Accept Refuse

EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document L:2018:290:FULL

Official Journal of the European Union, L 290, 16 November 2018


Display all documents published in this Official Journal
 

ISSN 1977-0677

Official Journal

of the European Union

L 290

European flag  

English edition

Legislation

Volume 61
16 November 2018


Contents

 

II   Non-legislative acts

page

 

 

ACTS ADOPTED BY BODIES CREATED BY INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

 

*

Regulation No 9 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of category L2, L4 and L5 vehicles with regard to sound emission [2018/1704]

1

 

*

Regulation No 63 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of L1 category vehicles with regard to sound emission [2018/1705]

28

 

*

Regulation No 90 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of replacement brake lining assemblies, drum-brake linings and discs and drums for power-driven vehicles and their trailers [2018/1706]

54

 

*

Regulation No 92 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of non-original replacement exhaust silencing systems (NORESS) for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 with regard to sound emission [2018/1707]

162

EN

Acts whose titles are printed in light type are those relating to day-to-day management of agricultural matters, and are generally valid for a limited period.

The titles of all other Acts are printed in bold type and preceded by an asterisk.


II Non-legislative acts

ACTS ADOPTED BY BODIES CREATED BY INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

16.11.2018   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 290/1


Only the original UN/ECE texts have legal effect under international public law. The status and date of entry into force of this Regulation should be checked in the latest version of the UN/ECE status document TRANS/WP.29/343, available at:

http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29fdocstts.html

Regulation No 9 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of category L2, L4 and L5 vehicles with regard to sound emission [2018/1704]

Incorporating all valid text up to:

Supplement 3 to the 07 series of amendments – Date of entry into force: 10 October 2017

CONTENTS

REGULATION

1.

Scope

2.

Definitions

3.

Application for approval

4.

Markings

5.

Approval

6.

Specifications

7.

Modification and extension of approval of a vehicle type or a type of exhaust or silencing system(s)

8.

Conformity of production

9.

Penalties for non-conformity of production

10.

Production definitively discontinued

11.

Transitional provisions

12.

Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of Type Approval Authorities

Annexes

1.

Communication

2.

Arrangements of the approval mark

3.

Methods and instruments for measuring the sound made by motor vehicles

4.

Maximum sound level limits (new vehicles)

5.

Specifications for the test site

1.   SCOPE

This Regulation applies to vehicles of category L2, L4 and L5 (1) with regard to sound emission.

2.   DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Regulation,

2.1.

‘Approval of a vehicle’ means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to the sound level and the original exhaust system as a technical unit of a vehicle type, falling under the scope of this Regulation.

2.2.

‘Vehicle type’ means a category of motor vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as:

2.2.1.

The lines and constituent materials of the body (more particularly the engine compartment and its soundproofing);

2.2.2.

The length and width of the vehicle;

2.2.3.

The type of engine (positive ignition or compression ignition; reciprocating or rotary piston; number and capacity of cylinders; number and type of carburettors or injection systems, arrangement of valves; rated maximum net power and rated engine speed).

For rotary piston engines, the cubic capacity should be taken to be double of the volume of the chamber.

2.2.4.

The electric motor in case of a hybrid electric vehicle.

2.2.5.

Drive train, in particular the number and ratios of the gears of the transmission and the final ratio.

2.2.6.

The number, type and arrangement of exhaust systems.

2.3.

‘Rated maximum net power’ of the combustion engine means the rated engine power as defined in ISO 4106:2012.

The symbol Pn denotes the numerical value of the rated maximum net power expressed in kW.

2.4.

‘Rated engine speed’ of the combustion engine means the engine speed at which the engine develops its rated maximum net power as stated by the manufacturer (2).

The symbol nrated denotes the rated engine speed expressed in min– 1.

2.5.

‘Exhaust or silencing system(s)’ means a complete set of components necessary for limiting the sound emitted by a motor vehicle and its exhaust.

2.6.

‘Original exhaust or silencing system’ means a system of the type with which the vehicle is equipped on acceptance or extension of acceptance. It may be part of the original equipment or a replacement.

2.7.

‘Exhaust or silencing systems of different types’ means exhaust or silencing systems which differ in such essential respects as:

2.7.1.

That their components bear different trade names or marks;

2.7.2.

That the characteristics of the materials constituting a component are different or that the components differ in shape or size;

2.7.3.

That the operating principles of at least one component are different;

2.7.4.

That their components are assembled differently.

2.8.

‘Exhaust or silencing system component’ means one of the individual constituent parts whose assembly constitutes the exhaust or silencing system (3).

If the engine is fitted with an intake device (air filter and/or an intake sound absorber essential in order to ensure conformity with sound level limits), this device shall be considered to be a component of the same importance as the exhaust system proper, and be included in the list referred to in paragraph 3.2.2 below and carry the markings prescribed in paragraph 4.1 below.

2.9.

‘Reference mass’ means the mass of the vehicle ready for normal operation and fitted with the following equipment:

(a)

Full electrical equipment including the lighting and signalling devices supplied by the manufacturer;

(b)

All instruments and fittings required by any legislation in respect of which a measurement of the vehicle dry mass is being made;

(c)

Full complement of liquids to ensure the correct functioning of every part of the vehicle and the fuel tank filled at least to 90 per cent of the capacity specified by the manufacturer;

(d)

Auxiliary equipment usually supplied by the manufacturer in addition to that necessary for normal operation (tool-kit, carrier(s), windscreen(s), protective equipment, etc.);

(e)

the mass of the propulsion battery, if applicable.

The symbol mref denotes the reference mass expressed in kg.

Notes:

1.

In the case of a vehicle which operates on a fuel/oil mixture:

1.1.

Where the fuel and oil are premixed, the word ‘fuel’ is interpreted as including such a pre-mixture of fuel and oil;

1.2.

Where the fuel and oil are separately measured, the word ‘fuel’ is interpreted as including only the petrol. The ‘oil’, in this case, is already included in subparagraph (c) of this paragraph.

2.10.

‘Test mass’ means the reference mass plus the combined mass of the driver and test equipment.

The combined mass of the driver and test equipment used on the vehicle shall not be more than 90 kg nor less than 70 kg. Weights shall be placed on the vehicle, if the 70 kg minimum is not reached.

The symbol mt denotes the test mass expressed in kg.

2.11.

‘Maximum vehicle speed’ means the maximum vehicle design speed as measured according to ISO 7116:2011 for L2 category vehicles and according to ISO 7117:2010 for L4 and L5 category vehicles.

The symbol vmax denotes the maximum vehicle speed expressed in km/h.

3.   APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

3.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to sound shall be submitted by its manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

3.2.   It shall be accompanied by the under mentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.2.1.

A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items mentioned in paragraph 2.2 above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the engine type and the vehicle type shall be specified;

3.2.2.

A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the exhaust or silencing system;

3.2.3.

A drawing of the assembled exhaust or silencing system and an indication of its position on the vehicle;

3.2.4.

Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified, and a specification of the materials used.

3.3.   At the request of the Technical Service conducting approval tests, the vehicle manufacturer shall, in addition, submit a sample of the exhaust or silencing system.

3.4.   A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the Technical Service conducting approval tests.

4.   MARKINGS

4.1.   The components of the exhaust or silencing system shall bear at least the following identifications marks:

4.1.1.

The trade name or mark of the manufacturer of the exhaust or silencing system and of its components;

4.1.2.

The trade description given by the manufacturer;

4.1.3.

The identifying part numbers;

4.1.4.

For all original silencers, the ‘E’ mark followed by the identification of the country which granted the component type approval (4).

4.1.5.

Any packing of original replacement exhaust or silencing systems shall be marked legibly with the words ‘original part’ and the make and type references integrated together with the ‘E’ mark and also the reference of the country of origin.

4.1.6.

Such markings shall be indelible, clearly legible and also visible, in the position at which it is to be fitted to the vehicle.

5.   APPROVAL

5.1.   If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraphs 6 and 7 below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.

5.2.   An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits (at present 07 corresponding to the 07 series of amendments which entered into force on 3 November 2013) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to the same vehicle type equipped with another type of exhaust or silencing system or to another vehicle type.

5.3.   Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model shown in Annex 1 to this Regulation and of drawings of the exhaust or silencing system (supplied by the applicant for approval) in a format not exceeding A4 (210 × 297 mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate scale.

5.4.   There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation an international approval mark consisting of:

5.4.1.

A circle surrounding the letter ‘E’ followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval; (4) and

5.4.2.

The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter ‘R’, a dash and the approval number, to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above.

5.5.   If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved, under one or more other Regulations annexed to the 1958 Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above need not be repeated; in such a case the additional numbers and symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above.

5.6.   The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

5.7.   The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.

5.8.   Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

6.   SPECIFICATIONS

6.1.   General specifications

6.1.1.   The vehicle, its engine and its exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

6.1.2.   The exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to be able to resist the corrosive action to which it is exposed.

6.1.3.   The following information shall be provided on the motor vehicle in an easily accessible but not necessarily immediately visible location:

(a)

The manufacturer's name;

(b)

The target engine speed and the final result of the stationary test as defined in paragraph 3.1.4 of Annex 3.

6.2.   Specifications regarding sound levels

6.2.1.   Methods of measurement

6.2.1.1.   The sound emitted by the vehicle type submitted for approval shall be measured by the method(s) described in Annex 3 to this Regulation for the vehicle in motion and for the vehicle when stationary (5); in the case of a vehicle with an electric motor or with an internal combustion engine that does not operate when the vehicle is stationary, the emitted sound shall only be measured when the vehicle is in motion.

If the vehicle has user selectable software programs or modes which affect the sound emission of the vehicle, all these modes shall be in compliance with the requirements in this paragraph. Testing shall be based on the worst case scenario.

For hybrid electric vehicles, the tests shall be performed twice under the following conditions:

(a)

Condition A: The batteries shall be at their maximum state of charge; if more than one ‘hybrid mode’ is available, the most electric hybrid mode shall be selected for the test;

(b)

Condition B: The batteries shall be at their minimum state of charge; if more than one ‘hybrid mode’ is available, the most fuel-consuming hybrid mode shall be selected for the test.

The final result is the highest of the test results for conditions A and B.

6.2.1.2.   The value(s) measured in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 6.2.1.1 above shall be entered in the test report and on a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

6.2.1.3.   The sound level determined by the method described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex 3 to this Regulation when the vehicle is in motion shall not exceed the limits prescribed (for new vehicles and new exhaust or silencing systems) in Annex 4 to this Regulation for the category to which the vehicle belongs.

6.3.   Additional requirements

6.3.1.   Tampering protection provisions

All exhaust or silencing systems shall be constructed in a way that does not permit removal of baffles, exit-cones and other parts whose primary function is as part of the silencing/expansion chambers. Where incorporation of such a part is unavoidable, its method of attachment shall be such that removal is not facilitated (e.g. with conventional threaded fixings) and shall also be attached such that removal causes permanent/irrecoverable damage to the assembly.

6.3.2.   Multi-mode exhaust or silencing systems

Exhaust or silencing systems with multiple, manually or electronically adjustable, rider selectable operating modes shall meet all requirements in all operating modes. The reported sound levels shall be those resulting from the mode with the highest sound levels.

6.3.3.   Prohibition of defeat devices

The vehicle manufacturer shall not intentionally alter, adjust or introduce any device or procedure solely for the purpose of fulfilling the sound emission requirements of this Regulation, which will not be operational during typical on-road operation.

7.   MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE OR A TYPE OF EXHAUST OR SILENCING SYSTEM(S)

7.1.   Every modification of the vehicle type or of the exhaust or silencing system shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type. The said Authority may then either:

7.1.1.

Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect; or

7.1.2.

Require a further test report from the Technical Service responsible for conducting the tests.

7.2.   Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation in accordance with the procedure specified in paragraph 5.3 above.

7.3.   The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model given in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

8.   CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement, Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:

8.1.   Every vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall conform to the vehicle type approved, be fitted with the exhaust or silencing system(s) with which it was approved and satisfy the requirements of paragraph 6 above.

8.2.   In order to verify conformity as prescribed in paragraph 8.1 above, a vehicle, bearing the approval mark required by this Regulation, shall be taken from the series. Production shall be deemed to conform to the requirements of this Regulation if the levels measured using the method described in Annex 3 do not exceed by more than 3 dB(A) the value measured on acceptance, nor by more than 1 dB(A) the limits prescribed in paragraph 6.2.1.3 above.

9.   PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

9.1.   The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8 above are not complied with, or if the vehicle fails to pass the tests provided for in paragraph 8.2 above.

9.2.   If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model given in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

10.   PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED

If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a vehicle or an exhaust or silencing system approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type Approval Authority which had granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model given in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

11.   TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

11.1.   As from the official date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approvals under this Regulation as amended by the 07 series of amendments.

11.2.   As from 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 07 series of amendments.

11.3.   Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type approvals for existing types which have been granted according to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

11.4.   Until 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments to this Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse national or regional type approval of a vehicle type-approved to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

11.5.   As from 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 07 series of amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be obliged to accept, for the purpose of national or regional type approval, a vehicle type approved to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

11.6.   Notwithstanding the transitional provisions above, Contracting Parties whose application of this Regulation comes into force after the date of entry into force of the most recent series of amendments are not obliged to accept type approvals which were granted in accordance with any of the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation and are only obliged to accept type approval granted in accordance with the 07 series amendments.

11.7.   As from the official date of entry into force of Supplement 1 to the 07 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approval according to Supplement 1 to 07 series of amendments to the Regulation.

11.8.   As from 60 months after the date of entry into force of Supplement 1 to the 07 series of amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by Supplement 1 to the 07 series of amendments to this Regulation.

12.   NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES

The Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitively discontinued, issued in other countries, are to be sent.


(1)  As defined in the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.4, para.2.

(2)  If the rated maximum net power is reached at several engine speeds, the rated engine speed is used in this Regulation as the highest engine speed at which the rated maximum net power is reached.

(3)  These components are, in particular, the exhaust manifold, the exhaust piping, the expansion chamber, the silencer proper, etc. If the engine intake is equipped with an air filter and the filter's presence is essential to ensure observance of the prescribed sound-level limits, the filter must be regarded as a component of the ‘exhaust or silencing system(s)’ and bear the marking prescribed in paragraphs 3.2.2 and 4.1.

(4)  The distinguishing numbers of the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement are reproduced in Annex 3 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3) (ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.4).

(5)  A test is made on a stationary vehicle in order to provide a reference value for administrations which use this method to check vehicles in use.


ANNEX 1

Image Text of image Image Text of image

ANNEX 2

ARRANGEMENTS OF THE APPROVAL MARK

Model A

(See paragraph 5.4 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to its sound emission, been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No 9 under approval No 072439. The approval number indicates that the approval was granted according to the requirements of Regulation No 9 as amended by the 07 series of amendments.

Model B

(See paragraph 5.5 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulations Nos 9 and 33 (1). The approval numbers indicate that, at the date when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No 9 included the 07 series of amendments and Regulation No 33 was still in its original form.


(1)  The second number is given merely as an example.


ANNEX 3

METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SOUND EMITTED BY L2, L4 AND L5 CATEGORY VEHICLES

1.   MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

1.1.   General

The apparatus used for measuring the sound pressure level shall be a sound level meter or equivalent measuring system meeting the requirements of Class 1 instruments (inclusive of the recommended windscreen, if used). These requirements are described in IEC 61672-1:2013. Measurements shall be carried out using the time weighting ‘F’ of the acoustic measuring instrument and the ‘A’ frequency weighting curve also described in IEC 61672-1:2013. When using a system that includes periodic monitoring of the A-weighted sound pressure level, a reading should be made at a time interval not greater than 30 ms. The instruments shall be maintained and calibrated in accordance with the instructions of the instrument manufacturer.

1.2.   Calibration

At the beginning and at the end of every measurement session, the entire acoustic measuring system shall be checked by means of a sound calibrator that fulfils the requirements of Class 1 sound calibrators according to IEC 60942:2003. Without any further adjustment, the difference between the readings shall be less than or equal to 0,5 dB(A). If this value is exceeded, the results of the measurements obtained after the previous satisfactory check shall be discarded.

1.3.   Compliance with requirements

Compliance of the sound calibrator with the requirements of IEC 60942:2003 shall be verified once a year. Compliance of the instrumentation system with the requirements of IEC 61672-1:2013 shall be verified at least every 2 years. All compliance testing shall be conducted by a laboratory which is authorised to perform calibrations traceable to the appropriate standards.

1.4.   Instrumentation for speed measurements

The rotational speed of the engine shall be measured with an instrument meeting specification limits of at least ± 2 per cent or better at the engine speeds required for the measurements being performed.

The road speed of the vehicle shall be measured with instruments meeting specification limits of at least ± 0,5 km/h when using continuous measuring devices. If testing uses independent measurements of vehicle speed, this instrumentation shall meet specification limits of at least ± 0,2 km/h (1).

1.5.   Meteorological instrumentation

The meteorological instrumentation used to monitor the environmental conditions during the test shall meet the following specifications:

 

± 1 °C or less for a temperature measuring device;

 

± 1,0 m/s for a wind speed measuring device;

 

± 5 hPa for a barometric pressure measuring device;

 

± 5 per cent for a relative humidity measuring device.

2.   CONDITIONS OF MEASUREMENT

2.1.   Test site, weather conditions and background noise level correction

2.1.1.   Test site

The test site shall consist of a central acceleration track surrounded by a substantially level test area. The test track shall be level; the track surface shall be dry and so designed that tyre sound remains low.

On the test site, free sound field conditions shall be maintained to within ± 1 dB between the sound source placed in the middle of the acceleration section and the microphone. This condition shall be deemed to be met if there are no large sound-reflecting objects such as fences, rocks, bridges or buildings within 50 m of the centre of the acceleration section. The surface of the test track shall conform to the requirements of Annex 5 to this Regulation.

No obstacle likely to affect the sound field shall be close to the microphone and no one shall come between the microphone and the sound source. The observer taking the measurements shall take up position so as to avoid influencing the metre readings.

The surface of the test track shall conform to the requirements of Annex 5 to this Regulation or to ISO10844:2014. After the end of the period indicated in paragraph 11.8 of this Regulation only ISO 10844:2014 shall be used as reference.

2.1.2.   Weather conditions and background noise correction

Measurements shall not be made in poor weather conditions. The tests shall not be carried out if the wind speed, including gusts, exceeds 5 m/s during the sound-measurement interval.

For measurement purposes, the weighted sound level (A) of sound sources other than on the test vehicle and the sound level produced by the effect of the wind shall be at least 10 dB(A) below the sound level produced by the vehicle. The microphone may be fitted with a suitable wind guard, provided that its influence on the sensitivity and directional characteristics of the microphone are taken into account.

If the difference between ambient noise and measured sound levels is between 10 and 15 dB(A), in order to calculate the test result, the appropriate correction shall be subtracted from the readings on the sound level meter, as given in Table 1.

Table 1

Correction applied to individual measured test value

Background sound pressure level difference to measured sound pressure level, in dB

10

11

12

13

14

≥ 15

Correction, in dB(A)

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,0

2.2.   Condition of the vehicle

2.2.1.   General conditions

The vehicle shall be supplied as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

Before the measurements are started, the vehicle shall be brought to its normal operating conditions as regards:

Temperatures;

Tuning;

Fuel;

Sparking plugs, carburettor(s), etc., (as appropriate).

If the vehicle is fitted with fans with an automatic actuating mechanism, this system shall not be interfered with during the sound measurements.

If the vehicle is equipped with devices which are not necessary for its propulsion, but which are used whilst the vehicle is in normal service on the road, those devices shall be in operation in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.

For vehicles having more than one driven wheel, only the drive provided for normal road operation may be used. If the vehicle is fitted with a trailer or a semi-trailer, this shall be removed for the purposes of the test.

2.2.2.   Test mass of the vehicle

The vehicle shall be tested with its test mass as defined in paragraph 2.10 of this Regulation.

2.2.3.   Tyre selection and condition

The tyres shall be appropriate for the vehicle and shall be inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the test mass of the vehicle.

The tyres shall be selected by the vehicle manufacturer, and correspond to one of the tyre sizes and types designated for the vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer. The minimum tread depth shall be at least 80 per cent of the full tread depth.

3.   METHODS OF MEASUREMENT

3.1.   Measurement of the sound emission of the vehicles in motion

3.1.1.   Test arrangement and microphone positions

3.1.1.1.   The test arrangement is shown in Figure 1.

Two lines, AA′ and BB′, parallel to the microphone line PP′ and situated respectively 10 m forward and 10 m rearward of that line shall be marked out on the test track.

3.1.1.2.   The distance of the microphone positions from the line CC′, on the microphone line PP′, perpendicular to the reference line CC′ on the test track (see Figure 1), shall be 7,5 ± 0,05 m.

The microphones shall be located 1,2 ± 0,02 m above the ground level. The reference direction for free-field conditions (see IEC 61672-1:2013) shall be horizontal and directed perpendicularly towards the path of the vehicle line CC′.

3.1.2.   Acceleration test execution, approach vehicle speed and gear use

3.1.2.1.   Acceleration test execution

The vehicle shall approach line AA′ at an initial steady vehicle speed vAA′ as specified below. When the front of the vehicle reaches line AA′ the accelerator handle shall be fully opened as quickly as practically possible and kept in that position until the rear of the vehicle reaches the line BB′; the accelerator handle shall then be returned as quickly as possible to the idle position. The vehicle speed achieved, when the rear of the vehicle reaches the line BB′ is called vBB′.

The engine speeds corresponding to vAA′ and vBB′ in a specific test condition are called nAA′ and nBB′.

In the case of articulated vehicles consisting of two non-separable units regarded as a single vehicle, the semi-trailer shall be disregarded in determining when line BB′ is crossed.

For all measurements, the vehicle shall be driven in a straight line along the test track in such a way that the track of the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle is as close as possible to the line CC′.

Figure 1

Measuring positions for vehicles in motion

Image

3.1.2.2.   Determination of the approach vehicle speed and the gear use

3.1.2.2.1.   Vehicle with no gearbox

The vehicle shall approach line AA′ at a steady vehicle speed vAA′ corresponding either, in terms of engine speed, (min– 1) to 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation, or to 75 per cent of the maximum engine speed permitted by the governor, or to 50 km/h, whichever is the lowest.

3.1.2.2.2.   Vehicles with manual transmissions, automatic transmissions, or transmissions with continuously variable transmission ratios (CVT's) tested with locked gears

If the vehicle is fitted with a dual mode transmission (e.g. low and high), the mode for normal on-road operation shall be selected.

If the vehicle is fitted with a gearbox with two or three or four forward gears or the same number of lockable gears in automatic transmission or in CVT, the second gear shall be used. If the gearbox has more than four forward gears or the same number of lockable gears in automatic transmission or in CVT, the third gear shall be used.

The vehicle shall approach line AA′ at a steady vehicle speed vAA′ corresponding either, in terms of engine speed, to 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation or to 75 per cent of the maximum engine speed permitted by the governor, or to 50 km/h, whichever is the lowest.

If, by following the above procedure, the engine speed nBB′, achieved when the rear of the vehicle passes the line BB′, exceeds the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation, the first higher gear (or locked gear) which ensures that the rated engine speed is no longer exceeded up to the line BB′ of the measurement area should be used instead of the second or third gear.

Auxiliary step-up ratios (‘overdrive’) shall not be engaged.

3.1.2.2.3.   Vehicles with automatic transmissions, adaptive transmissions or transmissions with variable transmission ratios tested with non-locked gears

The gear selector position for full automatic operation shall be used.

Where several full automatic operation modes are available (e.g. economic, sporty), that mode shall be selected which results in the highest average acceleration of the vehicle between lines AA′ and BB′.

The test may then include a gear change to a lower gear and a higher acceleration. A gear change to a higher gear and a lower acceleration is not allowed. In any case, a gear change to a gear which is typically not used at the specified condition in urban traffic shall be avoided.

Therefore, it is permitted to establish and use electronic or mechanical devices, including alternative gear selector positions, to prevent a downshift to a gear which is typically not used at the specified test condition in urban traffic. The functionality of the devices shall be described in the communication form.

The vehicle shall approach the line AA′ at a steady vehicle speed vAA′ of 50 km/h or at 75 per cent of its maximum vehicle speed as defined in paragraph 2.11 of this Regulation, whichever is the lower.

3.1.3.   Sound level determination

The maximum sound level recorded at each side of the vehicle shall be reduced by 1 dB(A) to account for measurement inaccuracy and mathematically rounded to the nearest first decimal place (e.g. 78,45 shall be noted as to 78,5 while 78,44 shall be noted as to 78,4). These values constitute the results of the measurement.

The measurement will be invalid if an abnormal discrepancy is recorded between the peak value and the general sound level.

At least two measurements shall be made on each side of the vehicle.

The measurements shall be considered valid if the difference between the results of the two consecutive measurements on the same side of the vehicle is not more than 2 dB(A).

Preliminary measurements may be made for adjustment purposes, but shall be disregarded for the determination of the measurement results.

3.1.4.   Calculation of the final test result

The final test result is the average of the four test results rounded off to the nearest whole decibel. If the figure following the decimal point is between 0 and 4, the total is rounded down and if it is between 5 and 9, it is rounded up.

In case of hybrid electric vehicles, the final result is the highest of the test results for conditions A and B as described in paragraph 6.2.1.1 of this Regulation.

3.2.   Measurement of the sound emitted by stationary vehicles (for testing of vehicles in use)

3.2.1.   Sound pressure level close to the outlet(s) of the exhaust system

In addition, so as to facilitate the subsequent testing of vehicles in use, the sound pressure level shall be measured near the outlet of the exhaust system (silencing system), in conformity with the requirements set out below, and the result of the measurement shall be included in the test report prepared for the issuance of the document referred to in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

3.2.2.   Measuring instruments

The measurements shall be made using a precision sound level meter in accordance with paragraph 1 of this annex.

