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EU energy policy

Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) states that energy is a shared responsibility between EU Member States and the EU. However, each Member State has the right to decide the conditions for exploiting its own energy resources, choose between different energy sources and decide the general structure of its energy supply.

The main aims of EU energy policy are to:

  • ensure the functioning of the energy market;
  • ensure security of energy supply;
  • promote energy efficiency and energy saving and the development of new and renewable forms of energy;
  • promote the interconnection of energy networks.

In December 2019, the European Commission presented the ‘European Green Deal’ — its roadmap which aims to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. The roadmap seeks to boost the EU’s sustainability and competitiveness, and to ensure the transition is fair and inclusive.

Among the EU’s commitments is reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as part of necessary reductions by all developed countries as a group. The Commission’s ‘ Energy Roadmap 2050 ’ explores the challenges involved in achieving the EU’s aim of decarbonisation while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness.