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Document 52019XC0724(06)

Publication of a communication of approval of a standard amendment to a product specification for a name in the wine sector referred to in Article 17(2) and (3) of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/33

OJ C 248, 24.7.2019, p. 32–42 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

24.7.2019   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 248/32


Publication of a communication of approval of a standard amendment to a product specification for a name in the wine sector referred to in Article 17(2) and (3) of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/33

(2019/C 248/08)

This notice is published in accordance with Article 17(5) of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/33 (1).

COMMUNICATION OF APPROVAL OF A STANDARD AMENDMENT

‘Pineau des Charentes’

Reference number: PDO-FR-A0489-AM01

Date of communication: 10.5.2019

DESCRIPTION OF AND REASONS FOR THE APPROVED AMENDMENT

1.   Additional indication

Description and reasons

In Section II of Chapter I, the paragraph ‘which, owing to their age and the particular ageing conditions laid down in this specification, have an aromatic profile of the “oxidative” type that is intense, complex and characteristic of old cognacs’ has been replaced by the paragraph ‘that meet the production criteria set for those indications in this specification’. This simplifies the wording.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

2.   Types of product:

Description and reasons

In Section III of Chapter I, the paragraph ‘for white liqueur wines and rosé or red liqueur wines.’ has been replaced by ‘for white, rosé and red liqueur wines.’ The previous wording gave the impression that there were only two categories of products, although each colour is a separate category.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

3.   Parcel identification

Description and reasons

In Section IV of Chapter 1:

Under 2(b), the words ‘to the National Institute of Origin and Quality (“INAO”) before 1 July of the year preceding the year of the first harvest declaration.’ have been replaced by ‘not later than 10 December of the year preceding the year of the first harvest declaration, to the protection and management body, for forwarding to the National Institute of Origin and Quality (“INAO”).’

Under 2(b), the paragraphs: ‘All parcels where the musts are not claimed for the production of the controlled designation of origin “Pineau des Charentes” for five consecutive years are removed from the list of parcels identified by the competent national committee of the INAO.

If the competent national committee of the INAO issues a reasoned decision to withdraw or reject identified parcels, this is notified to the interested parties, who may submit comments to the INAO within one month of receiving the notification.

These complaints are re-examined by the competent national committee of the INAO following an opinion from the committee of experts.’ have been deleted.

This amendment has been made because the provision no longer corresponded to parcel identification defined as a tool for geographical delineation. The arrangements for withdrawing parcels after 5 years without any claims are redefined in terms of parcel assignment, to be managed by the protection and management body.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

4.   Vine varieties

Description and reasons

In Section V of Chapter I:

the words ‘or Gros Meslier B’ have been added after ‘Meslier Saint-François B’.

the words ‘Trousseau Gris G (or Chauché Gris G)’ have been added after ‘Sémillon B’.

the sentence ‘The vine variety Trousseau Gris G (or Chauché Gris G) may not represent more than 10 % of the vine varieties used for Pineau des Charentes.’ have been added.

the word ‘or’ between rosés and red wines has been replaced by the word ‘and’;

the words ‘Cot N (or’ have been added before Malbec N.

This corresponds to the addition of synonyms for the vine varieties Meslier de Saint François B and Malbec B.

The possibility has also been introduced to plant the vine variety Trousseau Gris G (or Chauché Gris G), which is an old variety that used to be planted in the vineyards. This possibility is subject to a requirement whereby the vine variety may not exceed 10 % in order to limit the risk of any changes to the typical characteristics.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

5.   Yield

Description and reasons

point (1) of Section VIII has been replaced by the following provisions:

‘The yield referred to in Article D. 645-7 of the Rural and Maritime Fishing Code is 68 hectolitres of must per hectare.’

point (2) of Section VIII has been replaced by the following provisions:

‘(2)   Cut-off yield

Under Article D. 645-7 of the Rural and Maritime Fishing Code, the cut-off yield is 45 hectolitres of liqueur wine per hectare and 85 hectolitres of must per hectare.’

a point (3) has been added to Section VII, with the following provisions:

‘(3)   First production of young vines

The controlled designation of origin “Pineau des Charentes” may not be granted to liqueur wines whose musts come from:

parcels of young vines, until the second year after the year of planting where planting was carried out before 31 July;

parcels of vines that have undergone in situ grafting or double grafting, until, at the earliest, the first year after the year where grafting or double grafting was carried out before 31 July; and any parcels as soon as they contain only varieties permitted for the designation.’

