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Document 52023XC0829(01)

Publication of the single document referred to in Article 94(1)(d) of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council and of the reference to the publication of the product specification for a name in the wine sector 2023/C 305/08

C/2023/5738

OJ C 305, 29.8.2023, p. 9–18 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, GA, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

29.8.2023   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 305/9


Publication of the single document referred to in Article 94(1)(d) of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council and of the reference to the publication of the product specification for a name in the wine sector

(2023/C 305/08)

This publication confers the right to oppose the application pursuant to Article 98 of Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1) within two months from the date of this publication.

SINGLE DOCUMENT

’Emilia-Romagna'

PDO-IT-02770

Date of application: 28.4.2021

1.   Name to be registered

Emilia-Romagna

2.   Geographical indication type

PDO - Protected Designation of Origin

3.   Categories of grapevine products

1.

Wine

4.

Sparkling wine

5.

Quality sparkling wine

8.

Semi-sparkling wine

4.   Description of the wine(s)

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto frizzante – ‘semi-sparkling wine’ category

 

Foam: fine, fading;

 

Colour: straw yellow of varying intensity;

 

Smell: floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn or jasmine, slightly aromatic;

 

Taste: dry to medium dry, fruity flavour of not-quite-ripe yellow fruit (apple), harmonious, occasionally a slight touch of bitterness;

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 10,5 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 14 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto spumante – ‘sparkling wine’ category

 

Foam: fine, persistent;

 

Colour: straw yellow of varying intensity;

 

Smell: floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn or jasmine, slightly aromatic;

 

Taste: full of flavour, fruity scent of not-quite-ripe yellow fruit (apple), harmonious, from brut nature to dry;

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 10,5 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 14 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto spumante – ‘quality sparkling wine’ category

 

Foam: fine, persistent;

 

Colour: straw yellow of varying intensity;

 

Smell: floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn or jasmine, slightly aromatic;

 

Taste: full of flavour, fruity scent of not-quite-ripe yellow fruit (apple), harmonious, from brut nature to dry;

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 10,5 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 14 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto – ‘wine’ category

 

Colour: straw yellow of varying intensity, sometimes with pale green highlights;

 

Smell: floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn or jasmine, elegant;

 

Taste: dry to medium dry, fruity flavour of ripe yellow fruit (pear, apple), harmonious, occasionally a slight touch of bitterness;

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 10,5 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 14 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto passito [dried-grape wine] – ‘wine’ category

 

Colour: golden yellow tending towards amber with age;

 

Smell: elegant, intense, floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn, possibly with notes of almond and yellow pepper, delicate;

 

Taste: medium to sweet, mellow, fruity flavour of ripe yellow fruit (pear, apple);

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 15 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 24 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

12

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto vendemmia tardiva [late-harvest wine] – ‘wine’ category

 

Colour: golden yellow tending towards amber with age;

 

Smell: intense, floral scent of white flowers, sometimes hawthorn, possibly with notes of almond and yellow pepper;

 

Taste: medium to sweet, fruity flavour of ripe yellow fruit (pear, apple), mellow, delicate;

 

Minimum total alcoholic strength: 14 % by volume;

 

Minimum sugar-free extract: 23 g/l.

Any analytical parameters not shown in the table below comply with the limits laid down in national and EU legislation.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

 

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

12

Minimum total acidity

4 grams per litre expressed as tartaric acid

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

 

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

 

5.   Wine making practices

a.   Essential oenological practices

Semi-sparkling winemaking

Specific oenological practice

While the second fermentation of wine is usually achieved using the tank (‘Charmat’) method, the in-the-bottle method is also practised, in which case the resulting wines must be labelled as rifermentazione in bottiglia (‘re-fermentation in the bottle’) and may have some cloudiness due to fermentation residues.

Sparkling and quality sparkling winemaking

Specific oenological practice

While the second fermentation that converts still wine into sparkling wine is usually achieved using the tank (‘Charmat’) method, the in-the-bottle (‘traditional’) method is also practised in accordance with EU rules.

