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Document 52022IP0262

European Parliament resolution of 23 June 2022 on illegal logging in the EU (2022/2523(RSP))

OJ C 32, 27.1.2023, p. 8–8 (GA)
OJ C 32, 27.1.2023, p. 20–27 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)



Official Journal of the European Union

C 32/20


Illegal logging in the EU

European Parliament resolution of 23 June 2022 on illegal logging in the EU (2022/2523(RSP))

(2023/C 32/04)

The European Parliament,

having regard to Article 227 of the Treaty on European Union,

having regard to Articles 4, 191, 230 and 258 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

having regard to Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 laying down the obligations of operators who place timber and timber products on the market (1) (EU Timber Regulation),

having regard to Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (2) (Habitats Directive),

having regard to Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (3) (Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive),

having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1367/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on the application of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters to Community institutions and bodies (4) (Aarhus Regulation),

having regard to infringement case INFR(2020)2033 included in the Commission’s infringement package of 12 February 2020,

having regard to the Commission communication of 20 May 2020 entitled ‘EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 — Bringing nature back into our lives’ (COM(2020)0380),

having regard to the Commission communication of 16 July 2021 entitled ‘New EU Forest Strategy for 2030’ (COM(2021)0572),

having regard to the Commission proposal of 17 November 2021 for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the making available on the Union market as well as export from the Union of certain commodities and products associated with deforestation and forest degradation and repealing Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 (COM(2021)0706), aiming to curb EU-driven deforestation and forest degradation,

having regard to the Commission proposal of 15 December 2021 for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of the environment through criminal law and replacing Directive 2008/99/EC (COM(2021)0851), and the accompanying communication (COM(2021)0814),

having regard to Regulation (EU) 2021/1767 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 October 2021 amending Regulation (EC) No 1367/2006 on the application of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters to Community institutions and bodies (5),

having regard to the question to the Commission on illegal logging in the EU (O-000020/2022 — B9-0016/2022),

having regard to Rules 136(5) and 132(2) of its Rules of Procedure,

having regard to the motion for a resolution of the Committee on Petitions,


whereas the Committee on Petitions has received Petitions Nos 0289/2015, 0625/2018, 1248/2019, 0408/2020, 0722/2020 and 1056/2021 raising concerns over increasing illegal logging and specific cases of practices in breach of EU environmental legislation in some Member States, including in Europe’s last remaining primary and old-growth forests, and calling for preventive measures to reduce the risk and magnitude of the environmental damage and threat to human life and well-being;


whereas illegal logging is an activity of serious concern that leads to environmental damage, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem degradation, desertification and soil erosion leading to natural disasters, such as landslides, and has led to the destruction or damage of several Natura 2000 sites and primary and old-growth forests; whereas illegal logging can result in the extinction of protected species and specific habitats for different plant and animal species because those engaged in illegal activities tend to disregard laws that protect valuable forest resources;


whereas Europol estimates that environmental crime is as profitable as drug trafficking, but with a much lower risk of detection and punishment (6);


whereas illegal logging is a major factor in forest degradation, deforestation and climate change, contributing to the deterioration of air quality; whereas illegal logging represents between 15 % and 30 % of international timber production, and has further environmental, social and economic consequences; whereas illegal logging remains largely undetected, thereby hindering the efforts of the EU to reach the goals of the European Green Deal, the European Climate Law and the biodiversity strategy; whereas illegal logging happens very frequently in some of the highest-quality and best-preserved forests in the EU;


whereas products of illegal logging are sold in the EU as certified timber (7); whereas the main existing certification schemes are unable to fully meet the requirements of the applicable legislation; whereas the main schemes assessed in the Commission report of July 2021 on certification and verification schemes in the forest sector have gaps in their legality definitions and their legal requirements are limited in scope or ambiguous in nature; whereas while they do provide a systematic approach to transferring claims throughout the supply chain, for the most part, they do not include the systematic ability to verify — in real time or otherwise — transactions of volumes, species and qualities between entities, thus leaving the systems vulnerable to manipulation and fraud; whereas all main certification schemes are challenged when it comes to identifying and effectively handling corruption issues, the systems in place to identify cases of corruption are relatively limited and the risk of fraud is poorly covered (8);


