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Document C2007/306/02

Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference

OJ C 306, 17.12.2007, p. 231–271 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, GA, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

17.12.2007   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 306/231


FINAL ACT

(2007/C 306/02)


THE CONFERENCE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MEMBER STATES, convened in Brussels on 23 July 2007 to adopt by common accord the amendments to be made to the Treaty on European Union, the Treaty establishing the European Community, and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, has adopted the following texts:

I.

The Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community

II.   Protocols

A.   Protocols annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and/or the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community:

Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union

Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality

Protocol on the Euro Group

Protocol on permanent structured cooperation established by Article 28 A of the Treaty on European Union

Protocol relating to Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union on the accession of the Union to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Protocol on the internal market and competition

Protocol on the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union to Poland and to the United Kingdom

Protocol on the exercise of shared competence

Protocol on services of general interest

Protocol on the Decision of the Council relating to the implementation of Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union between 1 November 2014 and 31 March 2017 on the one hand, and as from 1 April 2017 on the other

Protocol on transitional provisions

B.   Protocols annexed to the Treaty of Lisbon

Protocol No 1 amending the Protocols annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty establishing the European Community and/or to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

Tables of equivalences referred to in Article 2 of Protocol No 1 amending the protocols annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty establishing the European Community and/or the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

Protocol No 2 amending the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

III.   Annex to the Treaty of Lisbon:

Tables of equivalences referred to in Article 5 of the Treaty of Lisbon

The Conference has adopted the following declarations annexed to this Final Act.

A.   Declarations concerning provisions of the Treaties

1.

Declaration concerning the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

2.

Declaration on Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union

3.

Declaration on Article 7a of the Treaty on European Union

4.

Declaration on the composition of the European Parliament

5.

Declaration on the political agreement by the European Council concerning the draft Decision on the composition of the European Parliament

6.

Declaration on Articles 9 B(5) and (6), Articles 9 D(6) and (7), and Article 9 E of the Treaty on European Union

7.

Declaration on Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

8.

Declaration on practical measures to be taken upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon as regards the Presidency of the European Council and of the Foreign Affairs Council

9.

Declaration on Article 9 C(9) of the Treaty on European Union concerning the European Council decision on the exercise of the Presidency of the Council

10.

Declaration on Article 9 D of the Treaty on European Union

11.

Declaration on Article 9 D(6) and (7) of the Treaty on European Union

12.

Declaration on Article 9 E of the Treaty on European Union

13.

Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy

14.

Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy

15.

Declaration on Article 13a of the Treaty on European Union

16.

Declaration on Article 53(2) of the Treaty on European Union

17.

Declaration concerning primacy

18.

Declaration in relation to the delimitation of competences

19.

Declaration on Article 3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

20.

Declaration on Article 16 B of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

21.

Declaration on the protection of personal data in the fields of judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation

22.

Declaration on Articles 42 and 63a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

23.

Declaration on the second paragraph of Article 42 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

24.

Declaration concerning the legal personality of the European Union

25.

Declaration on Articles 61 H and 188 K of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

26.

Declaration on non-participation by a Member State in a measure based on Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

27.

Declaration on Article 69 D(1), second subparagraph, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

28.

Declaration on Article 78 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

29.

Declaration on Article 87(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

30.

Declaration on Article 104 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

31.

Declaration on Article 140 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

32.

Declaration on Article 152(4)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

33.

Declaration on Article 158 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

34.

Declaration on Article 163 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

35.

Declaration on Article 176 A of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

36.

Declaration on Article 188 N of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the negotiation and conclusion of international agreements by Member States relating to the area of freedom, security and justice

37.

Declaration on Article 188 R of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

38.

Declaration on Article 222 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union regarding the number of Advocates-General in the Court of Justice

39.

Declaration on Article 249 B of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

40.

Declaration on Article 280 D of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

41.

Declaration on Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

42.

Declaration on Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

43.

Declaration on Article 311a(6) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

B.   Declarations concerning Protocols annexed to the Treaties

44.

Declaration on Article 5 of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

45.

Declaration on Article 5(2) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

46.

Declaration on Article 5(3) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

47.

Declaration on Article 5(3), (4) and (5) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

48.

Declaration concerning the Protocol on the position of Denmark

49.

Declaration concerning Italy

50.

Declaration concerning Article 10 of the Protocol on transitional provisions

Furthermore, the Conference has noted the declarations listed hereafter and annexed to this Final Act:

51.

Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium on national Parliaments

52.

Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, and the Slovak Republic on the symbols of the European Union

53.

Declaration by the Czech Republic on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

54.

Declaration by the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Austria and the Kingdom of Sweden

55.

Declaration by the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

56.

Declaration by Ireland on Article 3 of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice

57.

Declaration by the Italian Republic on the composition of the European Parliament

58.

Declaration by the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Hungary and the Republic of Malta on the spelling of the name of the single currency in the Treaties

59.

Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 270a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

60.

Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 311a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

61.

Declaration by the Republic of Poland on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

62.