These amendments correspond to the addition of a yield of 68 hectolitres of must per hectare. The cut-off yield for liqueur wine has been increased from 42 to 45 hectolitres per hectare. The establishment of a cut-off yield for Cognac (16 hl AP/ha) has made it necessary to increase the cut-off yield for Pineau des Charentes.

The deletion of the paragraph ‘parcels of young vines, until the first year after the year of grafting where grafting was carried out before 31 July;’ follows from its inclusion in the next paragraph.

The Single Document has been amended following said amendment of point (5).

6.   Preparation

Description and reasons

In Section IX of Chapter I:

under point 2(a), the words ‘at the time of mutage’ have been deleted, because the phrase was redundant.

In point (3):

a point (b), ‘The rosé liqueur wines are aged for at least eight months, including at least six months in oak containers.’ has been added. This makes it possible to distinguish between rosé and red Pineau des Charentes, which are not prepared according to the same rules.

The numbering has consequently been changed, with (b), (c), (d), (e) becoming (c), (d), (e) and (f), respectively.

under point (e), the number 5 has been replaced by 7. This corresponds to the increase in the years of ageing for the indication ‘old’ in order to have a more qualitative product.

under point (f), the number 10 has been replaced by 12. This corresponds to the increase in the years of ageing for the indication ‘very old’ in order to have a more qualitative product.

In point (5)

under (a), the words ‘and rosés’ have been deleted.

a line has been added under (a):

Rosé liqueur wines After ageing, as from 1 June of the year following the harvest.

under (a), the number ‘5’ has been replaced by ‘7’.

under (a), the number ‘10’ has been replaced by ‘12’.

under (b), the words ‘1 October of the year following that of its preparation.’ have been replaced by:

‘and at the earliest:

Rosé liqueur wines on 1 June of the year following that of preparation.

Red liqueur wines on 1 October of the year following that of preparation.

White liqueur wines on 1 April of the second year following that of preparation.’

under (c), the words ‘a capsule’ and ‘at least two stamps are affixed’ have been deleted.

the following paragraph has been inserted under point (c):

‘For containers of 0,50 litres or more, at least two stamps are affixed and each stamp must have a minimum diameter of 20 mm. For containers of less than 0,50 litres, at least one visible and legible stamp is affixed.’

These amendments correspond to the distinction between rosé liqueur wines and red liqueur wines, to the amended ageing requirements for the indications ‘old’ and ‘very old’ and to the replacement of the capsule with a stamp.

The Single Document has been amended following this amendment.

7.   Link with the geographical area

Description and reasons

in X:

under point (2)

in the first paragraph, the word ‘maybe’ has been replaced by ‘is’.

in the first paragraph, the word ‘and’ has been replaced by ‘the designation may be’.

in the first paragraph, the words ‘or “extra old”’ have been inserted after ‘“very old”’.

in the first paragraph, the words ‘for a minimum of 5 or 10 years, respectively’ have been replaced by ‘cf. point (3) of Section IX of Chapter I’.

in the first paragraph, the sentence ‘It is mainly consumed as an aperitif.’ has been deleted.

in the second paragraph, the following sentence has been inserted: ‘“Pineau des Charentes” is mainly consumed as an aperitif.’

in the third paragraph, the word ‘light’ has been inserted before ‘golden’.

The fourth paragraph has been replaced by the following provisions:

‘Red “Pineau des Charentes”, which has a deep colour, often develops intense aromas of freshly picked red and black fruit, together with mild spicy notes.

Rosé “Pineau des Charentes” has a pale colour and often develops aromas of red berries and forest fruit.’

in the fifth paragraph, the words ‘and shell nuts (nuts, roasted almonds)’, have been inserted after ‘dried fruit’.

in the fifth paragraph, the words ‘old Cognacs’ have been replaced by ‘old spirits bearing the controlled designation of origin “Cognac”.’