3.2.3.   Conditions for measurements

3.2.3.1.   Condition of the vehicle

Before the measurements are started, the vehicle engine shall be brought to its normal operating temperature. If the vehicle is equipped with automatic fans, no adjustment shall be made to them during the measurement of the sound level.

While measurements are being made, the gear lever shall be in neutral. If the transmission cannot be disconnected, the drive wheel of the vehicle should be allowed to run under no-load conditions by, for example, placing the vehicle on a support or on rollers.

3.2.3.2.   Test site

Any area not subject to major acoustic perturbations may be used as a test site. Level areas covered with concrete, asphalt or some other hard material and are highly reflective are suitable; surfaces consisting of earth which has been tamped down shall not be used. The test site shall have at least the dimensions of a rectangle the sides of which shall be 3 m from the outline of the vehicle (excluding handlebars). No significant obstacle such as a person other than the observer and the driver shall be within this rectangle.

The vehicle shall be placed within the above-mentioned rectangle in such a way that the measuring microphone is at least 1 metre from any stone edging.

3.2.3.3.   Miscellaneous

Instrument readings caused by ambient or wind noise shall be at least 10 dB(A) less than the sound level to be measured. The microphone may be fitted with a suitable wind-guard provided that its effect on microphone sensitivity is taken into account.

3.2.4.   Method of measurement

3.2.4.1.   Number of measurements

At least three measurements shall be made at each measurement point. The measurements shall be considered valid only if the difference between the results of three consecutive measurements is not more than 2 dB(A).

3.2.4.2.   Positioning of the microphone (see Figure 2)

The microphone shall be located at a distance of 0,5 ± 0,01 m from the reference point of the exhaust pipe defined in Figure 3 and at an angle of 45 ± 5° to the vertical plane containing the flow axis of the pipe termination. The microphone shall be at the height of the reference point, but not less than 0,2 m from the ground surface. The reference axis of the microphone shall lie in a plane parallel to the ground surface and shall be directed towards the reference point on the exhaust outlet.

Figure 2

Microphone positions for the measurement of sound of the stationary vehicle

Image Text of image

Figure 3

Reference point

Image

Key:

T

=

top view

S

=

side view

1

=

reference point

2

=

road surface

A

=

mitered pipe

B

=

bent down pipe

C

=

straight pipe

D

=

vertical pipe

The reference point shall be the highest point satisfying the following conditions:

(a)

The reference point shall be at the end of the exhaust pipe,

(b)

The reference point shall be on the vertical plane containing the exhaust outlet centre and the flow axis of the exhaust pipe termination.

If two microphone positions are possible, the location farthest laterally from the vehicle longitudinal centreline shall be used.

If the flow axis of the exhaust outlet pipe is at 90° ± 5° to the vehicle longitudinal centreline, the microphone shall be located at the point that is the furthest from the engine.

If a vehicle has two or more exhaust outlets spaced less than 0,3 m apart and connected to a single silencer, only one measurement shall be made. The microphone shall be located relative to the outlet the farthest from the vehicle's longitudinal centreline, or, when such outlet does not exist, to the outlet that is highest above the ground.

For vehicles having an exhaust provided with outlets spaced more than 0,3 m apart, one measurement is made for each outlet as if it were the only one, and the highest sound pressure level shall be noted.

For the purpose of roadside checking, the reference point may be moved to the outer surface of the vehicle body.

For vehicles equipped with multiple exhaust outlets, the reported sound pressure level shall be for the outlet having the highest average sound pressure level.

3.2.4.3.   Operating conditions

The engine speed shall be held steady at one of the following values:

 

50 per cent of nrated if nrated exceeds 5 000 min– 1

 

75 per cent of nrated if nrated does not exceed 5 000 min– 1

Where nrated is the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation.

For a vehicle which cannot reach, in a stationary test, the target engine speed defined above, 95 per cent of the maximum engine speed reachable in a stationary test shall be used instead as target engine speed.

The engine speed shall be gradually increased from idle to the target engine speed and held constant within a tolerance band of ± 5 per cent. Then the throttle control shall be rapidly released and the engine speed shall be returned to idle. The sound pressure level shall be measured during a period consisting of constant engine speed of at least 1 s and throughout the entire deceleration period. The maximum sound level meter reading shall be taken as the test value.

A measurement shall be regarded as valid only if the test engine speed did not deviate from the target engine speed by more than the specified tolerance of ± 5 per cent for at least 1 s.

3.2.4.4.   Measurements shall be made at the microphone location(s) prescribed above. The maximum A-weighted sound pressure level indicated during the test shall be noted, retaining one significant figure behind the decimal place (e.g. 92,45 shall be noted as to 92,5 while 92,44 shall be noted as to 92,4).

The test shall be repeated until three consecutive measurements that are within 2,0 dB(A) of each other are obtained at each outlet.

The test result for a given outlet is the arithmetic average of the three valid measurements, mathematically rounded to the nearest integer value (e.g. 92,5 shall be noted as to 93 while 92,4 shall be noted as to 92).

3.2.4.5.   Multi-mode exhaust system

3.2.4.5.1.   Vehicles equipped with a multiple mode, manually adjustable exhaust system shall be tested in all modes.

3.2.4.5.2.   For vehicles equipped with a multi-mode exhaust system and a manual exhaust mode control the reported sound pressure level shall be for the mode having the highest average sound pressure level.

4.   SOUND FROM THE VEHICLE IN MOTION (DATA REPORTED TO FACILITATE TESTING OF THE VEHICLE IN USE).

4.1.   A test procedure for in use compliance tests may be defined by a Contracting Party, taking due account of any differences from the test conditions used at type-approval.

4.2.   In order to facilitate in use compliance test of vehicles, the following information relating to the sound-pressure level measurements carried out in accordance with paragraph 1 of Annex 3 for the vehicle in motion is referred to as in use compliance reference data:

(a)

Gear (i) or, for vehicles tested with non-locked gear ratios, the position of the gear selector chosen for the test;

(b)

The vehicle speed vAA′ in km/h at the beginning of the full throttle acceleration test in gear (i); and

(c)

The final test result in dB(A) as determined according to paragraph 3.1.4 of this annex.

4.3.   The in use compliance reference data shall be entered in the communication form conforming to Annex 1.

5.   ORIGINAL EXHAUST (SILENCING) SYSTEM

5.1.   Requirements for silencers containing absorbent fibrous materials

5.1.1.   Fibrous absorbent material shall be asbestos-free and may be used in the construction of silencers only if suitable devices ensure that the fibrous absorbent material is kept in place for the whole time that the silencer is being used and the exhaust or silencing system meets the requirements of any one of paragraphs 5.1.2, 5.1.3, 5.1.4 or 5.1.5 below.

5.1.2.   After removal of the fibrous material, the sound-level shall conform to the requirements of paragraph 6.2.1.3 of this Regulation.

5.1.3.   The fibrous absorbent material may not be placed in those parts of the silencer through which the exhaust gases pass and shall conform to the following requirements:

5.1.3.1.

The material shall be heated at a temperature of 650 ± 5 °C for four hours in a furnace without reduction in the average length, diameter or bulk density of the fibre;

5.1.3.2.

After heating at 650 ± 5 °C for one hour in a furnace, at least 98 per cent of the material shall be retained in a sieve of nominal aperture size 250 μm conforming to ISO standard 3310/1:2000 when tested in accordance with ISO standard 2559:2011.

5.1.3.3.

The loss in weight of the material shall not exceed 10,5 per cent after soaking for 24 h at 90 ± 5 °C in a synthetic condensate of the following composition:

1 N hydrobromic acid (HBr)

10 ml

1 N sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

10 ml

Distilled water to make up to 1 000 ml

Note: The material must be washed in distilled water and dried for one hour at 105 °C before weighing.

5.1.4.   Before the system is tested in accordance with paragraph 3 above, it shall be put into a normal state for road use by one of the following methods:

5.1.4.1.   Conditioning by continuous road operation

5.1.4.1.1.   Depending on the engine capacity of the vehicle, the minimum distances to be completed during conditioning shall be:

Category of vehicle according to cylinder capacity in cm3

Distance (km)

1.

≤ 250

4 000

2.

> 250 ≤ 500

6 000

3.

> 500

8 000

5.1.4.1.2.   50 per cent ± 10 per cent of this conditioning cycle shall consist of town driving and the remainder of long-distance runs at high vehicle speed; the continuous road cycle may be replaced by a corresponding test-track programme;

5.1.4.1.3.   The two vehicle speed regimes shall be alternated at least six times;

5.1.4.1.4.   The complete test programme shall include a minimum of 10 breaks of at least 3 h duration in order to reproduce the effects of cooling and condensation.

5.1.4.2.   Conditioning by pulsation

5.1.4.2.1.   The exhaust system or components thereof shall be fitted to the vehicle or to the engine.

In the former case, the vehicle shall be mounted on a roller dynamometer. In the second case, the engine shall be mounted on a test bench.

The test apparatus, a detailed diagram of which is shown in Figure 4, shall be fitted at the outlet of the exhaust system. Any other apparatus providing equivalent results shall be acceptable.

Figure 4

Test apparatus for conditioning by pulsation

Image Text of image

1.

Inlet flange or sleeve for connection to the rear of the test exhaust system

2.

Hand-operated regulating valve.

3.

Compensating reservoir with a maximum capacity of 40 1 and a filling time of not less than one second.

4.

Pressure switch with an operating range of 5 to 250 kPa.

5.

Time delay switch.

6.

Pulse counter.

7.

Quick-acting valve, such as exhaust brake valve 60 mm in diameter, operated by a pneumatic cylinder with an output of 120 N at 400 kPa. The response time, both when opening and closing, shall not exceed 0,5 seconds.

8.

Exhaust gas evacuation.

9.

Flexible pipe.

10.

Pressure gauge.

5.1.4.2.2.   The test equipment shall be adjusted so that the flow of exhaust gases is alternately interrupted and restored 2 500 times by a rapid-action valve.

5.1.4.2.3.   The valve shall open when the exhaust gas back-pressure, measured at least 100 mm downstream of the intake flange, reaches a value of between 35 and 40 kPa. Should such a figure be unattainable because of the engine characteristics, the valve shall open when the gas back-pressure reaches a level equivalent to 90 per cent of the maximum that can be measured before the engine stops. It shall close when this pressure does not differ by more than 10 per cent from its stabilised value with the valve open.

5.1.4.2.4.   The time-delay switch shall be set for the duration of exhaust gases calculated on the basis of the requirements of paragraph 5.1.4.2.3 above.

5.1.4.2.5.   The engine speed shall be 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation.

5.1.4.2.6.   The power indicated by the dynamometer shall be 50 per cent of the full-throttle power measured at 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation.

5.1.4.2.7.   Any drainage holes shall be closed off during the test.

5.1.4.2.8.   The entire test shall be completed within 48 hours. If necessary, a cooling period shall be allowed after each hour.

5.1.4.3.   Conditioning on a test bench

5.1.4.3.1.   The exhaust system shall be fitted to an engine representative of the type fitted to the vehicle for which the system is designed, and mounted on a test bench.

5.1.4.3.2.   Conditioning shall consist of the specified number of test bench cycles for the engine capacity class of vehicle, for which the exhaust system was designed. The number of cycles for each vehicle class shall be:

Category of vehicle according to cylinder capacity in cm3

Number of cycles

1.

≤ 250

6

2.

> 250 ≤ 500

9

3.

> 500

12

5.1.4.3.3.   Each test-bench cycle shall be followed by a break of at least six hours in order to reproduce the effects of cooling and condensation.

5.1.4.3.4.   Each test-bench cycle shall consist of six phases. The engine conditions for, and the duration of, each phase shall be:

Phase

Conditions

Duration of phase

Engines of less than 250 cm3

Engines of 250 cm3 or more

 

 

(min)

(min)

1

Idling

6

6

2

25 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

40

50

3

50 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

40

50

4

100 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

30

10

5

50 per cent load at 100 per cent of nrated

12

12

6

25 per cent load at 100 per cent of nrated

22

22

 

Total time

2 h 30 min

2 h 30 min

5.1.4.3.5.   During this conditioning procedure, at the request of the manufacturer, the engine and the silencer may be cooled in order that the temperature recorded at a point not more than 100 mm from the exhaust gas outlet does not exceed that measured when the vehicle is running at 110 km/h or 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.4 of this Regulation in top gear. The engine and/or vehicle speeds shall be determined with a tolerance of ± 3 per cent.

5.1.5.   Exhaust gases are not in contact with fibrous materials and fibrous materials are not under the influence of pressure variations.

5.2.   Diagram and markings

5.2.1.   The diagram and a dimensioned cross-section of the silencer shall be annexed to the document mentioned in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

5.2.2.   All original silencers shall bear at least the following:

(a)

The ‘E’ mark followed by the reference to the country which granted the type-approval;

(b)

The vehicle manufacturer's name or trademark; and

(c)

The make and identifying part number.

This reference shall be legible, indelible and visible in the position at which it is to be fitted.

5.2.3.   Any packaging of original replacements for exhaust or silencing systems shall be marked legibly with the words ‘original part’ and the make and type reference integrated together with the ‘E’ mark and also the reference of the country of origin.

5.3.   Intake silencers

If the engine intake has to be fitted with an air filter and/or intake silencer in order to comply with the permissible sound level, the filter and/or silencer shall be regarded as part of the silencer and the requirements of paragraphs 5.1 and 5.2 above shall also be applicable to them.


(1)  Independent measurements of speed are when two or more separate devices will determine the values of vAA′ and vBB′. A continuous measuring device such as radar will determine all required speed information with one device.


ANNEX 4

MAXIMUM SOUND LEVEL LIMITS (NEW VEHICLES)

Vehicle category

Maximum sound level values in dB(A)

L2

76

L4

80

L5

80


ANNEX 5

TEST TRACK SPECIFICATIONS (1)

1.   INTRODUCTION

This annex describes the specifications relating to the physical characteristics and the laying of the test track. These specifications based on a special standard (2) describe the required physical characteristics as well as the test methods for these characteristics.

2.   REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURFACE

A surface is considered to conform to this standard provided that the texture and voids content or sound absorption coefficient have been measured and found to fulfil all the requirements of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 below and provided that the design requirements (paragraph 3.2 below) have been met.

2.1.   Residual voids content

The residual voids content, VC, of the test track paving mixture shall not exceed 8 per cent. For the measurement procedure, see paragraph 4.1 below.

2.2.   Sound absorption coefficient

If the surface fails to conform to the residual voids content requirement, the surface is acceptable only if its sound absorption coefficient, α ≤ 0,10. For the measurement procedure, see paragraph 4.2 below. The requirements of paragraph 2.1 above and this paragraph are met also if only sound absorption has been measured and found to be α ≤ 0,10.

Note: The most relevant characteristic is the sound absorption, although the residual voids content is more familiar among road constructors. However, sound absorption needs to be measured only if the surface fails to comply with the voids requirement. This is because the latter is connected with relatively large uncertainties in terms of both measurements and relevance and some surfaces therefore may be rejected erroneously on the basis of the voids measurement only.

2.3.   Texture depth

The texture depth (TD) measured according to the volumetric method (see paragraph 4.3 below) shall be:

TD ≥ 0,4 mm

2.4.   Homogeneity of the surface

Every practical effort shall be made to ensure that the surface is made to be as homogeneous as possible within the test area. This includes the texture and voids content, but it should also be observed that if the rolling process results in more effective rolling at some places than at others, the texture may be different and unevenness causing bumps may also occur.

2.5.   Period of testing

In order to check whether the surface continues to conform to the texture and voids content or sound absorption requirements stipulated in this standard, periodic testing of the surface shall be done at the following intervals:

(a)

For residual voids content or sound absorption:

When the surface is new; if the surface meets the requirements when new, no further periodical testing is required.

(b)

For texture depth (TD):

When the surface is new; when the sound testing starts (Note: Not before four weeks after laying); then every 12 months.

3.   TEST SURFACE DESIGN

3.1.   Area

When designing the test track lay-out it is important to ensure that, as a minimum requirement, the area traversed by the vehicles running through the test strip is covered with the specified test material with suitable margins for safe and practical driving. This will require the width of the track to be at least 3 m and the length of the track to extend beyond lines AA and BB by at least 10 m at either end. Figure 1 shows a plan of a suitable test site and indicates the minimum area which shall be machine laid and machine compacted with the specified test surface material. According to Annex 3, paragraph 3.1.1.1, measurements have to be made on each side of the vehicle. This can be done either by measuring with two microphone locations (one on each side of the track) and driving in one direction, or measuring with a microphone only on one side of the track but driving the vehicle in two directions. If the latter method is used, then there are no surface requirements on that side of the track where there is no microphone.

Figure 1

Minimum requirement for test surface area. The shaded part is called ‘Test Area’

Image Text of image

3.2.   Design and preparation of the surface

3.2.1.   Basic design requirements; the test surface shall meet four design requirements:

3.2.1.1.

It shall be a dense asphaltic concrete;

3.2.1.2.

The maximum chipping size shall be 8 mm (tolerances allow from 6,3 to 10 mm);

3.2.1.3.

The thickness of the wearing course shall be ≥ 30 mm;

3.2.1.4.

The binder shall be a straight penetration grade bitumen without modification.

3.2.2.   Design guidelines

As a guide to the surface constructor, an aggregate grading curve which will give desired characteristics is shown in Figure 2. In addition, Table 1 gives some guidelines for obtaining the desired texture and durability. The grading curve fits the following formula:

P (% passing) = 100 · (d/dmax)1/2

where:

d

=

square mesh sieve size, in mm

dmax

=

8 mm for the mean curve

dmax

=

10 mm for the lower tolerance curve

dmax

=

6,3 mm for the upper tolerance curve

Figure 2

Grading curve of the aggregate in the asphaltic mix with tolerances

Image

per cent passing (by mass)

Sieve size in mm

In addition to the above, the following recommendations are given:

(a)

The sand fraction (0,063 mm < square mesh sieve size < 2 mm) shall include no more than 55 per cent natural sand and at least 45 per cent crushed sand;

(b)

The base and sub-base shall ensure a good stability and evenness, according to best road construction practice;

(c)

The chippings shall be crushed (100 per cent crushed faces) and of a material with a high resistance to crushing;

(d)

The chippings used in the mix shall be washed;

(e)

No extra chippings shall be added onto the surface;

(f)

The binder hardness expressed as PEN value shall be 40-60, 60-80 or even 80-100 depending on the climatic conditions of the country. The rule is that as hard a binder as possible shall be used, provided this is consistent with common practice;

(g)

The temperature of the mix before rolling shall be chosen so as to achieve by subsequent rolling the required voids content. In order to increase the probability of satisfying the specifications of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 above, the compactness shall be studied not only by an appropriate choice of mixing temperature, but also by an appropriate number of passing and by the choice of compacting vehicle.

Table 1

Design guidelines

 

Target values

Tolerances

by total mass of mix

by mass of the aggregate

Mass of stones, square mesh sieve (SM) > 2 mm

47,6 %

50,5 %

± 5

Mass of sand 0,063 < SM < 2 mm

38,0 %

40,2 %

± 5

Mass of filler SM < 0,063 mm

8,8 %

9,3 %

± 2

Mass of binder (bitumen)

5,8 %

N.A.

± 0,5

Max. chipping size

 

8 mm

6,3-10

Binder hardness

(see paragraph 3.2.2.(f))

Polished stone value (PSV)

 

> 50

Compactness, relative to Marshall compactness

 

98 %

4.   TEST METHOD

4.1.   Measurement of the residual voids content

For the purpose of this measurement, cores have to be taken from the track in at least four different positions which are equally distributed in the test area between lines AA and BB (see Figure 1). In order to avoid in homogeneity and unevenness in the wheel tracks, cores should not be taken in wheel tracks themselves, but close to them. Two cores (minimum) should be taken close to the wheel tracks and one core (minimum) should be taken approximately midway between the wheel tracks and each microphone location.

If there is a suspicion that the condition of homogeneity is not met (see paragraph 2.4 above), cores shall be taken from more locations within the test area. The residual voids content has to be determined for each core, then the average value from all cores shall be calculated and compared with the requirement of paragraph 2.1 above. In addition, no single core shall have a voids value which is higher than 10 per cent. The test surface constructor is reminded of the problem which may arise when the test area is heated by pipes or electrical wires and cores shall be taken from this area. Such installations shall be carefully planned with respect to future core drilling locations. It is recommended that a few locations of size approximately 200 × 300 mm should be left where there are no wires/pipes or where the latter are located deep enough in order not to be damaged by cores taken from the surface layer.

4.2.   Sound absorption coefficient

The sound absorption coefficient (normal incidence) shall be measured by the impedance tube method using the procedure specified in ISO/DIS 10 534: ‘Acoustics — Determination of sound absorption coefficient and impedance by a tube method’.

Regarding test specimens, the same requirements shall be followed as regarding the residual voids content (see paragraph 4.1 above).

The sound absorption shall be measured in the range between 400 Hz and 800 Hz and in the range between 800 Hz and 1 600 Hz (at least at the centre frequencies of third octave bands) and the maximum values shall be identified for both of these frequency ranges.

Then these values, for all test cores shall be averaged to constitute the final result.

4.3.   Volumetric macrotexture measurement

For the purpose of this standard, texture depth measurements shall be made on at least 10 positions evenly spaced along the wheel tracks of the test strip and the average value taken to compare with the specified minimum texture depth. For the description of the procedure see standard ISO 10844:1994.

5.   STABILITY IN TIME AND MAINTENANCE

5.1.   Age influence

In common with any other surfaces, it is expected that the tyre/road sound level measured on the test surface may increase slightly during the first 6-12 months after construction.

The surface will achieve its required characteristics not earlier than four weeks after construction.

The stability over time is determined mainly by the polishing and compaction by vehicles driving on the surface. It shall be periodically checked as stated in paragraph 2.5 above.

5.2.   Maintenance of the surface

Loose debris or dust which could significantly reduce the effective texture depth shall be removed from the surface. In countries with winter climates, salt is sometimes used for de-icing. Salt may alter the surface temporarily or even permanently in such a way as to increase sound, and is therefore not recommended.

5.3.   Repaving the test area

If it is necessary to repave the test track, it is usually unnecessary to repave more than the test strip (of 3 m width in Figure 1) where vehicles are driving, provided the test area outside the strip met the requirement of residual voids content or sound absorption when it was measured.

6.   DOCUMENTATION OF THE TEST SURFACE AND OF TESTS PERFORMED ON IT

6.1.   Documentation of the test surface

The following data shall be given in a document describing the test surface:

6.1.1.

The location of the test track.

6.1.2.

Type of binder, binder hardness, type of aggregate, maximum theoretical density of the concrete (DR), thickness of the wearing course and grading curve determined from cores from the test track.

6.1.3.

Method of compaction (e.g. type of roller, roller mass, number of passes).

6.1.4.

Temperature of the mix, temperature of the ambient air and wind speed during laying of the surface.

6.1.5.

Date when the surface was laid and name of the contractor.

6.1.6.

All test results or at least the latest test result, including:

6.1.6.1.

The residual voids content of each core;

6.1.6.2.

The locations in the test area from where the cores for voids measurements have been taken;

6.1.6.3.

The sound absorption coefficient of each core (if measured). Specify the results both for each core and each frequency range, as well as the overall average;

6.1.6.4.

The locations in the test area from where the cores for absorption measurement have been taken;

6.1.6.5.

Texture depth, including the number of tests and standard deviation;

6.1.6.6.

The institution responsible for the tests according to paragraphs 6.1.6.1 and 6.1.6.2 above and the type of equipment used;

6.1.6.7.

Date of the test(s) and date when the cores were taken from the test track.

6.2.   Documentation of vehicle sound tests conducted on the surface

In the document describing the vehicle sound test(s) it should be stated whether all the requirements of this standard were fulfilled or not. Reference shall be given to a document according to paragraph 6.1 above describing the results which verify this.


(1)  The specifications for the test site reproduced in this annex are valid until the end of the period indicated in paragraph 11.8 of this Regulation.

(2)  ISO 10844:1994


16.11.2018   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 290/28


Only the original UN/ECE texts have legal effect under international public law. The status and date of entry into force of this Regulation should be checked in the latest version of the UN/ECE status document TRANS/WP.29/343, available at:

http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29fdocstts.html

Regulation No 63 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of L1 category vehicles with regard to sound emission [2018/1705]

Incorporating all valid text up to:

Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 29 December 2018

CONTENTS

REGULATION

1.

Scope

2.

Definitions

3.

Application for approval

4.

Markings

5.

Approval

6.

Specifications

7.

Modification and extension of the approval of the vehicle or of the type of exhaust or silencing system(s)

8.

Conformity of production

9.

Penalties for non-conformity of production

10.

Transitional provisions

11.

Production definitively discontinued

12.

Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of Type Approval Authorities

Annexes

1.

Communication

2.

Arrangements of the approval mark

3.

Methods and instruments for measuring the sound emitted by L1 category vehicles

4.

Maximum sound level limits (new vehicles)

5.

Test track specifications

1.   SCOPE

This Regulation applies to vehicles of category L1 (1) with regard to sound emission. Pure electric vehicles, including vehicles with auxiliary electric propulsion, are not in the scope of this Regulation.

2.   DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Regulation,

2.1.

‘Approval of a vehicle’ means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to sound emission and the original exhaust system as a technical unit of a two-wheeled type of vehicle;

2.2.

‘Vehicle type’ means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as:

2.2.1.

The type of engine (two stroke or four stroke; with reciprocating or rotary pistons; number and capacity of cylinders; number and type of carburettors or injection systems; arrangement of valves; rated maximum net power and rated engine speed).

For rotary piston engines, the cubic capacity should be taken to be double of the volume of the chamber;

2.2.2.

Drive train, in particular the number and ratios of gears of the transmission and the final ratio;

2.2.3.

The number, type and arrangement of exhaust systems;

2.3.

‘Exhaust or silencing system’ means a complete set of components necessary for limiting the sound emitted by the engine of the vehicle and its exhaust.

2.4.

