signs.

(309)[ISO/TS 14823] Data Field shall be set with serviceCategoryCode = regulatory, nature = 5, serialnumber = 57, attributes/spe/spm = the value of the speed limit in km/h and unit = 0 (i.e. kmperh) or the equivalent for other countries (e.g. 1 for milesperh).

(310)With regard to the end of the speed limit, the following may be used: [ISO/TS 14823] Data Field with serviceCategoryCode = regulatory (12), nature = 6, serialnumber = 14 (notice of end of speed limit) or serviceCategoryCode = informative (13), nature = 6, serial number = 63 (notice of end of all restrictions by electronic signs) if this sign is shown on the road. Ending messages might be redundant, as the end point of the relevance zone of the initial IVI message already terminates the speed limit.

20.In-vehicle signage — embedded VMS ‘free text’

This C-ITS service transmits infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) information (using Infrastructure to Vehicle Information (IVI)) in ‘free text’, as set and distributed by the road operator. The priority of the IVS messages sent is defined by the road operator.

(311)The information shall be consistent with the currently valid dynamic traffic signs.

21.In-vehicle signage — other signage information

This C-ITS service transmits I2V signage information (using IVI) other than dynamic speed limit and free text information, e.g. bans on overtaking or lane advice, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(312)The information shall be consistent with the currently valid dynamic traffic signs.

(313)[ISO/TS 14 823] Data Field is set with serviceCategoryCode = informative; nature = 6; serialnumber = 59 (for lane closed), 60 (for lane free), 61 (for clear lane to left) or 62 (for clear lane to right).

(314)As regards ‘end of the restriction’: serviceCategoryCode = informative (13), nature = 6, serial number = 63 for ‘end of all restrictions by electronic signs’ may be used if this electronic sign is shown. Ending messages might be redundant, as the end point of the relevance zone of the initial IVI message already terminates the signage information.

22.hazardous locations notification — accident zone

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) about an accident zone using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(315)CauseCode shall be set to 2 (accident) and subCauseCode shall be set between 0 and 7 (except 6).

23.hazardous locations notification — traffic jam ahead

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) about a traffic jam ahead, by segment or lane, using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator (mentioning the positions, the length of the traffic jam and the section/lanes concerned, if this information is available).

(316)CauseCode shall be set to 27 (dangerous end of queue) and subCauseCode shall be set to 0 (unavailable) to signal a dangerous end of queue. To convey information about the whole length of the queue, causeCode shall be set to 1 (traffic congestion) and subCauseCode shall be set to 0.

24.hazardous locations notification — stationary vehicle

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) about a stationary vehicle using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(317)CauseCode shall be set to 94 (stationary vehicle) and subCauseCode shall be set to 0 (unavailable) or 2 (breakdown vehicle).

25.hazardous locations notification — weather condition warning

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) about current and/or expected precipitation or extreme weather conditions (scenario 1) or low visibility ranges (scenario 3), using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(318)CauseCode shall be set to 17 (extreme weather condition) or 19 (precipitation).

26.hazardous locations notification — temporary slippery road

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on slippery sections of road using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(319)CauseCode shall be set to 6 (adhesion) and subCauseCode shall be set between 0 and 9.

27.hazardous locations notification — animal or person on the road

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on animals or persons on the road, using a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(320)CauseCode shall be set to 11 (animal on the road) or 12 (human presence on the road).

28.hazardous locations notification — obstacle on the road

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on one or more obstacles in one or more lanes. However, traffic can still go through (not a blockage). It uses a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(321)CauseCode shall be set to 10 (obstacle on the road) and subCauseCode shall be set between 0 and 5 (6 and 7 are not used).

29.Road works warning — lane closure (and other restrictions)

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on the closure of part of a lane, a whole lane or several lanes (including hard shoulder), but without full road closure. It uses a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

It can be provided in one the following ways:

·static planned roadworks (Traffic Operation Centre (TOC) triggered) – the road operator programmes static and planned (or ad hoc) road works in its Traffic Management System (TMS);

·stand-alone mode – a trailer is used for a short-term or long-term roadwork, but without a connection to the TOC (no connection available);

·augmented (stand-alone followed by TOC triggered) – the message is first sent from a trailer and can be updated later, including with additional details from the TOC.

(322)CauseCode shall be set to 3 (roadworks) and subCauseCode shall be set to 0 or 4.

30.Road works warning — road closure

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on a road closure due to a set of static roadworks. The closure is temporary. It uses a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

(323)CauseCode shall be set to 3 (roadworks) and subCauseCode shall be set to 1.

31.Road works warning — road works (mobile)

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information (using DEN) on a zone on the road in which, at some point, a lane is narrowed or closed (but without road closure), due to a planned mobile work site. It uses a single warning message ID, as set and distributed by the road operator.

This C-ITS service can be provided in one the following ways:

·TOC triggered – the road operator programmes mobile and planned (or ad hoc) road works in its TMS. The information contains all elements that can be used to identify the work zone (start/end position, duration). The operating agents will not use the entire zone, but mark the actual work site within it. More information can be added, such as the speed limit in each narrowed portion;

·stand-alone mode – a trailer is used for a short-term or long-term roadworks, but without a connection to the TOC (no connection available).

(324)CauseCode shall be set to 3 (roadworks) and subCauseCode shall be set to 3.

32.Signalised intersections — green light optimal speed advisory

This C-ITS service transmits I2V information, using Signal Phase and Timing (SPAT) and Topolgy Information for the Intersection (MAP), on speed advice to road users approaching and passing trafficlightcontrolled intersections, based on the current phase state and predicted timing of the traffic lights, and road topology for the intersection(s) ahead.

It can be provided in one of the following ways:

·vehicle calculates speed advice – the signalised intersection transmits periodically and in real time the current phase state of the traffic lights and the timing of upcoming phase changes. The approaching vehicle, aware of its own location and velocity, receives the messages and calculates the optimal speed for approaching the intersection;

·infrastructure calculates speed advice – the signalised intersection calculates and transmits periodically and in real time advisory speed information for multiple road segments of the approach to the intersection. The approaching vehicle, aware of its own location and velocity, receives the messages and extracts the optimal speed for approaching the intersection;

·greenwave speed advice – a sequence of trafficlightcontrolled, synchronised intersections transmit pre-defined/planned greenwave speed advice. The approaching vehicle, aware of its own location and velocity, receives the messages and extracts the greenwave speed for passing the intersections.

(325)Information on the current phase state and timing of upcoming phase changes from the signalised intersection shall be sufficiently accurate and reliable to ensure highquality speed advice.

(326)The information shall be consistent with the physical signal heads of the intersection.

(327)Traffic conditions, such as queues or traffic jams, affect the validity of speed advice and shall therefore be taken into account.

(328)Advised speeds shall never exceed the legal speed limit.

33.Signalised intersections — public transport prioritisation

This C-ITS service gives priority to public transport vehicles over private vehicles at signalised intersections using Signal Request Extended Message (SREM) and Signal Request Status Extended Message (SSEM). The public transport vehicle transmits a prioritisation request using V2I. The public transport prioritisation system processes the request, accepts or rejects it, and sends feedback to the public transport vehicle using I2V. If the request is accepted, e.g. ‘red phases’ may be shortened and ‘green phases’ extended, the public transport vehicle gets a ‘green light’ with minimum delay at the stop line. After it has successfully driven through the intersection, the trafficlight controller switches back to normal operation.

(329)The stationID of the vehicle shall not change during processing of a prioritisation request.

(330)Authentication and authorisation of public transport vehicles shall be ensured.

(331)The priority request shall be provided in time to allow the public transport prioritisation system to react.