The sixth paragraph has been replaced by the following provisions:

‘Red and rosé “Pineau des Charentes” wines designated as “old” or “very old” are the colour of tile. They are very elegant and often acquire notes of chocolate or fruit preserved in spirits, which may develop into oxidative aromas typical of old spirits bearing the controlled designation of origin “Cognac”.’

These are editorial changes.

The Single Document has been amended following this amendment.

8.   Transitional measure

Description and reasons

The measure concerning the threshold for uncultivated areas has been deleted as it is obsolete.

The following has been added:

‘(2)   Ageing

Liqueur wines aged in wood for at least five years may apply for the indication “old” until 1 October 2023. Liqueur wines aged in wood for at least 10 years may apply for the indication “very old” or “extra old” until 1 October 2023.’

This amendment is a transitional measure related to the amended ageing requirements for the indications ‘old’ and ‘very old’.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

Presentation rules

The following paragraphs have been inserted in point (9) of Section XII:

‘An age reference is authorised for Pineau des Charente wines that have been aged in wood for at least three years. The age indicated may not exceed the length of time the product has been aged in wood. In the case of blended wines, the age indicated is that of the batch with the shortest period of ageing in wood.

The provisions on an age reference shall apply as from 1 April 2020.’

In accordance with this amendment, the age of Pineau des Charente wines is indicated only if they have been aged for a specific period of time, as this provides the consumer with more detailed information.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

9.   Parcel assignment

Description and reasons

In Section I of Chapter II of the specification for the controlled designation of origin ‘Pineau des Charentes’:

Section I has been replaced by the following provisions:

‘I.   Requirements concerning declarations

(1)   Declaration of basin assignment

Declarations concerning basin assignment are made before 1 July each year for the following year’s harvest to the regional inter-branch organisation, the fédération des interprofessions du Bassin Charentes-Cognac, which forwards the relevant information to the protection and management body and to the inspection body.

This declaration indicates the maximum area to be harvested for the production of must.

(2)   Declaration of parcel assignment

As from the 2019 harvest, liqueur wines will be prepared using musts from identified parcels for which a parcel assignment declaration has been made.

Parcel assignment declarations are made not later than 10 December each year for the following year’s harvest, to the protection and management body.

The declaration indicates for each parcel:

the cadastral reference: municipality, section, number;

the vine variety;

the wine-growing production area;

the name of the operator.

(3)   Production declaration

A production declaration is made after the last mutage, with the following information:

the total quantities of musts used;

the total quantities of Cognac spirits used;

the total quantities of liqueur wines prepared, by colour;

the parcel references and the areas on which the grapes intended for must production have been harvested.

This declaration is drawn up in accordance with the production register.

The declaration is sent before 10 December of the harvest year to the local office of the Directorate-General for Customs and Indirect Taxation (DGDDI).

A copy of the declaration is forwarded to the protection and management body and to INAO.

(4)   Claim statement

In order to claim for their liqueur wines the controlled designation of origin “Pineau des Charentes”, possibly supplemented by the indications “old”, “very old” (or its equivalent, “extra old”), operators must send to the protection and management body a claim statement not later than 30 days before the batch is brought into circulation and/or on the market.

This declaration specifies, in particular:

the name of the operator;

the address of the operator;

the volume claimed, by colour, possibly supplemented by one of the abovementioned indications;

the storage arrangements: place, type of container, identification in the wine warehouse (number, capacity).

(5)   Declaration of declassification

Operators declassifying batches with the controlled designation of origin “Pineau des Charentes” must, pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013, declare this to the protection and management body not later than on the 10th day of the month following the declassification.’

This amendment corresponds to a new procedure for the assignment declaration.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

10.   Main points for checking

Description and reasons

Chapter III of the specification for the controlled designation of origin ‘Pineau des Charentes’ has been amended as follows:

point (1) in Section I

under D, the words ‘and the affixing of the capsule or the stamp.’ have been deleted.

point (2) in Section II

the number ‘45011’ has been replaced by ‘NF EN ISO/CEI 17065’.