Declaration by the Republic of Poland concerning the Protocol on the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in relation to Poland and the United Kingdom

63.

Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the definition of the term ‘nationals’

64.

Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the franchise for elections to the European Parliament

65.

Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Article 61 H of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

Съставено в Лисабон на тринадесети декември две хиляди и седма година.

Hecho en Lisboa, el trece de diciembre de dos mil siete.

V Lisabonu dne třináctého prosince dva tisíce sedm.

Udfærdiget i Lissabon den trettende december to tusind og syv.

Geschehen zu Lissabon am dreizehnten Dezember zweitausendsieben.

Kahe tuhande seitsmenda aasta detsembrikuu kolmeteistkümnendal päeval Lissabonis.

Έγινε στη Λισσαβώνα, στις δέκα τρεις Δεκεμβρίου δύο χιλιάδες επτά.

Done at Lisbon on the thirteenth day of December in the year two thousand and seven.

Fait à Lisbonne, le treize décembre deux mille sept.

Arna dhéanamh i Liospóin, an tríú lá déag de Nollaig sa bhliain dhá mhíle a seacht.

Fatto a Lisbona, addì tredici dicembre duemilasette.

Lisabonā, divtūkstoš septītā gada trīspadsmitajā decembrī.

Priimta Lisabonoje du tūkstančiai septintųjų metų gruodžio tryliktą dieną.

Kelt Lisszabonban, a kétezer-hetedik év december tizenharmadik napján.

Magħmul f'Lisbona, fit-tlettax-il jum ta' Diċembru tas-sena elfejn u sebgħa.

Gedaan te Lissabon, de dertiende december tweeduizend zeven.

Sporządzono w Lizbonie dnia trzynastego grudnia roku dwa tysiące siódmego.

Feito em Lisboa, em treze de Dezembro de dois mil e sete.

Întocmit la Lisabona la treisprezece decembrie două mii șapte.

V Lisabone dňa trinásteho decembra dvetisícsedem.

V Lizboni, dne trinajstega decembra leta dva tisoč sedem.

Tehty Lissabonissa kolmantenatoista päivänä joulukuuta vuonna kaksituhattaseitsemän.

Som skedde i Lissabon den trettonde december tjugohundrasju.

Voor Zijne Majesteit de Koning der Belgen

Pour Sa Majesté le Roi des Belges

Für Seine Majestät den König der Belgier

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„Deze handtekening verbindt eveneens de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, de Franse Gemeenschap, de Duitstalige Gemeenschap, het Vlaamse Gewest, het Waalse Gewest en het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest.”

«Cette signature engage également la Communauté française, la Communauté flamande, la Communauté germanophone, la Région wallonne, la Région flamande et la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale.»

„Diese Unterschrift bindet zugleich die Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft, die Flämische Gemeinschaft, die Französische Gemeinschaft, die Wallonische Region, die Flämische Region und die Region Brüssel-Hauptstadt.“

За Правителството на Република България

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Za prezidenta České republiky

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For Hendes Majestæt Danmarks Dronning

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Für den Präsidenten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

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Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi nimel

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Thar ceann Uachtarán na hÉireann

For the President of Ireland

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Για τον Πρόεδρο της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας

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Por Su Majestad el Rey de España

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Pour le Président de la République française

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Per il Presidente della Repubblica italiana

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Για τον Πρόεδρο της Κυπριακής Δημοκρατίας

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Latvijas Republikas Valsts prezidenta vārdā

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Lietuvos Respublikos Prezidento vardu

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Pour Son Altesse Royale le Grand-Duc de Luxembourg

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A Magyar Köztársaság Elnöke részéről

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Għall-President ta' Malta

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Voor Hare Majesteit de Koningin der Nederlanden

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Für den Bundespräsidenten der Republik Österreich

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Za Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej

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Pelo Presidente da República Portuguesa

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Pentru Președintele României

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Za predsednika Republike Slovenije

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Za prezidenta Slovenskej republiky

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Suomen Tasavallan Presidentin puolesta

För Republiken Finlands President

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För Konungariket Sveriges regering

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For Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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A.   DECLARATIONS CONCERNING PROVISIONS OF THE TREATIES

1.   Declaration concerning the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which has legally binding force, confirms the fundamental rights guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States.

The Charter does not extend the field of application of Union law beyond the powers of the Union or establish any new power or task for the Union, or modify powers and tasks as defined by the Treaties.

2.   Declaration on Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference agrees that the Union's accession to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms should be arranged in such a way as to preserve the specific features of Union law. In this connection, the Conference notes the existence of a regular dialogue between the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights; such dialogue could be reinforced when the Union accedes to that Convention.

3.   Declaration on Article 7a of the Treaty on European Union

The Union will take into account the particular situation of small-sized countries which maintain specific relations of proximity with it.

4.   Declaration on the composition of the European Parliament

The additional seat in the European Parliament will be attributed to Italy.

5.   Declaration on the political agreement by the European Council concerning the draft Decision on the composition of the European Parliament

The European Council will give its political agreement on the revised draft Decision on the composition of the European Parliament for the legislative period 2009-2014, based on the proposal from the European Parliament.