Dried-grape winemaking

Specific oenological practice

The grapes to be used to make dried-grape wine must be dried – either by natural means or using systems or technology involving similar temperatures to the natural drying process – before the winemaking process can begin. The dried grapes must have a natural alcoholic strength of at least 15 % by volume, without any enrichment. The rate of wine extraction from these grapes is capped at 50 %.

Late-harvest winemaking

Specific oenological practice

The grapes to be used to make late-harvest wine must be left on the vine to become overripe or else dried – either by natural means or using systems or technology involving similar temperatures to the natural drying process – before the winemaking process can begin. When winemaking begins, the grapes must have a natural alcoholic strength of at least 14 % by volume. The rate of wine extraction from these grapes is capped at 60 %.

b.   Maximum yields

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto, Pignoletto frizzante and Pignoletto spumante

 

147 hectolitres per hectare

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’ Pignoletto passito

 

45 hectolitres per hectare

 

‘Emilia-Romagna’vendemmia tardiva

 

54 hectolitres per hectare

6.   Demarcated geographical area

The demarcated area in which ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO wines must be made consists of the entire administrative territory of the following municipalities within the provinces of Bologna, Modena and Ravenna:

Anzola dell’Emilia, Argelato, Bentivoglio, Bologna, Borgo Tossignano, Budrio, Calderara di Reno, Casalecchio di Reno, Casalfiumanese, Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Castel Maggiore, Castel San Pietro Terme, Castello D’Argile, Castenaso, Crevalcore, Dozza, Fontanelice, Granarolo dell’Emilia, Imola, Loiano, Marzabotto, Medicina, Minerbio, Monte San Pietro, Monterenzio, Monzuno, Mordano, Ozzano dell’Emilia, Pianoro, Pieve di Cento, Sala Bolognese, San Giorgio di Piano, San Giovanni in Persiceto, San Lazzaro di Savena, San Pietro in Casale, Sant’Agata Bolognese, Sasso Marconi, Valsamoggia and Zola Predosa in the Province of Bologna;

Bastiglia, Bomporto, Campogalliano, Camposanto, Carpi, Castelfranco Emilia, Castelnuovo Rangone, Castelvetro di Modena, Cavezzo, Concordia sul Secchia, Finale Emilia, Fiorano Modenese, Formigine, Guiglia, Maranello, Marano sul Panaro, Medolla, Mirandola, Modena, Nonantola, Novi di Modena, Prignano sul Secchia, Ravarino, S. Cesario sul Panaro, S. Felice sul Panaro, S. Possidonio, S. Prospero sul Secchia, Sassuolo, Savignano sul Panaro, Serramazzoni, Soliera, Spilamberto, Vignola and Zocca in the Province of Modena;

and Faenza, Brisighella, Riolo Terme and Castel Bolognese in the Province of Ravenna.

7.   Main wine grapes variety(ies)

Pignoletto B.

8.   Description of the link(s)

8.1.   ‘Emilia-Romagna’ wines in the ‘semi-sparkling wine’, ‘sparkling wine’, ‘quality sparkling wine’ and ‘wine’ categories

Natural factors relevant to the link

The ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO production area falls within the provinces of Modena, Bologna and Ravenna in the central part of the Emilia-Romagna region. The area’s characteristics vary depending on elevation, and for brevity’s sake a line can be drawn between the flatter plains and the hillsides.

The plains, lying at elevations of between 2 and 70 metres above sea level, cover an uninterrupted stretch of land between the valleys formed by the River Secchia and the Sillaro stream, spanning the broad valley floors and sometimes reaching elevations of up to 150 metres. The hillsides form an unbroken area extending from the first hills right up to the Appenine ridge, including a transition area of foothills. Vines are mainly grown at elevations of less than 700 metres.