Top

ANNEX II

1.Introduction

1.1.References

The following references are used in this Annex:

EN 302 636-4-1    ETSI EN 302 636-4-1, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communication; Geonetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent Functionality. V1.3.1 (2017-08)

TS 102 894-2    ETSI TS 102 894-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Users and applications requirements; Part 2: Applications and facilities layer common data dictionary, V1.3.1 (2018-08)

ISO/TS 19091    ISO/TS 19091, Intelligent transport systems – Cooperative ITS – Using V2I and I2V communications for applications related to signalized intersections, (2017-03)

EN 302 663    ETSI EN 302 663, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Access layer specification for Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band, V1.2.1 (2013-07)

TS 102 687    ETSI TS 102 687, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Decentralized Congestion Control Mechanisms for Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz range; Access layer part, V1.2.1 (2018-04)

TS 102 792    ETSI TS 102 792, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Mitigation techniques to avoid interference between European CEN Dedicated Short Range Communication (CEN DSRC) equipment and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) operating in the 5 GHz frequency range, V1.2.1 (2015-06)

EN 302 637-2    ETSI EN 302 637-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 2: Specification of Cooperative Awareness Basic Service, V1.4.0 (2018-08); this reference shall be read as the reference to version 1.4.1 from the date of the publication of that version.

TS 102 724    ETSI TS 102 724, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Harmonized Channel Specifications for Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band, V1.1.1 (2012-10)

EN 302 636-5-1    ETSI EN 302 636-5-1, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 5: Transport Protocols; Sub-part 1: Basic Transport Protocol, V2.1.1 (2017-08)

TS 103 248    ETSI TS 103 248, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); GeoNetworking; Port Numbers for the Basic Transport Protocol (BTP), V1.2.1 (2018-08)

EN 302 931    ETSI EN 302 931, Vehicular Communications; Geographical Area Definition, V1.1.1 (2011-7)

EN 302 637-3    ETSI EN 302 637-3, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 3: Specifications of Decentralized Environmental Notification Basic Service, V1.3.0 (2018-08); this reference shall be read as the reference to version 1.3.1 from the date of the publication of that version.

TS 102 636-4-2    ETSI TS 102 636-4-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 2: Media-dependent functionalities for ITS-G5, V1.1.1 (2013-10)

SAE J2945/1    SAE J2945/1, On-board System Requirements for V2V Safety Communications, (2016-03)

TS 103 097    ETSI TS 103 097, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Security Header and Certificate Formats, V1.3.1 (2017-10)

ISO 8855    ISO 8855, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary, (2011-12)

TS 103 301    ETSI TS 103 301, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Facilities layer protocols and communication requirements for infrastructure services, V1.2.1 (2018-08)

TS 103 175    ETSI TS 103 175, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Cross Layer DCC Management Entity for operation in the ITS G5A and ITS G5B medium, V1.1.1 (2015-06)

ISO/TS 19321    ISO/TS 19321, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Dictionary of in-vehicle information (IVI) data structures, (2015-04-15)

ISO 3166-1    ISO 3166-1:2013, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions -- Part 1: Country codes

ISO 14816    ISO 14816:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics; Automatic vehicle and equipment identification; Numbering and data structure

ISO/TS 14823    ISO/TS 14823:2017, Intelligent transport systems – Graphic data dictionary

IEEE 802.11    IEEE 802.11-2016, IEEE Standard for Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems, local and metropolitan area networks — Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, (2016-12-14)

1.2.Notations and abbreviations

The following notations and abbreviated terms are used in this Annex.

AT                Authorization Ticket

BTP                Basic Transport Protocol

CA                Cooperative Awareness

CAM                Cooperative Awareness Message

CBR                Channel Busy Ratio

CCH                Control Channel

CDD                Common Data Dictionary

CEN-DSRC    European Committee for Standardisation (CEN)- Dedicated Short Range Communication

C-ITS            Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems

DCC                Decentralized Congestion Control

DEN                Decentralized Environmental Notification

DENM            Decentralized Environmental Notification Message

DP                Decentralized Congestion Control Profile

ETSI                European Telecommunications Standards Institute

GBC                GeoBroadcast

GN                GeoNetworking

GNSS            Global Navigation Satellite System

IEEE                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IVI                Infrastructure to Vehicle Information

IVIM            Infrastructure to Vehicle Information Message

MAP                Topology information for the intersection

MAPEM            MAP Extended Message

NH                Next Header

NTP                Network Time Protocol

PAI                Position Accuracy Indicator

PoTi                Position and Time

QPSK            Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

RLT                Road Lane Topology

RSU                Road-side Unit

SCF                Store Carry Forward

SHB                Single Hop Broadcast

SPATEM            Signal Phase and Timing Extended Message

SREM            Signal Request Extended Message

SSEM            Signal Request Status Extended Message

TAI                International Atomic Time

TAL                Trust Assurance Level

TLM                Traffic Light Manoeuvre

TC                Traffic Class

UTC                Coordinated Universal Time

WGS84            World Geodetic System 84

1.3.Definitions

The following definitions are used in this Annex:

(a)‘C-ITS time’ or ‘time base’ means the number of elapsed International Atomic Time (TAI) milliseconds since 2004-01-01 00:00:00.000 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)+0 as defined in [ETSI EN 302 636-4-1]. Timestamps as defined in [ETSI TS 102 894-2] follow this time format.

Note: ‘TAI milliseconds’ denote the true number of milliseconds counted and not altered by leap seconds after 1 January 2004.

(b)‘station clock’ means a clock representing Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) time in a C-ITS station.

2.Requirements for vehicle C-ITS stations designed for short-range communication

This system profile specifies a minimum set of standards and fills the missing gaps as necessary for the realisation of an interoperable vehicle C-ITS station on the transmitting side. The profile includes interoperability requirements only, leaving open any additional requirements. It therefore does not describe the full functionality of the vehicle C-ITS station.

This system profile enables the deployment of the priority (in particular, V2V) services. It may support other services, but these may require additional system specifications.

The profile provides descriptions, definitions and rules for the layers (Applications, Facilities, Networking & Transport and Access) of the ETSI ITS station reference architecture/ITS-S host.

2.1.Definitions

The following definitions are used in this part of the Annex:

(a)‘vehicle states’ comprise absolute position, heading and velocity at a certain point in time;

(b)information provided with a ‘confidence level’ of 95 % means that the true value is inside the range specified by the estimated value plus/minus the confidence interval in 95 % of the data points in a given statistical base;

(c)‘sky obstruction’ means the fraction of half-hemisphere values that are obstructed for Galileo or other Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) satellites due to mountains, buildings, trees, etc.

(d)‘CEN-DSRC’ (Comité Européen de Normalisation - Dedicated Short Range Communication) is a microwave technology used for electronic toll systems to finance road infrastructure costs or to collect road usage fees. For the purpose of this Annex, ‘CEN-DSRC’ covers all 5.8 GHZ microwave technologies as referred to in Directive 2004/52/EC of the European parliament and of the Council and in Commission Decision 2009/750/EC.

2.2.Parameter settings

The parameter settings in Table 1 are used in this part of the Annex.