‘Original exhaust or silencing system’ means a system of the type fitted to the vehicle on approval or extension of approval. It may be original or a replacement.

2.5.

‘Non-original exhaust or silencing system’ means a system of a type different from that fitted to the vehicle on approval or extension of approval. It may be used only as a replacement exhaust or silencing system.

2.6.

‘Rated maximum net power’

For vehicles with a combustion engine ‘rated maximum net power’ means the rated engine power as defined in ISO 4106:2012.

The symbol Pn denotes the numerical value of the rated maximum net power expressed in kW.

2.7.

‘Rated engine speed’ means the engine speed at which the engine develops its rated maximum net power as stated by the manufacturer (2).

The symbol nrated denotes the rated engine speed expressed in min– 1.

2.8.

‘Silencing systems of different types’ means silencing systems which differ in such essential respects as:

2.8.1.

That their components bear different trade names or marks;

2.8.2.

That the characteristics of the materials constituting a component are different or that the components differ in shape or size;

2.8.3.

That the operating principles of at least one component are different;

2.8.4.

That their components are assembled differently;

2.9.

‘Exhaust system component’ means one of the individual constituent parts which, when assembled, constitute the exhaust system (e.g. exhaust pipes, silencer) and, where applicable, the intake device (air filter).

If the engine is fitted with an intake device (air filter and/or an intake sound absorber essential in order to ensure conformity with sound level limits), this device shall be considered to be a component of the same importance as the exhaust system proper, and be included in the list referred to in paragraph 3.2.2 below and carry the markings prescribed in paragraph 4.1 below.

2.10.

Reference mass

2.10.1.

The reference mass of an L1 category vehicle shall be determined by measuring the mass of the unladen vehicle ready for normal use and shall include the mass of:

(a)

Liquids;

(b)

Standard equipment in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications;

(c)

‘Fuel’ in the fuel tanks that shall be filled to at least 90 per cent of their capacities.

For the purposes of this point:

(i)

If a vehicle is propelled with a ‘liquid fuel’ this shall be considered as ‘fuel’;

(ii)

If a vehicle is propelled with a liquid ‘fuel/oil mixture’:

(a)

If fuel to propel the vehicle and lubrication oil are pre-mixed then this ‘pre-mixture’ shall be considered as ‘fuel’,

(b)

If fuel to propel the vehicle and lubrication oil are stored separately then only ‘fuel’ propelling the vehicle shall be considered as ‘fuel’; or

(iii)

If a vehicle is propelled by a gaseous fuel, a liquefied gaseous fuel or is running on compressed air, the mass of ‘fuel’ in the gaseous fuel tanks may be set to 0 kg;

(d)

The bodywork, the cabin, the doors;

(e)

The glazing, the coupling, the spare wheels as well as the tools.

2.10.2.

The reference mass of an L-category vehicle shall exclude the mass of:

(a)

The machines or equipment installed on the load platform area;

(b)

In the case of mono-fuel, bi-fuel or multi-fuel vehicles, a gaseous fuel system as well as storage tanks for gaseous fuel; and

(c)

In the case of pre-compressed air propulsion, storage tanks to store compressed air.

2.11.

Test mass

The test mass is the reference mass plus the combined mass of the driver and test equipment.

The combined mass of the driver and test equipment used on the vehicle shall not be more than 90 kg nor less than 70 kg. Weights shall be placed on the vehicle, if the 70 kg minimum is not reached.

2.12.

Maximum vehicle speed

The maximum vehicle speed is the maximum design vehicle speed measured according to ISO 7116:2011.

3.   APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

3.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the sound emitted by vehicles shall be submitted by its manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

3.2.   It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.2.1.

A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items mentioned in paragraph 2.2 above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the engine type and the vehicle type shall be specified;

3.2.2.

A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the exhaust or silencing system;

3.2.3.

A drawing of the assembled exhaust or silencing system and an indication of its position on the vehicle;

3.2.4.

Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified, and a specification of the materials used.

3.3.   At the request of the technical service responsible for conducting approval tests, the vehicle manufacturer shall, in addition, submit a sample of the exhaust or silencing system.

3.4.   A vehicle representative of the vehicle type, to be approved shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting approval tests.

4.   MARKINGS

4.1.   The components of the exhaust or silencing system shall bear at least the following identifications:

4.1.1.

The trade name or mark of the manufacturer of the exhaust or silencing system and of its components;

4.1.2.

The trade description given by the manufacturer.

4.1.3.

The identifying part numbers; and

4.1.4.

For all original silencers, the ‘E’ mark followed by the identification of the country which granted the component type approval.

4.1.5.

Any packing of original replacement exhaust or silencing systems shall be marked legibly with the words ‘original part’ and the make and type references integrated together with the ‘E’ mark and also the reference to the country of origin.

4.1.6.

Such markings shall be indelible, clearly legible and visible, in the position on which it is to be located on the vehicle.

5.   APPROVAL

5.1.   If the vehicle submitted for approval pursuant to paragraph 3 of this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraphs 6 and 7 below, approval of that vehicle type with regard to the sound emission shall be granted.

5.2.   An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits shall indicate the series of amendments (at present 02) incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number to the same vehicle type equipped with another type of exhaust or silencing system, or to another vehicle type.

5.3.   Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation and of drawings of the exhaust or silencing system supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format not exceeding A4 (210 × 297 mm) or folded to that format and on an appropriate scale.

5.4.   There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation an international approval mark consisting of:

5.4.1.

A circle surrounding the letter ‘E’ followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval (3);

5.4.2.

The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter ‘R’, a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above.

5.5.   If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved, under one or more Regulations annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above need not be repeated; in such a case the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 5.4.1 above.

5.6.   The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

5.7.   The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.

5.8.   Annex 2 to this Regulation gives arrangements of approval marks.

6.   SPECIFICATIONS

6.1.   General specifications

6.1.1.   The vehicle, its engine and its exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

6.1.2.   The exhaust or silencing system shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to be able to resist the corrosive action to which it is exposed.

6.1.3.   The following information shall be provided on the vehicle in an easily accessible but not necessarily immediately visible location:

(a)

The manufacturer's name;

(b)

The target engine speed and the final result of the stationary test as defined in paragraph 3.2 of Annex 3 to this Regulation.

6.2.   Specifications regarding sound levels

6.2.1.   Methods of measurement

6.2.1.1.   The sound emitted by the vehicle type submitted for approval shall be measured by the method(s) described in Annex 3 to this Regulation for the vehicle in motion and when stationary (4). In the case of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine that does not operate when the vehicle is stationary, the emitted sound shall only be measured in motion.

6.2.1.2.   The value(s) measured in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 6.2.1.1 above shall be entered in the test report and on a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

6.2.1.3.   The sound level measured by the method described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex 3 to this Regulation when the vehicle is in motion shall not exceed the limits prescribed (for new vehicles and new exhaust or silencing systems) in Annex 4 to this Regulation for the category to which the vehicle belongs.

6.3.   Additional requirements

6.3.1.   Tampering protection provisions

All exhaust or silencing systems shall be constructed in a way that does not permit removal of baffles, exit-cones and other parts whose primary function is as part of the silencing/expansion chambers. Where incorporation of such a part is unavoidable, its method of attachment shall be such that removal is not facilitated (e.g. with conventional threaded fixings) and shall also be attached so that removal causes permanent/irrecoverable damage to the assembly.

6.3.2.   Multi-mode exhaust or silencing systems

Exhaust or silencing systems with multiple, manually or electronically adjustable, rider selectable operating modes shall meet all requirements in all operating modes. The reported sound levels shall be those resulting from the mode with the highest sound levels.

6.3.3.   Prohibition of defeat devices

The vehicle manufacturer shall not intentionally alter, adjust, or introduce any device or procedure solely for the purpose of fulfilling the sound emission requirements of this Regulation, which will not be operational during typical on-road operation.

7.   MODIFICATIONS AND EXTENSION OF THE APPROVAL OF THE VEHICLE TYPE OR OF THE TYPE OF EXHAUST OR SILENCING SYSTEM(S)

7.1.   Every modification of the vehicle type or of the exhaust or silencing system shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type. The said Authority may then either:

7.1.1.

Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable adverse effects; or

7.1.2.

Require a further test report from the Technical Service responsible for conducting the tests.

7.2.   Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 5.3 of this Regulation to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation.

7.3.   The Type Approval Authority which issued the approval extension shall assign a serial number to the extension and shall so notify the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

8.   CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement, Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2), with the following requirements:

8.1.   Every vehicle bearing an approval mark as prescribed under this Regulation shall conform to the vehicle type approved, be fitted with the exhaust or silencing system with which it was approved and satisfy the requirements of paragraph 6 above.

8.2.   In order to verify conformity as prescribed in paragraph 8.1 above, a vehicle, bearing the approval mark required by this Regulation, shall be taken from the series. Production shall be deemed to conform to the requirements of this Regulation if the level measured by the method described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex 3 to this Regulation does not exceed by more than 3 dB(A) the value measured during type approval nor by more than 1 dB(A) the limits prescribed in Annex 4 to this Regulation.

9.   PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

9.1.   The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1 above are not complied with, or if the vehicle has failed to pass the tests provided for in paragraph 8.2 above.

9.2.   If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

10.   TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

10.1.   As from the official date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approvals under this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.

10.2.   As from 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.

10.3.   Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type approvals for existing types which have been granted according to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

10.4.   Until 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse national or regional type approval of a vehicle type-approved to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

10.5.   As from 24 months after the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be obliged to accept, for the purpose of national or regional type approval, a vehicle type approved to the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

10.6.   Notwithstanding the transitional provisions above, Contracting Parties whose application of this Regulation comes into force after the date of entry into force of the most recent series of amendments are not obliged to accept type approvals which were granted in accordance with any of the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation and are only obliged to accept type approval granted in accordance with the 02 series of amendments.

10.7.   As from the official date of entry into force of Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approval according to Supplement 1 to 02 series of amendments to this Regulation.

10.8.   As from 60 months after the date of entry into force of Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant type approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments to this Regulation.

11.   PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED

If the holder of the approval completely ceases production of a type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type Approval Authority which granted the approval which in turn shall notify the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a copy of the communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

12.   NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES

The Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued, issued in other countries, are to be sent.


(1)  As defined in the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.4, para. 2 — www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html

(2)  If the rated maximum net power is reached at several engine speeds, the rated engine speed is used in this Regulation as the highest engine speed at which the rated maximum net power is reached.

(3)  The distinguishing numbers of the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement are reproduced in Annex 3 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev. 4 — www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html

(4)  A test is made on a stationary vehicle in order to provide a reference value for administrations which use this method to check vehicles in use.


ANNEX 1

Image Text of image Image Text of image

ANNEX 2

ARRANGEMENTS OF THE APPROVAL MARK

Model A

(See paragraph 5.4 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to its sound emission, been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation No 63 under approval No 022439. The approval number indicates that the approval was granted according to the requirements of Regulation No 63 as amended by the 02 series of amendments.

Model B

(See paragraph 5.5 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E 4) pursuant to Regulation Nos 63 and 33 (1). The approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No 63 included the 02 series of amendments and Regulation No 33 has also been amended by the 01 series of amendments.


(1)  The second number is given merely as an example.


ANNEX 3

METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SOUND EMITTED BY L1 CATEGORY VEHICLES

1.   MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

1.1.   Acoustic measurements

1.1.1.   General

The apparatus used for measuring the sound pressure level shall be a sound level meter or equivalent measuring system meeting the requirements of Class 1 instruments (inclusive of the recommended windscreen, if used). These requirements are described in IEC 61672-1:2013. Measurements shall be carried out using the time weighting ‘F’ of the acoustic measuring instrument and the ‘A’ frequency weighting curve also described in IEC 61672-1:2013. When using a system that includes periodic monitoring of the A-weighted sound pressure level, a reading should be made at a time interval not greater than 30 ms. The instruments shall be maintained and calibrated in accordance with the instructions of the instrument manufacturer.

1.1.2.   Calibration

At the beginning and at the end of every measurement session, the entire acoustic measuring system shall be checked by means of a sound calibrator that fulfils the requirements of Class 1 sound calibrators according to IEC 60942:2003. Without any further adjustment, the difference between the readings shall be less than or equal to 0,5 dB(A). If this value is exceeded, the results of the measurements obtained after the previous satisfactory check shall be discarded.

1.1.3.   Compliance with requirements

Compliance of the sound calibrator with the requirements of IEC 60942:2003 shall be verified once a year. Compliance of the instrumentation system with the requirements of IEC 61672-1:2013 shall be verified at least every 2 years. All compliance testing shall be conducted by a laboratory which is authorised to perform calibrations traceable to the appropriate standards.

1.2.   Instrumentation for speed measurements

The rotational speed of the engine shall be measured with an instrument meeting specification limits of at least ± 2 per cent or better at the engine speeds required for the measurements being performed.

The road speed of the vehicle shall be measured with instruments meeting specification limits of at least ± 0,5 km/h when using continuous measuring devices. If testing uses independent measurements of vehicle speed, this instrumentation shall meet specification limits of at least ± 0,2 km/h (1).

1.3.   Meteorological instrumentation

The meteorological instrumentation used to monitor the environmental conditions during the test shall meet the following specifications:

 

± 1 °C or less for a temperature measuring device;

 

± 1,0 m/s for a wind speed measuring device;

 

± 5 hPa for a barometric pressure measuring device;

 

± 5 per cent for a relative humidity measuring device.

2.   CONDITIONS OF MEASUREMENT

2.1.   Test site, weather conditions and background noise correction

2.1.1.   Test site

The test site shall consist of a central acceleration track surrounded by a substantially level test area. The test track shall be level; the track surface shall be dry and so designed that rolling sound remains low.

On the test site, free sound field conditions shall be maintained to within ± 1 dB between the sound source placed in the middle of the acceleration section and the microphone. This condition shall be deemed to be met if there are no large sound reflecting objects such as hedges, rocks, bridges or buildings within 50 m of the centre of the acceleration section.

No obstacle likely to affect the sound field shall be close to the microphone and no one shall come between the microphone and the sound source. The observer taking the measurements shall take up position so as to avoid influencing the metre readings.

The surface of the test track shall conform to the requirements of Annex 5 to this Regulation or be in accordance to ISO 10844:2014. After the end of the period indicated in paragraph 10.8 of this Regulation only ISO 10844:2014 shall be used as reference.

2.1.2.   Weather conditions and background noise correction

Measurements shall not be made in poor weather conditions. The tests shall not be carried out if the wind speed, including gusts, exceeds 5 m/s during the sound measurement interval.

For measurement purposes, the weighted sound level (A) of sound sources other than on the test vehicle and the sound level produced by the effect of the wind shall be at least 10 dB(A) below the sound level produced by the vehicle. The microphone may be fitted with a suitable wind guard, provided that its influence on the sensitivity and directional characteristics of the microphone are taken into account.

If the difference between ambient noise and measured sound levels is between 10 and 15 dB(A), in order to calculate the test result, the appropriate correction shall be subtracted from the readings on the sound level meter, as given in Table 1.

Table 1

Correction applied to individual measured test value

Background sound pressure level difference to measured sound pressure level, in dB

10

11

12

13

14

≥ 15

Correction, in dB(A)

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,0

2.2.   Condition of the vehicle

2.2.1.   General condition

Before the measurements are started, the engine shall be brought to its normal operating conditions as regards:

Temperatures;

Tuning;

Fuel;

Sparking plugs, carburettor(s), etc., (as appropriate).

If the vehicle is fitted with fans with an automatic actuating mechanism, this system shall not be interfered with during the sound measurements.

If the vehicle is equipped with devices which are not necessary for its propulsion, but which are used whilst the vehicle is in normal service on the road, those devices shall be in operation in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.

In the case of compressed air engines, the normal operating conditions, which do not fall under the abovementioned ones in this paragraph, shall be agreed between the manufacturer and the type-approval authority and shall be annexed to the manufacturer's application for type-approval in accordance with this Regulation.

2.2.2.   Test mass and tyre selection

2.2.2.1.   The vehicle shall be tested with its test mass as defined in paragraph 2.9 of this Regulation.

2.2.2.2.   Tyre selection and condition

The tyres shall be appropriate for the vehicle and shall be inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the test mass of the vehicle.

The tyres shall be selected by the vehicle manufacturer and correspond to one of the tyre sizes and types designated for the vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer. The minimum tread depth shall be at least 80 per cent of the full tread depth.

3.   METHODS OF TESTING

3.1.   Measurement of the sound emission of the vehicle in motion

3.1.1.   Test arrangement and microphone positions

3.1.1.1.   The test arrangement is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Measuring positions for vehicles in motion

Image

Two lines, AA′ and BB′, parallel to the microphone line PP′ and situated respectively 10 m forward and 10 m rearward of that line shall be marked out on the test track.

3.1.1.2.   The distance of the microphone positions from the line CC′, on the microphone line PP′, perpendicular to the reference line CC′ on the test track (see Figure 1), shall be 7,5 ± 0,05 m.

The microphones shall be located 1,2 ± 0,02 m above the ground level. The reference direction for free-field conditions (see IEC 61672-1:2013) shall be horizontal and directed perpendicularly towards the path of the vehicle line CC′.

3.1.2.   Acceleration test execution, approach vehicle speed and gear use

3.1.2.1.   Acceleration test execution

The vehicle shall approach line AA′ at an initial steady speed as specified below. When the front of the vehicle reaches line AA′ the accelerator control shall be fully opened as quickly as practically possible and kept in that position until the rear of the vehicle reaches line BB′; the accelerator control shall then be returned as quickly as possible to the idle position.

For all measurements, the vehicle shall be driven in a straight line along the test track in such a way that the track of the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle is as close as possible to the line CC′.

3.1.2.2.   Approach vehicle speed

The vehicle shall approach the line AA′ at a steady vehicle speed equal to its maximum vehicle speed as defined in paragraph 2.12 of this Regulation, if the latter is below or equal to 30 km/h. If the maximum vehicle speed is above 30 km/h, the vehicle shall approach AA′ at a steady speed of 30 km/h.

3.1.2.3.   Gear use

If the vehicle is fitted with a manually operated gearbox, the highest gear shall be selected which enables it to pass over the line AA′ with an engine speed above or equal to 50 per cent of rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.7 of this Regulation.

If the vehicle is fitted with automatic transmission, it shall be driven at the vehicle speeds indicated in 3.1.2.2 above.

3.1.3.   Sound level determination

The maximum sound level recorded at each side of the vehicle shall be reduced by 1 dB(A) to account for measurement inaccuracy and mathematically rounded to the nearest first decimal place (e.g. 68,45 shall be noted as to 68,5 while 68,44 shall be noted as to 68,4). These values constitute the results of the measurement.

The measurement will be invalid if an abnormal discrepancy is recorded between the peak value and the general sound level.

At least two valid measurements shall be made on each side of the vehicle.

The measurements shall be considered valid if the difference between the results of the two consecutive measurements on the same side of the vehicle is not more than 2 dB(A).

Preliminary measurements may be made for adjustment purposes, but shall be disregarded for the determination of the measurement results.

3.1.4.   Calculation of the final test result

The final test result is the average of the four test results rounded off to the nearest whole decibel. If the figure following the decimal point is between 0 and 4, the total is rounded down and if it is between 5 and 9, it is rounded up.

3.2.   Measurement of the sound emitted by stationary vehicles (conditions and method of measurement for testing vehicles in use).

In addition, in order to facilitate subsequent testing of vehicles in use, the sound pressure level shall be measured close to the outlet of the exhaust (silencing) system, in accordance with the following requirements, and the reading shall be recorded in the test report prepared for the issue of the document referred to in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

The measurements shall be made using a precision sound level metre conforming to the requirements of paragraph 1 of Annex 3 to this Regulation.

3.2.1.   Test site — local conditions

3.2.1.1.   Measurements shall be made on a stationary vehicle in an area which does not present a great deal of disturbance to the sound field.

3.2.1.2.   Every open space shall be considered as a suitable test site if it consists of a flat area covered with concrete, asphalt or some other hard material having a high reflective capacity, excluding compressed or other earth surfaces, in which one can trace a rectangle whose sides are at least 3 m from the extremities of the vehicle and inside which there is no noticeable obstacle; in particular, the vehicle shall not be positioned at a distance of less than 1 m from a pavement edge when the exhaust sound is measured.

3.2.1.3.   Nobody shall be in the measurement area, except the observer and the driver, whose presence shall have no influence on the meter reading.

3.2.2.   Disturbance noise and wind interference

The ambient noise levels at each measuring point shall be at least 10 dB(A) below the levels measured during the tests at the same points.

3.2.3.   Measuring method

3.2.3.1.   Nature and number of measurements

The maximum sound level expressed in A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) shall be measured during the period of operation laid down in paragraph 3.2.3.3.2.1 below.

At least three measurements shall be taken at each measuring point.

3.2.3.2.   Position and preparation of the vehicle

Before the measurements are started, the engine of the vehicle shall be brought to its normal operating temperature, if it is an internal combustion engine, or to its normal operating condition, if it is a compressed air engine. If the vehicle is equipped with automatic fans, no adjustment shall be made to them during the measurement of the sound level.

While measurements are being made, the gear lever shall be in neutral. If the transmission cannot be disconnected, the drive wheel of the vehicle should be allowed to run under no-load conditions by, for example, placing the vehicle on its stand.

3.2.3.3.   Measuring of sound in proximity to the exhaust

3.2.3.3.1.   Position of the microphone (see Figure 2)

The microphone shall be located at a distance of 0,5 ± 0,01 m from the reference point of the exhaust pipe defined in Figure 3 and at an angle of 45° ± 5° to the vertical plane containing the flow axis of the pipe termination. The microphone shall be at the height of the reference point, but not less than 0,2 m from the ground surface. The reference axis of the microphone shall lie in a plane parallel to the ground surface and shall be directed towards the reference point on the exhaust outlet.

The reference point shall be the highest point satisfying the following conditions:

(a)

The reference point shall be at the end of the exhaust pipe;

(b)

The reference point shall be on the vertical plane containing the exhaust outlet centre and the flow axis of the exhaust pipe termination.

If two microphone positions are possible, the location farthest laterally from the vehicle longitudinal centreline shall be used. If the flow axis of the exhaust outlet pipe is at 90° ± 5° to the vehicle longitudinal centreline, the microphone shall be located at the point that is the furthest from the engine.

If a vehicle has two or more exhaust outlets spaced less than 0,3 m apart and connected to a single silencer, only one measurement shall be made.

The microphone shall be located relative to the outlet the farthest from the vehicle's longitudinal centreline, or, when such outlet does not exist, to the outlet that is highest above the ground.

For vehicles having an exhaust provided with outlets spaced more than 0,3 m apart, one measurement is made for each outlet as if it were the only one, and the highest sound pressure level shall be noted. For the purpose of roadside checking, the reference point may be moved to the outer surface of the vehicle body.

Figure 2

Measuring positions for the measurement of sound of the stationary vehicles

Image

Dimensions in metres, unless otherwise indicated

Figure 3

Reference point

Image

Key:

T

=

top view

S

=

side view

1

=

reference point

2

=

road surface

A

=

mitred pipe

B

=

bent down pipe

C

=

straight pipe

D

=

vertical pipe

3.2.3.3.2.   Operating conditions of the engine

3.2.3.3.2.1.   Engine speed shall be held steady at one of the following values:

 

50 per cent of nrated, if nrated exceeds 5 000 min– 1

 

75 per cent of nrated, if nrated does not exceed 5 000 min– 1

where nrated is the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.7 of this Regulation.

For a vehicle which cannot reach, in a stationary test, the target engine speed defined above, 95 per cent of the maximum engine speed reachable in a stationary test shall be used instead as target engine speed.

3.2.3.3.2.2.   The engine speed shall be gradually increased from idle to the target engine speed and held constant within a tolerance band of ± 5 per cent. Then the accelerator control shall be rapidly released and the engine speed shall be returned to idle. The sound pressure level shall be measured during a period consisting of constant engine speed of at least 1 s and throughout the entire deceleration period. The maximum sound level meter reading shall be taken as the test value.

A measurement shall be valid only if the test engine speed did not deviate from the target engine speed by more than the specified tolerance of ± 5 per cent for at least 1 s.

3.2.3.3.2.3.   Multi-mode exhaust system

Vehicles equipped with a multiple mode, manually or electronically adjustable exhaust system shall be tested in all modes.

3.2.3.3.3.   Result

3.2.3.3.3.1.   Measurements shall be made at the microphone location(s) prescribed above. The maximum A-weighted sound pressure level indicated during the test shall be noted, retaining one significant figure behind the decimal place (e.g. 92,45 shall be noted as to 92,5 while 92,44 shall be noted as to 92,4). The test shall be repeated until three consecutive measurements that are within 2,0 dB(A) of each other are obtained at each outlet.

The test result for a given outlet is the arithmetic average of the three valid measurements, mathematically rounded to the nearest integer value (e.g. 92,5 shall be noted as to 93 while 92,4 shall be noted as to 92).

3.2.3.3.3.2.   For vehicles equipped with multiple exhaust outlets, the reported sound pressure level shall be for the outlet having the highest average sound pressure level.

3.2.3.3.3.3.   For vehicles equipped with a multi-mode exhaust system and a manual or electronic exhaust mode control the reported sound pressure level shall be for the mode having the highest average sound pressure level.

4.   SOUND FROM THE VEHICLE IN MOTION (DATA REPORTED TO FACILITATE IN MOTION TESTING OF THE VEHICLE IN USE).

4.1.   A test procedure for in use compliance tests may be defined by a Contracting Party, taking due account of any differences from the test conditions used at type approval.

4.2.   In order to facilitate in use compliance test of vehicles, the following information relating to the sound pressure level measurements carried out in accordance with paragraph 3.1 of Annex 3 for the vehicle in motion is referred to as in use compliance reference data:

(a)

Gear (i) or, for vehicles tested with non-locked gear ratios, the position of the gear selector chosen for the test;

(b)

The vehicle speed vAA′ in km/h at the beginning of the maximum speed or acceleration test with the accelerator control fully engaged in gear (i); and

(c)

The final test result in dB(A) as determined according to paragraph 3.1.4 of this annex.