This amendment does not affect the Single Document.

SINGLE DOCUMENT

1.   Name of product

Pineau des Charentes

2.   Geographical indication type

PDO — Protected Designation of Origin

3.   Categories of grapevine products

3.

Liqueur wine

4.   Description of the wine(s)

The wines are white, red and rosé liqueur wines made by adding to the grapes aged spirit from the same holding bearing the designation of origin ‘Cognac’ (spirit from a previous round of distillation). The wine may be supplemented by the designations ‘old’ or ‘very old’, depending on the length of ageing in oak casks (for a minimum of 7 or 12 years, respectively). It is mainly consumed as an aperitif.

In the mouth, ‘Pineau des Charentes’ expresses the freshness and roundness of fresh grape must. The ‘Cognac’, which contributes to the body and general balance of the product, has depth, thanks to its lengthy ageing in wood.

White ‘Pineau des Charentes’ ranges in colour from straw yellow to golden and frequently develops intense aromas, which are fruity (fresh fruit or candied fruit) and floral (white flowers), with notes of honey.

Red and rosé ‘Pineau des Charentes’ have a colour that varies from pale pink to deep red. Red ‘Pineau des Charentes’ often develops intense aromas of freshly picked black fruit, together with mild spicy notes. As for rosé ‘Pineau des Charentes’, it often acquires aromas of forest berries and even of stone fruit when aged for a longer time.

General analytical characteristics

Maximum total alcoholic strength (in % volume)

22

Minimum actual alcoholic strength (in % volume)

16

Minimum total acidity

 

Maximum volatile acidity (in milliequivalents per litre)

10

Maximum total sulphur dioxide (in milligrams per litre)

75

5.   Wine-making practices

a.   Essential oenological practices

Cultivation method

The minimum planting density of the vines is 2 200 plants per hectare, and the spacing between the rows is 3 metres or less.

Vines are pruned with a maximum of 50 000 buds per hectare using the following techniques:

single or double Guyot, with the plant having one or two canes and one or two shoots;

cordon pruning, with shoots having a maximum of three buds.

Irrigation is prohibited.

b.   Maximum yields

Liqueur wine

45 hectolitres per hectare

Must

85 hectolitres per hectare

6.   Demarcated geographical area

The grapes are harvested, the must produced and the wines made, developed and packed in the territory of the following municipalities:

Department of Charente-Maritime:

Arrondissement of Rochefort: all municipalities

Arrondissement of Saintes: all municipalities

Arrondissement of Saint-Jean-d’Angély: all municipalities

Arrondissement of Jonzac: all municipalities

Arrondissement of La Rochelle:

Canton of Ars-en-Ré: all municipalities.

Canton of Aytré: the municipalities of Angoulins and Aytré.

Canton of La Jarrie: all municipalities.

Cantons of La Rochelle 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7: the municipality of La Rochelle.

Canton of La Rochelle 5: the municipalities of Esnandes, Marsilly, Puilboreau, La Rochelle, Saint-Xandre.

Canton of La Rochelle 8: the municipalities of Dompierre-sur-Mer, Périgny, La Rochelle.

Canton of La Rochelle 9: the municipalities of L’Houmeau, Lagord, Nieul-sur-Mer, La Rochelle.

Canton of Saint-Martin-de-Ré: all municipalities.

Canton of Courçon: the municipalities of Angliers, Benon, Courçon, Cramchaban, Ferrières-d’Aunis, La Grève-sur-le-Mignon, Le Gué-d’Alleré, La Laigne, Nuaillé-d’Aunis, Saint-Cyr-du-Doret, Saint-Jean-de-Liversay, Saint-Sauveur-d’Aunis.

Canton of Marans: the municipalities of Longèves, Saint-Ouen, Villedoux.

Department of Charente:

Arrondissement of Cognac: all municipalities

Arrondissement of Angoulême

Canton of Angoulême Est: all municipalities.

Canton of Angoulême Nord: all municipalities.

Canton of Angoulême Ouest: all municipalities.

Canton of Blanzac: all municipalities.