Table 1: Parameter settings

Parameter

Value

Unit

Description

pAlDataRateCch

6

Mbit/s

Default data rate for Control Channel (CCH)

pAlDataRateCchHigh

12

Mbit/s

Optional higher data rate for CCH than the default one

pAlDataRateCchLow

3

Mbit/s

Optional lower data rate for CCH than the default one

pBtpCamPort

2001

n/a

Well-known destination port for CAMs

pBtpDenmPort

2002

n/a

Well-known destination port for DENMs

pBtpDestPortInfo

0

n/a

Value for the destination port information

pCamGenNumber

3

n/a

Number of consecutive generated CAMs without time restrictions

pCamTraceMaxLength

500

m

Maximal length of a trace in CAMs

pCamTraceMinLength

200

m

Minimal length of a trace in CAMs

pCamTrafficClass

2

n/a

Traffic class (TC) value with which CAMs are sent

pDccCcaThresh

-85

dBm

Minimum sensitivity of the channel

pDccMeasuringInterval

100

ms

Value for the interval in which the channel load is provided

pDccMinSensitivity

-88

dBm

Value for minimum receiver sensitivity

pDccProbingDuration

8

µs

Value for the probing sample duration

pDccPToll

10

dBm

Value for transmission power inside protected zones

pDCCSensitivityMargin

3

dB

Value for margin of parameter pDccMinSensitivity

pDenmTraceMaxLength

1000

m

Maximum length of a trace in DENMs

pDenmTraceMinLength

600

m

Minimum length of a trace in DENMs

pGnAddrConfMode

ANONYMOUS (2)

n/a

Configuration method for GeoNetworking (GN) address

pGnBtpNh

2

n/a

Value for the Next Header (NH) field of GN common header

pGnChannelOffLoad

0

n/a

Value for the channel offload field

pGnEtherType

0x8947

--

Value for the EtherType to use

pGnGbcHtField

4

n/a

Value for the HeaderType field in cases of GeoBroadcast (GBC)

pGnGbcScf

1

n/a

Value for the store-carry-forward field in cases of GBC

pGnInterfaceType

ITS-G5 (1)

n/a

Interface type to be used by GN

pGnIsMobile

1

n/a

Defines whether C-ITS station is mobile or not

pGnMaxAreaSize

80

km²

Supported area to cover

pGnSecurity

ENABLED (1)

n/a

Defines use of GN security headers

pGnShbHstField

0

n/a

Value for the HeaderSubType field in cases of Single Hop Broadcast (SHB)

pGnShbHtField

5

n/a

Value for the HeaderType field in cases of SHB

pGnShbLifeTimeBase

1

n/a

Value for the LifeTimeBase field in case of SHB.

pGnShbLifeTimeMultiplier

1

n/a

Value for the LifeTimeMultiplier field in cases of SHB

pPotiMaxTimeDiff

20

ms

Maximum time difference between station clock and time base

pPotiWindowTime

120

s

Size of Position and Time (PoTi) sliding window in seconds

pPotiUpdateRate

10

Hz

Update rate for position and time information

pSecCamToleranceTime

2

s

Maximum time deviation between time in the security header of the Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM) and station clock to accept the CAM

pSecGnScc

0

n/a

Value for the SCC field of the GN address

pSecGnSourceAddressType

0

n/a

Value for the M field of the GN address (configuration type of the address)

pSecMaxAcceptDistance

6

km

Maximum distance between sender and receiver to accept messages

pSecMessageToleranceTime

10

min

Maximum time deviation between time in security header of message (other than CAM) and station clock to accept the message

pSecRestartDelay

1

min

Grace period for AT change after turning on ignition terminal

pTraceAllowableError

0.47

m

Parameter for calculation of path history; see Appendix A.5 of [SAE J2945/1] for further details.

pTraceDeltaPhi

1

°

Parameter for calculation of path history; see Appendix A.5 of [SAE J2945/1] for further details.

pTraceEarthMeridian

6,378.137

km

Earth mean radius (according to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). Used for calculation of traces; see Appendix A.5 of [SAE J2945/1] for further details.

pTraceMaxDeltaDistance

22.5

m

Parameter for calculation of traces; see Appendix A.5 of [SAE J2945/1] for further details.

2.3.Security

(1)A vehicle C-ITS station shall be securely linked to one specific vehicle. Where the vehicle C-ITS station is powered, it shall verify that it is operating in the vehicle with which it has been securely linked. If such correct functioning condition cannot be verified, the C-ITS station shall be deactivated, preventing it from sending messages (i.e. deactivate at least the radio transmission level of the C-ITS station).

(2)The vehicle C-ITS station shall check the timestamp in the security header against the reception time and accept only CAMs in the last time of pSecCamToleranceTime and other messages within the last time of pSecMessageToleranceTime.

(3)The vehicle C-ITS station shall check the distance from the sender position — in the security header, if available — and forward only messages with a distance from the sender of pSecMaxAcceptDistance or less.

(4)The verification of a message shall comprise at least cryptographic verification of the message’s signature.

(5)The vehicle C-ITS station shall forward only verified messages.

(6)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use one end-to-end security header and signature per message in accordance with [TS 103 097] and [EN 302 636-4-1].

(7)The signature shall be generated using a private key corresponding to a valid AT in accordance with clause 7.2.1 in [TS 103 097].

(8)All addresses and identifiers transmitted through short-range communication shall be changed when the AT is changed.

2.4.Positioning and timing

(9)The vehicle states shall be consistent. Therefore, heading and velocity shall refer to the same time as the absolute position (e.g. GenerationDeltaTime in CAMs).

Note: Any inaccuracies that might result from time-related effects should be taken into account in the accuracies of the state variables.

(10)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use World Geodetic System 84 (WGS84) as its reference coordinate system, as specified in [TS 102 894-2].

Note: Based on the drift of the European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRS89), which is fixed to the continental plate of Europe, of 2.5 cm/year in WGS84 it needs to be noted that Vehicle C-ITS stations need to be aware what referencing system is used. When an enhanced referencing system such as a Real-time Kinematics enhanced system is used for highprecision location referencing, this shift may need to be compensated.

(11)Altitude information shall be interpreted as height above WGS84 Ellipsoid.

Note: Alternative altitude interpretations using Geoid definitions (e.g. relative to mean sea level) shall not be used.

(12)For horizontal position, a confidence area is used instead of a single confidence interval. The confidence area is described as ellipse specified via a major axis, minor axis and orientation of the major axis relative to the north direction, as defined in point (10).

(13)The vehicle C-ITS station shall interpret ‘heading’ as the direction of the horizontal velocity vector. The starting point of the velocity vector shall be the ITS vehicle reference point, as defined in B.19 ‘referencePosition’ in [EN 302 637-2].

Note: Alternative heading interpretations referring to the vehicle body orientation shall not be used.

Note: This definition implies that straight backward driving results in 180 ° difference between heading and vehicle body orientation.

(14)C-ITS time shall be the basis for all timestamps in all messages transmitted by the vehicle C-ITS station in all EU Member States.

(15)When active, C-ITS stations shall update the vehicle states with a frequency of at least the pPotiUpdateRate.

(16)Timestamps in messages shall be based on the station clock.

(17)The difference between the station clock and C-ITS time shall be estimated. If the absolute difference |Station clock time - C-ITS time | >= pPotiMaxTimeDiff, the vehicle C-ITS station shall not be active.

Note: A precise timestamp is not only needed for time synchronisation, but also implies that system states are valid at precisely that point in time, i.e. that the vehicle states stay consistent.

(18)When coming to a standstill, the system shall report the last known heading value (vehicle direction of motion). The value shall be unlatched when returning to motion.

2.5.System behaviour

(19)The vehicle C-ITS station shall operate the Cooperative Awareness Basic Service when it is on public roads and under regular driving dynamics.

Note: Operation of the cooperative awareness basic service includes the transmission of CAMs if all conditions for CAM generation are fulfilled.

(20)Traces and path history data shall be generated only when position confidence information is available and the station clock adheres to point (90)(91).

(21)A vehicle occupant shall be enabled to deactivate the vehicle C-ITS station easily at any time.

(22)The vehicle C-ITS station shall handle CAM transmissions so that no outdated messages are transmitted even if congestion control is applied.

2.6.Access layer

(23)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use the control channel G5-CCH as specified in Table 3 in [EN 302 663] to send messages to support the Cooperative Awareness Basic Service and the priority C-ITS services specified in Annex I of this Regulation.

(24)The vehicle C-ITS station’s access layer shall be compliant with [EN 302 663], with the exception of emission limits and with the exception of clauses 4.2.1, 4.5 and 6.

(25)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use a default transfer rate of pAlDataRateCch on the control channel.

(26)The vehicle C-ITS station shall also support pAlDataRateCchLow and pAlDataRateCchHigh transfer rates on the control channel.