4.3.   The in use compliance reference data shall be entered in the communication form conforming to annex 1.

5.   ORIGINAL EXHAUST (SILENCING) SYSTEM

5.1.   Requirements for silencers containing absorbent fibrous materials.

5.1.1.   Fibrous absorbent material shall be asbestos-free and may be used in the construction of silencers only if suitable devices ensure that the fibrous absorbent material is kept in place for the whole time that the silencer is being used and it meets the requirements of any one of paragraphs 5.1.2, 5.1.3, 5.1.4 or 5.1.5 below.

5.1.2.   After removal of the fibrous material, the sound level shall conform to the requirements of Annex 4 to this Regulation.

5.1.3.   The fibrous absorbent material may not be placed in those parts of the silencer through which the exhaust gases pass and shall conform to the following requirements:

5.1.3.1.

The material shall be heated at a temperature of 650 ± 5 °C for four hours in a furnace without reduction in the average length, diameter or bulk density of the fibre;

5.1.3.2.

After heating at 650 ± 5 °C for one hour in a furnace, at least 98 per cent of the material shall be retained in a sieve of nominal aperture size 250 μm conforming to ISO 3310/1:2000 when tested in accordance with ISO 2559:2011;

5.1.3.3.

The loss in weight of the material shall not exceed 10,5 per cent after soaking for 24 hours at 90 ± 5 °C in a synthetic condensate of the following composition:

 

1 N hydrobromic acid (HBr) 10 ml

 

1 N sulphuric acid (H2SO4) 10 ml

 

Distilled water to make up to 1 000 ml

The material shall be washed in distilled water and dried for one hour at 105 °C before weighing.

5.1.4.   Before the system is tested in accordance with paragraph 3.1 of this annex, it shall be put into a normal state for road use by one of the following methods:

5.1.4.1.

Conditioning by continuous road operation:

5.1.4.1.1.

The minimum distance to be completed during conditioning shall be 2 000 km.

5.1.4.1.2.

50 per cent ± 10 per cent of this conditioning cycle shall consist of town driving and the remainder of long distance runs; the continuous road cycle may be replaced by a corresponding test track programme.

5.1.4.1.3.

The two vehicle speed regimes shall be alternated at least six times.

5.1.4.1.4.

The complete test programme shall include a minimum of 10 breaks of at least three hours' duration in order to reproduce the effects of cooling and condensation.

5.1.4.2.

Conditioning by pulsation:

5.1.4.2.1.

The exhaust system or components thereof shall be fitted to the vehicle or to the engine.

In the former case, the vehicle shall be mounted on a roller dynamometer. In the second case, the engine shall be mounted on a test bench.

The test apparatus, a detailed diagram of which is shown in Figure 4, shall be fitted at the outlet of the exhaust system. Any other apparatus providing equivalent results shall be acceptable.

5.1.4.2.2.

The test equipment shall be adjusted so that the flow of exhaust gases is alternately interrupted and restored 2 500 times by a rapid-action valve.

Figure 4

Test apparatus for conditioning by pulsation

Image

optional

optional

1.

Inlet flange or sleeve for connection to the rear of the test exhaust system.

2.

Hand-operated regulating valve.

3.

Compensating reservoir with a maximum capacity of 40 l and a filling time of not less than one second.

4.

Pressure switch with an operating range of 5 to 250 kPa.

5.

Time delay switch.

6.

Pulse counter.

7.

Quick-acting valve, such as exhaust brake valve 60 mm in diameter, operated by a pneumatic cylinder with an output of 120 N at 400 kPa. The response time, both when opening and closing, shall not exceed 0,5 second.

8.

Exhaust gas evacuation.

9.

Flexible pipe.

10.

Pressure gauge

5.1.4.2.3.

The valve shall open when the exhaust gas back-pressure, measured at least 100 mm downstream of the intake flange, reaches a value of between 35 and 40 kPa. Should such a figure be unattainable because of the engine characteristics, the valve shall open when the gas back-pressure reaches a level equivalent to 90 per cent of the maximum that can be measured before the engine stops. It shall close when this pressure does not differ by more than 10 per cent from its stabilised value with the valve open.

5.1.4.2.4.

The time delay switch shall be set for the duration of exhaust gases calculated on the basis of the requirements of paragraph 5.1.4.2.3 above.

5.1.4.2.5.

The engine speed shall be 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.7 of this Regulation.

5.1.4.2.6.

The power indicated by the dynamometer shall be 50 per cent of the power with the accelerator control fully engaged measured at 75 per cent of the rated engine speed as defined in paragraph 2.7 of this Regulation.

5.1.4.2.7.

Any drainage holes shall be closed off during the test.

5.1.4.2.8.

The entire test shall be completed within 48 hours. If necessary, a cooling period shall be allowed after each hour.

5.1.4.3.

Conditioning on a test bench:

5.1.4.3.1.

The exhaust system shall be fitted to an engine representative of the type fitted to the vehicle for which the system is designed, and mounted on a test bench.

5.1.4.3.2.

Conditioning shall consist of three cycles.

5.1.4.3.3.

Each test bench cycle shall be followed by a break of at least six hours in order to reproduce the effects of cooling and condensation.

5.1.4.3.4.

Each test bench cycle shall consist of six phases. The engine conditions for and the duration of each phase shall be:

Phase

Conditions

Duration of phase in minutes

1

Idling

6

2

25 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

40

3

50 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

40

4

100 per cent load at 75 per cent of nrated

30

5

50 per cent load at 100 per cent of nrated

12

6

25 per cent load at 100 per cent of nrated

22

 

Total time

2 h 30 min

5.1.4.3.5.

During this conditioning procedure, at the request of the manufacturer, the engine and the silencer may be cooled in order that the temperature recorded at a point not more than 100 mm from the exhaust gas outlet does not exceed that measured when the vehicle is running at 75 per cent of the rated engine speed (as defined in paragraph 2.7 of this Regulation) in top gear. The engine and/or vehicle speeds shall be determined with a tolerance of ± 3 per cent.

5.1.5.   Exhaust gases are not in contact with fibrous materials and fibrous materials are not under the influence of pressure variations.

5.2.   Diagram and markings

5.2.1.   The diagram and a dimensioned cross section of the silencer shall be annexed to the documents mentioned in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

5.2.2.   All original silencers shall bear at least the following:

(a)

the ‘E’ mark followed by the reference to the country which granted the type approval;

(b)

the vehicle manufacturer's name or trademark; and

(c)

the make and identifying part number.

This reference shall be legible, indelible and visible in the position at which it is to be fitted.

5.2.3.   Any packaging of original replacements for exhaust or silencing systems shall be marked legibly with the words ‘original part’ and the make and type reference integrated together with the ‘E’ mark and also the reference of the country of origin.

5.3.   Intake silencers

If the engine intake has to be fitted with an air filter and/or intake silencer in order to comply with the permissible sound level, the filter and/or silencer shall be regarded as part of the silencer and the requirements of paragraphs 5.1 and 5.2 above shall also be applicable to them.


(1)  Independent measurements of vehicle speed are when two or more separate devices will determine the values of vAA′ and vBB′. A continuous measuring device such as radar will determine all required vehicle speed information with one device.


ANNEX 4

MAXIMUM SOUND LEVEL LIMITS (NEW VEHICLES)

Maximum design speed in km/h

Maximum sound level values in dB(A)

≤ 25

66

> 25

71

Cycles designed to pedal equipped with an auxiliary propulsion, other than electrical, with the primary aim to aid pedalling and output of auxiliary propulsion is cut off at a vehicle speed ≤ 25 km/h

63


ANNEX 5

TEST TRACK SPECIFICATIONS (1)

1.   INTRODUCTION

This annex describes the specifications relating to the physical characteristics and the laying of the test track. These specifications based on a special standard (2) describe the required physical characteristics as well as the test methods for these characteristics.

2.   REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURFACE

A surface is considered to conform to this standard provided that the texture and voids content or sound absorption coefficient have been measured and found to fulfil all the requirements of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 below and provided that the design requirements (paragraph 3.2 below) have been met.

2.1.   Residual voids content

The residual voids content, VC, of the test track paving mixture shall not exceed 8 per cent. For the measurement procedure, see paragraph 4.1 below.

2.2.   Sound absorption coefficient

If the surface fails to conform to the residual voids content requirement, the surface is acceptable only if its sound absorption coefficient, α ≤ 0,10. For the measurement procedure, see paragraph 4.2 below. The requirements of this paragraph and paragraph 2.1 above are met also if only sound absorption has been measured and found to be α ≤ 0,10.

Note: The most relevant characteristic is the sound absorption, although the residual voids content is more familiar among road constructors. However, sound absorption needs to be measured only if the surface fails to comply with the voids requirement. This is because the latter is connected with relatively large uncertainties in terms of both measurements and relevance and some surfaces therefore may be rejected erroneously when the voids measurement only is used as a basis.

2.3.   Texture depth

The texture depth (TD) measured according to the volumetric method (see paragraph 4.3 below) shall be:

TD ≥ 0,4 mm

2.4.   Homogeneity of the surface

Every practical effort shall be made to ensure that the surface is made to be as homogeneous as possible within the test area. This includes the texture and voids content, but it should also be observed that if the rolling process results in more effective rolling at some places than at others, the texture may be different and unevenness causing bumps may also occur.

2.5.   Period of testing

In order to check whether the surface continues to conform to the texture and voids content or sound absorption requirements stipulated in this standard, periodic testing of the surface shall be done at the following intervals:

(a)

For residual voids content or sound absorption:

When the surface is new; if the surface meets the requirements when new, no further periodical testing is required.

(b)

For texture depth (TD):

When the surface is new; when the sound testing starts (Note: Not before 4 weeks after laying); then every 12 months.

3.   TEST SURFACE DESIGN

3.1.   Area

When designing the test track layout, it is important to ensure that, as a minimum requirement, the area traversed by the vehicles running through the test strip is covered with the specified test material with suitable margins for safe and practical driving. This will require the width of the track to be at least 3 m and the length of the track to extend beyond lines AA and BB by at least 10 m at either end. Figure 1 shows a plan of a suitable test site and indicates the minimum area which shall be machine laid and machine compacted with the specified test surface material. According to Annex 3 to this Regulation, paragraph 3.1.1.1, measurements have to be made on each side of the vehicle. This can be done either by measuring with two microphone locations (one on each side of the track) and driving in one direction, or measuring with a microphone only on one side of the track but driving the vehicle in two directions. If the latter method is used, then there are no surface requirements on that side of the track where there is no microphone.

Figure 1

Minimum requirement for test surface area. The shaded part is the ‘Test Area’

Image

Key

Microphone (height 1,2 m)

Minimum area covered with test road surface, i.e. test area

Dimensions in metres

Centreline of travel

NOTE – There shall be no large acoustically reflective objectives within this radius.

3.2.   Design and preparation of the surface

3.2.1.   Basic design requirements; the test surface shall meet four design requirements:

3.2.1.1.

It shall be a dense asphaltic concrete;

3.2.1.2.

The maximum chipping size shall be 8 mm (tolerances allow from 6,3 to 10 mm);

3.2.1.3.

The thickness of the wearing course shall be ≥ 30 mm;

3.2.1.4.

The binder shall be a straight penetration grade bitumen without modification.

3.2.2.   Design guidelines

As a guide to the surface constructor, an aggregate grading curve which will give desired characteristics is shown in Figure 2. In addition, Table 1 gives some guidelines for obtaining the desired texture and durability. The grading curve fits the following formula:

P (% passing) = 100 · (d/dmax)1/2

where:

d

=

square mesh sieve size, in mm

dmax

=

8 mm for the mean curve

dmax

=

10 mm for the lower tolerance curve

dmax

=

6,3 mm for the upper tolerance curve

Figure 2

Grading curve of the aggregate in the asphaltic mix with tolerances

Image

per cent passing (by mass)

Sieve size in mm

In addition to the above, the following recommendations are given:

(a)

The sand fraction (0,063 mm < square mesh sieve size < 2 mm) shall include no more than 55 per cent natural sand and at least 45 per cent crushed sand;

(b)

The base and sub-base shall ensure a good stability and evenness, according to best road construction practice;

(c)

The chippings shall be crushed (100 per cent crushed faces) and of a material with a high resistance to crushing;

(d)

The chippings used in the mix shall be washed;

(e)

No extra chippings shall be added onto the surface;

(f)

The binder hardness expressed as PEN value shall be 40-60, 60-80 or even 80-100 depending on the climatic conditions of the country. The rule is that as hard a binder as possible shall be used, provided this is consistent with common practice;

(g)

The temperature of the mix before rolling shall be chosen so as to achieve by subsequent rolling the required voids content. In order to increase the probability of satisfying the specifications of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 of this annex, the compactness shall be studied not only by an appropriate choice of mixing temperature, but also by an appropriate number of passings and by the choice of compacting vehicle.

Table 1

Design guidelines

Quantity

Target values

Tolerances

by total mass of mix

by mass of the aggregate

Mass of stones, square mesh sieve (SM) > 2 mm

47,6 %

50,5 %

± 5

Mass of sand 0,063 < SM < 2 mm

38,0 %

40,2 %

± 5

Mass of filler SM < 0,063 mm

8,8 %

9,3 %

± 2

Mass of binder (bitumen)

5,8 %

N.A.

± 0,5

Max. chipping size

8 mm

6,3-10

Binder hardness

(see paragraph 3.2.2(f))

Polished stone value (PSV)

> 50

Compactness, relative to Marshall compactness

98 %

4.   TEST METHOD

4.1.   Measurement of the residual voids content

For the purpose of this measurement, cores have to be taken from the track in at least four different positions which are equally distributed in the test area between lines AA and BB (see Figure 1). In order to avoid in homogeneity and unevenness in the wheel tracks, cores should not be taken in wheel tracks themselves, but close to them. Two cores (minimum) should be taken close to the wheel tracks and one core (minimum) should be taken approximately midway between the wheel tracks and each microphone location.

If there is a suspicion that the condition of homogeneity is not met (see paragraph 2.4 of this annex), cores shall be taken from more locations within the test area. The residual voids content has to be determined for each core, then the average value from all cores shall be calculated and compared with the requirement of paragraph 2.1 of this annex. In addition, no single core shall have a voids value which is higher than 10 per cent. The test surface constructor is reminded of the problem which may arise when the test area is heated by pipes or electrical wires and cores shall be taken from this area. Such installations shall be carefully planned with respect to future core drilling locations. It is recommended that a few locations of size approximately 200 × 300 mm should be left where there are no wires/pipes or where the latter are located deep enough in order not to be damaged by cores taken from the surface layer.

4.2.   Sound absorption coefficient

The sound absorption coefficient (normal incidence) shall be measured by the impedance tube method using the procedure specified in ISO/DIS 10 534: 1994 ‘Acoustics — Determination of sound absorption coefficient and impedance by a tube method’.

Regarding test specimens, the same requirements shall be followed as regarding the residual voids content (see paragraph 4.1 above).

The sound absorption shall be measured in the range between 400 Hz and 800 Hz and in the range between 800 Hz and 1 600 Hz (at least at the centre frequencies of third octave bands) and the maximum values shall be identified for both of these frequency ranges.

Then these values, for all test cores, shall be averaged to constitute the final result.

4.3.   Volumetric macrotexture measurement

For the purpose of this standard, texture depth measurements shall be made on at least 10 positions evenly spaced along the wheel tracks of the test strip and the average value taken to compare with the specified minimum texture depth. For the description of the procedure see standard ISO 10844:1994.

5.   STABILITY IN TIME AND MAINTENANCE

5.1.   Age influence

In common with any other surfaces, it is expected that the tyre/road sound level measured on the test surface may increase slightly during the first 6-12 months after construction.

The surface will achieve its required characteristics not earlier than four weeks after construction.

The stability over time is determined mainly by the polishing and compaction by vehicles driving on the surface. It shall be periodically checked as stated in paragraph 2.5 of this annex.

5.2.   Maintenance of the surface

Loose debris or dust which could significantly reduce the effective texture depth shall be removed from the surface. In countries with winter climates, salt is sometimes used for de-icing. Salt may alter the surface temporarily or even permanently in such a way as to increase sound, and is therefore not recommended.

5.3.   Repaving the test area

If it is necessary to repave the test track, it is usually unnecessary to repave more than the test strip (of 3 m width in Figure 1) where vehicles are driving, provided the test area outside the strip met the requirement of residual voids content or sound absorption when it was measured.

6.   DOCUMENTATION OF THE TEST SURFACE AND OF TESTS PERFORMED ON IT

6.1.   Documentation of the test surface

The following data shall be given in a document describing the test surface:

6.1.1.

The location of the test track.

6.1.2.

Type of binder, binder hardness, type of aggregate, maximum theoretical density of the concrete (DR), thickness of the wearing course and grading curve determined from cores from the test track.

6.1.3.

Method of compaction (e.g. type of roller, roller mass, number of passes).

6.1.4.

Temperature of the mix, temperature of the ambient air and wind speed during laying of the surface.

6.1.5.

Date when the surface was laid and name of the contractor.

6.1.6.

All test results or at least the latest test result, including:

6.1.6.1.

The residual voids content of each core;

6.1.6.2.

The locations in the test area from where the cores for voids measurements have been taken;

6.1.6.3.

The sound absorption coefficient of each core (if measured). Specify the results both for each core and each frequency range, as well as the overall average;

6.1.6.4.

The locations in the test area from where the cores for absorption measurement have been taken;

6.1.6.5.

Texture depth, including the number of tests and standard deviation;

6.1.6.6.

The institution responsible for the tests according to paragraphs 6.1.6.1 and 6.1.6.2 above and the type of equipment used;

6.1.6.7.

Date of the test(s) and date when the cores were taken from the test track.

6.2.   Documentation of vehicle sound tests conducted on the surface

In the document describing the vehicle sound test(s) it should be stated whether all the requirements of this standard were fulfilled or not. Reference shall be given to a document according to paragraph 6.1 above describing the results which verify this.


(1)  The specifications for the test site reproduced in this annex are valid until the end of the period indicated in paragraph 10.8 of this Regulation.

(2)  ISO 10844:1994


16.11.2018   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 290/54


Only the original UN/ECE texts have legal effect under international public law. The status and date of entry into force of this Regulation should be checked in the latest version of the UN/ECE status document TRANS/WP.29/343, available at:

http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29fdocstts.html

Regulation No 90 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) — Uniform provisions concerning the approval of replacement brake lining assemblies, drum-brake linings and discs and drums for power-driven vehicles and their trailers [2018/1706]

Incorporating all valid text up to:

Supplement 4 to the 02 series of amendments — Date of entry into force: 16 October 2018

CONTENTS

1.

Scope

2.

Definitions

3.

Application for approval

4.

Approval

5.

Specifications and tests

6.

Packaging and marking

7.

Modifications and extension of approval of replacement parts

8.

Conformity of production

9.

Penalties for non-conformity of production

10.

Production definitively discontinued

11.

Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of Type Approval Authorities

12.

Transitional provisions

ANNEXES

1A

Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitively discontinued of a replacement brake lining assembly or replacement drum brake lining pursuant to Regulation No 90

1B

Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitively discontinued of a replacement brake disc or a replacement brake drum pursuant to Regulation No 90

2

Arrangements of the approval mark and approval data

3

Requirements for replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of categories M1, M2 and N1

4

Requirements for replacement brake lining assemblies and drum brake linings for vehicles of categories M3, N2 and N3

5

Requirements for replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of categories O1 and O2

6

Requirements for replacement brake lining assemblies and drum brake linings for vehicles of categories O3 and O4

7

Requirements for replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of category L

7a

Criteria to define groups of brake lining assembly for vehicles of category L

8

Technical prescriptions for replacement brake lining assemblies intended for the use in separate parking brake systems being independent of the vehicle service brake system

9

Special additional procedures for conformity of production

10

Illustrations

11

Requirements for replacement brake discs or brake drums for vehicles of categories M and N

12

Requirements for replacement brake discs/drums for vehicles of category O

13

Model test report for a replacement brake disc/drum

14

Requirements for replacement brake discs for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5

15

Criteria for groups of discs for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5

1.   SCOPE

1.1.   This Regulation applies to the basic braking function of the following replacement parts (1) (2):

1.1.1.

Replacement brake lining assemblies intended for use in friction brakes forming part of a braking system of vehicles of category M, N, L and O which have a type approval in accordance with Regulation No 13, 13-H or 78.

1.1.2.

Replacement drum brake linings designed to be riveted to a brake shoe for fitment to and use on vehicles of category M3, N2, N3, O3 or O4 having a type approval in accordance with Regulation No 13.

1.1.3.

The replacement brake lining assemblies used for separate parking brake systems being independent of the vehicle service brake system will be subject only to the technical prescriptions defined in Annex 8 of this Regulation.

1.1.4.

Replacement brake drums and discs intended for use in friction brakes forming part of a braking system of vehicles of category M, N and O which have a type approval in accordance with Regulation No 13 or Regulation No 13-H.

1.1.5.

Replacement brake discs intended for use in friction brakes forming part of a braking system of vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, which have a type approval in accordance with Regulation No 78.

1.2.   Original brake discs, brake drums, brake lining assemblies and drum brake linings fitted at time of manufacturing of the vehicle and original replacement brake discs, brake drums, brake lining assemblies and drum brake linings intended for the servicing of the vehicle are not subject to this Regulation.

1.3.   This Regulation does not apply to ‘Special parts’, as defined in paragraph 2.3.4.

2.   DEFINITIONS

2.1.   General definitions

2.1.1.   ‘Manufacturer’ means the organization which can assume technical responsibility for the brake lining assemblies or drum brake linings or brake drums and discs and can demonstrate that it possesses the necessary means to achieve conformity of production.

2.1.2.   ‘Replacement part’ means either a replacement brake lining assembly type, a replacement drum brake lining type, a replacement drum brake lining, a replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc.

2.1.3.   ‘Original part’ means either an original brake lining, an original brake lining assembly, an original drum brake lining, an original brake drum or an original brake disc.

2.2.   Definitions regarding the approval of a replacement brake lining assembly type, a replacement drum brake lining type or a replacement drum brake lining.

2.2.1.   ‘Braking system’ has the meaning assigned in Regulation No 13, paragraph 2.3, or Regulation No 13-H, paragraph 2.3, or Regulation No 78, paragraph 2.5.

2.2.2.   ‘Friction brake’ means the part of a braking system in which the forces opposing the movement of a vehicle are developed by friction between a brake lining and a wheel disc or drum moving relatively to each other.

2.2.3.   ‘Brake lining assembly’ means a component of a friction brake which is pressed against a drum or disc, respectively, to produce the friction force.

2.2.3.1.   ‘Shoe assembly’ means a brake lining assembly of a drum brake;

2.2.3.1.1.   ‘Shoe’ means a component of a shoe assembly which carries the brake lining;

2.2.3.2.   ‘Pad assembly’ means a brake lining assembly of a disc brake;

2.2.3.2.1.   ‘Backplate’ means a component of a pad assembly which carries the brake lining;

2.2.3.3.   ‘Brake lining’ means the friction material component with the shape and final dimension to be fixed on to the shoe or backplate;

2.2.3.4.   ‘Drum brake lining’ means a brake lining for a drum brake.

2.2.3.5.   ‘Friction material’ means the product of a specified mixture of materials and processes which together determine the characteristics of a brake lining;

2.2.4.   ‘Brake lining type’ means a category of brake linings which do not differ in friction material characteristics.

2.2.5.   ‘Brake lining assembly type’ means wheel sets of brake lining assemblies which do not differ in brake lining type, dimension or functional characteristics.

2.2.6.   ‘Drum brake lining type’ means wheel sets of brake lining components which after fitment to the shoes do not differ in brake lining type, dimensions or functional characteristics.

2.2.7.   ‘Original brake lining’ means a brake lining type referenced in the vehicle type approval documentation, Regulation No 13, Annex 2, paragraph 8.1.1, Regulation No 13-H, Annex 1, paragraph 7.1 (3) or Regulation No 78, Annex 1, paragraph 5.4.

2.2.8.   ‘Original brake lining assembly’ means a brake lining assembly conforming to the data attached to a vehicle type approval documentation;

2.2.9.   ‘Replacement brake lining assembly’ means a brake lining assembly of a type approved under this Regulation as a suitable service replacement for an original brake lining assembly.

2.2.10.   ‘Original drum brake lining’ means a drum brake lining conforming to the data attached to a vehicle type approval documentation.

2.2.11.   ‘Replacement drum brake lining’ means a drum brake lining of a type approved under this Regulation as a suitable service replacement when fitted to a shoe for an original drum brake lining.

2.2.12.   ‘Parking brake lining assembly’ means a pad assembly or shoe assembly belonging to a parking brake system separate and independent from the service brake system.

2.2.13.   ‘Identical brake lining assembly’ is a replacement brake lining assembly identical to the brake lining assembly supplied and fitted as original equipment and included in the vehicle type approval to Regulation No 13 or Regulation No 13-H with the exception of the vehicle/brake assembly manufacturers mark which is omitted.

2.2.14.   ‘Identical drum brake lining’ is a replacement drum brake lining identical to the drum brake lining supplied and fitted as original equipment and included in the vehicle type approval to Regulation No 13 or Regulation No 13-H with the exception of the vehicle/brake assembly manufacturers mark which is omitted.

2.3.   Definitions regarding the approval of a replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc.

2.3.1.   ‘Original brake disc/brake drum’

2.3.1.1.   In the case of motor vehicles, is a brake disc/drum covered by the vehicle braking system type approval according to Regulation No 13, 13-H or 78.

2.3.1.2.   In the case of trailers:

(a)

Is a brake disc/drum covered by the vehicle braking system type approval according to Regulation No 13;

(b)

Is a brake disc/drum which is part of a brake for which the axle manufacturer owns a test report according to Annex 11 of Regulation No 13.