6.   Declaration on Article 9 B(5) and (6), Article 9 D(6) and (7) and Article 9 E of the Treaty on European Union

In choosing the persons called upon to hold the offices of President of the European Council, President of the Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, due account is to be taken of the need to respect the geographical and demographic diversity of the Union and its Member States.

7.   Declaration on Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that the decision relating to the implementation of Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union will be adopted by the Council on the date of the signature of the Treaty of Lisbon and will enter into force on the day that Treaty enters into force. The draft decision is set out below:

Draft decision of the Council

relating to the implementation of Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union between 1 November 2014 and 31 March 2017 on the one hand, and as from 1 April 2017 on the other

THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Whereas:

(1)

Provisions should be adopted allowing for a smooth transition from the system for decision-making in the Council by a qualified majority as defined in Article 3(3) of the Protocol on the transitional provisions, which will continue to apply until 31 October 2014, to the voting system provided for in Article 9 C(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which will apply with effect from 1 November 2014, including, during a transitional period until 31 March 2017, specific provisions laid down in Article 3(2) of that Protocol.

(2)

It is recalled that it is the practice of the Council to devote every effort to strengthening the democratic legitimacy of decisions taken by a qualified majority,

HAS DECIDED AS FOLLOWS:

Section 1

Provisions to be applied from 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2017

Article 1

From 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2017, if members of the Council, representing:

(a)

at least three quarters of the population, or

(b)

at least three quarters of the number of Member States

necessary to constitute a blocking minority resulting from the application of Article 9 C(4), first subparagraph, of the Treaty on European Union or Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, indicate their opposition to the Council adopting an act by a qualified majority, the Council shall discuss the issue.

Article 2

The Council shall, in the course of these discussions, do all in its power to reach, within a reasonable time and without prejudicing obligatory time limits laid down by Union law, a satisfactory solution to address concerns raised by the members of the Council referred to in Article 1.

Article 3

To this end, the President of the Council, with the assistance of the Commission and in compliance with the Rules of Procedure of the Council, shall undertake any initiative necessary to facilitate a wider basis of agreement in the Council. The members of the Council shall lend him or her their assistance.

Section 2

Provisions to be applied as from 1 April 2017

Article 4

As from 1 April 2017, if members of the Council, representing:

(a)

at least 55 % of the population, or

(b)

at least 55 % of the number of Member States

necessary to constitute a blocking minority resulting from the application of Article 9 C(4), first subparagraph, of the Treaty on European Union or Article 205(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, indicate their opposition to the Council adopting an act by a qualified majority, the Council shall discuss the issue.

Article 5

The Council shall, in the course of these discussions, do all in its power to reach, within a reasonable time and without prejudicing obligatory time limits laid down by Union law, a satisfactory solution to address concerns raised by the members of the Council referred to in Article 4.

Article 6

To this end, the President of the Council, with the assistance of the Commission and in compliance with the Rules of Procedure of the Council, shall undertake any initiative necessary to facilitate a wider basis of agreement in the Council. The members of the Council shall lend him or her their assistance.

Section 3

Entry into force

Article 7

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

8.   Declaration on practical measures to be taken upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon as regards the Presidency of the European Council and of the Foreign Affairs Council

In the event that the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force later than 1 January 2009, the Conference requests the competent authorities of the Member State holding the six-monthly Presidency of the Council at that time, on the one hand, and the person elected President of the European Council and the person appointed High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, on the other hand, to take the necessary specific measures, in consultation with the following six-monthly Presidency, to allow an efficient handover of the material and organisational aspects of the Presidency of the European Council and of the Foreign Affairs Council.

9.   Declaration on Article 9 C(9) of the Treaty on European Union concerning the European Council decision on the exercise of the Presidency of the Council

The Conference declares that the Council should begin preparing the decision establishing the procedures for implementing the decision on the exercise of the Presidency of the Council as soon as the Treaty of Lisbon is signed, and should give its political approval within six months. A draft decision of the European Council, which will be adopted on the date of entry into force of the said Treaty, is set out below:

Draft decision of the European Council on the exercise of the Presidency of the Council

Article 1

1.   The Presidency of the Council, with the exception of the Foreign Affairs configuration, shall be held by pre-established groups of three Member States for a period of 18 months. The groups shall be made up on a basis of equal rotation among the Member States, taking into account their diversity and geographical balance within the Union.

2.   Each member of the group shall in turn chair for a six-month period all configurations of the Council, with the exception of the Foreign Affairs configuration. The other members of the group shall assist the Chair in all its responsibilities on the basis of a common programme. Members of the team may decide alternative arrangements among themselves.

Article 2

The Committee of Permanent Representatives of the Governments of the Member States shall be chaired by a representative of the Member State chairing the General Affairs Council.

The Chair of the Political and Security Committee shall be held by a representative of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

The chair of the preparatory bodies of the various Council configurations, with the exception of the Foreign Affairs configuration, shall fall to the member of the group chairing the relevant configuration, unless decided otherwise in accordance with Article 4.

Article 3

The General Affairs Council shall ensure consistency and continuity in the work of the different Council configurations in the framework of multiannual programmes in cooperation with the Commission. The Member States holding the Presidency shall take all necessary measures for the organisation and smooth operation of the Council's work, with the assistance of the General Secretariat of the Council.

Article 4

The Council shall adopt a decision establishing the measures for the implementation of this decision.

10.   Declaration on Article 9 D of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference considers that when the Commission no longer includes nationals of all Member States, the Commission should pay particular attention to the need to ensure full transparency in relations with all Member States. Accordingly, the Commission should liaise closely with all Member States, whether or not they have a national serving as member of the Commission, and in this context pay special attention to the need to share information and consult with all Member States.

The Conference also considers that the Commission should take all the necessary measures to ensure that political, social and economic realities in all Member States, including those which have no national serving as member of the Commission, are fully taken into account. These measures should include ensuring that the position of those Member States is addressed by appropriate organisational arrangements.

11.   Declaration on Article 9 D(6) and (7) of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference considers that, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaties, the European Parliament and the European Council are jointly responsible for the smooth running of the process leading to the election of the President of the European Commission. Prior to the decision of the European Council, representatives of the European Parliament and of the European Council will thus conduct the necessary consultations in the framework deemed the most appropriate. These consultations will focus on the backgrounds of the candidates for President of the Commission, taking account of the elections to the European Parliament, in accordance with the first subparagraph of Article 9 D(7). The arrangements for such consultations may be determined, in due course, by common accord between the European Parliament and the European Council.

12.   Declaration on Article 9 E of the Treaty on European Union

1.

The Conference declares that, in the course of the preparatory work preceding the appointment of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy which is due to take place on the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in accordance with Article 9 E of the Treaty on European Union and Article 5 of the Protocol on transitional provisions and whose term of office will be from that date until the end of the term of office of the Commission in office on that date, appropriate contacts will be made with the European Parliament.

2.

Furthermore, the Conference recalls that, as regards the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy whose term of office will start in November 2009 at the same time and for the same duration as the next Commission, he or she will be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9 D and 9 E of the Treaty on European Union.

13.   Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy

The Conference underlines that the provisions in the Treaty on European Union covering the Common Foreign and Security Policy, including the creation of the office of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the establishment of an External Action Service, do not affect the responsibilities of the Member States, as they currently exist, for the formulation and conduct of their foreign policy nor of their national representation in third countries and international organisations.

The Conference also recalls that the provisions governing the Common Security and Defence Policy do not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of the Member States.

It stresses that the European Union and its Member States will remain bound by the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and, in particular, by the primary responsibility of the Security Council and of its Members for the maintenance of international peace and security.

14.   Declaration concerning the common foreign and security policy

In addition to the specific rules and procedures referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 11 of the Treaty on European Union, the Conference underlines that the provisions covering the Common Foreign and Security Policy including in relation to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the External Action Service will not affect the existing legal basis, responsibilities, and powers of each Member State in relation to the formulation and conduct of its foreign policy, its national diplomatic service, relations with third countries and participation in international organisations, including a Member State's membership of the Security Council of the United Nations.

The Conference also notes that the provisions covering the Common Foreign and Security Policy do not give new powers to the Commission to initiate decisions nor do they increase the role of the European Parliament.

The Conference also recalls that the provisions governing the Common Security and Defence Policy do not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of the Member States.

15.   Declaration on Article 13a of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference declares that, as soon as the Treaty of Lisbon is signed, the Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the common foreign and security policy, the Commission and the Member States should begin preparatory work on the European External Action Service.

16.   Declaration on Article 53(2) of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference considers that the possibility of producing translations of the Treaties in the languages mentioned in Article 53(2) contributes to fulfilling the objective of respecting the Union's rich cultural and linguistic diversity as set forth in the fourth subparagraph of Article 2(3). In this context, the Conference confirms the attachment of the Union to the cultural diversity of Europe and the special attention it will continue to pay to these and other languages.

The Conference recommends that those Member States wishing to avail themselves of the possibility recognised in Article 53(2) communicate to the Council, within six months from the date of the signature of the Treaty of Lisbon, the language or languages into which translations of the Treaties will be made.

17.   Declaration concerning primacy

The Conference recalls that, in accordance with well settled case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the Treaties and the law adopted by the Union on the basis of the Treaties have primacy over the law of Member States, under the conditions laid down by the said case law.

The Conference has also decided to attach as an Annex to this Final Act the Opinion of the Council Legal Service on the primacy of EC law as set out in 11197/07 (JUR 260):

Opinion of the Council Legal Service of 22 June 2007

It results from the case-law of the Court of Justice that primacy of EC law is a cornerstone principle of Community law. According to the Court, this principle is inherent to the specific nature of the European Community. At the time of the first judgment of this established case law (Costa/ENEL,15 July 1964, Case 6/641  (1) ) there was no mention of primacy in the treaty. It is still the case today. The fact that the principle of primacy will not be included in the future treaty shall not in any way change the existence of the principle and the existing case-law of the Court of Justice.