Canton of Hiersac: all municipalities.

Canton of Saint-Amant-de-Boixe: all municipalities.

Canton of Villebois-la-Valette: all municipalities.

Canton of La Rochefoucauld: The municipalities of Agris, Brie, Bunzac, Chazelles, Coulgens, Jauldes, Pranzac, Rancogne, Rivières, La Rochette, Saint-Projet-Saint-Constant.

Canton of Montbron: the municipalities of Charras, Feuillade, Grassac, Mainzac, Marthon, Saint-Germain-de-Montbron, Souffrignac.

Arrondissement of Confolens

Canton of Aigre all municipalities.

Canton of Ruffec: the municipalities of Villegats and Verteuil-sur-Charente.

Canton of Mansle: the municipalities of Aunac, Bayers, Cellettes, Chenon, Fontclaireau, Fontenille, Juillé, Lichères, Lonnes, Mansle, Mouton, Moutonneau, Puyréaux, Saint-Amand-de-Bonnieure, Saint-Angeau, Saint Ciers-sur-Bonnieure, Saint-Front, Saint-Groux, Sainte-Colombe, Valence, Villognon.

Canton of Villefagnan: the municipalities of Brettes, Courcôme, Longré, Raix, Salles de Villefagnan, Souvigné, Tuzie, Villefagnan.

Department of Dordogne:

Arrondissement of Périgueux:

Canton of Saint-Aulaye: the municipalities of Chenaud, Parcoul, Puymangou, La Roche-Chalais, Saint-Aulaye.

Department of Deux-Sèvres:

Arrondissement of Niort:

Canton of Mauzé sur le Mignon: the municipalities of Le Bourdet, Prin-Deyrançon, Priaires, Mauzé-sur-le-Mignon, La Rochénard, Usseau.

Canton of Beauvoir-sur-Niort: the municipalities of Beauvoir-sur-Niort, Belleville, La Foye-Montjault, Granzay-Gript, Prissé-La Charrière, SaintEtienne-la-Cigogne, Boisserolles, Thorigny sur le Mignon.

Canton of Brioux-sur-Boutonne: the municipality of Le Vert.

7.   Main wine grapes

 

Cot N — Malbec N

 

Cabernet Franc N

 

Cabernet Sauvignon N

 

Colombard B

 

Folle Blanche B

 

Jurançon Blanc B

 

Ugni Blanc B

 

Merlot Blanc B

 

Meslier Saint-François B

 

Montils B

 

Sauvignon B

 

Semillon B

 

Merlot N

8.   Description of the link(s)

The geographical area is identical to the one for the controlled designation of origin ‘Cognac’ and corresponds to the northern end of the Aquitaine basin. More specifically, it is bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, from the area along the Gironde estuary in the south to the Ile de Ré and Ile d’Oléron in the north, and to the east, towards Angoulême, by the first foothills of the Massif Central. It extends over four departments.

The geographical area is composed of large sedimentary assemblies, dating principally from the upper Jurassic (calcareous banks resulting from marine sedimentation), to the north of a Rochefort-Cognac line, and from the Cretaceous (alteration of Jurassic limestones forming clay from decalcification and deposits of clays, sands and chalks) to the south.

It has a temperate oceanic climate. The average annual temperature is about 13 °C and there is much sunshine, close to 2 100 hours a year. The climate is homogenous in the geographical area, except for the coastal areas, which have more sunshine and a smaller temperature range.

The winter is mild and humid, with a small number of days with frost. The risk of spring frost is small but it may occur up to the end of May. Summers are hot, but not excessively so, even though a period of drought is possible.

The average annual rainfall of 800 mm to 1 000 mm is distributed over 130 to 150 days throughout the year.

The most commonly encountered soils are clay-limestone soils on limestone, though this category of soils is very varied. The texture of the soils found in coastal areas, in particular on the Ile de Ré and Ile d’Oléron, tends to be sandy. Land in areas susceptible to flooding cannot be used for the controlled designation of origin.

Description of the human factors behind the geographical link

Vines have been grown in the area since Roman times. The first vineyard was planted in Saintonge in the third century, and from there it spread southwards and inland, in Aunis and Augoumois (13th century).