whereas forests are essential carbon sinks which help to combat climate change;


whereas illegal logging has significant negative socio-economic effects, with local and responsible communities being deprived of their economic livelihood owing to the illicit marketing of illegally cut wood, which in turn encourages delinquency and has a detrimental effect on sustainable local development and legitimate businesses; whereas illegal logging it is often associated with tax evasion, which enables illegal loggers to depress the market value of forest products, leading to market distortion and unfair competition; whereas illegal logging generates revenue loss for the government in terms of lost taxes and duties, and contributes to increased forest management and transaction costs; whereas wood is often logged in one Member State but traded in another; whereas the majority of illegal wood is traded and used as legally logged timber;


whereas there is a lack of consistent, harmonised and comparable data for EU logging, as well as a common definition of illegal logging;


whereas in some cases illegal loggers have been violent towards forestry officials, forest rangers, law enforcement, environmental activists and investigative journalists, resulting in loss of life in at least six reported cases and numerous episodes of violence and harassment against those responsible for the protection of forests;


whereas there are problems arising from the absence of an internationally recognised definition of the activities covered by the concept of ‘illegal logging’; whereas this lack of precision is a serious legal loophole;


whereas corruption and fraud are the main drivers of illegal logging, leading to insufficient enforcement and impunity; whereas this also exacerbates various criminal activities, such as the financing of conflicts and money laundering; whereas EU action is needed to stop illegal logging and deforestation and curb the trade in illegally harvested timber and timber products;


whereas according to Eurojust, environmental crimes have become the fourth most widespread criminal activity at international level;


whereas the EU Timber Regulation lays down rules for the placing on the market of timber and timber products and should prevent illegal logging; whereas the Commission intends to repeal the EU Timber Regulation by means of its proposal for a regulation on the making available on the Union market as well as export from the Union of certain commodities and products associated with deforestation and forest degradation; whereas the European Union should support Member States where there is a lack of good forest governance in combating crime and organised crime preying on forests, and should promote environmental protection, including the protection and sustainable management of forests under Directive 2008/99/EC of 19 November 2008 on the protection of the environment through criminal law (9) and in line with the objectives of the European Green Deal, the biodiversity strategy, the Zero Pollution Action Plan and the Circular Economy Action Plan;


whereas illegal activities lead to unsustainable practices, reduce the value of forests and result in the depreciation of the various environmental, economic and social services provided by forests, thereby leading to outright deforestation and forest degradation;


whereas illegal logging is linked to breaches of human rights and violence, as well as crimes linked to fraud and corruption such as money laundering and tax evasion;


whereas there are several infringement procedures open against Member States for alleged failure to implement EU legislation in this respect;


whereas under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and other funds managed by Member States, forest owners are currently eligible for compensation for forest-environmental and climate services, support for forest conservation, restoration and protection, and compensation for Natura 2000 forest areas and maintenance and activities improving the resilience and environmental value of forest ecosystems;


whereas the forest management plans of the Member States should correspond to the measures necessary to protect and restore biodiversity in forests, and should be available to the public; notes that not all Natura 2000 site management plans recognise the explicit value of primary and old-growth forests, and that strictly protected forest conservation measures do not completely exclude logging, which can be incompatible with the long-term conservation of primary and old growth forests;


Urges the Member States to fully implement and comply with the obligations set out in existing EU environmental legislation; calls on the Commission to act more swiftly, effectively and transparently, including through regular follow-up of cases, and to pursue infringement procedures to remedy all cases of non-compliance; calls on the Commission to allocate sufficient resources to overcome the current delays; believes that a sufficient level of qualified staff and resources is crucial for the successful implementation and enforcement of EU policies;


