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Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs): Russia, the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia

Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs): Russia, the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia

 

SUMMARY OF:

Comprehensive and enhanced Partnership Agreement between the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Armenia, of the other part

Decision (EU) 2018/104 on the signing and provisional application of the Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement between the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Armenia, of the other part

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tajikistan, of the other part

Decision 2009/989/EC,Euratom: on concluding a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tajikistan, of the other part

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part

Decision 1999/593/EC, ECSC, Euratom: on concluding the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part

Decision 99/614/EC, ECSC, Euratom: concluding the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Kyrgyz Republic, of the other part

Decision 1999/491/EC, ECSC, Euratom: concluding the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Kyrgyz Republic, of the other part

Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part

Council Decision (EU) 2016/123 of 26 October 2015 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, and provisional application of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part

Council Decision (EU) 2020/244 of 20 January 2020 on the conclusion, on behalf of the Union, of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part

Agreement on partnership and cooperation establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part

Decision 97/800/ECSC, EC, Euratom: concluding the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part

Agreement between the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR] on trade and commercial and economic cooperation

Decision 90/116/EEC: concluding the European Economic Community of an Agreement between the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on trade and commercial and economic cooperation

WHAT IS THE AIM OF THE AGREEMENTS AND DECISIONS?

The agreements between the European Union (EU) and its partners generally aim to:

  • provide a basis for political dialogue;
  • support the efforts made by the countries to strengthen their democracies and develop their economies;
  • accompany their transition to a market economy;
  • encourage trade and investment.

The partnerships also aim to provide a basis for cooperation in the legislative, economic, social, financial, scientific, civil, technological and cultural fields.

The decisions conclude the agreements on behalf of the EU.

KEY POINTS

  • The EU has concluded 8 partnership and cooperation agreements (PCAs) or enhanced partnership agreements with non-EU countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Russia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
  • The PCA with Turkmenistan has yet to be ratified by the European Parliament, with relations between the parties governed partially by an interim agreement and partially by the 1990 agreement between the EU and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
  • The Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) with Kazakhstan updates and replaces a previous partnership and cooperation agreement.
  • The Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with Armenia is currently provisionally applied. It updates and will replace the previous partnership and cooperation agreement upon entry into force.
  • A number of these countries are partners in the EU’s Neighbourhood policy for which the agreements provide the basis for its implementation.
  • The PCA with Russia also provides for the creation of the necessary conditions for the future establishment of a free trade area.

Main characteristics

Each of these agreements is agreed on specific terms, taking into account the bilateral objectives of the 2 parties. Nevertheless many share common characteristics and similar formats including the following.

  • General principles: concerning respect for democracy, the principles of international law and human rights. The market economy is also an objective set out in all the agreements. A number of other principles are outlined as being central to the agreements such as:
    • the rule of law and good governance;
    • the fight against corruption and different forms of transnational organised crime and terrorism;
    • the promotion of sustainable development; and
    • effective multilateralism.
  • Establishment of bilateral political dialogue: aiming to encourage converging positions on international issues of mutual concern and to cooperate for stability, security and compliance with democracy and human rights.
    • Dialogue takes place at ministerial level (cooperation council or partnership council), parliamentary level (parliamentary council) and senior civil service level, as well as through diplomatic channels and expert meetings.
    • The Agreement with Russia provides also for dialogues at the level of presidents.
  • Justice, freedom and security: priorities can include:
    • consolidating the rule of law and strengthening institutions at all levels of administration in general, law enforcement and the administration of justice in particular;
    • increasing dialogue and cooperation on migration, asylum and border management;
    • combating organised crime and money laundering.
  • Trade and trade-related matters: the EU and the respective country accord one another most favoured nation treatment. They will also set up free transit of goods via or through their territory.
    • For goods admitted temporarily, each party grants the other party exemption from import duties and taxes.
    • Quantitative restrictions on imports may no longer apply between the parties and goods must be traded at their market price.
    • Conditions are also set covering employment, the setting-up of a business and the activities/operation of companies, the cross-border supply of services, current payments and capital.
  • Protecting intellectual, industrial and commercial property.
  • Economic and sectoral cooperation: can cover a wider range of fields and sectors with the goal of a gradual alignment with EU laws and practices and, where relevant, with international norms and standards. Sectors may include:
    • agriculture and the food sector;
    • energy;
    • macroeconomic cooperation;
    • management of public finances;
    • taxation;
    • tourism;
    • the environment;
    • industrial and enterprise policy;
    • cooperation in employment, social policy and equal opportunities;
    • civil society cooperation;
    • cross-border and regional cooperation.
  • Cultural cooperation.
  • Financial cooperation.

DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE

  • The Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) with Kazakhstan has been in force since 1 March 2020.
  • Pending ratification, the Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with Armenia has applied provisionally since 1 June 2018.
  • The PCA with Tajikistan has been in force since 1 January 2010.
  • The PCAs with Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan have been in force since 1 July 1999.
  • The PCA with Russia has been in force since 1 December 1997.

BACKGROUND

  • PCAs are generally concluded for an initial period of ten years but are automatically renewed on a yearly basis unless one of the parties objects.
  • For more information, see:

MAIN DOCUMENTS

Comprehensive and enhanced Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Armenia, of the other part (OJ L 23, 26.1.2018, pp. 4-466)

Council Decision (EU) 2018/104 of 20 November 2017[AM1] on the signing, on behalf of the Union, and provisional application of the Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Armenia, of the other part (OJ L 23, 26.1.2018, pp. 1-3)

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tajikistan, of the other part (OJ L 350, 29.12.2009, pp. 3-51)

Decision of the Council and of the Commission 2009/989/EC, Euratom of 17 November 2009 on the conclusion of a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tajikistan, of the other part (OJ L 350, 29.12.2009, pp. 1-2)

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part (OJ L 229, 31.8.1999, pp. 3-52)

Council and Commission Decision 1999/593/EC, ECSC, Euratom of 31 May 1999 on the conclusion of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part (OJ L 229, 31.8.1999, pp. 1-2)

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part (OJ L 246, 17.9.1999, pp. 3-51)

Council and Commission Decision 99/614/EC, ECSC, Euratom of 31 May 1999 on the conclusion of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part (OJ L 246, 17.9.1999, pp. 1-2)

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Kyrgyz Republic, of the other part (OJ L 196, 28.7.1999, pp. 48-89)

See consolidated version.

Council and Commission Decision 1999/491/EC, ECSC, Euratom of 12 May 1999 on the conclusion of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Kyrgyz Republic, of the other part (OJ L 196, 28.7.1999, pp. 46-47)

Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part (OJ L 29, 4.2.2016, p. 3-150)

Council Decision (EU) 2016/123 of 26 October 2015 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, and provisional application of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part (OJ L 29, 4.2.2016, p. 1-2)

Council Decision (EU) 2020/244 of 20 January 2020 on the conclusion, on behalf of the Union, of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part (OJ L 52, 25.2.2020, p. 1-2)

Agreement on partnership and cooperation establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part (OJ L 327, 28.11.1997, pp. 3-69)

See consolidated version.

Council and Commission Decision 97/800/ECSC, EC, Euratom of 30 October 1997 on the conclusion of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part (OJ L 327, 28.11.1997, pp. 1-2)

Agreement between the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on trade and commercial and economic cooperation (OJ L 68, 15.3.1990, pp. 3-17)

Council Decision 90/116/EEC of 26 February 1990 on the conclusion by the European Economic Community of an Agreement between the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on trade and commercial and economic cooperation (OJ L 68, 15.3.1990, p. 1)

RELATED DOCUMENTS

Notice concerning the provisional application of the Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Armenia, of the other part (OJ L 122, 17.5.2018, p. 1)

Information concerning the date of entry into force of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tajikistan, of the other part (OJ L 350, 29.12.2009, p. 57)

Information on the entry into force of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part (OJ L 261, 7.10.1999, p. 41)

Information on the entry into force of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Kyrgyz Republic, of the other part (OJ L 248, 21.9.1999, p. 35)

Information on the entry into force of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part (OJ L 248, 21.9.1999, p. 36)

Information concerning the entry into force of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Kazakhstan, of the other part (OJ L 51, 25.2.2020, p. 2)

last update 12.06.2020

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