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Public-private partnership to develop cleaner aircraft

Public-private partnership to develop cleaner aircraft

Europe’s aviation industry has joined forces with the European Commission and research organisations to reduce aviation’s environmental footprint in the context of a public-private partnership (PPP) currently implemented by the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (CS 2 JU).


Council Regulation (EU) No 558/2014 of 6 May 2014 establishing the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking.


The CS 2 JU aims to improve the environmental performance of aircraft by ensuring they are cleaner, more fuel-efficient and less noisy, as well as by helping to develop a strong and competitive aeronautics industry in Europe.

Regulation (EU) No 558/2014 covers the period until 2024. This new phase continues where the original programme left off. It involves companies, universities, public laboratories, innovative SMEs and the European Commission.

CS 2’s targets are:

increasing aircraft fuel efficiency to reduce CO2 emissions by between 20 to 30 percent; and

reducing aircraft nitrogen oxide (NOx) and noise emissions by between 20 to 30 percent compared to the most modern aircraft entering into service as from 2014.

CS 2 comprises:


Three innovative aircraft demonstrator platforms (IADPs) for large passenger aircraft, regional aircraft and fast rotorcraft (advanced helicopters), developing and testing flying demonstrators at the full aircraft/vehicle level;


Three integrated technology demonstrators (ITDs), looking at airframe, engines and systems, using demonstrators at major integrated system level;


Two transverse activities (small air transport, eco-design), integrating the knowledge of different ITDs and IADPs for specific applications and enabling synergies to be exploited between different platforms through shared projects and results;


The technology evaluator (TE), monitoring and assessing the environmental and societal impact of the technologies developed in the IADPs and ITDs.


The CS 2 JU is a legal entity set up for the purpose under Article 187 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (which allows for PPPs at EU level in the field of industrial research). The JU sets its own strategic research agenda and funds members’ projects, as well as projects selected following calls for proposals published on CS 2 JU’s website. As a general rule, the JU applies the Horizon 2020 rules for participation.

CS 2 is managed by an Executive Director who is supported by the Clean Sky team. The JU has a governing board comprising the industry, research organisations and European Commission representatives. It has overall responsibility for the operations of the JU. It is advised by scientific committees on scientific priorities. There is also a CS 2 states representatives group representing the countries involved, as well as steering committees for the ITDs and IADPs. Decisions are taken in accordance with the voting rules established by the JU.

Article 209 of the EU’s Financial Regulation (Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012) provides for new lighter rules customised for EU PPP bodies.


CS 2’s overall budget is EUR 4 billion. EUR 1.8 billion comes from the Horizon 2020 programme budget. Industrial partners contribute EUR 2.2 billion, EUR 1 billion of which comes through additional activities not included in the work plan of the JTI but that help meet its objectives. In order to take into account the duration of the Horizon 2020 programme, calls for proposals under CS 2 JU must be launched by 31 December 2020:

40 % of the budget is reserved for the CS 2 founding members who lead the technical programme and commit for the whole of its duration;

30 % is allocated to core partners selected through open calls at the start of the programme, which become full members of the JU;

the last 30 % of funding is distributed in annual open calls to support the specific tasks.

The JU also seeks to develop synergies with the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF).



Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Council Regulation (EU) No 558/2014



OJ L 169 of 7.6.2014, pp. 77-107


Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-20) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC (Official Journal L 347 of 20.12.2013, pp. 104-173).

Last updated: 10.08.2014