In terms of soil characteristics, the area is dominated by a wide range of sedimentary rocks (sandstone, claystone, limestone, gypsum, sands, conglomerates). The area’s varied relief means that the soils are distributed in complex mosaic patterns. Cultivation is mainly in deep, slightly alkaline or alkaline soils with a texture ranging from fine to medium fine.

There is a certain degree of variability in terms of temperatures. The climate varies depending on elevation, ranging from warm temperate on the hillsides (most relevant in vine-growing terms) to cool temperate high in the hilltops. The climate on the plains is more continental in nature, with annual average temperatures of 14-16 °C and a Winkler index of 2 400 degree days, and is sufficiently breezy. This means that the area receives enough heat and sunlight for the grapes to achieve optimum ripeness.

Annual precipitation ranges from 600 to 800 mm and is concentrated mainly in the autumn and, to a lesser extent, spring. Water stress in the summer is mitigated by high relative air humidity, surface water availability, the depth of the soils, and the fact that the hills receive more and less concentrated rainfall.

These soil and climate factors help to make the entire ‘Emilia Romagna’ PDO area particularly suitable for viticulture.

Historical and human factors relevant to the link

Viticulture was already widespread in the ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO area back in Roman times, with rows of vines trained up living trees – a practice introduced by the Etruscans and later developed by the Gauls. Of particular note is the vine-growing activity of the veterans of military campaigns in the area known as ager bononiensis, producing a semi-sparkling ‘blonde’ wine, which although distinctive was not sweet enough to taste nice.

Over the centuries since then, vine-growing techniques and winemaking practices in the demarcated geographical area have been heavily influenced by human activity, with an essential contribution from scientific research and the development of viticultural and oenological techniques.

Vine-growers have also fine-tuned farming and cultivation techniques in this time, with help from the drainage and land improvement boards (Consorzi di Bonifica), which continue today to ensure flow regime management and water distribution in the area. The tradition of training vines up trees has been replaced by rows of cordon-trained vines with shoots hanging down, using spacing patterns aimed at limiting yields per hectare and improving wine quality.

Winemaking techniques have also evolved over time. Particularly notable are the developments aimed at preserving and improving the semi-sparkling and sparkling wine production that is traditional to the Emilia-Romagna region, with the traditional in-the-bottle process of second fermentation now complemented by the use of the ‘Charmat’ method, using modern tanks.

8.2.   ‘Emilia-Romagna’ wines from the ‘semi-sparkling wine’, ‘sparkling wine’ and ‘quality sparkling wine’ categories

Causal link between the quality or characteristics of the product and the geographical environment

The chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the semi-sparkling, sparkling and quality sparkling wines are shaped by the soil and climate conditions in the production area, coupled with the influence of the winegrowers, who, over the years, have refined the grapes’ inherent oenological properties and the winemaking technology. Of particular relevance is the geographical environment, characterised by a sufficiently breezy continental or warm temperate climate, coupled with soils of alluvial origin with a high pebble and silt content, that are well-drained and receive enough water. Another important factor is the day-to-night temperature variation in the summer, which helps the grapes to reach optimum ripeness, preserving all of their aromatic and acidic properties and thus ensuring a freshness in the resulting wines.

The semi-sparkling and sparkling wines are mostly made in the flat plains and foothills of the ‘Emilia-Romagna’ production area, where the soil and climate are more suited to growing grapes with a moderate sugar content and pronounced acidity.

The rivers and the streams descending from the Apennines help to keep the soil cool and less prone to drying out. As a result, more intensive cultivation systems can be used and higher yields per hectare obtained. This leads to the production of semi-sparkling and sparkling wines that – despite not being excessively high in alcohol – have a good level of acidity, a distinguishing characteristic of these grapes.

The flavour of these wines is moderately aromatic, fruity, and with perceptible acidity. They have just the right amount of aromaticity, often with a touch of bitterness. All of these properties are closely linked to the characteristics of the area, rich in clay and sandstone.