Notes that illegal logging is still a problem in the EU; expresses its concern about the negative impact of cases of illegal logging on European forests, wild habitats, the internal market and EU climate action; calls on the Commission and the Member States to undertake a thorough assessment of the socio-economic causes of such phenomena and to fully implement relevant EU and national legislation in order to effectively develop concrete and immediate measures to combat illegal logging so as to prevent it from becoming a trend, taking into account the obligations under the nature directives and the targets under the biodiversity strategy which were endorsed by the Member States; expresses concern that the soaring prices of materials and energy and the zero rating for biomass emissions under the Emissions Trading Scheme could increase the pressure on forests beyond sustainable levels, including as a result of illegal logging as high profit margins stand in contrast to negligible risk, while also taking into account existing social and economic conditions for people living in remote and rural areas of the EU;


Expresses concern that the growing illegal logging in the EU will undermine the goals of the European Green Deal, the EU biodiversity strategy and the forest strategy, since it will represent a failure to protect unique ecological diversity and the last remaining primeval and old-growth forests, restore and conserve natural habitats and species of wild flora and fauna, and undermine the targets for effectively protected and strictly protected areas;


Stresses that deforestation is responsible for 20 % of global CO2 emissions; is concerned about the negative impact that illegal logging has on desertification, soil erosion and phenomena such as flooding; stresses that deforestation is also linked to the extinction of many species that lose their habitats as a result of illegal logging;


Calls on Member State prosecutors and competent authorities to investigate to the fullest extent of the law all cases of illegal logging, as well as the transportation, storage, distribution and sale of illegal timber;


Underlines that achieving sustainable forest management, protection and conservation, based on measurable indicators and thresholds, is a key issue for the future of European forestry; endorses the introduction of a close-to-nature certification scheme to maintain the full range of biological diversity, ensure long-term productivity and resilience, and respond to environmental, economic and societal challenges;


Calls on the Commission and the Member States to put in place the necessary measures to carry out a thorough control to trace the timber used by European companies in order to ensure full compliance with the EU Timber Regulation;


Strongly emphasises that the Commission should ensure that adequate amounts of financial resources within national strategic plans are dedicated to biodiversity restoration in the areas most severely affected by illegal logging; recalls that according to Parliament’s resolution of 9 June 2021 on the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, Member States should reach at least 10 % annual expenditure on biodiversity under the multiannual financial framework; notes with regret that the biodiversity financing target in some Member States is far below the agreed 10 %;


Regrets the fact that in sustainable forest management, neither thresholds or ranges as benchmarks for the desirable condition of forests nor sufficient criteria relating to ecosystem health, biodiversity and climate change have yet been defined; therefore asks for the new indicators and thresholds required for implementable sustainable forest management;


Calls on all Member States to ensure that timber tracking systems are fully operational and that forestry sanctions are proportional and dissuasive so as to discourage illegal logging effectively; expresses strong concern that penalties are currently not proportional to timber product value and that operators sometimes receive only admonition penalties or very low administrative penalties; calls on the Member States to provide means for improving the activities of national authorities responsible for forestry, to increase the number of law enforcement officers where necessary, to effectively proceed with legal action and to start criminal proceedings in cases of illegal logging, based on evidence gathered by the police or referred to the police by third parties; calls for criminal proceedings, including against private persons, to be provided for in the revision of the Directive on the protection of the environment through criminal law;


Calls on all Member States to share best practices among law enforcement authorities in order to boost the fight against all related illegal practices;


Calls on Member States to ensure that public access to environmental information, as well as public participation in decision-making and justice concerning forest management plans, is provided for in line with the Aarhus Regulation;


Stresses the need to correctly assess the environmental impacts of forest management plans and for Member States to revise those which do not comply with national legislation;


Deplores the attacks on forestry officials, forest rangers, law enforcement officers, environmental activists and investigative journalists, including deadly attacks, and recalls that these attacks are often committed either by individuals or well organised and well equipped gangs engaging in illegal logging, increasing violence and frequent intimidation;