18.   Declaration in relation to the delimitation of competences

The Conference underlines that, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States.

When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their competence to the extent that the Union has not exercised, or has decided to cease exercising, its competence. The latter situation arises when the relevant EU institutions decide to repeal a legislative act, in particular better to ensure constant respect for the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. The Council may, at the initiative of one or several of its members (representatives of Member States) and in accordance with Article 208 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, request the Commission to submit proposals for repealing a legislative act. The Conference welcomes the Commission's declaration that it will devote particular attention to these requests.

Equally, the representatives of the governments of the Member States, meeting in an Intergovernmental Conference, in accordance with the ordinary revision procedure provided for in Article 48(2) to (5) of the Treaty on European Union, may decide to amend the Treaties upon which the Union is founded, including either to increase or to reduce the competences conferred on the Union in the said Treaties.

19.   Declaration on Article 3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference agrees that, in its general efforts to eliminate inequalities between women and men, the Union will aim in its different policies to combat all kinds of domestic violence. The Member States should take all necessary measures to prevent and punish these criminal acts and to support and protect the victims.

20.   Declaration on Article 16 B of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that, whenever rules on protection of personal data to be adopted on the basis of Article 15a could have direct implications for national security, due account will have to be taken of the specific characteristics of the matter. It recalls that the legislation presently applicable (see in particular Directive 95/46/EC) includes specific derogations in this regard.

21.   Declaration on the protection of personal data in the fields of judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation

The Conference acknowledges that specific rules on the protection of personal data and the free movement of such data in the fields of judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation based on Article 16 B of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union may prove necessary because of the specific nature of these fields.

22.   Declaration on Articles 42 and 63a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference considers that in the event that a draft legislative act based on Article 69 A(2) would affect important aspects of the social security system of a Member State, including its scope, cost or financial structure, or would affect the financial balance of that system as set out in the second paragraph of Article 42, the interests of that Member State will be duly taken into account.

23.   Declaration on the second paragraph of Article 42 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference recalls that in that case, in accordance with Article 9 B(4) of the Treaty on European Union, the European Council acts by consensus.

24.   Declaration concerning the legal personality of the European Union

The Conference confirms that the fact that the European Union has a legal personality will not in any way authorise the Union to legislate or to act beyond the competences conferred upon it by the Member States in the Treaties.

25.   Declaration on Articles 61 H and 188 K of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference recalls that the respect for fundamental rights and freedoms implies, in particular, that proper attention is given to the protection and observance of the due process rights of the individuals or entities concerned. For this purpose and in order to guarantee a thorough judicial review of decisions subjecting an individual or entity to restrictive measures, such decisions must be based on clear and distinct criteria. These criteria should be tailored to the specifics of each restrictive measure.

26.   Declaration on non-participation by a Member State in a measure based on Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that, where a Member State opts not to participate in a measure based on Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the Council will hold a full discussion on the possible implications and effects of that Member State's non-participation in the measure.

In addition, any Member State may ask the Commission to examine the situation on the basis of Article 96 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

The above paragraphs are without prejudice to the entitlement of a Member State to refer the matter to the European Council.

27.   Declaration on Article 69 D(1), second subparagraph, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference considers that the regulations referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 69 D(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should take into account national rules and practices relating to the initiation of criminal investigations.

28.   Declaration on Article 78 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference notes that the provisions of Article 78 shall be applied in accordance with the current practice. The terms ‘such measures are required in order to compensate for the economic disadvantages caused by the division of Germany to the economy of certain areas of the Federal Republic affected by that division’ shall be interpreted in accordance with the existing case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

29.   Declaration on Article 87(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference notes that Article 87(2)(c) shall be interpreted in accordance with the existing case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union regarding the applicability of the provisions to aid granted to certain areas of the Federal Republic of Germany affected by the former division of Germany.

30.   Declaration on Article 104 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

With regard to Article 104, the Conference confirms that raising growth potential and securing sound budgetary positions are the two pillars of the economic and fiscal policy of the Union and the Member States. The Stability and Growth Pact is an important tool to achieve these goals.

The Conference reaffirms its commitment to the provisions concerning the Stability and Growth Pact as the framework for the coordination of budgetary policies in the Member States.

The Conference confirms that a rule-based system is the best guarantee for commitments to be enforced and for all Member States to be treated equally.

Within this framework, the Conference also reaffirms its commitment to the goals of the Lisbon Strategy: job creation, structural reforms, and social cohesion.

The Union aims at achieving balanced economic growth and price stability. Economic and budgetary policies thus need to set the right priorities towards economic reforms, innovation, competitiveness and strengthening of private investment and consumption in phases of weak economic growth. This should be reflected in the orientations of budgetary decisions at the national and Union level in particular through restructuring of public revenue and expenditure while respecting budgetary discipline in accordance with the Treaties and the Stability and Growth Pact.