The local winegrowers’ expertise – from the choice of rootstock to the training system used, from canopy management to regulating the water supply – plays a pivotal role in vineyard management. They use these growing techniques in order to produce top-quality grapes with just the right balance between sugars and aromatic components. This results in semi-sparkling, sparkling and quality sparkling wines with a suitable level of acidity.

The conversion of still wine to semi-sparkling, sparkling and quality sparkling wines is the winemaking practice that is most representative of this geographical area. In Emilia-Romagna, known as the ‘homeland’ of frizzante or semi-sparkling wines, this process is a long-standing local tradition that has evolved over time. It is common to all of the provinces spanned by the demarcated area and to wines made both on the plains and on the hillsides.

In this context, the ‘Emilia-Romagna’ semi-sparkling, sparkling and quality sparkling wines are the result of innovation in sparkling winemaking techniques, which over the last 40 years have seen a shift from the ancestral method of re-fermenting wines in the bottle to the use of tank fermentation. This has helped to make the yeast selection and clarification processes more efficient, improving their olfactory profile and giving a more agreeable end product. This further enhances the organoleptic uniqueness of the wines, particularly by bringing out the freshness and floral notes that essentially come from the grapes, reflecting the fact that the local area provides the ideal surroundings for making wines from Pignoletto grapes.

In-the-bottle re-fermentation has recently been enjoying a revival, with a restyled market image that combines the best winemaking techniques with a local tradition dating back centuries.

What makes these semi-sparkling and sparkling wines both unique and typical of the ‘Emilia-Romagna’ winemaking area – factors which shape the wines’ olfactory appeal and overall elegance – is therefore the interaction between the characteristics of the grape variety used and the characteristics of the local area, combined with human labour and experience.

8.3.   ‘Emilia-Romagna’ wines from the ‘wine’ category

Causal link between the quality or characteristics of the product and the geographical environment

The still wines mainly come from hillside vineyards, where yield per hectare is lower, and the soil and climate characteristics result in grapes with a higher sugar content and less pronounced acidity. The temperature swings that characterise the valleys south of the ‘Via Emilia’ road give more intense fragrances – delicate, of white flowers, and moderately aromatic – and a perceptible minerality.

The geographical environment in the production area is characterised by a continental climate, albeit a sufficiently breezy one. Thanks to the farming techniques honed over time, the soils are well drained, providing sufficient moisture for the grapes to reach optimum ripeness. All of these factors, combined with the day-to-night temperature shift during the ripening period and the optimal sunlight exposure received by hillside vineyards, help the grapes to retain their aromatic properties and make them particularly good at accumulating sugars, which influences the wines’ characteristics.

Here too, the local winegrowers’ expertise plays a key role. They have perfected vine-growing techniques that help to mitigate the effects of the excessive heat and erratic water availability that have arisen over the past decade, with the aim of growing choice grapes that strike the right balance between sugars and aromatic components. This is crucial for obtaining top-quality grapes that enhance the wines’ organoleptic properties.

Finally, to ensure that the specific organoleptic characteristics of Pignoletto grapes are not lost in the winemaking process, grape-pressing cycles and the temperature and duration of fermentation are managed astutely. The aim is to produce wines with the described characteristics, complementing the result of the interplay between the environmental factors described above and the different human factors, as a result of the experience and cultivation techniques that wine sector operators have gradually refined.

Passito (dried-grape) and vendemmia tardiva (late-harvest) wines are obtained by drying the grapes or leaving them to become overripe on the vine. This, combined with the geographical origin, shapes the specific characteristics of these products.

In years when the weather conditions allow, Pignoletto grapes grown on the most southerly-facing slopes – i.e. the ones exposed to the most sunlight – may be left to dry on the vine or in a warehouse and then made into dried-grape or late-harvest wine. The slopes most exposed to the sun, with nearby watercourses ensuring constant humidity, particularly at night, provide the perfect conditions for grapes to develop ‘noble rot’ so that wine can be produced from these botrytis-affected grapes.