(27)The vehicle C-ITS station’s access layer shall be compliant with [TS 102 724].

(28)The vehicle C-ITS station shall support the following Decentralised Congestion Control profiles (DPs) defined in [TS 102 724]: DP0, DP1, DP2 and DP3.

These DCC profiles shall use the following DCC-profile identification values:

·DP0, used only for DENMs with TC = 0;    

·DP1, used for DENMs with TC = 1;

·DP2, used for CAMs with TC = pCamTrafficClass;

·DP3, used for forwarded DENMs and other low priority messages.

(29)The vehicle C-ITS station’s DCC mechanism shall comply with [TS 102 687].

(30)The settings of Table A.2 in [TS 102 687] shall be used if the reactive DCC algorithm outlined in clause 5.3 of [TS 102 687] is implemented.

Note: Table A.2 in [TS 102 687] is based on CAM and Decentralised Environmental Notification Message (DENM) dissemination for priority C-ITS services with an average Ton of 500 μs.

(31)The following smoothing function of Channel Busy Ratio (CBR) values shall be performed if the vehicle C-ITS station uses the reactive DCC algorithm outlined in clause 5.3 of [TS 102 687]: CBR_now = (CBR(n)+CBR(n-1))/2 (

Note: Where ‘n’ and ‘n-1’ are the current and previous CBR sampling periods respectively).

(32)The vehicle C-ITS station shall, at a minimum, be able to generate and transmit the number of messages determined by the value of the highest CAM generation rate (i.e. 10 Hz) and, if detection algorithms are used, it shall be increased by the minimum required DENM generation rate derived from those triggering conditions.

(33)The vehicle C-ITS station shall abide by the following maximum message rates if it uses the reactive DCC algorithm outlined in clause 5.3 of [TS 102 687]:

·for the relaxed state: the sum of all messages sent on DP1, DP2 and DP3 shall not surpass Rmax_relaxed = 16.7 messages per second. Message bursts are allowed for DP0 with RBurst = 20 messages per second, with a maximum duration of TBurst = 1 second, and may take place only every TBurstPeriod = 10 seconds. Thus, adding DP0 messages, the maximum message rate amounts to Rmax_relaxed = 36.7 messages per second;

·for active states: the maximum message rate for each state is given in Table A.2 in [TS 102 687];

·for the restrictive state: the maximum message rate per vehicle C-ITS station is set to 2.2 messages per second, i.e. the inverse of TTX_MAX = 460 ms.

(34)The vehicle C-ITS station shall support per-packet transmission power control.

Note: PTx may depend on the current DCC state (i.e. relaxed, active or restrictive) and on the DCC profile (i.e. DP0, DP1, etc.).

(35)The vehicle C-ITS station shall reduce its transmission power to PToll = pDccPToll as soon as the protected zone is entered and without changing any other DCC transmission parameters as per Table A.2 in [TS 102 687]. DP0 messages are excluded from this restriction.

(36)Where the vehicle C-ITS station is not equipped with a CEN-DSRC radio detector as described in clause 5.2.5 of [TS 102 792], it shall maintain a list of protected zone positions as described in clause 5.5.1 of [TS 102 792]. This list shall be composed of:

·a set of protection zones as listed in the ‘latest version’ (available when the vehicle is developed) of the protected zone database. The vehicle CITS station may include update mechanisms of the database;

·a set of protected zones as identified by the reception of CEN-DSRC mitigation CAMs as described in clauses 5.2.5 and 5.2.2.3 of [TS 102 792];

·a temporarily protected zone as identified by the reception of CENDSRC mitigation CAMs as described in clause 5.2.2.2 of [TS 102 792].

(37)Where the vehicle C-ITS station is equipped with a CEN-DSRC radio detector, mitigation shall be applied as described in clause 5.2.5 of [TS 102 792] and the vehicle C-ITS station shall generate CAMs in accordance with clause 5.5.1 of [TS 102 792].

(38)Where the vehicle C-ITS station is not equipped with a CEN-DSRC radio detector, mitigation shall be applied in accordance with [TS 102 792] on the basis of the list defined in point (36) and received CAMs from other road users which have implemented point (37).

Note: Clarification of clause 5.2.5 of [TS 102 792]: A mobile ITS station should mitigate each time to the nearest tolling station centre position. Where several positions are given in the same area, the mobile ITS station should respond to each centre position, possibly in a sequence. Protected zones with identical protectedZone ID may be seen as a single station. Where the protected zone database and the CEN-DSRC mitigation CAMs contain a valid protected zone with the identical protectedZone ID, mitigation shall be based only on the CEN-DSRC mitigation CAM content.

2.7.Networking and transport layer

(39)The vehicle C-ITS station’s media-independent part of GeoNetworking (GN) shall be compliant with [EN 302 636-4-1].

(40)All default constants and parameters of the vehicle C-ITS station profile not defined or overwritten in this Regulation shall be set as specified in Annex H to [EN 302 636-4-1].

(41)GN shall be used with itsGnSecurity set to pGnSecurity.

(42)GN shall be used with itsGnLocalAddrConfMethod set to pGnAddrConfMode.

(43)GN parameter itsGnMaxGeoAreaSize shall be set to pGnMaxAreaSize.

(44)Packet repetition shall not be performed by GN in a vehicle C-ITS station and the corresponding steps for repetition in the packethandling procedures described in clause 10.3 of [EN 302 636-4-1] shall not be executed.

The ‘maximum repetition time’ parameter of the service primitive GNDATA.request and the GN protocol constant itsGnMinPacketRepetitionInterval do not apply to a vehicle C-ITS station.

(45)GN shall be used with its GnIfType set to pGnInterfaceType.

(46)The Vehicle C-ITS station shall use Single Hop Broadcast (SHB) headers as defined in [EN 302 636-4-1] on all CAM packets it sends.

Consequently, the GN common header shall use a value of pGnShbHtField for the HT field and a value of pGnShbHstField for the HST field when transmitting SHB packets.

The vehicle C-ITS station shall use GBC headers as defined in [EN 302 63641] on all DENM packets it sends.

Consequently, the GN common header shall use a value of pGnGbcHtField for the HT field when transmitting DENM packets.

For the HST field one of the following values shall be used:

·0 for circular areas;

·1 for rectangular areas;

·2 for ellipsoidal areas.

Note: This profile covers the handling of SHB and GBC packets. As it does not cover the handling of other GN packet types defined in [EN 302 636-4-1], it does not prevent their implementation.

(47)The vehicle C-ITS station shall set the LifeTime field of all SHB packets in the following manner:

·set the sub-field multiplier to pGnShbLifeTimeMultiplier and the sub-field base to pGnShbLifeTimeBase.

(48)The vehicle C-ITS station shall set the LifeTime field of all GBC packets to the minimum value of ValidityDuration and RepetitionInterval, where ValidityDuration and RepetitionInterval are defined in the relevant service profile. The value of the LifeTime field shall not exceed the itsGnMaxPacketLifetime, as specified in Annex H to [EN 302 636-4-1].

(49)The vehicle C-ITS station shall buffer GBC packets where no neighbours are available (store-carry-forward). Consequently, the Store Carry Forward (SCF) bit of the TC field of GBC packets shall be set to pGnGbcScf.

(50)The vehicle C-ITS station is not required to offload packets to another channel. Consequently, the channel offload bit of the TC field should be set to pGnChannelOffLoad.

(51)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use the DCC profiles specified in point (28). Consequently, the DCC Profile ID bits of the TC field shall use the DCC-profile identification values defined in point (28).

(52)The vehicle C-ITS station shall set the itsGnIsMobile bit of the Flags field to pGnIsMobile.

(53)The vehicle C-ITS station shall support multi-hop operation mode. It shall implement the forwarding algorithm specified in Annexes D, E.3 and F.3 to [EN 302 63641].