2.3.2.   ‘Identification code’ identifies the brake discs or brake drums covered by the braking system approval according to Regulations Nos 13 and 13-H. It contains at least the manufacturer's trade name or trademark and an identification number.

The vehicle manufacturer shall provide on request of the technical service and/or approval authority the necessary information, which makes the link between the braking system type approval and the corresponding identification code.

2.3.3.   Replacement parts

2.3.3.1.   Original replacement brake discs and brake drums

2.3.3.1.1.   In the case of vehicle categories M, N and O: original brake discs/brake drums intended for servicing the vehicle and carrying an identification code as defined in paragraph 2.3.2 affixed in such a way as to be indelible and clearly legible.

2.3.3.1.2.   In the case of vehicle categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5: original brake discs/brake drums intended for servicing the vehicle.

2.3.3.2.   Identical brake discs

2.3.3.2.1.   In the case of vehicle categories M, N and O: a replacement brake disc which is chemically and physically identical in every respect with the exception of the vehicle manufacturer mark, which is absent, to the original brake disc.

2.3.3.2.2.   In the case of vehicle categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5: a replacement brake disc which is chemically and physically identical in every respect.

2.3.3.3.   ‘Identical brake drum’ is a replacement brake drum identical to the brake drum supplied and fitted as original equipment and included in the vehicle type approval to Regulation No 13 or Regulation No 13-H with the exception of the vehicle/brake assembly manufacturers mark and the identification code which are omitted.

2.3.3.4.   Equivalent brake discs and brake drums

2.3.3.4.1.   ‘Equivalent brake discs for categories M, N and O’ is a replacement brake disc which is identical to the original brake disc in respect to all dimensions, geometric features and basic design and is also from the same material subgroup as the original brake disc as defined in paragraph 5.3.3.2.

2.3.3.4.2.   ‘Equivalent brake discs for categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5’ are replacement brake discs which are identical to the original brake disc in respect to all dimensions, geometric features and basic design and is also from the same following materials:

(a)

Braking surface: one of materials listed in paragraph 5.3.3.2.2;

(b)

Bell and braking ring fasteners: same materials and mechanical properties of original disc.

2.3.3.4.3.   ‘Equivalent brake drum’ is a replacement brake drum which is identical to the original brake drum in respect to all dimensions, geometric features and basic design and is also from the same material sub-group as the original brake drum as defined in paragraph 5.3.3.2.

2.3.3.5.   Interchangeable brake discs and brake drums

2.3.3.5.1.   ‘Interchangeable brake disc’ is a replacement brake disc which has the same interface dimensions as the original brake disc but may differ from the original brake disc in terms of its design, material composition and mechanical properties.

2.3.3.5.2.   ‘Interchangeable brake drum’ is a replacement brake drum which has the same interface dimensions as the original brake drum but may differ from the original brake drum in terms of its design, material composition and mechanical properties.

2.3.4.   ‘Special brake disc/drum’ means a replacement brake disc/drum not covered by paragraphs 2.3.1 to 2.3.3.

2.3.5.   ‘Functional dimensions’: all the measurements that are relevant with regard to the fitting and functioning of the components of the braking system (see paragraph 5.3.7.1 and Annex 10).

2.3.6.   ‘Type of brake disc/drum’: brake discs or drums having the same basic design and material group in accordance with the classification criteria pursuant to paragraphs 5.3.5.1 or 5.3.5.2 as appropriate.

2.3.7.   ‘Test group’: type of brake discs/drums having the same characteristics pursuant to paragraph 5.3.6.

2.3.8.   ‘Variant’: individual brake disc/drum within a given test group.

2.3.9.   ‘Material’: chemical composition and mechanical properties as per paragraph 3.4.1.2.

2.3.10.   ‘Material group’: e.g. grey cast iron, steel, aluminium, etc.

2.3.11.   ‘Material sub-group’: one of the sub-group defined in paragraph 5.3.3.2.

2.3.12.   ‘Minimum thickness’: the thickness of the brake disc is the point at which replacement becomes necessary.

2.3.13.   ‘Maximum inside diameter’: the maximum inside diameter of the brake drum is the point at which replacement becomes necessary.

3.   APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

3.1.   An application for approval of a replacement part for (a) specific vehicle type(s) shall be submitted by the manufacturer of the replacement part or his duly accredited representative.

3.2.   An application may be submitted by the holder of (a) vehicle type approval(s) to Regulation No 13 or 13-H or 78 in respect of replacement part conforming to the type recorded in the vehicle type approval(s) documentation.

3.3.   In the case of an application regarding the approval of a replacement brake lining assembly type, a replacement drum brake lining type or a replacement drum brake lining:

3.3.1.

An application for approval shall be accompanied, in triplicate, by a description of the replacement brake lining assembly or replacement drum brake lining with regard to the items specified in Annex 1 to this Regulation, and by the following particulars:

3.3.1.1.

Diagrams showing functional dimensions of the replacement brake lining assembly or replacement drum brake lining;

3.3.1.2.

An indication of the positions of the replacement brake lining assembly or replacement drum brake lining on the vehicles for which approval to fit is sought.

3.3.1.3.

In the case of brake lining assemblies for vehicles of category L, the list of brake lining assemblies belonging to the same group defined according to Annex 7a. This list shall indicate for each brake lining assembly: name of brake lining assembly manufacturer, the brake lining assembly manufacturer's code, the friction material area (cm2).

3.3.2.

Brake lining assemblies or drum brake linings of the type for which approval is sought shall be made available in sufficient quantity to perform the approval tests.

3.3.3.

The applicant shall agree with and make available to the technical service responsible for conducting approval tests the suitable representative vehicle(s) and/or brake(s).

3.3.4.

The Competent Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.

3.3.4.1.   The applicant shall submit values for friction behaviour in accordance with Annex 9, Part A, paragraph 2.4.1 or 3.4.1 respectively of this Regulation.

3.4.   In the case of an application regarding the approval of a replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc.

3.4.1.   An application for approval shall be accompanied, in triplicate, by a description of replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc with regard to the items specified in Annex 1B to this Regulation, and by the following particulars:

3.4.1.1.   Disc or drum drawing(s) including the dimensions of the features mentioned in paragraph 5.3.7.1, together with tolerances, and any accompanying accessories:

(a)

Location and nature of the marking pursuant to paragraph 6.2.2 — dimensions in mm;

(b)

Weight in grams;

(c)

Material (for one-piece discs) or material for composed and floating disc of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5.

3.4.1.2.   Component description

The manufacturer shall provide a component description containing at least the following information:

(a)

The manufacturer of the unmachined part;

(b)

A description of the process of manufacture of the unmachined part;

(c)

Proof of the reliability of the process (e.g. freedom from cracks and cavities, dimensions);

(d)

Material composition, specifically:

(i)

Chemical composition;

(ii)

Microstructure;

(iii)

Mechanical properties for cast iron brake discs and brake drums:

(a)

Brinell hardness pursuant to ISO 6506-1:2005;

(b)

Tensile strength in accordance with ISO 6892:1998;

(iv)

Mechanical properties for martensitic stainless steel brake disc:

Rockwell C hardness pursuant to ISO 6508-1;

(e)

Corrosion or surface protection;

(f)

Description of the balancing measures, maximum permissible balance error;

(g)

Amount of wear allowed (minimum thickness in the case of brake discs or the maximum internal diameter in the case of brake drums).

The applicant shall submit the information and specifications outlined in Annex 9, Part B, paragraph 2.5 for cast iron discs and Annex 9, Part C, paragraph 2.5 for martensitic stainless steel discs, of this Regulation.

3.4.2.   Conformity of production

The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.

3.4.2.1.   The applicant shall submit the documentation in accordance with Annex 9, Part B and Part C, paragraph 2 of this Regulation.

3.4.3.   Sample quantities and usage

3.4.3.1.   A minimum number of disc or drum samples — of the design for which approval is requested — shall be provided, as shown in the following tables.

The tables also show the recommended use of the samples.

Item No

Check/Test

Sample number for brake discs for vehicles of categories M, N and O

Remarks

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

Geometric check

Paragraphs 5.3.3.1, 5.3.4.1

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

2

Material check

Paragraphs 5.3.3.2

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

3

Balancing provisions check

Paragraph 5.3.7.2

 

 

x

x

x

x

 

4

Wear condition marking check

Paragraph 5.3.7.3

 

 

x

x

x

x

 

5

Integrity test — thermal fatigue

Paragraphs 4.1.1, 4.2.1 of Annex 11, 4.1.1, 4.2.1 of Annex 12

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

6

Integrity test — high load test

Paragraphs 4.1.2, 4.2.2 of Annex 11, and paragraphs 4.1.2, 4.2.2 of Annex 12

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

7

Service brake vehicle performance test

Paragraph 2.2 of Annex 11, Paragraph 2.2 of Annex 12

 

 

 

 

 

Pair of discs

Either front or rear axle

8

Parking brake vehicle performance test

Paragraph 2.3 of Annex 11, Paragraph 2.3 of Annex 12

 

 

 

 

 

Pair of discs

If applicable

9

Service brake dynamometer performance test

Paragraph 3.3 of Annex 11, paragraph 3.3 of Annex 12

 

 

 

 

 

x

Alternative to vehicle test


Item No

Check/Test

Sample number for brake discs for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5

Remarks

1

2

3

4

5

1

Geometric check

Paragraphs 5.3.3.1, 5.3.4.1

x

x

x

x

x

 

2

Wear condition marking check

Paragraph 5.3.7.3

x

x

x

x

x

 

3

Material and hardness braking surface

Paragraphs 5.3.3.2

x

 

 

 

 

 

4

Bell and fasteners material check

Paragraphs 2.4 and 2.5 of Annex 15

x

 

 

 

 

 

5

Resistance to static torque test

Paragraph 2 of Annex 14

 

x

x

 

 

 

6

Service brake vehicle performance

Paragraphs 3.2 of Annex 14

 

 

 

x

 

 

7

Thermal fatigue

Paragraph 5.1 of Annex 14

 

 

 

 

x

 

8

Service brake dynamometer performance

Paragraph 4.3 of Annex 14

 

 

 

 

 

Alternative to vehicle test

3.4.3.2.   Each disc and drum, other than those using geometric and material checks, shall be accompanied by the appropriate number of the suitable brake lining assemblies which have an approval to Regulation No 13, 13-H or 90.

3.4.3.3.   In the case where a comparison with the original brake disc or brake drum is required, an axle set of original brake discs or original brake drum, as applicable, shall be provided.

3.4.3.4.   Where an equivalent replacement disc/drum approval is sought, two original brake disc/drum or original replacement brake disc/drum samples shall be provided for dimensional and material comparisons.

3.4.3.5.   Where an interchangeable replacement disc/drum approval is sought, two original brake disc/drum or original replacement brake disc/drum samples shall be provided for dimensional comparison.

4.   APPROVAL

4.1.   If the replacement part submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meet the requirements of paragraph 5 below, approval of the replacement part shall be granted.

4.1.1.   In the case of replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of category L with a combined braking system in the meaning of paragraph 2.9 of Regulation No 78, the approval must be restricted to the brake lining assembly combination(s) on the axles of the vehicle having been tested according to Annex 7 of this Regulation.

4.2.   To each replacement part approved there shall be assigned an approval number comprising four groups of digits:

4.2.1.

The first two digits (at present 02 for the Regulation in its 02 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval.

4.2.2.

The following single digit shall indicate the category of the replacement part as follows:

A

Replacement brake lining assembly

B

Replacement drum brake lining

C

Replacement brake disc

D

Replacement brake drum

4.2.3.

The next series of digits shall indicate the manufacture and the type of the brake lining, the type of disc or the type of drum.

The digital suffix shall indicate:

(a)

The shoe or back plate or specific dimension in the case of drum brake linings;

(b)

The Test Group in the case of a replacement disc or replacement drum.

The variants approved as a Test Group shall be listed as an appendix to the communication document.

Image

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

/

_

_

_

_

Digital suffix indicates the Test Group/shoe/back plate/specific dimension of the replacement part

Digital series indicates (manufacturer and) the type of the replacement part

1 digit (A to D) indicates the category of the replacement part

2 digits indicate series of amendment (01 to 99)

Example:

Image

0

2

C

0

03

5

9

/

07

2

4

8

Test Group No 07248

Type No 00359

Brake disc

02 series of amendments

4.2.4.

In the case of brake lining assemblies for vehicles of category L, brake lining assemblies belonging to the same group defined according to the criteria of Annex 7a, shall be assigned the same approval number of the one assigned to the representative brake lining assembly.

4.3.   The same Contracting Party may not assign the same number to another replacement part. The same type approval number may cover the use of that replacement part on a number of differing vehicle types.

4.4.   Notice of approval or of extension or refusal of approval or withdrawal of approval or production definitively discontinued of a replacement part pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

4.5.   There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place, to every replacement part approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:

4.5.1.

A circle surrounding the letter ‘E’ followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval (4);

4.5.2.

The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter ‘R’, a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.5.1.

4.6.   The approval mark referred to in paragraph 4.5 above shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

4.7.   Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of the approval mark and approval data referred to above and in paragraph 6.1.5 below.

5.   SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS

5.1.   General

A replacement part shall be so designed and constructed that, when substituted for the part originally fitted to a vehicle, the braking efficiency of that vehicle accords with that of the approved vehicle type.

Specifically:

(a)

A replacement part for a vehicle type approved prior to Regulation No 13, 09 series of amendments, or the original version of Regulation No 13-H or Regulation No 78, 01 series of amendments, shall satisfy as a minimum the appropriate abovementioned Regulation level;

(b)

A replacement part shall display performance characteristics similar to that of the original part it is intended to replace;

(c)

A replacement part must possess adequate mechanical characteristics;

(d)

Brake linings shall not contain asbestos;

(e)

A replacement brake disc/drum shall exhibit sufficient deformation resistance under temperature;

(f)

The minimum thickness of the brake disc shall not be less than the minimum thickness of the original brake disc as specified by the vehicle manufacturer;

(g)

The maximum permissible inside diameter of the brake drum shall not be more than the maximum permissible inside diameter of the original brake drum specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

5.1.1.   Replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings conforming to the type specified in vehicle type approval documentation to Regulation No 13 or to Regulation No 13-H or Regulation No 78 are deemed to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 5 of this Regulation.

5.1.2.   Replacement discs and replacement drums conforming to the identification code specified in vehicle type approval documentation to Regulation No 13 or to Regulation No 13-H and replacement discs conforming to the type specified in vehicle type approval documentation to Regulation No 78, are deemed to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 5 of this Regulation.

5.1.3.   Identical replacement brake lining assemblies and identical drum brake linings do not need to be tested according to the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1 below, provided the following conditions are fulfilled:

(a)

That the applicant for approval demonstrates that they produce and supplies the submitted brake lining assemblies or drum brake linings to the vehicle or brake manufacturer as original equipment for the specific vehicle models, axles and brakes mentioned under Annex 1A item 6, for which approval is being sought.

(b)

That the Technical Service and/or Type Approval Authority verify that the applicant is producing and supplying the relevant part mentioned in Appendix 1 to Annex 2 to Regulation No 13 approval or the Appendix to Annex 1 to Regulation No 13-H approval, in paragraph related to ‘Make and type of brake linings’ (5).

(c)

The applicant for approval continues to produce the original and identical parts:

(i)

From the same raw material mixture;

(ii)

With the same manufacturing process;

(iii)

On the same production line;

(iv)

With the same quality assurance system; and

(v)

With the same results of the conformity of production tests referenced in paragraph 8.4.1 of the Regulation, as for the original parts.

The demonstration of compliance to requirements specified in this paragraph shall be supported by an onsite audit, conducted by the Technical Services in charge of approval tests. To support the audit the manufacturer shall provide access to the process flow chart and control plan.

5.2.   Requirements regarding the approval of a replacement brake lining assembly type, a replacement drum brake lining type or a replacement drum brake lining

5.2.1.   Performance requirements

5.2.1.1.   Replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of categories M1, M2 and N1

At least one set of replacement brake lining assemblies, representing the type of lining to be approved, shall be installed and tested in at least one vehicle which is representative of the vehicle type for which approval is sought, according to the prescriptions of Annex 3 and shall satisfy the requirements stated in this annex. The representative vehicle(s) shall be selected from among the application range using a worst case analysis (6). For speed sensitivity and cold performance equivalence, one of the two methods described in Annex 3 shall be used.

5.2.1.2.   Replacement brake lining assemblies and replacement drum brake linings for vehicles of categories M3, N2 and N3

At least one set of replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings, representing the type of lining to be approved, shall be installed and tested in at least one vehicle or a brake which is representative of the vehicle type for which approval is sought, according to the prescriptions of Annex 4, using one of the two methods described in paragraph 1 (vehicle test) or in paragraph 2 (inertia dynamometer test) and shall satisfy the requirements stated in this annex. The representative vehicle(s) or brake(s) shall be selected from among the application range using a worst case analysis (7).

5.2.1.3.   Replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of categories O1 and O2

Replacement brake lining assemblies shall be tested according to the prescriptions of Annex 5 and shall satisfy the requirements stated in this annex.

5.2.1.4.   Replacement brake lining assemblies and replacement drum brake linings for vehicles of categories O3 and O4

Replacement brake lining assemblies and replacement drum brake linings shall be tested according to the prescriptions of Annex 6 and shall satisfy the requirements stated in this annex. For the tests, one of the three methods described in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex 11 of Regulation No 13 shall be used.

5.2.1.5.   Replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of category L

It is allowed the verification of a brake lining assembly deemed to be representative of a group of brake lining assemblies, grouped according to the criteria defined in Annex 7a.

The representative brake lining assembly is deemed to identify the most severe application.

Results obtained with that representative brake lining assembly are considered valid for all the brake lining assemblies belonging to the same group defined according to the grouping criteria as from Annex 7a.

At least one set of the chosen replacement brake lining assemblies, representing the type of lining to be approved, shall be installed and tested in at least one vehicle which is representative of the vehicle type for which approval is sought, according to the prescriptions of Annex 7 and shall satisfy the requirements stated in this annex. The representative vehicle(s) shall be selected from among the application range using a worst case analysis (8).

5.2.2.   Mechanical characteristics

5.2.2.1.   Replacement brake lining assemblies for vehicles of categories M1, M2, N1, O1, O2, and L

5.2.2.1.1.   Replacement brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested shall be tested for shear strength according to Standard either ISO 6312:1981 or ISO 6312:2001.

The minimum acceptable shear strength is 250 N/cm2 for pad assemblies and 100 N/cm2 for shoe assemblies.

5.2.2.1.2.   Replacement brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested shall be tested for compressibility according to standard either ISO 6310:1981, ISO 6310:2001 or ISO 6310:2009.

The compressibility values shall not exceed 2 per cent at ambient temperature and 5 per cent at 400 °C for pad assemblies and 2 per cent at ambient temperature and 4 per cent at 200 °C for shoe assemblies. This requirement does not apply to parking brake lining assemblies.

5.2.2.2.   Replacement brake lining assemblies and replacement drum brake linings for vehicles of categories M3, N2, N3, O3, and O4

5.2.2.2.1.   Shear strength

This test applies only to disc brake pad assemblies.

Replacement brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested shall be tested for shear strength according to Standard ISO 6312:1981 or ISO 6312:2001. Brake lining assemblies may by divided into two or three parts to match the test machine's capability.

The minimum acceptable shear strength is 250 N/cm2.

5.2.2.2.2.   Compressibility

Replacement brake lining assemblies and replacement drum brake linings of the type for which approval is requested shall be tested for compressibility according to standard either ISO 6310:1981, ISO 6310:2001 or ISO 6310:2009. Flat specimens according to sample type I may be used.

The compressibility values shall not exceed 2 per cent at ambient temperature and 5 per cent at 400 °C for pad assemblies and 2 per cent at ambient temperature and 4 per cent at 200 °C for shoe assemblies and drum brake linings.

5.2.2.2.3.   Material hardness (9)

This requirement applies to drum brake lining assemblies and drum brake linings.

Replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings of the type for which approval is requested shall be tested for hardness according to Standard ISO 2039-2:1987.

The hardness figure for the friction material at the rubbing surface shall be the mean value out of five sample linings from different production batches (if available) by taking five measurements at different places of each brake lining.

5.3.   Technical requirements regarding the approval of a replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc

All replacement parts have to be separated in 4 groups:

(a)

Original replacement brake disc/drum;

(b)

Identical brake disc/drum;

(c)

Equivalent disc/drum;

(d)

Interchangeable disc/drum.

Depending on its group, the replacement brake disc or drum has to pass the following tests:

 

Resistance to static torque (only for vehicle categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5)

Performance tests according to Regulations Nos 13/13-H/78 (Type 0, I, II, etc.)

Comparison test with dynamic frictional properties of the original part

Integrity tests (high load and thermal fatigue)

Original replacement parts

Disc not subjected to this regulation

Identical parts

No

No

No

No

Equivalent parts

No

No

No

Dynamometer test

Interchangeable parts

Static bench test

Vehicle test or alternative dynamometer test

Vehicle test or alternative dynamometer test

Dynamometer test

The test requirements for brake discs and drums for vehicles of categories M and N are detailed in Annex 11.

The test requirements for brake discs and drums for vehicles of category O are detailed in Annex 12.

The test requirements for brake discs for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 are detailed in Annex 14.

5.3.1.   Original replacement brake discs/drums

5.3.1.1.   Original replacement brake discs/drums are excluded from the scope of this Regulation provided they carry an identification code as defined in paragraph 2.3.2 affixed in such a way as to be indelible and clearly legible.

5.3.2.   Identical brake discs/drums

5.3.2.1.   The applicant for approval shall demonstrate to the Technical Service and/or approval authority that they produce and supply the submitted brake discs or drums to the vehicle manufacturer as original equipment for the specific model/models, axles, mentioned under Annex 1B item 4 for which approval is being sought. This demonstration shall include verifiable evidence that the brake discs or drums are produced under the same production and quality assurance systems as for the original parts pursuant to paragraph 2.3.1 of the Regulation. Specifically it is required that the applicant for approval continues to produce the original and identical parts:

(a)

From the same raw material, composition and microstructure;

(b)

With the same manufacturing process;

(c)

On the same production line;

(d)

With the same quality assurance system; and

(e)

With the same results of the conformity of production tests referenced in paragraph 8.4.2 of the Regulation, as for the original parts.

The demonstration of compliance to requirements specified in this paragraph shall be supported by an onsite audit, conducted by the Technical Services in charge of approval tests. To support the audit the manufacturer shall provide access to the process flow chart and control plan.

5.3.2.2.   Since the identical brake discs/drums fulfils all requirement as the Original part no testing requirements are prescribed.

5.3.3.   Equivalent replacement discs or drums

5.3.3.1.   Geometric requirements

The brake discs or drums shall be identical to the original brake disc or drum in respect to all dimensions, geometric features, tolerances and basic design.

5.3.3.2.   Material and metallurgical requirements

In order to be considered ‘Equivalent’ the replacement brake disc or drum shall be from the same material sub-group as the original brake disc or drum. Four original part material sub-groups are defined.

 

Test standard

Sub-group 1

Base cast iron

DIN EN 1561

EN-GJL-200

Sub-group 2

Base high carbon

EN-GJL-150

Sub-group 3

Alloyed high carbon

Sub-group 4

Unalloyed high carbon

Carbon Content (per cent)

 

3,20-3,60

3,60-3,90

3,55-3,90

3,60-3,90

Silicon Content (per cent)

 

1,70-2,30

1,60-2,20

1,60-2,20

1,60-2,20

Manganese Content (per cent)

 

Min 0,40

Min 0,40

Min 0,40

Min 0,40

Chromium Content (per cent)

 

Max 0,35

Max 0,35

0,30-0,60

Max 0,25

Copper Content (per cent)

 

0,30-0,70

0,30-0,70

Max 0,40

Hardness HBW

ISO 6506-1:2005

190-248

160-210

180-230

160-200

Tensile strength (N/mm2)

ISO 6892:1998

Min 220

Min 160

Min 170

Min 150

5.3.3.2.1.   For vehicles of category M, N, O, in order to be considered ‘Equivalent’ the replacement brake disc or drum shall be from the same material sub-group as the original brake disc or drum. Four original part material sub-groups are defined.

5.3.3.2.2.   Martensitic stainless steel for braking ring of vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5. In order to be considered ‘Equivalent’ the replacement brake disc shall be from the same material subgroup as the original brake disc. Five original part material subgroups are defined.

 

Test standard

Subgroup 1

JIS SUS 410

Subgroup 2

X 10 Cr 13

EN 10088/2

Subgroup 3

X 12 Cr 13

EN 10088/2

Subgroup 4

X 20 Cr 13

EN 10088/2

Subgroup 5

X 30 Cr 13

EN 10088/2

Carbon Content (per cent)

 

0,02-0,10

0,08-0,12

0,08-0,15

0,16-0,25

0,26-0,35

Silicon Content (per cent)

 

Max 0,80

Max 1,00

Max 1,00

Max 1,00

Max 1,00

Manganese Content (per cent)

 

0,50-2,50

Max 1,00

Max 1,50

Max 1,50

Max 1,50

Chromium Content (per cent)

 

10,00-14,50

12,00-14,00

11,50-13,50

12,00-14,00

12,00-14,00

Iron Content (per cent)

 

rest

Hardness HRC

ISO 6508-1:2005

30-40

30-40

30-40

30-40

30-40

5.3.3.3.   Performance requirements

The part has to pass the integrity tests for high load and thermal fatigue according to Annexes 11 and 12.

5.3.3.3.1.   Brake disc and brake drum for categories M, N and O

The part has to pass the integrity tests for high load and thermal fatigue according to Annexes 11 and 12.

5.3.3.3.2.   Brake disc for categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5

The part has to pass the integrity tests for high load and thermal fatigue according to Annex 14.

5.3.4.   Interchangeable replacement discs or drums

5.3.4.1.   Geometric requirements

As paragraphs 5.3.4.1.1 and 5.3.4.1.2 plus the same interface dimensions.