Budgetary and economic challenges facing the Member States underline the importance of sound budgetary policy throughout the economic cycle.

The Conference agrees that Member States should use periods of economic recovery actively to consolidate public finances and improve their budgetary positions. The objective is to gradually achieve a budgetary surplus in good times which creates the necessary room to accommodate economic downturns and thus contribute to the long-term sustainability of public finances.

The Member States look forward to possible proposals of the Commission as well as further contributions of Member States with regard to strengthening and clarifying the implementation of the Stability and Growth Pact. The Member States will take all necessary measures to raise the growth potential of their economies. Improved economic policy coordination could support this objective. This Declaration does not prejudge the future debate on the Stability and Growth Pact.

31.   Declaration on Article 140 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference confirms that the policies described in Article 140 fall essentially within the competence of the Member States. Measures to provide encouragement and promote coordination to be taken at Union level in accordance with this Article shall be of a complementary nature. They shall serve to strengthen cooperation between Member States and not to harmonise national systems. The guarantees and practices existing in each Member State as regards the responsibility of the social partners will not be affected.

This Declaration is without prejudice to the provisions of the Treaties conferring competence on the Union, including in social matters.

32.   Declaration on Article 152(4)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that the measures to be adopted pursuant to Article 152(4)(c) must meet common safety concerns and aim to set high standards of quality and safety where national standards affecting the internal market would otherwise prevent a high level of human health protection being achieved.

33.   Declaration on Article 158 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference considers that the reference in Article 158 to island regions can include island States in their entirety, subject to the necessary criteria being met.

34.   Declaration on Article 163 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference agrees that the Union's action in the area of research and technological development will pay due respect to the fundamental orientations and choices of the research policies of the Member States.

35.   Declaration on Article 176 A of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference believes that Article 176 A does not affect the right of the Member States to take the necessary measures to ensure their energy supply under the conditions provided for in Article 297.

36.   Declaration on Article 188 N of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the negotiation and conclusion of international agreements by Member States relating to the area of freedom, security and justice

The Conference confirms that Member States may negotiate and conclude agreements with third countries or international organisations in the areas covered by Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of Title IV of Part Three insofar as such agreements comply with Union law.

37.   Declaration on Article 188 R of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

Without prejudice to the measures adopted by the Union to comply with its solidarity obligation towards a Member State which is the object of a terrorist attack or the victim of natural or man-made disaster, none of the provisions of Article 188 R is intended to affect the right of another Member State to choose the most appropriate means to comply with its own solidarity obligation towards that Member State.

38.   Declaration on Article 222 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union regarding the number of Advocates-General in the Court of Justice

The Conference declares that if, in accordance with Article 222, first paragraph, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the Court of Justice requests that the number of Advocates-General be increased by three (eleven instead of eight), the Council will, acting unanimously, agree on such an increase.

In that case, the Conference agrees that Poland will, as is already the case for Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, have a permanent Advocate-General and no longer take part in the rotation system, while the existing rotation system will involve the rotation of five Advocates-General instead of three.

39.   Declaration on Article 249 B of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference takes note of the Commission's intention to continue to consult experts appointed by the Member States in the preparation of draft delegated acts in the financial services area, in accordance with its established practice.

40.   Declaration on Article 280 D of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that Member States may indicate, when they make a request to establish enhanced cooperation, if they intend already at that stage to make use of Article 280 H providing for the extension of qualified majority voting or to have recourse to the ordinary legislative procedure.

41.   Declaration on Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference declares that the reference in Article 308(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to objectives of the Union refers to the objectives as set out in Article 2(2) and (3) of the Treaty on European Union and to the objectives of Article 3(5) of the said Treaty with respect to external action under Part Five of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It is therefore excluded that an action based on Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union would only pursue objectives set out in Article 2(1) of the Treaty on European Union. In this connection, the Conference notes that in accordance with Article 15b(1) of the Treaty on European Union, legislative acts may not be adopted in the area of the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

42.   Declaration on Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Conference underlines that, in accordance with the settled case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Article 308 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, being an integral part of an institutional system based on the principle of conferred powers, cannot serve as a basis for widening the scope of Union powers beyond the general framework created by the provisions of the Treaties as a whole and, in particular, by those that define the tasks and the activities of the Union. In any event, this Article cannot be used as a basis for the adoption of provisions whose effect would, in substance, be to amend the Treaties without following the procedure which they provide for that purpose.

43.   Declaration on Article 311a(6) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The High Contracting Parties agree that the European Council, pursuant to Article 311a(6), will take a decision leading to the modification of the status of Mayotte with regard to the Union in order to make this territory an outermost region within the meaning of Article 311a(1) and Article 299, when the French authorities notify the European Council and the Commission that the evolution currently under way in the internal status of the island so allows.


(1)  “It follows (…) that the law stemming from the treaty, an independent source of law, could not, because of its special and original nature, be overridden by domestic legal provisions, however framed, without being deprived of its character as Community law and without the legal basis of the Community itself being called into question.”’