Calls on national and EU authorities to take dissuasive and firm action to ensure full compliance with national and EU environmental law; notes that procedural weaknesses and missing checks reduce the Timber Regulation’s effectiveness in practice; urges the EU co-legislators to seize the opportunity presented by the negotiations on the proposal for a regulation on deforestation-free products (COM(2021)0706) to learn lessons from the implementation and enforcement of the EU Timber Regulation and to improve the status of Member States’ competent authorities, the provisions on the quantity and quality of their controls, their relations and interactions with the competent authorities of other Member States and with other national authorities and the Commission; calls on the Member States to strictly implement the provisions of the relevant legislation currently in force by banning the use and placing on the EU market of illegal timber; calls for illegal logging to be treated as a criminal offence, to be subject to appropriate criminal sanctions and to be brought within the scope of the revised directive on the protection of the environment through criminal law, and calls for strengthened European cooperation to combat illegal logging; calls for a uniform definition of illegal logging as an environmental crime in all Member States so as to guarantee that harmonised procedures and penalties are applied for the same illegal logging contraventions across the whole of the EU;


Emphasises the importance of preventive measures to reduce environmental and economic damages and the threat to human life caused by illegal logging; acknowledges that some recent progress has been achieved at Member State level, with reported improvements in timber tracking, and the revision and strengthening of penalties envisaged in national legislation aimed at combating illegal logging; highlights the need for adequate restoration plans for deteriorated environmental areas in the Member States concerned; recalls that a coordinated European approach and prevention measures can help to tackle illegal logging; calls on the Member States to improve the quality and completeness of their forest monitoring systems in order to be able to draw firm conclusions as to the effectiveness of the forest management plans within the Natura 2000 network; notes that to ensure a satisfactory assessment of the effectiveness of Natura 2000-related measures, monitoring should involve collecting more data on areas within and outside the network and on the quality of conservation management;


Calls on the Commission to revise the EU Timber Regulation to extend its application to all timber and timber products sold on the European market in order to ensure a level playing field and avoid unfair competition;


Emphasises the great public interest in combating illegal logging, as also expressed in Petitions Nos 1248/2019, 0408/2020, 0722/2020 and 1056/2021 addressed to the Committee on Petitions, which denounce the increases in illegal logging, often due to lax enforcement of EU legislation in protected areas or halted satellite surveillance systems, as well as the rising numbers of cases of aggression against forest workers, activists and journalists;


Calls on Member States to adopt appropriate law enforcement measures in order to fight illegal logging, and to protect environmental defenders, journalists and whistle-blowers; calls on Member States to take the necessary measures to prevent the dismissal by the judicial authorities of cases related to illegal logging; acknowledges the active role and involvement of civil society, including non-governmental organisations and environmental defenders, in advocating for climate action and biodiversity protection, and calls for the EU to support such activities; stresses the need to guarantee civil society participation in the transparency framework laid out in Article 13 of the Paris Agreement;


Calls on the Commission to lead the fight against illegal logging globally and to promote the implementation of a single, clear and internationally recognised definition of the kind of activities that fall under the concept of ‘illegal logging’ in order to address the current legal loopholes allowing for non-compliance with the standard; welcomes as a first step the proposal for a regulation on deforestation-free products;


Calls on the Commission and the Member States to frequently assess the available data based on both ground-based monitoring and remote-sensing technologies, such as satellite imaging of all forested Natura 2000 sites, to take appropriate measures, including launching infringement procedures, where evidence is found of damage to or destruction of these sites, and to make these assessments and measures public; stresses that satellite imaging is more effective if combined with on-site data and therefore that on-site data should not be neglected; calls on the Member States to remedy the damage to protected forest habitats or the protected habitats of forest species in Natura 2000 sites affected by deforestation and illegal logging;


Stresses that the Commission needs to enforce compliance with EU law; understands that the burden of proof to demonstrate the existence of a breach lies with the Commission, which may not rely on any presumption in infringement cases; stresses, however, that while the Commission has confirmed that the correct application of Union law remains a priority, the length of some infringement cases, even when the Commission has enough evidence, suggests otherwise; declares it to be irresponsible that at a time when environmental legislation is the legislation most breached and the European Green Deal has brought with it new initiatives, the Commission’s Directorate-General for the Environment is consistently and continuously understaffed; deplores the fact that irreplaceable assets are being lost owing to the Commission’s inaction and cuts to the EU staffing budget; proposes that the Commission and the Member States set their priorities straight;