An interchangeable replacement disc or drum may differ from the original part disc in design features such as:

(a)

Type and geometry of ventilation (for vented discs);

(b)

Integral or composite disc or drum;

(c)

Surface finish (e.g. holes, slots etc.).

5.3.4.1.1.   For discs, the following maximum values shall be met:

 

M1, N1, O1, O2

M2, N2,

M3, N3, O3, O4

Thickness variation

0,015 mm

0,030 mm

0,040 mm

Cheek thickness variation

(for ventilated disc only)

1,5 mm

2,0 mm

2,0 mm

Lateral run-out friction surface

0,050 mm (10)

0,15 mm (10)

0,15 mm (10)

Location bore variation

H9

H9

H9

‘Top hat’ parallelism

0,100 mm

0,100 mm

0,100 mm

Location face flatness

0,050 mm

0,050 mm

0,050 mm

Friction surface roughness (11)

3,2 μm

3,2 μm

3,2 μm

5.3.4.1.2.   For drums, the following maximum values shall be met:

 

M1, N1, O1, O2

M2, M3, N2, N3, O3, O4

Radial run-out friction surface

0,050 mm

0,100 mm

Location bore variation

H9

H9

Ovality

0,040 mm

0,150 mm

Location face flatness

0,050 mm

0,050 mm

Friction surface roughness (12)

3,5 μm

3,5 μm

5.3.4.2.   Performance requirements

The part shall pass the following performance tests according to Annexes 11 and 12 for categories M, N and O and Annex 14 for categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5:

(a)

The performance test according to Regulation No 13 or 13-H or 78;

(b)

The Comparison test with dynamic frictional properties of the original part;

(c)

The integrity tests for high load and thermal fatigue.

5.3.5.   Type

Brake discs/drums that do not differ in terms of their main characteristics as detailed below shall be regarded as one type within one report or approval:

5.3.5.1.   Type criteria for brake discs

5.3.5.1.1.   Basic design

(a)

With or without ventilation (e.g. solid, ventilated);

(b)

Design of ventilation;

(c)

Surface (e.g. with or without grooves or holes);

(d)

Hub (with or without integrated parking brake drum);

(e)

Mounting (rigid, semi-floating, floating, etc.);

(f)

Hat (with or without integrated parking brake drum).

5.3.5.1.2.   Material group

For brake discs for vehicles of categories M, N and O, all material groups (including their respective subgroups) are considered to be a separate type.

For brake discs for vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, all material groups (excluding the martensitic stainless steel subgroup) are considered to be a separate type.

5.3.5.1.2.1.   Cast iron

5.3.5.1.2.2.   Steel

5.3.5.1.2.3.   Composite materials

5.3.5.1.2.4.   Multi-material construction

5.3.5.2.   Type criteria for brake drums

(a)

Material group (e.g. steel, cast iron, composite);

(b)

Hub (with/without);

(c)

Composite design.

5.3.6.   Test group criteria (within the same type)

It is only possible to test interchangeable parts in Test Groups if the connection between the mounting area and the disc friction faces are of the same general form.

From each of the test groups mentioned below, at least one variant is subject to the corresponding tests laid down in Annexes 10, 11 or 12. The variant chosen from within a test group to test the replacement part is that which has the highest ratio of kinetic energy to its directly corresponding replacement part mass:

Formula

With:

V max, i

maximum design speed of the vehicle to which the replacement part is fitted (in the case of trailers vmax, i is assumed at least at 80 km/h)

m

test mass as defined in Annex 11, paragraph 3.2.1.2, Annex 12, paragraph 3.2.1.2 and Annex 14, paragraph 4.2.1.2.

mreplacement part, i

mass of the replacement part of the corresponding vehicle

5.3.6.1.   Replacement brake discs

5.3.6.1.1.   Criteria concerning the formation of test groups with regard to replacement brake discs in vehicles belonging to categories M1, M2, N1, N2, O1 and O2

5.3.6.1.1.1.   Test group relating to the tests stipulated in paragraphs 1 to 4 of Annex 11 or Annex 12

This test group includes all brake discs where the outside diameter of the disc do not vary by more than 6 mm and the disc thickness by not more than 4 mm.

5.3.6.1.1.2.   In the case of different materials within a group of materials, proof shall be furnished for each separate material that the requirements stipulated in Annex 11 or Annex 12 are met.

5.3.6.1.2.   Criteria concerning the formation of test groups with regard to replacement brake discs in vehicles belonging to categories M3, N3, O3 and O4

5.3.6.1.2.1.   Test group relating to the tests stipulated in paragraphs 1 to 4 of Annex 11 or Annex 12

This test group includes all brake discs where the outside diameter of the disc does not vary by more than 10 mm and the disc thickness by not more than 4 mm.

5.3.6.1.2.2.   In the case of different materials within a group of materials, proof shall be furnished for each separate material that the requirements stipulated in Annex 11 or Annex 12 are met.

5.3.6.1.3.   Criteria concerning the formation of test groups with regard to replacement brake discs in vehicles belonging to categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5.

5.3.6.1.3.1.   Test group relating to the tests stipulated of Annex 14.

This test group includes all brake discs according to the criteria set out in Annex 15.

5.3.6.2.   Replacement brake drums

5.3.6.2.1.   Criteria concerning the formation of test groups with regard to replacement brake drums in vehicles belonging to categories M1, M2, N1, N2, O1 and O2

5.3.6.2.1.1.   Test group relating to the tests stipulated in paragraphs 1 to 4 of Annex 11 or Annex 12

This test group includes all brake drums that do not vary by more than 30 mm in terms of the inside diameter of the drum and by more than 10 mm as regards the shoe width of the drum brake.

5.3.6.2.1.2.   In the case of different materials within a group of materials, proof shall be furnished for each separate material that the requirements stipulated in Annex 11 or Annex 12 are met.

5.3.6.2.2.   Criteria concerning the formation of test groups with regard to replacement brake drums in vehicles belonging to categories M3, N3, O3 and O4

5.3.6.2.2.1.   Test group relating to the tests stipulated in paragraphs 1 to 4 of Annex 11 or Annex 12

Brake drums may be grouped together as test groups on the basis that each permitted test group range is from the smallest inside diameter to the smallest inside diameter +10 per cent and by no more than 40 mm on the shoe width of the drum.

5.3.6.2.2.2.   In the case of different materials within a group of materials, proof shall be furnished for each separate material that the requirements stipulated in Annex 11 or Annex 12 are met.

5.3.7.   Scope of assessment with regard to replacement brake discs/drums

5.3.7.1.   Geometric checks

Compared with original parts, replacement brake discs/drums shall be checked in terms of the following applicable characteristics (see also Annex 10):

(a)

Disc/drum diameter, including friction surface diameters (in the case of a disc brake with an integrated parking brake drum, both diameters have to be checked);

(b)

Disc thickness (original dimensions and the minimum permissible wear indication) — mounting face to external friction surface;

(c)

Mounting flange thickness;

(d)

Pitch circle diameter of fixing holes/studs;

(e)

Number of fixing holes/studs;

(f)

Mounting flange diameter;

(g)

Type of centring (e.g. central spigot or mounting bolts/studs);

(h)

In the case of brake discs with integrated parking brake drums the width of the friction surface area and any heat compensation groove(s);

(i)

Additionally, in the case of ventilated brake discs:

(i)

The type of ventilation (internal/external);

(ii)

The number of ribs and pillars;

(iii)

The dimensions of the ventilation duct.

5.3.7.2.   Balancing provision

The balancing provision with regard to the replacement brake discs/drums shall correspond to that of the original part being replaced.

5.3.7.3.   Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces

This shall conform to the vehicle manufacturer criteria.

5.3.7.4.   Tests

Each test group (see paragraph 5.3.6) within a particular type of replacement brake disc/drum (see paragraph 5.3.5) shall be tested by the Technical Service.

5.3.8.   Test report

A test report shall be produced, the content of which shall be at least that defined in Annex 13 to this Regulation.

6.   PACKAGING AND MARKING

6.1.   Packaging and marking requirements regarding a replacement brake lining assembly type, a replacement drum brake lining type or a replacement drum brake lining:

6.1.1.

Replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings conforming to a type approved in accordance with this Regulation shall be marketed in axle sets.

6.1.2.

Each axle set shall be contained in a sealed package constructed to show previous opening.

6.1.3.

Each package shall display the following information:

6.1.3.1.

The quantity of replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings in the package;

6.1.3.2.

Manufacturer's name or trade mark;

6.1.3.3.

Make and type of replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings;

6.1.3.4.

The vehicles/axles/brakes for which the contents are approved;

6.1.3.5.

The approval mark.

6.1.4.

Each package shall contain fitting instructions in an official ECE language, supplemented by the corresponding text in the language of the country where it is sold:

6.1.4.1.

With particular reference to auxiliary parts;

6.1.4.2.

Stating that replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings should be replaced in axle sets;

6.1.4.3.

With, in the case of replacement drum brake linings, a general statement calling attention to the following points:

 

The integrity of the shoe platform, abutment and pivot;

 

Freedom of the shoe from distortion, deformation and corrosion;

 

The type and size of rivet to be used;

 

The required riveting tools and forces.

6.1.4.4.

With, additionally, in the case of combined braking systems in the meaning of paragraph 2.9 of Regulation No 78 giving the approved brake lining assembly combination(s).

6.1.5.

Each replacement brake lining assembly or replacement drum brake lining shall display permanently one set of approval data:

6.1.5.1.

The approval mark;

6.1.5.2.

The date of manufacture, at least month and year, or batch number;

6.1.5.3.

Make and type of brake lining.

6.2.   Packaging and marking requirements regarding replacement brake discs or replacement brake drums

6.2.1.   Every unit sold shall be provided with at least the following information:

6.2.1.1.

Part number;

6.2.1.2.

In the case of motor vehicles:

Make, type and trade name of the vehicle, the axle intended to be fitted and period of manufacturing of the vehicle; should the period of manufacture not be readily available a reference to the original part number/identification code may be used;

6.2.1.3.

In the case of trailers a reference to the original part number/identification code shall be used;

6.2.1.4.

Each package shall contain fitting instructions in the language of the country where it is sold:

6.2.1.4.1.

With particular reference to ancillary parts;

6.2.1.4.2.

Stating that replacement brake discs and drums should be replaced in axle sets.

6.2.2.   Marking

Every brake disc/drum approved in accordance with this Regulation shall be durably marked with at least the following information:

6.2.2.1.

Manufacturer's name or trade mark;

6.2.2.2.

The approval number;

6.2.2.3.

Part number;

6.2.2.4.

An indication which provides traceability of the production process (e.g. date, batch number, source code);

6.2.2.5.

The minimum thickness of the brake disc or the maximum permissible inside diameter of the brake drum.

7.   MODIFICATIONS AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF REPLACEMENT PARTS

7.1.   Every modification of the replacement part shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which granted the type approval. The Authority may then either:

7.1.1.

Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable adverse effects and that in any event the replacement part still complies with the requirements; or

7.1.2.

Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.

7.2.   Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be notified by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.4 above to the Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation.

7.3.   The Competent Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

8.   CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

8.1.   Replacement parts approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved.

8.2.   Original parts being the subject of an application under paragraph 3.2 are deemed to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 8.

8.3.   To verify that the requirements of paragraph 8.1 are met, suitable controls of the production shall be applied. These shall encompass the control of raw materials and components used.

8.4.   The holder of an approval shall in particular:

8.4.1.

Ensure that for each replacement brake lining assembly type or replacement drum brake lining type at least the relevant tests prescribed in paragraph 5.2.2 and the relevant tests as prescribed in Annex 9 to this Regulation are carried out on a statistically controlled and random basis in accordance with a regular quality assurance procedure. For parking brake lining assemblies only the shear strength described in paragraph 5.2.2 is applicable.

8.4.2.

Ensure that for each replacement disc and drum at least the tests prescribed in Annex 9 to this Regulation are carried out on a statistically controlled and random basis in accordance with a regular quality assurance procedure.

8.4.3.

Ensure existence of procedures for the effective control of the quality of products;

8.4.4.

Have access to the control equipment necessary for checking the conformity of each approved type;

8.4.5.

Analyse the results of each type of test in order to verify and ensure the consistency of the product characteristics, making allowance for variation of an industrial production;

8.4.6.

Ensure that data of test results are recorded and that annexed documents remain available for a period to be determined in agreement with the administrative service;

8.4.7.

Ensure that any samples or test pieces giving evidence of non-conformity with the type of test considered shall give rise to another sampling and another test. All the necessary steps shall be taken to re-establish the conformity of the corresponding production.

8.5.   The Competent Authority which has granted type-approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.

8.5.1.   In every inspection, the test books and production survey records shall be presented to the visiting inspector.

8.5.2.   The inspector may take samples at random to be tested in the manufacturer's laboratory. The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer's own verification.

8.5.3.   When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests carried out in application of paragraph 8.5.2 the inspector shall select samples to be sent to the technical service which has conducted the type approval tests.

8.5.4.   The competent authority may carry out any tests prescribed in this Regulation.

8.5.5.   The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the Competent Authority shall be one per year. In the case where negative results are recorded during one of these visits, the competent authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of production as rapidly as possible.

9.   PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

9.1.   The approval granted in respect of a replacement brake lining assembly type or drum brake lining type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1 above are not complied with.

The approval granted in respect of the type of a replacement brake drum or a replacement brake disc pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1 above are not complied with.

9.2.   If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1A or Annex 1B to this Regulation.

10.   PRODUCTION DEFINITIVELY DISCONTINUED

If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a replacement part approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the 1958 Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1A or 1B to this Regulation.

11.   NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS, AND OF TYPE APPROVAL AUTHORITIES

The Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement which apply this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, or production definitively discontinued, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

12.   TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

12.1.   As from the official date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant approval under this Regulation as amended by the 02 series of amendments.

12.2.   Even after the date of entry into force of the 02 series of amendments, brake lining assembly and drum brake lining approvals to the 01 series of amendments to the Regulation shall remain valid and Contracting Parties applying the Regulation shall continue to accept them and shall not refuse to grant extensions of approval to the 01 series of amendments to this Regulation.

12.3.   Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall continue to allow fitting or use on a vehicle in use of a replacement brake lining assembly approved to this Regulation in its original, unamended form.


(1)  In this Regulation, references to Regulation No 13, 13-H or 78 shall be deemed also to refer to any other international rule such as 71/320/EEC, that applies the same technical requirements as Regulation No 13, 13-H or 78. References to specific sections of the Regulations shall be interpreted accordingly.

(2)  It does not apply to possible additional functions of replacement parts as for example speed sensing in the case of integrated speed sensing devices or guidance of the wheels in the case of integrated hubs.

(3)  If such brake linings are not available on the market, alternatively, brake linings listed under paragraph 8.2 may be used.

(4)  The distinguishing numbers of the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement are reproduced in Annex 3 to Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.2/Amend.1.

(5)  At the request of (an) applicant(s) for Regulation No 90 approval, the information shall be provided by the Type Approval Authority as contained in Appendix 1 to Annex 2 to Regulation No 13 approval or the appendix to Annex 1 to Regulation No 13-H approval. However, this information shall not be provided for purposes other than Regulation No 90 approvals.

(6)  Worst case analysis must include the following technical characteristics (as a minimum) of each vehicle type in the application range:

(a)

Rotor diameter;

(b)

Rotor thickness;

(c)

Ventilated or solid rotor;

(d)

Piston diameter;

(e)

Tyre dynamic radius;

(f)

Vehicle mass;

(g)

Axle mass and percentage of braking effort of the axle;

(h)

Maximum speed of the vehicle.

The testing conditions shall be specified in the test report.

(7)  See footnote 6.

(8)  See footnote 6.

(9)  This test is included for conformity of production purposes. Minimum values and the tolerances to be agreed with the Technical Service.

(10)  N/A in the case of a floating disc

(11)  Ra-value according to ISO 1302:2002

(12)  Ra-value according to ISO 1302:2002


ANNEX 1A

Image Text of image

ANNEX 1B

Image Text of image

ANNEX 2

ARRANGEMENTS OF THE APPROVAL MARK AND APPROVAL DATA

(See paragraph 4.2 of this Regulation)

Image

The above approval mark shows that the item concerned has been approved in France (E2) pursuant to Regulation No 90 under approval number C0359/7248. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No 90 as amended by the 02 series of amendments.

Example of pad assembly marking

Image

Approval mark

Date of assembly manufacture and manufacturer’s name or trade mark

Make and type of brake lining

Example of shoe assembly marking

Image

Approval mark

Date of assembly manufacture and manufacturer’s name or trade mark

Make and type of brake lining

Example of drum brake lining marking

Image

Make and type of brake lining

Date of manufacture

Approval mark

Note: Positions of markings and mutual positions of markings shown in the examples are not mandatory.


ANNEX 3

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M1, M2 AND N1

1.   CONFORMANCE WITH REGULATION No 13 OR 13-H

Compliance with the requirements of Regulation No 13 or 13-H shall be demonstrated in a vehicle test.

1.1.   Vehicle preparation

1.1.1.   Test Vehicle

A vehicle which is representative of the type(s) for which the replacement brake lining assembly approval is required shall be equipped with the replacement brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested and instrumented for brake testing as required by Regulations Nos 13 and 13-H.

Brake linings submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

1.1.2.   Bedding (burnishing) procedure

1.1.2.1.   General conditions

Brake lining assemblies submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes. In the case of replacement brake lining assemblies, new brake linings must be used. Drum brake linings may be machined to achieve the best possible initial contact between the linings and drum(s). The test vehicle shall be fully laden.

Original brake lining assemblies used for comparison test and already fitted to the test vehicle may be used provided they are in a good condition and have not been worn out by more than 20 per cent of the initial thickness. They must not show damages, cracks, excessive corrosion or signs of overheating. They shall be bedded to the procedure described below.

1.1.2.2.   Procedure

Perform a minimum 50 km driving distance and at least 100 brake applications at varying decelerations (at least between 1 m/s2 and 5 m/s2) with initial speeds between 50 km/h and 120 km/h. A temperature range between 250 °C and 500 °C for pad assemblies or between 150 °C and 250 °C for drum brake lining assemblies (measured at the rubbing surface of the disc or drum) must be achieved at least 3 times during the bedding procedure. Temperatures must not exceed 500 °C for pad assemblies and 250 °C for drum brake lining assemblies.

1.1.2.3.   Performance check

By braking only one axle at a time perform 5 brake applications from 70 km/h to 0 km/h (front axle) and 45 km/h to 0 km/h (rear axle) at a line pressure of 4 Mpa (1) and with an initial temperature of 100 °C for each stop. The 5 consecutive non-monotonic results must remain within the tolerance of 0,6 m/s2 (front axle) or 0,4 m/s2 (rear axle) of their mean fully developed deceleration.

If this requirement is not fulfilled the bedding procedure according to paragraph 1.1.2.2 must be extended and the performance check according to paragraph 1.1.2.3 must be repeated.

1.2.   The braking system of the vehicle shall be tested according to the requirements for the vehicle category in question (M1, M2 or N1) in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraphs 1 and 2 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraphs 1 and 2 whichever is appropriate taking into consideration the original approval of the system. The applicable requirements or tests are:

1.2.1.   Service braking system

1.2.1.1.   Type-0 test with engine disconnected, vehicle laden, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.4.2 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.4.2.

1.2.1.2.   Type-0 test with engine connected, vehicle unladen and laden, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraphs 1.4.3.1 (stability test) and 1.4.3.2 (only the test with initial speed v = 0,8 vmax) or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraphs 1.4.3.1 and 1.4.3.2.

1.2.1.3.   Type-I test, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.5 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.5.

1.2.2.   Secondary braking system

1.2.2.1.   Type-0 test with engine disconnected, vehicle laden, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2.2 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 2.2 (this test may be omitted in cases where it is obvious that the requirements are met, e.g. diagonal split braking system).

1.2.3.   Parking braking system

(Only applicable if the brakes for which lining approval is sought are used for parking).

1.2.3.1.   Parking brake test at 18 per cent gradient, vehicle laden, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2.3.1 or parking brake test at 20 per cent gradient, vehicle laden, Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 2.3.1.

1.3.   The vehicle must satisfy all the relevant requirements stated in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 2 for that category of vehicle.

2.   ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Compliance with the additional requirements shall be demonstrated by using one of the two following methods:

2.1.   Vehicle test (split axle test)

For this test the vehicle shall be fully laden and all brake applications made with engine disconnected, on a level road.

The vehicle service brake control system shall be equipped with a means of isolating front and rear axle brakes so that either may be used independently of the other.

Where brake lining assembly approval is required for front axle brakes the rear axle brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

Where brake lining assembly approval is required for rear axle brakes the front axle brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

2.1.1.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly and the original brake lining assembly shall be made by comparing the results of testing to the following method:

2.1.1.1.

Make a minimum of six brake applications at spaced increments of pedal effort or line pressure up to wheel lock or, alternatively, up to a mean fully developed deceleration of 6 m/s2 or up to the allowed maximum pedal force for the category of vehicle in question from an initial speed as given in the table below:

Vehicle category

Test speed in km/h

Front axle

Rear axle

M1

70

45

M2

50

40

N1

65

50

The initial brake temperature at the start of each application shall be ≤ 100 °C.

2.1.1.2.

Note and plot pedal force or line pressure and mean fully developed deceleration for each application, and determine the pedal force or line pressure required to achieve (if possible) a mean fully developed deceleration of 5 m/s2 for front axle brakes and 3 m/s2 for rear axle brakes. If these values cannot be achieved with the maximum allowed pedal force determine alternatively the pedal force or line pressure required to achieve maximum deceleration.

2.1.1.3.

The replacement brake lining assembly shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same control force or line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly.

2.1.2.   Speed sensitivity test

2.1.2.1.   Using the pedal force derived from paragraph 2.1.1.2 of this annex and with initial brake temperature ≤ 100 °C, make three brake applications from each of the following speeds:

(a)

Front axle 65, 100 km/h and additionally 135 km/h where vmax exceeds 150 km/h;

(b)

Rear axle 45, 65 km/h and additionally 90 km/h where vmax exceeds 150 km/h.

2.1.2.2.   Average the results for each group of three applications and plot speed against corresponding mean fully developed deceleration.

2.1.2.3.   Mean fully developed decelerations recorded for the higher speeds shall lie within 15 per cent of that recorded for the lowest speed.

2.2.   Inertia dynamometer test

2.2.1.   Test equipment

For the tests an inertia dynamometer shall be equipped with the vehicle brake in question. The dynamometer shall be instrumented for continuous recording of rotational speed, brake torque, pressure in the brake line, number of rotations after brake application, braking time and brake rotor temperature.

2.2.2.   Test conditions

2.2.2.1.   The rotational mass of the dynamometer shall correspond to half the axle portion of the maximum vehicle mass as listed in the table below and to the rolling radius of the largest tyre that is authorized for that vehicle type(s).

Vehicle category

Axle portion of maximum vehicle mass

Front

Rear

M1

0,77

0,32

M2

0,69

0,44

N1

0,66

0,39

2.2.2.2.   The initial dynamometer rotational speed shall correspond to the linear vehicle speed as stated in paragraphs 2.2.3 and 2.2.4 of this annex and shall be based on the dynamic rolling radius of the tyre.

2.2.2.3.   Brake linings submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and bedded (burnished) according to the following procedure:

 

Burnishing phase 1, 64 snubs from 80 km/h to 30 km/h at varying line pressures:

 

Rear axle

Rear axle

Parameter

Front axle

Disc brake

Drum brake

Number of snubs per cycle

32

32

32

Brake speed (km/h)

80

80

80

Release speed (km/h)

30

30

30

Initial brake temperature (°C)

< 100

< 100

< 80

Final brake temperature (°C)

Open

Open

Open

Pressure snub 1 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 2 (kPa)

3 000

3 000

3 000

Pressure snub 3 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 4 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 5 (kPa)

2 200

2 200

2 200

Pressure snub 6 (kPa)

3 800

3 800

3 800

Pressure snub 7 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 8 (kPa)

2 600

2 600

2 600

Pressure snub 9 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 10 (kPa)

3 400

3 400

3 400

Pressure snub 11 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 12 (kPa)

2 600

2 600

2 600

Pressure snub 13 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 14 (kPa)

2 200

2 200

2 200

Pressure snub 15 (kPa)

3 000

3 000

3 000

Pressure snub 16 (kPa)

4 600

4 600

4 600

Pressure snub 17 (kPa)

2 600

2 600

2 600

Pressure snub 18 (kPa)

5 100

5 100

5 100

Pressure snub 19 (kPa)

2 200

2 200

2 200

Pressure snub 20 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 21 (kPa)

4 200

4 200

4 200

Pressure snub 22 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 23 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 24 (kPa)

4 600

4 600

4 600

Pressure snub 25 (kPa)

2 600

2 600

2 600

Pressure snub 26 (kPa)

1 500

1 500

1 500

Pressure snub 27 (kPa)

3 400

3 400

3 400

Pressure snub 28 (kPa)

2 200

2 200

2 200

Pressure snub 29 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 30 (kPa)

3 000

3 000

3 000

Pressure snub 31 (kPa)

1 800

1 800

1 800

Pressure snub 32 (kPa)

3 800

3 800

3 800

Number of cycles

2

2

2

 

Burnishing phase 2, 10 stops from 100 km/h to 5 km/h at 0,4 g deceleration and increasing initial temperatures:

 

Rear axle

Rear axle

Parameter

Front axle

Disc brake

Drum brake

Number of stops per cycle

10

10

10

Brake speed (km/h)

100

100

100

Release speed (km/h)

< 5

< 5

< 5

Deceleration level (g)

0,4

0,4

0,4

Maximum pressure (kPa)

16 000

16 000

10 000

Initial temperature 1 (°C)

< 100

< 100

< 100

Initial temperature 2 (°C)

< 215

< 215

< 151

Initial temperature 3 (°C)

< 283

< 283

< 181

Initial temperature 4 (°C)

< 330

< 330

< 202

Initial temperature 5 (°C)

< 367

< 367

< 219

Initial temperature 6 (°C)

< 398

< 398

< 232

Initial temperature 7 (°C)

< 423

< 423

< 244

Initial temperature 8 (°C)

< 446

< 446

< 254

Initial temperature 9 (°C)

< 465

< 465

< 262

Initial temperature 10 (°C)

< 483

< 483

< 270

Number of cycles

1

1

1

 

Recovery, 18 snubs from 80 km/h to 30 km/h at line pressure of 3 000 kPa:

 

Rear axle

Rear axle

Parameter

Front axle

Disc brake

Drum brake

Number of stops per cycle

18

18

18

Brake speed (km/h)

80

80

80

Release speed (km/h)

30

30

30

Pressure (kPa)

3 000

3 000

3 000

Initial brake temperature (°C)

< 100

< 100

< 80

Final brake temperature (°C)

Open

Open

Open

Number of cycles

1

1

1

2.2.2.4.   Perform 5 brake applications from 80 km/h to 0 km/h at a line pressure of 4 MPa and with an initial temperature of 100 °C for each stop. The 5 consecutive non-monotonic results must remain within the tolerance of 0,6 m/s2 of their mean fully developed deceleration.