(54)When forwarding packets, the vehicle C-ITS station shall use the DCC profile DP3 as defined in [TS 102 724] and referred to in point (28).

(55)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use duplicate packet detection on the networking and transport layer. Consequently, the algorithm specified in Annex A.2 to [EN 302 636-4-1] shall be used for detecting duplicate packets.

(56)All GN frames sent by the vehicle C-ITS station shall use the EtherType value pGnEtherType as listed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Registration Authority at http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/ethertype/eth.txt.

(57)The vehicle C-ITS station’s Basic Transport Protocol (BTP) shall be compliant with [EN 302 636-5-1].

(58)The vehicle C-ITS station shall employ BTP-B headers. Consequently, the GN common header shall use a value of pGnBtpNh for the NH field.

(59)The vehicle C-ITS station shall set the destination port info field to the value pBtpDestPortInfo.

(60)In the BTP-B header, the vehicle C-ITS station shall set the destination port to the value pBtpCamPort for CAMs.

(61)In the BTP-B header, the vehicle C-ITS station shall set the destination port to the value pBtpDenmPort for DENMs.

(62)The vehicle C-ITS station shall support circular, rectangular and ellipsoidal geographical areas as defined in [EN 302 931]. Each use case defined in the relevant service profile must specify one of the above geographical area types indicated through the GN header as specified in [EN 302 636-4-1].

(63)Where a vehicle C-ITS station calculates the distance between two positions using Galileo or other GNSS coordinates (e.g. for PathDeltaPoints or in cases of circular relevance area), the great circle or a more accurately performing method shall be used.

2.8.Facility layer

(64)The vehicle C-ITS station’s Cooperative Awareness (CA) basic service shall be compliant with [EN 302 637-2].

(65)The path history field in the CAM lowfrequency container shall be generated according to the method specified in point (86) and shall contain a PathHistory data element covering a minimum distance of pCamTraceMinLength (K_PHDISTANCE_M parameter, as defined in Appendix A.5 to [SAE J2945/1]).

An exception to the minimum covered distance by PathHistory shall be made only if:

·the vehicle has not yet physically covered the distance with its current AT (e.g. after vehicle startup or right after AT change when driving); or

·the maximum number of PathPoints is used, but the overall length covered by the PathHistory still does not reach pCamTraceMinLength.

Note: This may happen if the road topology contains tight curves and the distance between consecutive PathPoints is reduced.

Only in the above cases may the vehicle send PathHistory information covering a distance below pCamTraceMinLength.

(66)The PathHistory in CAMs shall cover at most pCamTraceMaxLength.

(67)The PathHistory in CAMs shall include PathDeltaTime in every PathPoint. It shall describe a list of actually travelled geographical locations leading to the current vehicle position, sorted by the time the positions were reached by the vehicle, with the first point being the closest in time to the current time.

(68)Where the vehicle C-ITS station does not move, i.e. PathPoint position information does not change, the PathDeltaTime of the first PathPoint shall still be updated with every CAM.

(69)Where the vehicle C-ITS station does not move, i.e. PathPoint position information does not change, for a duration longer than the maximum value of PathDeltaTime (specified in [TS 102 894-2]) the PathDeltaTime of the first PathPoint in the CAM shall be fixed to the maximum value.

(70)The CA basic service shall be active as long as the vehicle is on public roads and under regular driving dynamics. As long as the CA basic service is active, CAMs shall be generated in accordance with the generation rules in [EN 302 637-2].

(71)A vehicle C-ITS station shall transmit CAM messages where position confidence information is available and the station clock adheres to point (91).

(72)The TC value for CAM messages shall be set to pCamTrafficClass.

(73)The parameter T_GenCam_Dcc (see [EN 302 637-2]) shall be set to the value of the minimum time between two transmissions, Toff, as given by Table A.2 (DCC mechanisms) in [TS 102 687].

(74)The adjustable N_GenCam parameter (see [EN 302 637-2]) specified in the CAM generation frequency management shall be set to pCamGenNumber for the vehicle C-ITS station.

(75)The vehicle C-ITS station’s Decentralised Environmental Notification (DEN) basic service shall be compliant with [EN 302 637-3].

(76)The DENM repetition shall be done by the DEN basic service as specified in [EN 302 637-3].

(77)The path history field in the DEN messages shall be generated according to the method specified in point (86) and shall contain tracedata elements covering a minimum distance of pDenmTraceMinLength (K_PHDISTANCE_M parameter defined in Appendix A.5 to [SAE J2945/1]).

An exception to the minimum covered distance by traces shall be made only if:

·the vehicle has not yet physically covered the distance with its current AT. (e.g. after vehicle startup or right after AT change when driving); or

·the maximum number of PathPoints is used, but the overall length covered by the PathHistory still does not reach pDenmTraceMinLength.

Note: This may happen if the road topology contains tight curves and the distance between consecutive PathPoints is reduced.

Only in the above two cases may the vehicle send trace information covering a distance below pDenmTraceMinLength.

(78)The traces in the DENMs shall cover at most pDenmTraceMaxLength.

(79)A vehicle C-ITS station shall use the DENM traces as follows:

·the first trace element shall describe a time-ordered list of actually travelled geographical locations leading to the event position, as specified in point (67).

(80)The PathDeltaTime data elements of the PathPoints in the first DENM traces element shall be updated only if the DENM is updated.

(81)Where the eventdetecting vehicle does not move, i.e. PathPoint position information does not change, the PathDeltaTime of the first PathPoint of the first DENM traces element shall still be updated with every DEN_Update.

Note: This is only the case for stationary events where the detecting vehicle is identical to the event, e.g. a stationary vehicle warning. For dynamic events, e.g. dangerous situations or events that are not identical to the vehicle (adverse weather warnings, etc.), this is not the case.

(82)Where the vehicle C-ITS station does not move, i.e. PathPoint position information does not change, for a duration longer than the maximum value of PathDeltaTime (specified in [TS 102 894-2]), the PathDeltaTime of the first PathPoint in the first DENM trace element shall be fixed to the maximum value.

(83)Additional PathHistory elements may be present in the DENM traces. However, unlike the first element, these shall describe alternative routes to the event location. These routes may or may not be available at the time of detecting the event. In the alternative routes, the PathPoints shall be positionordered (i.e. shortest-path routes) and shall not include the PathDeltaTime.

(84)For the priority services, the vehicle C-ITS station shall generate only DENMs as described in the relevant service profile.

(85)The data elements that constitute the content of the CAM and DENM shall be compliant with [TS 102 894-2] and use the coordinate system specified in points (87), (10) and (11).

(86)The traces and path histories used by the vehicle C-ITS station shall be generated using Design Method One, as specified in Appendix A.5 to [SAE J2945/1]. The vehicle C-ITS Station shall use this generation method with the following settings:

·K_PHALLOWABLEERROR_M = pTraceAllowableError, where PH_ActualError < K_PHALLOWABLEERROR_M;

·maximum distance between concise path points, K_PH_CHORDLENGTHTHRESHOLD = pTraceMaxDeltaDistance;

·K_PH_MAXESTIMATEDRADIUS = REarthMeridian;

·K_PHSMALLDELTAPHI_R = pTraceDeltaPhi;

·REarthMeridian = pTraceEarthMeridian (according to the IUGG), used for great-circle or orthodromic distance calculation:

PH_ActualChordLength =    
REarthMeridian*cos
-1[cos(lat1)cos(lat2)cos(long1-long2)+sin(lat1)sin(lat2)]

(87)The vehicle C-ITS station shall use a coordinate system compliant with section 2.13 of [ISO 8855].

Note: This means that the X and Y axes are parallel to the ground plane, the Z axis is aligned vertically upwards, the Y axis points to the left of the vehicle’s forward direction and the X axis points towards the vehicle’s forward driving direction.