Calls on the Commission to make systematic use of all available technological developments, such as remote sensing, to ensure full compliance with the EU Timber Regulation and thus be able to comprehensively examine the state of Europe’s forests;


Urges the Commission, the Council and the Member States to take the necessary measures to establish and develop police cooperation involving the competent authorities of all Member States to prevent, detect and investigate criminal offences in forestry and the trade in timber resulting from such activities; underlines that the Commission, the Council and the Member States should systematically assess the effectiveness of police cooperation and improve it periodically;


Calls on the Commission and the Council to carefully evaluate the potentially negative consequences that the promotion of forest biomass as an energy driver could have on EU forests, particularly within the framework of the negotiations for the ‘Fit for 55’ package and the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (10) (RED III);


Asks the Commission to promote the sharing of best practices between Member States in fighting the phenomenon of illegal logging and its consequences, including in green public procurement and transparency for consumers as regards the names of companies trading in illegally logged wood;


Calls on the Commission to be vigilant as to the proper implementation of the EU Timber Regulation, the Habitats Directive, the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive and the Conservation of Wild Birds Directive (11), as well as the Aarhus Regulation, since the implementation gap in EU environmental legislation can represent an enabling factor leading to environmental crime; notes that breaches of these may lead to environmental and ecological disasters such as soil degradation and erosion, landslides, floods, the extinction of unique wild species, deforestation and the disappearance of the last remaining primary and old-growth forests in the EU;


Calls on the Commission to review the current legislative problems and to improve its controls in order to eliminate any legal loopholes that make it possible to use illegally harvested timber in the EU, as is currently the case with techniques such as mixing legally harvested timber and illegally harvested timber in order to certify the origin of such timber;


Calls on the Commission to use its trade policy to curb illegal logging at international level; stresses that importing illegally harvested timber from non-EU countries distorts the European market and creates an unfair situation for European producers; recalls that the use of this illegal timber also harms those communities in which it is harvested and promotes the continuation of the illegal harvesting of the timber and all the crimes associated with it; welcomes the set of mandatory due diligence rules for companies that want to place certain commodities on the EU market proposed by the Commission in its proposal for a regulation on deforestation-free products;


Stresses the importance of the implementation of the projects aimed at promoting close-to-nature forest management and environmental protection, restoration and conservation, while supporting communities dependant on forestry resources by developing short supply chains and ecotourism; suggests the development of democratic forest governance and projects in close cooperation with local authorities, which are working closely with stakeholders and local communities, who are the most impacted directly and indirectly by environmental changes and the negative socio-economic effects of large-scale timber production and trade;


Invites the EU and the Member States to explore further possibilities of cooperation in the fight against and prevention of illegal logging; recommends that the Commission provide a cooperation platform for Member States to develop and further improve national digital forest monitoring tools, for reporting cases of illegal logging and to enable rapid and effective cross-border intervention against illegal logging;


Calls on the Member States to assume their primary responsibility for protecting the environment, including forests, and to ensure the safety of forestry officials; recalls that corruption within public institutions remains an important factor leading to impunity for illegal logging and offences against environmental activists;


Calls on the Member States to harmonise their rules on the control of illegally harvested timber as far as possible, in order to prevent illegal timber distribution routes from being exploited under the legislation of the Member States in which controls are lax;


Calls on prosecutors, investigators, rangers and financial experts to join forces and pool expertise in order to swiftly and successfully detect, investigate and prosecute organised crime;


Recalls that EU funds may be available for compensation for forest-environmental and climate services, improving the resilience and environmental value of forest ecosystems, forest restoration, conservation and protection, and compensation for Natura 2000 forest areas, including for small forestry owners;


Suggests the introduction of regular surveillance (including security/police patrols and air surveillance) in forests and areas in which timber is transported, or where illegal logging or the transport of and trade in timber from such activities have been reported; stresses the need to raise police awareness of the crime of illegal logging and calls on the Member States to run special training for law enforcement officers to equip them with practical tools and provide them with the skills and knowledge they need to prevent, detect and prosecute illegal logging activity, as well as protect environmental activists, whistle-blowers and staff responsible for forest management; encourages Member States to cooperate to ensure the smart use of resources for preventing the irregular implementation of this measure;