If this requirement is not fulfilled the first part of the bedding procedure ‘Burnishing Phase 1’ must be repeated until the required performance stability is achieved.

2.2.2.5.   The use of cooling air is permitted. The speed of the airflow during the brake application at the brake shall be:

vair = 0,33 v

Where:

v

=

vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.

2.2.3.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly and the original brake lining assembly shall be made by comparing the results of testing to the following method.

2.2.3.1.   From the initial speed of 80 km/h for M1 and N1 and 60 km/h for M2 and with brake temperature ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application make a minimum of six brake applications at spaced intervals of line pressure up to a mean fully developed deceleration of 6 m/s2.

2.2.3.2.   Note and plot line pressure and mean fully developed deceleration for each application, and determine line pressure required to achieve 5 m/s2.

2.2.3.3.   The replacement brake lining assembly shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same control force or line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly.

2.2.4.   Speed sensitivity test

2.2.4.1.   Using the line pressure derived from paragraph 2.2.3.2 and with initial brake temperature ≤ 100 °C make three brake applications from rotational speeds corresponding to vehicle linear speeds of:

75, 120 km/h and additionally 160 km/h where vmax exceeds 150 km/h.

2.2.4.2.   Average the results for each group of three applications and plot speed against corresponding mean fully developed deceleration.

2.2.4.3.   Mean fully developed decelerations recorded for the higher speeds shall lie within 15 per cent of that recorded for the lowest speed.


(1)  For other than hydraulic braking systems an equivalent input value should be used.


ANNEX 4

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES AND DRUM BRAKE LININGS FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M3, N2 AND N3

1.   VEHICLE TEST

1.1.   Test vehicle

A vehicle which is representative of the type(s) for which the replacement brake lining assembly approval or drum brake lining approval is required shall be equipped with brake lining assemblies or drum brake linings of the type for which approval is sought and instrumented for brake testing as required by Regulation No 13.

Brake linings submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

1.2.   Tests and requirements

1.2.1.   Conformance with Regulation No 13

1.2.1.1.   The braking system of the vehicle shall be tested according to the requirements for the vehicle category in question (M3, N2 or N3) in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraphs 1 and 2. The applicable requirements or tests are:

1.2.1.1.1.   Service braking system

1.2.1.1.1.1.   Type-0 test with engine disconnected, vehicle laden

1.2.1.1.1.2.   Type-0 test with engine connected, vehicle unladen and laden, according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraphs 1.4.3.1 (stability test) and 1.4.3.2 (only the test with initial speed v = 0,8 vmax).

1.2.1.1.1.3.   Type-I test according to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraphs 1.5.1 and 1.5.3.

1.2.1.1.1.4.   Type-II test

The laden vehicle must be tested in such a manner that the energy input is equivalent to that recorded in the same period of time with the laden vehicle driven at an average speed of 30 km/h on a 2,5 per cent down-gradient for a distance of 6 km with the gear disengaged, the braking energy being taken by the service brakes alone.

1.2.1.1.2.   Secondary braking system

1.2.1.1.2.1.   Type-0 test with engine disconnected, vehicle laden (this test may be omitted if covered by tests according to paragraph 1.2.2 of this annex).

1.2.1.1.3.   Parking braking system

(Only applicable if the brakes for which lining approval is sought are used for parking.)

1.2.1.1.3.1.   Downhill test at 18 per cent gradient, vehicle laden

1.2.1.2.   The vehicle must satisfy all relevant requirements stated in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2 for that category of vehicle.

1.2.2.   Additional requirements (split axle test)

For the tests mentioned below the vehicle shall be fully laden and all brake applications made with engine disconnected, on a level road.

The vehicle service brake control system shall be equipped with a means of isolating front and rear axle brakes so that either may be used independently of the other.

Where brake lining assembly approval or drum brake lining approval is required for front axle brakes the rear axle brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

Where brake lining assembly approval or drum brake lining approval is required for rear axle brakes the front axle brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

1.2.2.1.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining and the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining shall be made by comparing the results of testing to the following method.

1.2.2.1.1.   Make a minimum of six brake applications at spaced increments of pedal force or line pressure up to wheel lock or, alternatively, up to a mean fully developed deceleration of 3,5 m/s2 or up to the maximum allowed pedal force or up to the maximum line pressure from an initial speed of 45 km/h and with a brake temperature ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application.

1.2.2.1.2.   Note and plot pedal force or line pressure and mean fully developed deceleration for each application, and determine the pedal force or line pressure required to achieve (if possible) a mean fully developed deceleration of 3 m/s2. If this value cannot be achieved determine alternatively the pedal force or line pressure required to achieve maximum deceleration.

1.2.2.1.3.   The replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same control force or line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining.

1.2.2.2.   Speed sensitivity test

1.2.2.2.1.   Using the pedal force derived from paragraph 1.2.2.1.2 of this annex and with initial brake temperature ≤ 100 °C, make three brake applications from each of the following speeds:

 

40 km/h down to 20 km/h,

 

60 km/h down to 40 km/h, and

 

80 km/h down to 60 km/h (if vmax ≥ 90 km/h).

1.2.2.2.2.   Average the results for each group of three applications and plot speed against corresponding mean fully developed deceleration.

1.2.2.2.3.   Mean fully developed decelerations recorded for the higher speeds shall lie within 25 per cent of that recorded for the lowest speed.

2.   INERTIA DYNAMOMETER TEST

2.1.   Test equipment

For the tests an inertia dynamometer shall be equipped with the vehicle brake in question. The dynamometer shall be instrumented for continuous recording of rotational speed, brake torque, pressure in the brake line, number of rotations after brake application, braking time and brake rotor temperature.

2.1.1.   Test conditions

2.1.1.1.   The rotational mass of the dynamometer shall correspond to half the axle portion of 0,55 of the maximum vehicle mass and the rolling radius of the largest tyre that is authorised for that vehicle type(s).

2.1.1.2.   The initial dynamometer rotational speed shall correspond to the linear vehicle speed as stated in the paragraphs below and shall be based on the mean of the dynamic rolling radii of the largest and smallest tyres authorized for that vehicle type(s).

2.1.1.3.   Brake lining assemblies or drum brake linings submitted for the test shall be fitted to the brake and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

2.1.1.4.   If cooling air is used, the speed of the airflow at the brake shall be:

vair = 0,33v

Where:

v

=

vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.

2.1.1.5.   The actuation cylinder fitted to the brake must be of the smallest size that is authorized for that vehicle type(s).

2.2.   Tests and requirements

2.2.1.   Tests derived from Regulation No 13

2.2.1.1.   Type-0 test

From the initial speed of 60 km/h with a brake temperature ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application make a minimum of six brake applications at spaced intervals of line pressure up to the line pressure that is permanently guaranteed by the braking system of the vehicle type(s) (e.g. cut in pressure of the compressor). A mean fully developed deceleration of at least 5 m/s2 must be achieved.

2.2.1.2.   Type-0 test, high speed performance

Make three brake applications with a brake temperature of ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application from a speed of 100 km/h where approval is directed to vehicles of category N2 and 90 km/h where approval is directed to vehicles of categories M3 and N3 using the guaranteed line pressure as defined in paragraph 2.2.1.1. The mean value of the achieved mean fully developed decelerations of the three applications must be at least 4 m/s2.

2.2.1.3.   Type-I test

2.2.1.3.1.   Heating procedure

Make 20 consecutive snub applications with v1 = 60 km/h and v2 = 30 km/h with a cycle time of 60 s starting at a brake temperature of ≤ 100 °C at the first application. The line pressure shall correspond to a deceleration of 3 m/s2 at the first application and must remain constant throughout the succeeding applications.

2.2.1.3.2.   Hot performance

On completion of the heating procedure the hot performance shall be measured under the conditions of paragraph 2.2.1.1 above using the guaranteed line pressure as defined in paragraph 2.2.1.1 (the temperature conditions may be different). The mean fully developed deceleration with the heated brake must not be less than 60 per cent of the value achieved with the cold brake or 4 m/s2.

2.2.1.3.3.   Recovery

Starting 120 s after the hot performance brake application make 5 full stops with the line pressure used in paragraph 2.2.1.3.1 above and with intervals of at least 2 minutes from the initial speed of 60 km/h. At the beginning of the fifth application the brake temperature shall be ≤ 100 °C and the mean fully developed deceleration achieved shall be within 10 per cent of that calculated from the relation line pressure/deceleration of the Type-0 test at 60 km/h.

2.2.1.4.   Type-II test

2.2.1.4.1.   Heating procedure

The brakes shall be heated by constant braking torque corresponding to a deceleration of 0,15 m/s2 at a constant speed of 30 km/h during a period of 12 minutes.

2.2.1.4.2.   Hot performance

On completion of the heating procedure the hot performance shall be measured under the conditions of paragraph 2.2.1.1 above using the guaranteed line pressure as defined in paragraph 2.2.1.1 (the temperature conditions may be different). The mean fully developed deceleration with the heated brake must not be less than 3,75 m/s2.

2.2.1.5.   Static test for parking performance

2.2.1.5.1.   For the whole range of applications determine the worst case regarding input force to the brake, maximum vehicle mass to be braked by one axle, and tyre radius.

2.2.1.5.2.   Apply the brake with the input force as determined under paragraph 2.2.1.5.1 above.

2.2.1.5.3.   Put a slowly increasing torque on the dynamometer shaft in order to turn the drum or disc. Measure the output torque at the brake in the moment the dynamometer shaft begins to move and calculate corresponding axle braking force using the tyre radius as determined under paragraph 2.2.1.5.1.

2.2.1.5.4.   The brake force measured under paragraph 2.2.1.5.3 divided by one-half of the vehicle mass as determined under paragraph 2.2.1.5.1 must give at least a quotient of 0,18.

2.2.2.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining and the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining shall be made by comparing the results of the Type-0 test as described in paragraph 2.2.1.1.

2.2.2.1.   The Type-0 test as prescribed in paragraph 2.2.1.1 shall be performed with one set of the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining.

2.2.2.2.   The replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining.

2.2.3.   Speed sensitivity test

2.2.3.1.   Using the guaranteed line pressure as defined in paragraph 2.2.1.1 and with initial brake temperature ≤ 100 °C, make three brake applications from each of the following speeds:

 

60 km/h down to 30 km/h,

 

80 km/h down to 60 km/h, and

 

110 km/h down to 80 km/h (if vmax ≥ 90 km/h).

2.2.3.2.   Average the results for each group of three applications and plot speed against corresponding mean fully developed deceleration.

2.2.3.3.   Mean fully developed decelerations recorded for the higher speeds shall lie within 25 per cent of that recorded for the lowest speed.


ANNEX 5

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES O1 AND O2

1.   GENERAL

The test method described in this annex is based on an inertia dynamometer test. Alternatively the tests may be carried out on a test vehicle or on a rolling road test bench provided that the same test conditions are achieved and the same parameters measured as in the inertia dynamometer test.

2.   TEST EQUIPMENT

For the tests an inertia dynamometer shall be equipped with the vehicle brake in question. The dynamometer shall be instrumented for continuous recording of rotational speed, brake torque, pressure in the brake line or actuation force, number of rotations after brake application, braking time and brake rotor temperature.

2.1.   Test conditions

2.1.1.   The rotational mass of the dynamometer shall correspond to half the relevant axle portion of the maximum vehicle mass and the rolling radius of the largest tyre that is authorized for that vehicle type(s).

2.1.2.   The initial dynamometer rotational speed shall correspond to the linear vehicle speed as stated in paragraph 3.1 of this annex and shall be based on the dynamic rolling radius of the smallest tyre that is authorized for that vehicle type(s).

2.1.3.   Brake linings submitted for the test shall be fitted to the relevant brake and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

2.1.4.   If cooling air is used, the speed of the airflow at the brake shall be:

vair = 0,33v

Where:

v

=

vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.

2.1.5.   The actuation device fitted to the brake must correspond to the vehicle installation.

3.   TESTS AND REQUIREMENTS

3.1.   Type-0 test

From the initial speed of 60 km/h with a brake temperature ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application make a minimum of six consecutive brake applications at spaced intervals of line pressure or application force up to the maximum line pressure or up to 6 m/s2 deceleration. Repeat the last brake application using an initial speed of 40 km/h.

3.2.   Type-I test

3.2.1.   Heating procedure

The brake shall be heated with continuous braking according to the requirement of Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.5.2 starting with a brake rotor temperature ≤ 100 °C.

3.2.2.   Hot performance

On completion of the heating procedure the hot performance from an initial speed of 40 km/h shall be measured under the conditions of paragraph 3.2.1 above using the same line pressure or application force (the temperature conditions may be different). The mean fully developed deceleration with the heated brake must not be less than 60 per cent of the value achieved with the cold brake or 3,5 m/s2.

3.3.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly and the original brake lining assembly shall be made by comparing the results of the Type-0 test as described in paragraph 3.1.

3.3.1.   The Type-0 test as prescribed in paragraph 3.1 shall be performed with one set of the original brake lining assembly.

3.3.2.   The replacement brake lining assembly shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same line pressure or application force in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly.


ANNEX 6

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES AND DRUM BRAKE LININGS FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES O3 AND O4

1.   TEST CONDITIONS

The tests prescribed in this annex may be carried out alternatively on a test vehicle or on an inertia dynamometer or on a rolling road test bench under the same conditions as mentioned in Regulation 13, Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraphs 3.1 to 3.4.

Brake linings submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

2.   TESTS AND REQUIREMENTS

2.1.   Conformance with Regulation No 13, Annex 11

The brakes shall be tested according to the requirements of Regulation No 13, Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 3.5.

2.1.1.   The results shall be reported in a form according to Regulation No 13, Annex 11, Appendix 3.

2.1.2.   A comparison shall be made between these results and those obtained with the original brake lining assemblies or the original drum brake linings under the same conditions.

2.1.3.   The achieved hot performance at the same input torque of the replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining in the Type-I test or in the Type-III test (whichever is applicable) must be:

(a)

Equal to or higher than the hot performance of the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining; or

(b)

At least 90 per cent of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining.

The corresponding stroke of the actuator must not be ≥ 110 per cent of the value achieved with the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining and must not exceed the value sp as defined in Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 2 of Regulation No 13. In the case where the original brake lining assembly or drum brake lining has been tested against the Type-II test requirements, the minimum requirements of Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.7.2 (Type-III test) are applicable for the replacement brake lining assembly or drum brake lining.

2.2.   Cold performance equivalence test (Type-0)

2.2.1.   Under the conditions of paragraph 1 of this annex and from an initial speed of 60 km/h with a brake temperature ≤ 100 °C make 6 brake applications at spaced intervals of control force or line pressure up to 6,5 bar or an achieved deceleration of 6 m/s2.

2.2.2.   Note and plot control force or line pressure and mean brake torque or mean fully developed deceleration for each application.

2.2.3.   Compare the results with those obtained with the original brake lining assemblies or the original drum brake linings under the same test conditions.

2.2.4.   The replacement brake lining assembly or the replacement drum brake lining shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same input force or line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within –5 per cent and +15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly or the original drum brake lining.


ANNEX 7

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORY L

1.   TEST CONDITIONS

1.1.   A vehicle which is representative of the type(s) for which the replacement brake lining assembly approval is required shall be equipped with the brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested and instrumented for brake testing as required by Regulation No 78.

1.2.   Brake lining assemblies submitted for the test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and, until a fixed burnishing procedure is established, shall be burnished to the manufacturer's instructions in agreement with the technical service.

1.3.   In the case of brake lining assemblies for vehicles with a combined braking system in the meaning of paragraph 2.9 of Regulation No 78 the combination(s) of brake lining assemblies for the front and the rear axle to which the approval shall be directed must be tested.

The combination may consist of replacement brake lining assemblies for both axles and/or a replacement brake lining assembly on one and an original brake lining assembly on the other axle.

2.   TESTS AND REQUIREMENTS

2.1.   Conformance with Regulation No 78

2.1.1.   The braking system of the vehicle shall be tested according to the requirements for the vehicle category in question (L1, L2, L3, L4 or L5) in Regulation No 78, Annex 3, paragraph 1. The applicable requirements or tests are:

2.1.1.1.   Type-0 test with engine disconnected

The test is to be carried out only in the laden condition. Make a minimum of six brake applications at spaced increments of control force or line pressure up to wheel lock, or up to a deceleration of 6 m/s2 or up to the maximum allowed control force.

2.1.1.2.   Type-0 test with engine connected

Only applicable for vehicles of categories L3, L4 and L5

2.1.1.3.   Type-0 test with wet brakes

Not applicable to vehicles of category L5 or in cases of drum brakes or fully enclosed disc brakes not subjected to this test during approval to Regulation No 78.

2.1.1.4.   Type-I test

Only applicable for vehicles of categories L3, L4 and L5

2.1.2.   The vehicle must satisfy all the relevant requirements stated in Regulation No 78, Annex 3, paragraph 2 for that category of vehicles.

2.2.   Additional requirements

2.2.1.   Cold performance equivalence test

A comparison of the cold performance of the replacement brake lining assembly and the original brake lining assembly shall be made by comparing the results of the Type-0 test as described in paragraph 2.1.1.1.

2.2.1.1.   The Type-0 test as prescribed in paragraph 2.1.1.1 shall be performed with one set of the original brake lining assembly.

2.2.1.2.   The replacement brake lining assembly shall be considered to show similar performance characteristics to the original brake lining assembly if the achieved mean fully developed decelerations at the same line pressure in the upper two thirds of the generated curve are within 15 per cent of those obtained with the original brake lining assembly.

2.2.2.   Speed sensitivity test

This test is only applicable for vehicles of categories L3, L4 and L5 and shall be carried out with the laden vehicle under the conditions of the Type-0 test with engine disconnected. However, the test speeds are different.

2.2.2.1.   From the results of the Type-0 test as described in paragraph 2.1.1.1 determine the control force or line pressure corresponding to the minimum required mean fully developed deceleration for that category of vehicle.

2.2.2.2.   Using the control force or line pressure determined in paragraph 2.2.2.1 and with initial brake temperature ≤ 100 °C, make three brake applications from each of the following speeds:

40 km/h, 80 km/h and 120 km/h (if vmax ≥ 130 km/h).

2.2.2.3.   Average the results for each group of three applications and plot speed against corresponding mean fully developed deceleration.

2.2.2.4.   Mean fully developed decelerations recorded for the higher speeds shall lie within 15 per cent of that recorded for the lowest speed.


ANNEX 7a

CRITERIA TO DEFINE GROUPS OF BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLY FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORY L

1.   GROUPING CRITERIA

The grouping is made according to the following approach:

(a)

According to the individual friction material of the brake lining;

(b)

Depending on the area of the friction material area of the brake lining assembly operated by the piston/pistons of only one side of the brake caliper.

Friction material area means all the area enclosed within the perimeter of the brake lining (see the red cross-hatched area, Figure 1), thus excluding the presence of any grooves and/or chamfers:

Figure 1

Image

3 area groups are foreseen, as in Table 1:

Table 1

Group

Brake lining area

[cm2]

A

≤ 15

B

> 15 ≤ 22

C

> 22

2.   PROCEDURE FOR SELECTION OF THE BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLY REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GROUP TO BE APPROVED

The brake lining assembly to be approved is defined, according to the following criteria:

(a)

Choice of friction material to be approved;

(b)

Verification of the applications where the chosen friction material is applied;

(c)

Definition of the area of the selected brake lining assemblies according to Table 1, and classification into groups A – B – C;

(d)

For each group, selection of the most severe application, according to the highest value of the index Ep (kinetic energy by brake lining area), as follows:

Ep = Formula × M × p × (V × c)2/(S × qp)

where:

Ep

=

kinetic energy index [kJ/cm2]

M

=

gross vehicle weight of the vehicle [kg]

p

=

allocation percentage of the vehicle weight:

(a)

for front braking system:

(i)

75 per cent in case of 1 brake disc

(ii)

37,5 per cent in case of 2 brake discs

(b)

for rear braking system:

(i)

50 %

V

=

vehicle maximum speed [m/s]

c

=

correction coefficient of speed:

(c)

for front braking system = 0,8

(d)

for rear braking system: variable according to the brake disc diameter:

(i)

0,5 for Ø ≤ 245 [mm]

(ii)

0,6 per Ø > 245 < 280 [mm]

(iii)

0,75 per Ø ≥ 280 [mm]

S

=

brake lining area as defined in Table 1 [cm2].

qp

=

number of pads in 1 caliper

3.   EXTENSION OF THE HOMOLOGATION FOR NEW APPLICATION

For new application that will be included into an existing group, an increase of 10 per cent MAX kinetic energy index (Ep = kinetic energy [kJ/cm2]) is allowed with reference to the value used for the approval of the brake lining assembly of the reference group.


ANNEX 8

TECHNICAL PRESCRIPTIONS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES INTENDED FOR THE USE IN SEPARATE PARKING BRAKE SYSTEMS BEING INDEPENDENT OF THE VEHICLE SERVICE BRAKE SYSTEM

1.   COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATION No 13 OR 13-H

Compliance with the requirements of Regulation No 13 or 13-H shall be demonstrated in a vehicle test.

1.1.   Vehicle test

A vehicle which is representative of the type(s) for which the replacement brake lining assembly approval is required shall be equipped with the replacement brake lining assemblies of the type for which approval is requested and instrumented for brake testing as required by Regulation No 13 or Regulation No 13-H whichever is appropriate. The vehicle shall be fully laden. Brake linings submitted for test shall be fitted to the relevant brakes and shall not be burnished.

1.2.   The parking braking system of the vehicle shall be tested according to all relevant requirements in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2.3 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 2.3, whichever is appropriate taking into consideration the original approval of the system.


ANNEX 9

SPECIAL ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES FOR CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

PART A

Determination of friction behaviour by machine testing

1.   INTRODUCTION

Part A applies to replacement brake lining assemblies or replacement drum brake linings approved to this Regulation.

1.1.   Samples of a replacement brake lining assembly type shall be tested on a machine capable of generating the test conditions and applying the test procedures described in this annex.

1.2.   Test results shall be evaluated to determine sample friction behaviour.

1.3.   The friction behaviour of samples shall be compared to assess conformity with the standard registered for a replacement brake lining assembly type.

2.   REPLACEMENT BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M1, M2, N1, O1, O2, AND L

2.1.   Equipment

2.1.1.   The machine shall be designed to accept and operate a full size brake similar to those fitted to the vehicle axle used for approval testing to paragraph 5 of this Regulation.

2.1.2.   The disc or drum rotational speed shall be 660 ± 10 1/min (1) without load and shall not fall below 600 1/min on full load.

2.1.3.   The test cycles and brake applications during the cycles to be adjustable and automatic.

2.1.4.   Output torque or brake pressure (constant torque method) and working surface temperature shall be recorded.

2.1.5.   Provisions shall be made to direct cooling air across the brake at a rate of 600 ± 60 m3/h.

2.2.   Test procedure

2.2.1.   Sample preparation

The manufacturer's bedding schedule shall ensure a minimum of 80 per cent surface contact area for pad assemblies without exceeding a surface temperature of 300 °C and 70 per cent surface contact area for the leading shoe assemblies without exceeding a surface temperature of 200 °C.

2.2.2.   Test schedule

The test schedule comprises a number of consecutive braking cycles each containing X braking intervals of 5 seconds brake applied followed by 10 seconds brake released.

The following two methods may be used alternatively.

2.2.2.1.   Test schedule with constant pressure

2.2.2.1.1.   Pad assemblies

The hydraulic pressure p under the piston(s) of the caliper shall be constant following the formula:

Formula

Md

=

150 Nm for Ak ≤ 18,1 cm2

Md

=

300 Nm for Ak > 18,1 cm2

Ak

=

area of caliper piston(s)

rw

=

effective radius of disc

No of cycle

Number of brake applications X

Initial brake rotor temperature (°C)

Max. brake rotor temperature (°C)

Forced cooling

1

1 × 10

≤ 60

open

no

2-6

5 × 10

100

open (350) (2)

no

7

1 × 10

100

open

yes

2.2.2.1.2.   Shoe assemblies

The mean contact pressure at the brake lining working surface shall be constant at 22 ± 6 N/cm2 calculated for a static brake without self-energizing.

No of cycle

Number of brake applications X

Initial brake rotor temperature (°C)

Max. brake rotor temperature (°C)

Forced cooling

1

1 × 10

≤ 60

200

yes

2

1 × 10

100

open

no

3

1 × 10

100

200

yes

4

1 × 10

100

open

no

2.2.2.2.   Test schedule with constant torque

This method applies only for pad assemblies. The brake torque shall be constant within a tolerance of ± 5 per cent and adjusted to guarantee the maximum brake rotor temperatures given in the table below.