2.9.Hardwarerelated requirements

(88)The 95 % confidence value (see points 2.1 (b) and (12)) shall be valid in each scenario listed in point (92). This implies that in a confidence value assessment test (which can be offline) a statistic averaging over all states and scenarios is not appropriate.

Instead, a sliding window containing the vehicle states (see point 2.1 (a)) of the last pPotiWindowTime seconds shall be used as the statistical base.

Note: The proposed confidence validation mechanism using the sliding window is typically performed offline, as post-processing of collected test data. It is not required that the vehicle C-ITS station performs confidence validation online, i.e. while in public roads and under regular driving dynamics.

Note: The sliding window approach has the following advantages over separate statistics for each scenario:

·transitions between scenarios are included;

·confidence is valid ‘now’ instead of ‘over lifetime’. ‘Error bursts’ (many invalid confidence values in a short timeframe) are not allowed, thus:

·enhancing the usefulness of the confidence value for applications;

·requiring fast detection of accuracy degradation inside POTI;

·the precise definition of test data has no effect on confidence validation parameters. However, the test data shall contain all scenarios listed in point (92);

·no further statistical calculations are needed; the scenarios cover all relevant states;

·the interval length is similar to typical (environment and driving condition) scenario lengths (e.g. city tunnel, standing at traffic light, driving manoeuvres);

·5 % of the interval is similar to typical shortterm effects (e.g. driving under a bridge).

(89)A vehicle is considered to be under regular driving dynamics when:

·it has passed its initial startup phase;

·it is being used as envisaged by the manufacturer;

·normal control of the vehicle is possible (e.g. it is not directly involved in an accident, road surface allows normal tyre grip);

·all the following conditions (values) apply for passenger cars:

·vehicle lateral acceleration is < 1.9 m/s^2;

·vehicle longitudinal acceleration is > -2.4 m/s^2 (deceleration);

·vehicle longitudinal acceleration is < 2.5 m/s^2;

·vehicle speed is ≤ minimum of (130 km/h, Vmax).

(90)Under optimal GNSS conditions and regular driving dynamics, as defined in point (89), the confidence values shall be equal to or lower than the following values in at least 95 % of 3D position data points in a dataset:

·horizontal position confidence of 5 m;

·vertical position confidence of 20 m.

In other scenarios, the requirement degradations in point (92) apply. This requirement ensures the usefulness of information sent in all C-ITS messages.

(91)The station clock shall be within pPotiMaxTimeDiff of C-ITS time, i.e. Delta t = |station clock time - C-ITS time| < pPotiMaxTimeDiff.

(92)A vehicle C-ITS station shall be able to provide useful vehicle state estimates even in challenging scenarios. To account for inevitable degradations, required confidence values are defined for different scenarios in Table 2.

‘C’ is the maximum of semiMajorConfidence and semiMinorConfidence. The condition for ‘C’ shall be fulfilled in 95 % of data points in the dataset of the given scenario.

Note: The criteria shall be met under the following slope dynamics for the analysed trace fraction: average slope <= 4 % and maximum slope <= 15 %

Note: As a precondition, each scenario shall be started with one minute of driving under open sky and regular driving dynamics.

Note: No C values indicate that the scenario shall be tested to ensure that the reported confidence interval is valid, but no limit is given.

Table 2: Scenarios

ID

Scenario

Definition

Acceptance

Environment under regular driving dynamics

S1

Open sky

Sky is less than 20 % obstructed, with vehicle moving with normal driving dynamics, normal road conditions

C <= 5 m

S2

Tunnel

No GNSS satellite is visible for at least 30 s and 250 m (vmin=30 km/h); GNSS signal reflection at entrance and end of tunnel

C < 15 m

S3

Parking Structure

No direct visible GNSS satellites, but connection by reflections, T > 60 s, vmax < 20 km/h, minimum two 90 ° curves and s > 100 m, two ramps in the entrance and exit area

any value is allowed

S4

Half open sky

Sky is 30-50 % obstructed (obstruction concentrated on one side of the car) for more than 30 s; driving conditions as S1

C < 7 m

S5

Forest

Sky is 30-50 % obstructed by objects, including trees higher than the antenna, for more than 30 s.

C < 10 m

S6

Mountains (valley)

Sky is 40-60 % obstructed by high mountain(s); driving conditions as S1

C < 10 m

S7

City

In a 300 s drive, the sky was 30-50 % obstructed (short periods of less than 30-50 % obstructions allowed), frequent GNSS signal reflection off buildings, including short losses of GNSS signal (i.e. fewer than four satellites); driving conditions as S1

C < 14 m

S8

Mild urban

Sky is 2040 % obstructed, t > 60 s, s > 400 m. Driving conditions as S1, with stops, trees and/or buildings, as well as alleys

C < 10 m

Driving conditions under open sky

S9

Dynamic driving

Test drive with longitudinal accelerations of more than -6 m/s² and lateral accelerations of > (±) 5 m/s²

C < 7 m

S10

Static

Vehicle standing still for 30 min

C < 5 m

S11

Rough road

Test drive on dirt road with pot holes, v= 20-50 km/h

C < 10 m

S12

Icy road

Test drive with longitudinal accelerations of more than -0.5 m/s² and lateral accelerations of > (±) 0.5 m/s², µ < 0.15

C < 7 m

S13

High speed

V= minimum of (130 km/h, Vmax) on dry road for 30 s

C < 5 m

(93)Under optimal GNSS conditions and regular driving dynamics as defined in point (89), the speed confidence values shall be equal to or lower than the following values in at least 95 % of data points in a dataset:

·0.6 m/s for speeds between 1.4 m/s and 12.5 m/s;

·0.3 m/s for speeds greater than 12.5 m/s.

(94)Under optimal GNSS conditions and regular driving dynamics as defined in point (89), the heading confidence values shall be equal to or lower than the following values in at least 95 % of data points in a dataset:

·3° for speeds between 1.4 m/s and 12.5 m/s;

·2° for speeds greater than 12.5 m/s.

3.Requirements for roadside C-ITS stations designed for short-range communication

This system profile specifies a minimum set of standards and fills the missing gaps as necessary for the realisation of an interoperable roadside C-ITS station on the transmitting side. The profile includes interoperability requirements only, leaving open any additional requirements. It therefore does not describe the full functionality of the roadside C-ITS station.

This system profile enables the deployment of the priority (in particular, I2V) services. It may support other services, but these may require additional system specifications.

The profile provides descriptions, definitions and rules for the layers (Applications, Facilities, Networking & Transport and Access) and management of the ETSI ITS station reference architecture/ITS-S host.

3.1.Positioning and timing

(95)The C-ITS time of a static roadside C-ITS station shall be the basis for all timestamps in all transmitted messages and GN beacons.

Note: This means that timestamps in GN header must use the same clock and time base as timestamps in CAM/DENM/IVIM payloads. For SPATEM and MAPEM, the timestamp used should be as specified in [ISO TS 19091].

(96)The position of static roadside C-ITS stations shall be accurately measured and set permanently.

The confidence values shall be equal to or lower than the following values in at least 95 % of datasets:

·horizontal (latitude, longitude) position confidence of 5 m;

·altitude position confidence of 20 m.

Note: This avoids GNSS jitter in position accuracy and raises confidence to nearly 100 %.

(97)The difference between station clock and time base shall be estimated. The absolute difference |station clock time — time base| should not exceed 20 ms, but must in any case be less than 200 ms. The roadside C-ITS station shall not transmit messages if the station clock time differs by more than 200 ms.

Note: A precise timestamp is not only needed for time synchronisation, but also means that system states are valid at precisely that point in time, i.e. that the system states stay consistent.

Note: The information for time synchronisation can be obtained from a Galileo or other GNSS receiver or from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) service.