Recalls that illegal logging is often linked to other forms of crime such as illicit trafficking, corruption, fraud and money laundering, predominantly with a cross-border dimension; stresses the need, therefore, to consider the information on illegal logging essential for the investigation of other types of serious crime and to share this information with Europol so as to facilitate cross-border investigations;


Stresses that the establishment of an EU Green Prosecutor, through the extension of the EPPO’s mandate, in accordance with Article 86(4) TFEU, is a way to improve the implementation and enforcement of EU environmental legislation and to combat serious environmental crimes with a cross-border dimension;


Calls on the Commission to allocate funding to the fight against illegal logging;


Highlights the importance of increasing the availability of transparent, high-quality data and takes due note of the aim of the new EU forest strategy of improving harmonised data collection in this regard; believes that building on existing structures, particularly the national forest inventories and the Forest Information System for Europe, is essential in order to improve the operational response of police forces in tackling aspects of forestry criminality; recognises the need for timely, frequent and comparable data across all Member States for both basic and applied forest-related variables; endorses, therefore, the proposal for an EU-wide Forest Observation, Reporting and Data Collection framework; calls on the Member States to collect data on inspection activities, the number of violations established and the types and size of the sanctions imposed;


Calls on the Member States to strengthen public awareness about the fight against illegal logging and the reporting tools available, i.e. through targeted communication campaigns; invites Member States to include the notion of forest preservation in academic curricula for children, as part of natural heritage conservation;


Stresses that environmental litigation requires law professionals to have specific knowledge and competences; suggests, therefore, that Member States strengthen the environmental component of university studies in the field of law;


Highlights that the use of remote sensing technologies such as satellite imaging to complement the collection of field inventory data and inspections can help competent authorities at EU and national level to identify large areas of illegal logging activity with greater accuracy and speed; highlights the need to calibrate this data with data gathered via ground-based monitoring to ensure that the findings are accurate; calls on the Member States to make full use of the tools made available by the EU Satellite Centre to strengthen their capacities in countering illegal logging; notes that while forest logging can be detected through satellite imaging, it remains a challenge to distinguish between legal and illegal logging; stresses that the effectiveness of the satellite-based resources for curbing illegal logging depends on the ability of the authorities to use the information and coordinate it with other (ground-based) monitoring tools and databases; believes that satellite images can complement in-the-field inspections and field inventory data as a valuable asset for detecting illegal logging and can help to indirectly infer the existence of illegal logging through the presence of roads outside the permitted areas;


Recalls the essential role that technological innovation plays in combating illegal logging and environmental crime in general; calls on the Commission to dedicate funding to technological support for Member States, which would enable national law enforcement officers to use the best tools;


Stresses that a fact-finding mission to the areas affected by illegal logging would help in assessing the reality on the ground, the main factors leading to illegal logging and the effects on the local population, as well as identifying the way forward in specific cases;


Calls on the Commission to ensure that the EU does not support initiatives and projects that would lead to illegal logging and deforestation or have other such damaging impacts on the environment;


Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.

(1)  OJ L 295, 12.11.2010, p. 23.

(2)  OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7.

(3)  OJ L 197, 21.7.2001, p. 30.

(4)  OJ L 264, 25.9.2006, p. 13.

(5)  OJ L 356, 8.10.2021, p. 1.


(7)  The Briefing Note for the Competent Authorities (CA) implementing the EU Timber Regulation of June-September 2020 states: ‘Although the timber supplied to IKEA by VGSM was certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the report states that over half of the wood harvested in Velyky Bychkiv from April to June 2018 did not comply with FSC standards and was in fact illegally felled’.

(8)  European Commission, Report: Study on Certification and Verification Schemes in the Forest Sector and for Wood-based Products, July 2021.

(9)  OJ L 328, 6.12.2008, p. 28.

(10)  Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82).

(11)  Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010, p. 7).