These conditions lend the wines specific properties, such as their intense and delicate fragrance (floral, of white flowers, and fruity, of ripe yellow fruit), a medium or sweet flavour that is warm, harmonious and velvety with a high total alcohol content and moderate acidity, with the dried or overripe grapes counteracting the touch of bitterness in the finish.

The grapes to be dried for these wines must be hand-picked, selecting the best bunches that are capable of withstanding the drying process. Sugar content is not the only factor taken into account – good acidity is also important for the harvest. The grapes are preserved intact in well-ventilated surroundings and their condition is monitored regularly until crushing.

When the grapes are left to grow overripe on the vine, harvesting is held off until they have naturally dried out, a process requiring particular attention on the part of the winegrower.

Winemakers also need to be highly experienced and dedicated in the stages that come after drying, i.e. crushing the grapes, slow fermentation in small casks, and the barrel- and bottle-ageing processes.

9.   Essential further conditions

Derogation on winemaking in the demarcated geographical area

Legal framework:

In EU legislation

Type of further condition:

Derogation on the production in the demarcated geographical area

Description of the condition:

In application of the derogation provided for by Article 5(1)(a) and (b) of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/33, the winemaking processes – including second fermentation to produce semi-sparkling, sparkling and quality sparkling wines – may, as well as in the demarcated production area, also be carried out in establishments located in immediate proximity to the demarcated area (throughout the administrative territory of the province of Bologna) and in neighbouring administrative units (throughout the administrative territory of the provinces of Modena, Ravenna, Forlì-Cesena and Reggio Emilia).

This ensures that the long-standing tradition of production by operators in those areas is taken into account.

Packaging within the demarcated area

Legal framework:

In EU legislation

Type of further condition:

Packaging within the demarcated geographical area

Description of the condition:

Bottling is limited to the demarcated area because of the need to safeguard the quality of ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO wines, guarantee their origin and ensure that controls are well-timed, efficient and cost-effective.

Transporting and bottling ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO wine outside the production area can compromise its quality, exposing it to redox reactions, sudden changes in temperature and microbiological contamination, which can impair its physical and chemical characteristics (minimum total acidity, minimum sugar-free extract, etc.) and its organoleptic characteristics (colour, smell and taste).

These risks increase the further the wine travels.

In contrast, bottling in the area of origin, with batches of wine travelling only short distances if they are moved at all, helps to keep the product’s characteristics and quality intact.

These aspects, linked to the experience and extensive technical and scientific knowledge of the wines’ specific qualities that ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO winemakers have built up over the years, mean that bottling can be carried out in the area of origin with the best techniques, aimed at preserving all of the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics laid down in the product specification for these wines.

Another reason for restricting bottling to the production area is to ensure that control by the competent body is as effective, efficient and cost-effective as possible – conditions that cannot be guaranteed to the same extent outside of the production area.

Within the production area, the control body can plan its inspections to ensure that it pays well-timed visits to all of the relevant businesses while ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO wine is being bottled, based on the applicable control plan.

This is with the aim of systematically checking that only batches of ‘Emilia-Romagna’ PDO wine are actually being bottled, making it possible to achieve the best results in terms of effectiveness of controls and keeping the cost to the producers reasonable, with a view to offering consumers the maximum guarantee of authenticity of the packaged wine.

Furthermore, pursuant to current national legislation and to protect pre-existing rights, bottling companies can apply for a waiver to continue bottling at their premises located outside the demarcated area by submitting the relevant application to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Sovereignty and Forests and providing documentation proving that they have bottled the wines for at least 2 of the 5 years – not necessarily consecutive – immediately preceding the recognition of ‘Emilia-Romagna’ as a PDO.

Link to the product specification

https://www.politicheagricole.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/IT/IDPagina/16835


(1)  OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 671.


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