B.   DECLARATIONS CONCERNING PROTOCOLS ANNEXED TO THE TREATIES

44.   Declaration on Article 5 of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

The Conference notes that where a Member State has made a notification under Article 5(2) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union that it does not wish to take part in a proposal or initiative, that notification may be withdrawn at any moment before the adoption of the measure building upon the Schengen acquis.

45.   Declaration on Article 5(2) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

The Conference declares that whenever the United Kingdom or Ireland indicates to the Council its intention not to participate in a measure building upon a part of the Schengen acquis in which it participates, the Council will have a full discussion on the possible implications of the non-participation of that Member State in that measure. The discussion within the Council should be conducted in the light of the indications given by the Commission concerning the relationship between the proposal and the Schengen acquis.

46.   Declaration on Article 5(3) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

The Conference recalls that if the Council does not take a decision after a first substantive discussion of the matter, the Commission may present an amended proposal for a further substantive re-examination by the Council within the deadline of 4 months.

47.   Declaration on Article 5(3), (4) and (5) of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union

The Conference notes that the conditions to be determined in the decision referred to in paragraphs 3, 4 or 5 of Article 5 of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union may determine that the Member State concerned shall bear the direct financial consequences, if any, necessarily and unavoidably incurred as a result of the cessation of its participation in some or all of the acquis referred to in any decision taken by the Council pursuant to Article 4 of the said Protocol.

48.   Declaration concerning the Protocol on the position of Denmark

The Conference notes that with respect to legal acts to be adopted by the Council acting alone or jointly with the European Parliament and containing provisions applicable to Denmark as well as provisions not applicable to Denmark because they have a legal basis to which Part I of the Protocol on the position of Denmark applies, Denmark declares that it will not use its voting right to prevent the adoption of the provisions which are not applicable to Denmark.

Furthermore, the Conference notes that on the basis of the Declaration by the Conference on Article 188 R, Denmark declares that Danish participation in actions or legal acts pursuant to Article 188 R will take place in accordance with Part I and Part II of the Protocol on the position of Denmark.

49.   Declaration concerning Italy

The Conference notes that the Protocol on Italy annexed in 1957 to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, as amended upon adoption of the Treaty on European Union, stated that:

‘THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

DESIRING to settle certain particular problems relating to Italy,

HAVE AGREED UPON the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty:

THE MEMBER STATES OF THE COMMUNITY

TAKE NOTE of the fact that the Italian Government is carrying out a ten-year programme of economic expansion designed to rectify the disequilibria in the structure of the Italian economy, in particular by providing an infrastructure for the less developed areas in Southern Italy and in the Italian islands and by creating new jobs in order to eliminate unemployment;

RECALL that the principles and objectives of this programme of the Italian Government have been considered and approved by organisations for international cooperation of which the Member States are members;

RECOGNISE that it is in their common interest that the objectives of the Italian programme should be attained;

AGREE, in order to facilitate the accomplishment of this task by the Italian Government, to recommend to the institutions of the Community that they should employ all the methods and procedures provided in this Treaty and, in particular, make appropriate use of the resources of the European Investment Bank and the European Social Fund;

ARE OF THE OPINION that the institutions of the Community should, in applying this Treaty, take account of the sustained effort to be made by the Italian economy in the coming years and of the desirability of avoiding dangerous stresses in particular within the balance of payments or the level of employment, which might jeopardise the application of this Treaty in Italy;

RECOGNISE that in the event of Articles 109 H and 109 I being applied it will be necessary to take care that any measures required of the Italian Government do not prejudice the completion of its programme for economic expansion and for raising the standard of living of the population.’.

50.   Declaration concerning Article 10 of the Protocol on transitional provisions

The Conference invites the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission, within their respective powers, to seek to adopt, in appropriate cases and as far as possible within the five-year period referred to in Article 10(3) of the Protocol on transitional provisions, legal acts amending or replacing the acts referred to in Article 10(1) of that Protocol.


C.   DECLARATIONS BY MEMBER STATES

Furthermore, the Conference has noted the declarations listed hereafter and annexed to this Final Act:

51.   Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium on national Parliaments

Belgium wishes to make clear that, in accordance with its constitutional law, not only the Chamber of Representatives and Senate of the Federal Parliament but also the parliamentary assemblies of the Communities and the Regions act, in terms of the competences exercised by the Union, as components of the national parliamentary system or chambers of the national Parliament.

52.   Declaration by the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic on the symbols of the European Union

Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Hungary, Malta, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia and the Slovak Republic declare that the flag with a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background, the anthem based on the ‘Ode to Joy’ from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven, the motto ‘United in diversity’, the euro as the currency of the European Union and Europe Day on 9 May will for them continue as symbols to express the sense of community of the people in the European Union and their allegiance to it.

53.   Declaration by the Czech Republic on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

1.

The Czech Republic recalls that the provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union are addressed to the institutions and bodies of the European Union with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity and division of competences between the European Union and its Member States, as reaffirmed in Declaration (No 18) in relation to the delimitation of competences. The Czech Republic stresses that its provisions are addressed to the Member States only when they are implementing Union law, and not when they are adopting and implementing national law independently from Union law.