3.2.System behaviour

(98)All roadside C-ITS stations shall be able to transmit the infrastructure messages (e.g. DENM, CAM, Infrastructure to Vehicle Information Message (IVIM), Signal Phase and Timing Extended Message (SPATEM), MAP Extended Message (MAPEM) and Signal Request Status Extended Message (SSEM).

(99)Roadside C-ITS stations shall be able to receive DENM, CAM and Signal Request Extended Message (SREM) messages as defined in section 3.6.

3.3.Access layer

The access layer comprises the two lowest layers in the protocol stack, i.e. physical (PHY) and datalink layers, where the latter is further subdivided into mediumaccess control (MAC) and logicallink control (LLC).

(100)Roadside C-ITS stations shall use the optional enhanced receiver performance requirements as defined in Tables 17-19 in IEEE 802.11.

(101)Roadside C-ITS stations shall use the control channel G5-CCH as specified in Table 3 in [EN 302 663] to send messages to support the priority C-ITS services specified in Annex 3, using a default transfer rate of 6 Mbit/s (Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) 1/2).

(102)Roadside C-ITS stations’ access layer shall be compliant with [EN 302 663], with the exception of emission limits and with the exception of clauses 4.2.1, 4.5 and 6.

(103)Roadside C-ITS stations shall be compliant with [TS 102 687].

(104)Roadside C-ITS stations should manage the limited hardware and software resources at their disposal and may perform traffic shaping or selective forwarding in line with the ‘best effort’ principle.

Note: Traffic shaping is especially relevant for relayed DENM messages, as it is anticipated that in some situations (such as severe traffic congestion or other extreme vehicular network scenarios) the DENM load might increase abruptly. In such cases, roadside C-ITS stations are explicitly allowed to forego the forwarding of foreign DENM messages.

(105)A roadside C-ITS station shall, at a minimum, be able to generate and transmit the number of messages as determined by the value of the highest CAM generation rate (i.e. 10 Hz) and, if detection algorithms are used, increased by the minimum required DENM generation rate derived from those triggering conditions.

(106)A roadside C-ITS station shall support the broadcast mode defined in [EN 302 663].

(107)A protected zone shall be defined as follows:

·where a tolling location consists of a single CEN-DSRC Road-side Unit (RSU), a protected zone with a default radius of 55 m shall be defined, with the location of the CEN-DSRC RSU as centre position;

·where there are multiple CEN-DSRC RSUs nearby, overlaps of protected zones should be avoided as far as possible through a combined protected zone. A combined Protected Zone shall use the geographical centre (circumcentre) of all DSRC RSUs concerned as a centre position; the radius shall be given by the circumradius + 55 m. In any case, a maximum radius of 255 m shall not be exceeded.

Note: Due to the maximum radius of 255 m, overlaps cannot always be avoided.

(108)Where a roadside C-ITS station is located close to CENDSRCbased tolling equipment (at least inside the protected zone), it shall apply mitigation techniques as defined in [TS 102 792].

(109)Mobile roadside C-ITS stations shall apply mitigation methods on the basis of tolling zone announcement messages.

(110)Where the roadside C-ITS station is used to indicate the presence of a tolling station, it shall transmit CAMs including protected zones in line with the technique defined in [TS 102 792] and with the CA message format as specified in [EN 302 637-2]. It shall transmit these CAMs on the control channel, before a vehicle C-ITS station enters the protected zone.

(111)Roadside C-ITS stations’ access layer shall be compliant with [TS 102 724].

(112)Roadside C-ITS stations shall apply DCC techniques in accordance with [TS 102 687].

3.4.Network and transport layer

(113)Roadside C-ITS stations shall apply GN as networking protocol in accordance with [EN 302 636-4-1].

(114)All default constants and parameters of the infrastructure roadside profile not specified in this Annex shall be set as specified in Annex H to [EN 302 636-4-1].

(115)Packet repetition shall not be performed by GN and the corresponding steps in the packethandling procedures defined in clause 10.3 of [EN 302 63641] shall not be executed. The ‘maximum repetition time’ parameter of the service primitive GN-DATA.request and the GN protocol constant itsGnMinPacketRepetitionInterval do not apply.

(116)Roadside C-ITS stations may choose ‘anonymous address’ for GN address configuration (itsGnLocalAddrConfMethod set to ANONYMOUS(2)).

(117)Roadside C-ITS stations shall use GN with itsGnIfType set to ITS-G5(1).

(118)Where GN packet repetition is disabled, itsGnMinPacketRepetitionInterval is not applicable.

(119)The LifeTime field of all SHB packets shall be set to one second.

(120)The LifeTime field of all GBC packets shall be set to the minimum of ValidityDuration and RepetitionInterval, but shall not exceed the itsGnMaxPacketLifetime parameter, specified in Annex H to [EN 302 636-4-1].

(121)Where ‘store-carry-forward’ is enabled, the SCF bit in the TC field shall be set to one.

Note: As a result, packets can be buffered if no neighbours are available.

(122)A roadside C-ITS station is not required to offload packets to another channel. Consequently, the channel offload bit of the TC field should be set to 0 for all message types.

(123)A stationary roadside C-ITS station shall set the itsGnIsMobile bit of the Flags field to 0. A mobile roadside C-ITS station shall set the itsGnIsMobile bit of the Flags field to 1.

(124)Roadside C-ITS stations shall support the multi-hop operation mode by using the algorithms specified in Annexes E.3 and F.3, based on the selection principles outlined in Annex D, to [EN 302 636-4-1].

(125)Roadside C-ITS stations shall use duplicate packet detection on the networking and transport layer. For the detection of duplicated packets, the algorithm specified in Annex A.2 to [EN 302 636-4-1] shall be used.

(126)Roadside C-ITS stations may send only GN beacons with the Position Accuracy Indicator (PAI) set to 1.

(127)GN frames sent by the roadside C-ITS station shall use the EtherType value 0x8947 as listed by the IEEE Registration Authority at http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/ethertype/eth.txt.

(128)Roadside C-ITS stations shall implement the BTP in accordance with [EN 302 636-5-1].

(129)Roadside C-ITS stations shall use BTP-B headers. Consequently, the GN common header shall use a value of 2 for the NH field.

(130)Roadside C-ITS stations shall set the destination port info field to the value 0.

(131)Roadside C-ITS stations shall set the destination port depending on the message set as specified in [TS 103 248].

(132)Geographical areas shall be applied in accordance with [EN 302 931].

(133)Roadside C-ITS stations shall support at least circular, rectangular and ellipsoidal geographical areas as defined in [EN 302 931]. Each C-ITS service shall specify one of the above geographical area types, indicated through the GN header as specified in [EN 302 636-4-1].

(134)Where the roadside C-ITS station calculates the distance between two positions using Galileo or other GNSS coordinates (e.g. for PathDeltaPoints or in cases of circular relevance area), it is recommended that the great circle or a more accurately performing method shall be used. Care shall be taken (e.g. by using the haversine formula) to avoid large rounding errors on lowprecision floating point systems.

Where the relevance area is an ellipse or a rectangle, the Cartesian coordinates of the area centre and of the current position must be calculated as specified in [EN 302 931], for assessing whether to hop the packet. For this purpose, the ‘local tangent plane’ method is recommended, or another method delivering the same accuracy.

3.5.Facility layer

(135)Roadside C-ITS stations’ DEN basic service shall be compliant with [EN 302 637-3].

(136)Roadside C-ITS station shall implement the DENM repetition as specified in [EN 302 637-3].

(137)The cases in which DENM updates are triggered are specified in the relevant service profile in Annex I.

(138)Where a roadside C-ITS station sends a DENM, the traces shall be described as a list of geographical locations leading from the event position back to the first path point.

(139)Where a mobile roadside C-ITS station becomes stationary, the PathDeltaTime of the first PathPoint of the first DENM traces element shall be fixed to the maximum value specified in [EN 302 637-3]. Therefore, PathPoints do not ‘fall out’ of the first DENM traces element. This applies only to trailerbased C-ITS services.