No of cycle

Number of brake applications X

Initial brake rotor temperature (°C)

Max. brake rotor temperature (°C)

Forced cooling

1

1 × 5

≤ 60

300-350 (200-250) (3)

no

2-4

3 × 5

100

300-350 (200-250)

no

5

1 × 10

100

500-600 (300-350)

no

6-9

4 × 5

100

300-350 (200-250)

no

10

1 × 10

100

500-600 (300-350)

no

11-13

3 × 5

100

300-350 (200-250)

no

14

1 × 5

≤ 60

300-350 (200-250)

no

2.3.   Evaluation of test results

Friction behaviour is determined from the brake torque noted at selected points in a test schedule. Where brake factor is constant, e.g. a disc brake, brake torque may be translated to coefficient of friction.

2.3.1.   Pad assemblies

2.3.1.1.   The operational coefficient of friction (μop) is the mean of the values recorded during cycles two to seven (constant pressure method) or during cycles 2-4, 6-9 and 11-13 (constant torque method); measurement being made one second after commencing the first brake application of each cycle.

2.3.1.2.   The maximum coefficient of friction (μmax) is the highest value recorded during all cycles.

2.3.1.3.   The minimum coefficient of friction (μmin) is the lowest value recorded during all cycles.

2.3.2.   Shoe assemblies

2.3.2.1.   The mean torque (Mmean) is the average of the maximum and minimum values of brake torque recorded during the fifth brake application of cycles one and three.

2.3.2.2.   The hot torque (Mhot) is the minimum brake torque developed during cycles two and four. If the temperature exceeds 300 °C during these cycles the value at 300 °C is to be taken as Mhot.

2.4.   Acceptance criteria

2.4.1.   With each application for approval of a brake lining assembly type there shall be submitted:

2.4.1.1.

For pad assemblies, values for μop, μmin, μmax.

2.4.1.2.

For shoe assemblies, values for Mmean and Mhot.

2.4.2.   During production of an approved brake lining assembly type, test samples must demonstrate compliance with the values registered under paragraph 2.4.1 of this annex with the following tolerances:

2.4.2.1.

For disc brake pads:

 

μop ± 15 per cent of registered value;

 

μmin ≥ registered value;

 

μmax ≤ registered value.

2.4.2.2.

For simplex drum brake linings:

 

Mmean ± 20 per cent of registered value;

 

Mhot ≥ registered value.

3.   BRAKE LINING ASSEMBLIES AND DRUM BRAKE LININGS FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M3, N2, N3, O3, AND O4

3.1.   Equipment

3.1.1.   The machine shall be equipped with a disc brake of the fixed caliper type with a cylinder diameter of 60 mm and a solid (not ventilated) disc having a diameter of 278 ± 2 mm and a thickness of 12 mm ± 0,5 mm. A rectangular piece of the friction material with an area of 44 cm2 ± 0,5 cm2 and a thickness of at least 6 mm shall be attached to the backing plate.

3.1.2.   The disc rotational speed shall be 660 ± 10 1/min without load and shall not fall below 600 1/min on full load.

3.1.3.   The mean contact pressure at the brake lining working surface shall be constant at 75 N/cm2 ± 10 N/cm2.

3.1.4.   The test cycles and brake applications during the cycles to be adjustable and automatic.

3.1.5.   Output torque and working surface temperature shall be recorded.

3.1.6.   Provisions shall be made to direct cooling air across the brake at a rate of 600 ± 60 m3/h.

3.2.   Test procedure

3.2.1.   Sample preparation

The manufacturer's bedding procedure shall ensure a minimum of 80 per cent surface contact area without exceeding a surface temperature of 200 °C.

3.2.2.   Test schedule

The test procedure comprises a number of consecutive braking cycles each containing a number of X braking intervals of 5 seconds brake applied followed by 10 seconds brake released.

No of cycle

Number of brake applications X

Initial brake rotor temperature (°C)

Forced cooling

1

5

100

yes

2

5

increasing ≤ 200

no

3

5

200

no

4

5

increasing ≤ 300

no

5

5

300

no

6

3

250

yes

7

3

200

yes

8

3

150

yes

9

10

100

yes

10

5

increasing ≤ 300

no

11

5

300

no

3.3.   Evaluation of test results

Friction behaviour is determined from the brake torque noted in selected cycles of the test schedule. Brake torque shall be translated to coefficient of friction μ.

The μ-value of each brake application shall be determined as the mean value of the 5 seconds brake applied.

3.3.1.   The operational coefficient of friction μop1 is the mean value of μ recorded for the brake applications in cycles 1 and μop2 is the mean value of μ recorded for the brake applications in cycle 9.

3.3.2.   The maximum coefficient of friction μmax is the highest value of μ recorded in an application during cycles 1 to 11 inclusive.

3.3.3.   The minimum coefficient of friction μmin is the lowest value of μ recorded in an application during cycles 1 to 11 inclusive.

3.4.   Acceptance criteria

3.4.1.   With each application for approval of a replacement brake lining assembly type or a replacement drum brake lining type, there shall be submitted values for μop1, μop2, μmin and μmax.

3.4.2.   During production of an approved replacement brake lining assembly type or replacement drum brake lining type, test samples must demonstrate compliance with the values registered under paragraph 3.4.1 of this annex within the following tolerances:

 

μop1, μop2 ± 15 per cent of the registered value;

 

μmin ≥ registered value;

 

μmax ≤ registered value.

PART B

CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION FOR BRAKE DISCS AND DRUMS IN CAST IRON

1.   INTRODUCTION

Part B applies to replacement brake discs and drums approved to this Regulation.

2.   REQUIREMENTS

Conformity of production is to be demonstrated through the routine control and documentation of at least the following:

2.1.   Chemical composition

2.2.   Microstructure

The microstructure must be characterised in accordance with ISO 945-1:2006

(a)

Description of the composition of the matrix;

(b)

Description of the graphite shape, distribution and size.

2.3.   Mechanical properties

(a)

Tensile strength measured in accordance with ISO 6892:1998;

(b)

Brinell hardness measured in accordance with ISO 6506-1:2005.

In each case the measurements must be made on samples taken from the actual brake disc or drum.

2.4.   Geometric features

Brake Discs:

(a)

Thickness variation;

(b)

Friction surface run out;

(c)

Friction surface roughness;

(d)

Cheek thickness variation (for ventilated brake discs).

Brake Drums:

(a)

Ovality;

(b)

Friction surface roughness.

2.5.   Acceptance criteria

With each application for approval of a replacement brake disc or drum there shall be submitted a production specification covering:

(a)

Chemical composition and its permitted range, or where appropriate, maximum value, for each element;

(b)

Microstructure as per paragraph 2.2;

(c)

Mechanical properties as per paragraph 2.3 and their permitted range, or where appropriate, minimum value.

During routine production of an approved replacement brake disc or drum production must demonstrate compliance with these registered specifications.

In the case of Geometric features the values prescribed in paragraph 5.3.4.1.1 for brake discs and paragraph 5.3.4.1.2 for brake drums must not be exceeded.

2.6.   Documentation

The documentation shall contain the manufacturer's maximum and minimum permitted values.

2.7.   Test frequency

The measurements prescribed in this annex should be carried out for each production batch.

PART C

CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION FOR BRAKE DISCS IN MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL

1.   INTRODUCTION

Part C applies to replacement brake discs approved to this Regulation.

2.   REQUIREMENTS

Conformity of production is to be demonstrated through the routine control and documentation of at least the following:

2.1.   Chemical composition

2.2.   Mechanical properties

Rockwell C hardness measured in accordance with ISO 6508-1:2005.

In each case the measurements must be made on samples taken from the actual brake disc or drum.

2.3.   Geometric features

Brake Discs:

(a)

Thickness variation;

(b)

Friction surface run out;

(c)

Friction surface roughness.

2.4.   Acceptance criteria

With each application for approval of a replacement brake disc or drum there shall be submitted a production specification covering:

(a)

Chemical composition and its permitted range, or where appropriate, maximum value, for each element;

(b)

Mechanical properties as per paragraph 2.3 and their permitted range, or where appropriate, minimum value.

During routine production of an approved replacement brake disc or drum production must demonstrate compliance with these registered specifications.

In the case of geometric features the values prescribed in paragraph 5.3.4.1.1 for brake discs must not be exceeded.

2.5.   Documentation

The documentation shall contain the manufacturer's maximum and minimum permitted values.

2.6.   Test frequency

The measurements prescribed in this annex should be carried out for each production batch.


(1)  In the case of vehicles of categories L1 and L2, a lower test speed may be used.

(2)  In the case of vehicles of category L, the temperature shall be limited to 350 °C. If necessary, the number of applications per cycle must be reduced accordingly. However, in this case, the number of cycles shall be increased to keep the total number of applications constant.

(3)  Values in brackets for vehicles of category L.


ANNEX 10

ILLUSTRATIONS

1.   Brake disc design types for M, N and O categories (examples)

Flat type

Image

Cylinder type

Image

Pot type

Image

Conical type

Image

Double flange type

Image

B

Diameter of mounting bolt holes (or thread size in case of threaded holes)

D

External diameter of disc

F(i)

Inner diameter of friction surface (inboard)

F(o)

Inner diameter of friction surface (outboard)

H

Mounting flange thickness

L(k)

Width of cooling (ventilating) channel

S(new)

Disc thickness (nominal)

S(min)

Disc thickness (minimal permissible wear thickness)

T(i)

Internal diameter (mounting spigot diameter)

T(k)

‘x’ number of mounting bolt holes and pitch circle diameter

T(t)

Overall length of disc

2.   Brake drum for M, N and O categories (examples)

Image

A

Inside diameter of the drum

B

Friction surface width

C

‘x’ number of mounting bolt holes and pitch circle diameter

D

Mounting spigot diameter

E

Outside drum width

F

Mounting flange thickness

G

Outside diameter of the drum

H

Casing diameter

I

Diameter of the mounting bolt holes

3.   Brake disc design types for L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 categories (examples)

One-piece type: brake disc with braking surface and bell made in a single piece and, therefore, of the same material

Image

Composed fixed type: brake disc having the braking ring made of steel, while the bell is of other material, generally aluminium; the 2 components are rigidly bounded by a screwed or riveted connection.

Image

Floating type: brake disc having the braking ring radially released from the bell, in order to allow its thermal expansion.

Image

B

Diameter of mounting bolt holes (or thread size in case of threaded holes)

D

External diameter of disc

F(i)

Inner diameter of friction surface (inboard)

F(o)

Inner diameter of friction surface (outboard)

H

Mounting flange thickness

S(new)

Disc thickness (nominal)

S(min)

Disc thickness (minimal permissible wear thickness)

T(i)

Internal diameter (mounting spigot diameter)

T(k)

‘x’ number of mounting bolt holes and pitch circle diameter

T(t)

Overall length of disc


ANNEX 11

REQUIREMENTS FOR REPLACEMENT BRAKE DISCS OR BRAKE DRUMS FOR VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES M AND N

1.   TEST OVERVIEW

The tests required in paragraph 5.3 of this Regulation are detailed as follows according to the vehicle category:

Table A11/1A

Vehicles of categories M1, N1

 

Vehicle test

Alternative dynamometer test

Performance tests according to Regulations Nos 13/13-H

2.2.1.

Type 0, engine disconnected

3.4.1.

Type 0 (simulation engine disconnected)

2.2.2.

Type 0, engine connected

3.4.4.

Brake tests simulation Type 0, engine connected

Speed and load analog to item 2.2.2

2.2.3.

Type I

3.4.2.

Type I

2.3.

Parking braking system (if applicable)

Comparison test with original part

2.4.

Testing the dynamic frictional properties (comparison test conducted on the individual axles)

3.5.

Testing the dynamic frictional properties (comparison test conducted on the individual wheel brake)

Integrity tests

No vehicle test — use dynamometer test

4.1.

Brake discs

4.1.1.

Brake disc thermal fatigue test

4.1.2.

Brake disc high load test

4.2.

Brake drums

4.2.1.

Brake drum thermal fatigue test

4.2.2.

Brake drum high load test


Table A11/1B

Vehicles of categories M2, M3, N2, N3

 

Vehicle test

Alternative dynamometer test

Performance tests according to Regulation No 13

2.2.1.

Type 0, engine disconnected

3.4.1.

Type 0

2.2.3.

Type I

3.4.2.

Type I

2.2.4.

Type II

3.4.3.

Type II

2.3.

Parking braking system (if required)

Comparison test with original part

2.4.

Testing the dynamic frictional properties (comparison test conducted on the individual axles)

3.5.

Testing the dynamic frictional properties (comparison test conducted on the individual wheel brake)

Integrity tests

No vehicle test — use dynamometer test

4.1.

Brake discs

4.1.1.

Thermal fatigue

4.1.2.

High load test

4.2.

Brake drums

4.2.1.

Thermal fatigue

4.2.2.

High load test

2.   VERIFICATION OF THE VEHICLE TEST REQUIREMENTS

2.1.   Test vehicle

A vehicle that is representative for the selected test group (see definition in paragraph 5.3.6 of this Regulation) in respect of which an approval or parts report for a replacement brake disc/drum is applied for shall be fitted with this replacement brake disc/drum as well as be equipped with test devices for testing the brakes pursuant to the provisions of Regulation No 13 or 13-H.

The replacement brake disc/drum shall be fitted to the axle in question together with an accompanying brake lining which has been type approved according to Regulation No 13 or 13-H or 90 available from the vehicle or axle manufacturer.

Unless a uniform procedure is laid down for how braking is to be effected, the test shall be carried out following agreement with the Technical Service. All the tests listed below shall be carried out on brakes that have been bedded in.

The same ‘bedding-in’ programme shall be used for both replacement and original brake discs and drums.

2.2.   Service braking system

2.2.1.   Type 0 brake tests, engine disconnected, vehicle laden

This test shall be carried out pursuant to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.4.2 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.4.2.

2.2.2.   Type 0 brake tests, engine connected, vehicle unladen and laden

This test shall be carried out pursuant to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.4.3 (supplementary test, how the vehicle behaves when braking from high speed) or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.4.3.

2.2.3.   Type I brake tests

This test shall be carried out pursuant to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.5.1 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.5.1.

At the end of the Type I brake test, the performance when the brakes are hot is to be satisfied pursuant to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.5.3 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 1.5.2.

2.2.4.   Type II brake tests

This test shall be carried out pursuant to Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 1.6.

2.3.   Parking braking system (if required)

2.3.1.   If the service brake system and the parking brake system use a common disc or drum friction surface, it is not necessary to conduct a specific parking brake system test. The satisfactory achievement of the Type 0 laden test shall be taken as meeting the parking brake system requirements.

2.3.2.   Static test with 18 per cent gradient, vehicle laden

2.3.3.   The vehicle shall satisfy all the relevant provisions laid down in Regulation No 13, Annex 4, paragraph 2.3 or Regulation No 13-H, Annex 3, paragraph 2.3 that apply to this category of vehicle.

2.4.   Testing the dynamic frictional properties (comparison test conducted on the individual axles)

For this test, the vehicle shall be laden and all brake applications carried out on a flat road with the engine disconnected.

The service braking system of the vehicle shall be provided with a device that separates the front-wheel brakes from the rear-wheel brakes so that they can always be operated independently of one another.

If an approval or a part report is required in connection with a replacement brake disc/drum for the front-wheel brakes, the rear-wheel brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

If an approval or a part report is required in connection with a replacement brake disc/drum for the rear-wheel brakes, the front-wheel brakes shall remain inoperative throughout the test.

2.4.1.   Performance comparison test when the brakes are cold

With cold brakes, the performance of the replacement brake disc/drum shall be compared with the original equivalents by comparing the results of the test below.

2.4.1.1.   Using the replacement brake disc/drum, at least six consecutive brake applications with different, gradually increasing control forces or brake pressures are carried out as part of the process up to the point at which the wheels lock, or up to a mean fully developed deceleration of 6 m/s2 (M1, M2, N1) or 3,5 m/s2 (M3, N2, N3) or up to the maximum control force or line pressure permitted for this category of vehicle, in which connection the initial speed for the testing of front or rear axle brake discs and drums is as per the table below:

Table A11/2.4.1.1

Vehicle category

Test speed in km/h

Front axle

Rear axle

M1

70

45

M2

50

40

N1

65

50

M3, N2, N3

45

45

Prior to each brake application, the initial temperature of the brake disc/drum shall be ≤ 100 °C.

2.4.1.2.   The brake test described in paragraph 2.4.1.1 also has to be carried out using the original brake disc/drum.

2.4.1.3.   The dynamic frictional properties of the replacement brake disc/drum can be regarded as similar to those of the original brake disc/drum, provided the values attained in relation to the mean fully developed deceleration at the same operating pressures or control forces in the region of the upper 2/3 of the curve generated do not deviate by either ± 10 per cent or ± 0,4 m/s2 from those of the original brake disc/drum.

3.   INERTIA DYNAMOMETER TEST

3.1.   Equipping the dynamometer

For testing purposes, the dynamometer shall be fitted out with the original brake caliper or wheel brake of the vehicle(s) concerned. The inertia dynamometer shall be equipped with a constant torque device and equipment for recording rotational speed, brake pressure, the number of revolutions after braking has commenced, brake torque, the braking period and the temperature of the brake discs/drums on a continuous basis.

3.2.   Test conditions

3.2.1.   Inertia mass of the inertia dynamometer

The inertia mass of the inertia dynamometer shall be set as close as possible, with a permissible variation of ± 5 per cent, to the theoretically required value which corresponds to that part of the total inertia of the vehicle braked by the appropriate wheel. The formula used for calculation purposes is as follows:

I = m · rdyn 2

Where:

I

=

rotary inertia (kgm2);

rdyn

=

dynamic rolling radius of the tyre (m);

m

=

test mass (part of the maximum mass of the vehicle braked by the appropriate wheel) as stipulated by this Regulation.

3.2.1.1.   Dynamic rolling radius

In calculating the inertia mass, the dynamic rolling radius (rdyn) of the largest tyre authorised for the vehicle (or the axle) shall be taken into account.

3.2.1.2.   Test mass

The test mass for calculating the inertia mass shall be as follows:

(a)

When testing front axle brake discs and drums:

Formula

mveh

=

max. permitted mass of the vehicle

nfront

=

number of front axles

(b)

When testing rear axle brake discs and drums:

Formula

mveh

=

max. permitted mass of the vehicle

nrear

=

number of rear axles

Table A11/3.2.1.2

Vehicle category

Percentage by mass m to be taken into account

X values (front axle)

Y values (rear axle)

M1

77

32

M2

69

44

N1

66

39

M3, N2, N3

55

55

(c)

When testing brake discs and drums for vehicles with more than 2 axles:

m = 0,55 maxle

maxle: maximum technically permitted mass of the axle

3.2.2.   The initial rotational speed of the dynamometer shall correspond to the linear speed of the vehicle at 80 km/h (M1, N1) or 60 km/h (M2, M3, N2, N3) based on the mean of the dynamic rolling radii of the largest and smallest tyre of the authorised tyre sizes.

3.2.3.   Cooling

The cooling may be carried out either to paragraphs 3.2.3.1 or 3.2.3.2.

3.2.3.1.   Test carried out with a complete wheel (rim and tyre), mounted on the moving part of the brake, as it would be on the vehicle (worst case).

With respect to the Type I and Type II tests air cooling at a velocity and air flow direction simulating actual conditions may be used during the heating runs, the speed of the air flow being vAir = 0,33 v

Where:

v

=

vehicle test speed at initiation of braking.

In other cases cooling air is not restricted.

The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature.

3.2.3.2.   Test carried out without a rim

With respect to the Type I and Type II tests during the heating runs no cooling is allowed.

In other cases cooling air is not restricted.

3.2.4.   Preparation of the brake

3.2.4.1.   Disc brakes

The test is conducted using a new disc with new brake lining assemblies which have been type approved according to Regulation No 13, 13-H or 90 (in the condition as mounted on the vehicle, e.g. protective grease removed).

3.2.4.2.   Drum brakes

The test is conducted using a new drum with new linings assemblies which have been type approved according to Regulation No 13, 13-H or 90 (if applicable, protective grease removed).

Machining of the linings to achieve good lining to drum contact is permissible.

3.3.   Alternative dynamometer performance test

Table A11/3.3

1a.

In the case of vehicles of categories M1, M2, N1

See bedding-in (burnishing) procedure as described in Annex 3, paragraph 2.2.2.3

1b.

In the case of vehicles of categories M3, N2, N3

Bedding-in (burnishing):

100 (disc) or 200 (drum) brake applications

Ti = 150 °C (disc) or 100 °C (drum)

vi = 60 km/h

dm = 1 and 2 m/s2 alternating

2.

Dynamic friction properties, see paragraph 3.5.1 of this annex

3.

Brake test Type 0 (simulation engine disconnected), see paragraph 3.4.1 of this annex

4.

Brake test Type I, see paragraph 3.4.2 of this annex

5.

Re-burnishing:

10 (disc) or 20 (drum) brake applications

Ti = 150 °C (disc) or 100 °C (drum)

vi = 60 km/h,

dm = 1 and 2 m/s2 alternating

6.

Brake test Type 0 (simulation engine disconnected), see paragraph 3.4.1 of this annex

7.

Brake test Type 0 (simulation engine connected), see paragraph 3.4.4 of this annex

8.

Re-burnishing: (like No 5)

9.

Dynamic friction properties, see paragraph 3.5.1 of this annex

10.

Brake test Type II (if applicable), see paragraph 3.4.3 of this annex

11.

Re-burnishing: (like No 5)

 

Steps 12 to 19 are optional (if activation is not sufficient)

12.

Brake test Type 0, see paragraph 3.4.1 of this annex

13.

Brake test Type I, see paragraph 3.4.2 of this annex

14.

Re-burnishing: (like item 5)

15.

Dynamic friction properties see paragraph 3.5.1 of this annex

16.

Brake tests Type 0 (simulation engine connected), see paragraph 3.4.4 of this annex

17.

Re-burnishing: (like item 5)

18.

Dynamic friction properties see paragraph 3.5.1 of this annex

19.

Re-burnishing: (like item 5)

3.4.   Service braking system

3.4.1.   Brake test Type-0 test (simulation engine disconnected)

From the initial rotational speed equivalent to 100 km/h (M1/N1), or 60 km/h (M2/M3/N2/N3) and at a brake temperature ≤ 100 °C at the start of each application, perform three brake applications at the same brake actuating pressure such that a mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) or a mean brake torque based on the braking distance equivalent to the mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) of at least 6,43 m/s2 for vehicles of categories M1/N1 or 5 m/s2 for vehicles of categories M2/M3/N2/N3 is achieved.

In the case of pneumatic braking systems the brake actuator pressure shall not exceed the pressure that is permanently guaranteed by the braking system of the vehicle type(s) (e.g. cut in pressure of the compressor), and the brake input torque (C) shall not exceed the maximum permissible brake input torque (Cmax) by using the smallest brake chamber of the vehicle type(s).

The average of the three results shall be taken as the cold performance.

3.4.1.1.   Rolling resistance

The rolling resistance is taken to equate to a deceleration of 0,1 m/s2.

3.4.2.   Brake test Type I

3.4.2.1.   Heating procedure

3.4.2.1.1.   According to the vehicle category make consecutive snub applications of the brake in accordance with the conditions laid down in the following table. Every brake application shall be conducted in that way that a constant deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) or a constant brake torque equivalent to the deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) of 3 m/s2 will be achieved.

The first brake application shall commence at a brake temperature of ≤ 100 °C.

Vehicle Category

v1 [km/h]

v2 [km/h]

Δt [sec]

N

M1

80 % vmax ≤ 120 km/h

0,5 v1

45

15

M2

80 % vmax ≤ 100 km/h

0,5 v1

55

15

N1

80 % vmax ≤ 120 km/h

0,5 v1

45

15

M3/N2/N3

80 % vmax ≤ 60 km/h

0,5 v1

60

20

where:

v1

=

initial speed, at beginning of braking

v2

=

speed at end of braking

vmax

=

maximum speed of vehicle

n

=

number of brake applications

Δt

=

duration of a braking cycle: time elapsing between the initiation of one brake application and the initiation of the next.

3.4.2.1.2.   In the case of brakes equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices, the adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type I test above, be set according to the following procedures as appropriate:

3.4.2.1.2.1.   In the case of air-operated brakes, the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator stroke shall be adjusted to:

s0 ≥ 1,1 · sre-adjust

(the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer)

where:

sre-adjust

is the readjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to readjust the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 15 per cent of the brake system operating pressure but not less than 100 kPa.

Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service.

From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 30 per cent of the brake system operating pressure but not less than 200 kPa 50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.

3.4.2.1.2.2.   In the case of hydraulically operated disc brakes, no setting requirements are deemed necessary.

3.4.2.1.2.3.   In the case of hydraulically operated drum brakes, the adjustment of the brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer.

3.4.2.2.   Hot performance

Not later than 60 seconds after completion of the heating procedure the hot performance shall be measured under the conditions of speed and pressure applied in the Type 0 test.

For vehicles of category M1 and N1 the mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) or a mean brake torque based on the braking distance equivalent to the mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) must not be less than 75 per cent of the value achieved with the cold brake in the Type 0 test nor less than 4,8 m/s2.

For vehicles of category M2, M3, N2 and N3 the mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) or a mean brake torque based on the braking distance equivalent to the mean fully developed deceleration, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.4.1.1 of this annex) must not be less than 60 per cent of the value achieved with the cold brake in the Type 0 test nor less than 4 m/s2.

3.4.2.3.   Free running test

In the case of brakes equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices, after completing the tests defined in paragraph 3.4.2.2 above the brake shall be allowed to cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100 °C) and it shall be verified that the brake is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:

(a)

The disc or drum is running freely (i.e. may be rotated by hand);

(b)

When the disc or drum is rotated at a rotational speed equivalent to a constant speed of v = 60 km/h with the brake released the asymptotic temperatures shall not exceed a drum/disc temperature increase of 80 °C.