2.

The Czech Republic also emphasises that the Charter does not extend the field of application of Union law and does not establish any new power for the Union. It does not diminish the field of application of national law and does not restrain any current powers of the national authorities in this field.

3.

The Czech Republic stresses that, in so far as the Charter recognises fundamental rights and principles as they result from constitutional traditions common to the Member States, those rights and principles are to be interpreted in harmony with those traditions.

4.

The Czech Republic further stresses that nothing in the Charter may be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective field of application, by Union law and by international agreements to which the Union or all the Member States are party, including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' Constitutions.

54.   Declaration by the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Austria and the Kingdom of Sweden

Germany, Ireland, Hungary, Austria and Sweden note that the core provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community have not been substantially amended since its entry into force and need to be brought up to date. They therefore support the idea of a Conference of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, which should be convened as soon as possible.

55.   Declaration by the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The Treaties apply to Gibraltar as a European territory for whose external relations a Member State is responsible. This shall not imply changes in the respective positions of the Member States concerned.

56.   Declaration by Ireland on Article 3 of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice

Ireland affirms its commitment to the Union as an area of freedom, security and justice respecting fundamental rights and the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States within which citizens are provided with a high level of safety.

Accordingly, Ireland declares its firm intention to exercise its right under Article 3 of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice to take part in the adoption of measures pursuant to Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to the maximum extent it deems possible.

Ireland will, in particular, participate to the maximum possible extent in measures in the field of police cooperation.

Furthermore, Ireland recalls that in accordance with Article 8 of the Protocol it may notify the Council in writing that it no longer wishes to be covered by the terms of the Protocol. Ireland intends to review the operation of these arrangements within three years of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

57.   Declaration by the Italian Republic on the composition of the European Parliament

Italy notes that, pursuant to Article 8 A (renumbered Article 10) and Article 9 A (renumbered Article 14) of the Treaty on European Union, the European Parliament is to be composed of representatives of the Union's citizens; this representation is to be degressively proportional.

Italy likewise notes that on the basis of Article 8 (renumbered Article 9) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 17 (renumbered Article 20) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, every national of a Member State is a citizen of the Union.

Italy therefore considers that, without prejudice to the decision on the 2009/2014 legislative period, any decision adopted by the European Council, at the initiative of the European Parliament and with its consent, establishing the composition of the European Parliament, must abide by the principles laid down out in the first subparagraph of Article 9 A(2) (renumbered Article 14).

58.   Declaration by the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Hungary and the Republic of Malta on the spelling of the name of the single currency in the Treaties

Without prejudice to the unified spelling of the name of the single currency of the European Union referred to in the Treaties as displayed on the banknotes and on the coins, Latvia, Hungary and Malta declare that the spelling of the name of the single currency, including its derivatives as applied throughout the Latvian, Hungarian and Maltese text of the Treaties, has no effect on the existing rules of the Latvian, Hungarian or Maltese languages.

59.   Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 270a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Kingdom of the Netherlands will agree to a decision as referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 270a(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union once a revision of the decision referred to in the third paragraph of Article 269 of that Treaty has provided the Netherlands with a satisfactory solution for its excessive negative net payment position vis-à-vis the Union budget.

60.   Declaration by the Kingdom of the Netherlands on Article 311a of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that an initiative for a decision, as referred to in Article 311a(6) aimed at amending the status of the Netherlands Antilles and/or Aruba with regard to the Union, will be submitted only on the basis of a decision taken in conformity with the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

61.   Declaration by the Republic of Poland on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter does not affect in any way the right of Member States to legislate in the sphere of public morality, family law, as well as the protection of human dignity and respect for human physical and moral integrity.

62.   Declaration by the Republic of Poland concerning the Protocol on the application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in relation to Poland and the United Kingdom

Poland declares that, having regard to the tradition of social movement of ‘Solidarity’ and its significant contribution to the struggle for social and labour rights, it fully respects social and labour rights, as established by European Union law, and in particular those reaffirmed in Title IV of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

63.   Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the definition of the term ‘nationals’

In respect of the Treaties and the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and in any of the acts deriving from those Treaties or continued in force by those Treaties, the United Kingdom reiterates the Declaration it made on 31 December 1982 on the definition of the term ‘nationals’ with the exception that the reference to ‘British Dependent Territories Citizens’ shall be read as meaning ‘British overseas territories citizens’.

64.   Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the franchise for elections to the European Parliament

The United Kingdom notes that Article 9 A of the Treaty on European Union and other provisions of the Treaties are not intended to change the basis for the franchise for elections to the European Parliament.

65.   Declaration by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Article 61 H of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

The United Kingdom fully supports robust action with regard to adopting financial sanctions designed to prevent and combat terrorism and related activities. Therefore, the United Kingdom declares that it intends to exercise its right under Article 3 of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland in respect of the area of freedom, security and justice to take part in the adoption of all proposals made under Article 61 H of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.


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