(140)Additional PathHistory elements may be present in the DENM traces. However, unlike the first element, these shall describe alternative routes to the event location. These routes may or may not be available at the time of detecting the event.

(141)For roadside C-ITS stations, the TC value of a message is specific to the based service of the message format or the C-ITS service itself and is therefore specified in the relevant service profile in Annex I. The selected TC value shall comply with the message classifications as specified in [TS 102 636-4-2] and [TS 103 301], except that Infrastructure to Vehicle Information (IVI) messages related to variable speed limits are lowpriority DENM equivalents and therefore may have the same TC value.

(142)The roadside system shall use a coordinate system compliant with section 2.13 of [ISO 8855].

Note: This means that the X and Y axes are parallel to the ground plane, the Z axis is aligned vertically upwards, the Y axis points to the left of the vehicle’s forward direction and the X axis points towards the vehicle’s forward driving direction.

(143)For the transmission of messages by roadside systems, the facilities layer protocol and communication profile setting CPS_001 shall be used as specified in [TS 103 301].

(144)The protected zone data provided in a CAM sent by a roadside C-ITS station shall not conflict with the protected zone information provided in the protected zone database or an equivalent database. If the same zone is defined in the protected zone database, the same ID shall be used as protectedZoneID. Otherwise, an ID greater than 67108863 that is not used in the database shall be used.

(145)Roadside C-ITS stations intended to disseminate protected zone data shall transmit CAMs on a regular basis containing protected zone data using the message format specified by [EN 302 637-2]. CAM termination is not used.

Note: The specific data elements for the coexistence C-ITS service are located in the highFrequencyContainer and the rsuContainerHighFrequency data frame.

Note: A CAM may contain other data elements not related to the coexistence C-ITS service.

(146)The antenna of a roadside C-ITS station intended to disseminate protected zone data shall be placed so that protection zone CAMs can be received in time before entry into the protected zone.

Note: Arrangements for complying with this requirement must take account of the processing time the roaduser’s equipment needs to process the information received. A time of 300 ms should be used as a reference.

(147)A roadside C-ITS station intended to disseminate protected zone data shall transmit CAMs containing protected zone data with a transmission frequency that ensures that mobile C-ITS stations are able to identify the presence of protected zones in time.

(148)A roadside C-ITS station intended to disseminate protected zone data shall be installed outside protected zones or configured in accordance with [TS 102 792].

(149)A CAM shall not contain more than one temporary protected zone (i.e. ProtectedCommunicationZone with ProtectedZoneType=1).

Note: This is specific to temporary tolling and enforcement vehicles. Mobile CITS stations are required to store only one temporary protected zone in accordance with clause 5.2.2.2 of [TS 102 792], in order to avoid ambiguity.

(150)Where the coexistence (ITS-G5 — CEN-DSRC) Facilities Layer Service is used, it shall be applied in accordance with [EN 302 637-2] and as specified in [TS 102 792].

(151)[ISO/TS 19321] refers to an older version (1.2.1) of the [TS 102 894-2] common data dictionary (CDD) for payload data. All [ISO/TS 19 321] based IVI C-ITS services shall therefore be based on the updated version (1.3.1), until [ISO/TS 19321] is updated accordingly.

(152)The CA basic service shall be active as long as the mobile roadside C-ITS station is participating on public roads under regular driving dynamics. As long as the CA basic service is active, CAMs shall be generated in accordance with the generation rules in [EN 302 637-2].

(153)Roadside C-ITS stations shall transmit CAM messages where position confidence information is available and the station clock adheres to point (97).

(154)The parameter T_GenCam_Dcc shall be set to the value of the minimum time between two transmissions Toff as provided by the DCC mechanism specified in point (103).

(155)The adjustable N_GenCam parameter specified in the CAM generation frequency management shall be set to 0 for the roadside C-ITS station, unless it is intended to disseminate protected zone data as defined in point (145).

3.6.Management

Not all specified security services have to be implemented. In addition, for some services, implementation is defined internally by the C-ITS station operator.

(156)Roadside C-ITS stations implementing ITS-G5 functionalities shall implement a management layer including a DCC_CROSS entity as specified in [TS 103 175].

3.7.Service Elements

3.7.1.DEN basic service

The DEN basic service uses the services provided by the protocol entities of the ITS networking and transport layer to disseminate DENMs.

A DENM contains information relating to an event that has a potential impact on road safety or traffic conditions. An event is characterised by an event type, an event position, a detection time and a time duration. These attributes may change over space and over time. DENM transmission may be independent from the originating C-ITS station in some situations.

Four types of DENM are generated by the DEN basic service:

   new DENMs;

   update DENMs;

   cancellation DENMs;

   negation DENM.

(157)The DENM header shall be as specified in the data dictionary [TS 102 894-2].

(158)DENM data elements, data frames and service parameters shall be set in accordance with Table 3. In addition, for C-ITS services on roadworks warnings, DENM data frames and service parameters shall be set in accordance with Table 4.

Table 3: DENM elements in general

Name

Use

Usage

Management container

Mandatory

actionID

Mandatory

Content:

The actionID is the unique identifier of a DENM and consists of the data elements originatingStationID and sequenceNumber. originatingStationID is the unique identifier of the C-ITS station whose facility layer created the message, which may be either the central or the roadside C-ITS station. If not set by the central C-ITS station, messages of which the content is generated centrally but which are broadcast from different roadside C-ITS stations will have different originatingStationIDs, resulting in different actionIDs

If the originatingStationID and sequenceNumber are given by the central C-ITS station where centrally generated content is (potentially) sent out via multiple roadside C-ITS stations, the system provides the same actionID for all messages relating to the same event, regardless of which roadside C-ITS station is sending the message. Once the actionID is set, it will not change for messages relating to the same event, even if they are frequently updated.

Value:

not pre-defined, set by system

detectionTime

Mandatory

Initially, this DE shall be set to the time the event was detected. The time shall come from a local time source in the roadside C-ITS station in standalone usecase scenarios. In usecase scenarios with connection to the central C-ITS station, the detectionTime shall initially be set to the time that the application that creates the DENM receives the relevant information, i.e. the moment a roadwork or a hazardous location starts / is detected at a functional level.

Value:

detectionTime is initially set to the start time of the event (new DENM) then reset for each DENM update. For DENM termination, this DE shall be the time at which the termination of the event is detected.

referenceTime

Mandatory

Content:

The referenceTime shall be set to the time the DENM message is generated or updated.

Value:

Set automatically

termination

Optional

C-ITS service specific

eventPosition

Mandatory

In the I2V usecase scenario, the DF eventPosition is used to locate lane or carriageway blockings or hazardous locations. It represents the position where the physical blockage on the lane (including hard shoulder) or the carriageway or the hazardous location starts. The accuracy should be at lane level, but must be at least at carriageway level.

Altitude and confidence DEs can be used or set to the values corresponding with ‘unavailable’.

relevanceDistance

Optional

Optional

relevanceTrafficDirection

Mandatory

Content:

Fixed value. For highways this value is set to 1 (upstream traffic).

This DF indicates for which traffic direction the message is relevant (from the perspective of the eventPosition).

validityDuration

Mandatory

Events are represented by DEN messages. The duration of a singular DENM is based on the (configurable) value of ‘validityDuration’. As long as an event is valid for the road operator, it will be continuously sent (using DENM repetition) and updated (using DENM update, renewing ‘validityDuration’, ‘detectionTime’ and ‘referenceTime’ in the process). A message update will be triggered by ‘validityDuration’ falling below a certain (also configurable) threshold. If the event is no longer valid, it is either timed out or actively cancelled (DENM cancellation).

Content:

The DE validityDuration is set to a fixed value.

Value:

C-ITS service specific.

TransmissionInterval

Not used

Not used

stationType

Mandatory