According to a legend about ‘Pineau des Charentes’, in 1589, when Henry IV became king, a clumsy winemaker accidentally poured fresh grape must into a barrel containing ‘Cognac’ spirit. Upset by his clumsiness, he put the barrel in the darkest corner of his wine cellar. A few years later he wanted to re-use the container and discovered that it contained a clear, golden, fruity, strong liquid that was quite unique.

Therefore it can be said that liqueur wines owe their existence to ‘Cognac’ spirit and share its history.

For a long time, liqueur wines were consumed on the holding. The identity of ‘Pineau des Charentes’ rests on this tradition, since even today the grapes used to make the wine (whether they are used to produce the musts or ‘Cognac’ spirit) must come from a single holding.

Over time, the winegrowers honed their practices to achieve unique know-how covering: the preparation of ‘Cognac’ spirit, the selection of the ripest grapes, the mutage resulting in an organoleptically stable and balanced product, and the art of blending complementary batches and vintages of ‘Pineau des Charentes’ wines.

In the 1920s, the sector organised itself by establishing the Syndicat des Producteurs de Pineau des Charentes, which, in 1943, became the Syndicat des producteurs, de promotion et de propagande du Pineau des Charentes.

On 5 July 1935 a law was enacted in order to apply Article 12 of the Act of 6 May 1919 on protecting designations of origin to liqueur wines designated as ‘Pineau des Charentes’.

The controlled designation of origin ‘Pineau des Charentes’ was recognised by the decree of 12 October 1945. Thus ‘Pineau des Charentes’ is one of the very first liqueur wines to benefit from this recognition in France.

On average, the production of ‘Pineau des Charentes’ requires the use of the equivalent of two parcels for producing ‘Cognac’ spirit and of one parcel for producing grape musts. Therefore, in accordance with the know-how stemming from historical practices, each producer selects those parcels of his or her holding that are the best suited to produce musts that are richest in sugar, while reserving the rest of the parcel area for the production of acidic wines that have a low alcohol content and are suitable for producing the spirit ‘Cognac’.

‘Pineau des Charentes’ is aged in wood with great skill, reflecting the practices and know-how used to produce ‘Cognac’ spirit, and this allows the wine to improve and acquire its aromatic and taste specificities.

The requirement to package the product in the geographical area has to do with the production practices and the tradition of consuming ‘Pineau des Charentes’ at home. It aims at preserving the characteristics and specificity of the product, which is prepared according to a special method, with long ageing, while leaving room for efficient inspection of the product.

9.   Essential further conditions (packaging, labelling, other requirements)

Packaging

Legal framework:

National legislation

Type of further condition:

Packaging in the demarcated area

Description of the condition:

The white liqueur wines are aged for at least 18 months, including at least 12 months in oak containers. The rosé and red liqueur wines are aged for at least 8 and 12 months, respectively, including at least 6 and 8 months in oak containers.

Wines designated as ‘old’ are aged for at least 7 years in oak containers and wines designated as ‘very old’ (or its equivalent, ‘extra old’) are aged for at least 12 years in oak containers.

The requirement to package the product in the geographical area results from the production practices and the tradition of initially consuming ‘Pineau des Charentes’ at home, and it aims at preserving the characteristics and specificity of the wine.

This product must be prepared using specific know-how as regards both the blending of the wine and its ageing in wood in an oxidising environment. For this reason, the product must not be transported at all, and any handling after ageing must be limited, so as not to compromise the qualities obtained through a technically perfected method of production. In addition, limiting packaging to the geographical area improves traceability and facilitates inspection of the product.

The wines are placed on the market for the consumer in glass bottles equipped with a capsule or a stamp.

Labelling

Legal framework:

National legislation

Type of further condition:

Additional provisions relating to labelling

Description of the condition:

A vintage may be indicated for liqueur wine, if 100 % is from the same year of production of the ‘Pineau des Charentes’.

The name of the designation may be supplemented by the indications ‘old’ or ‘very old’ (or its equivalent, ‘extra old’) in the case of liqueur wines that meet the production conditions laid down for these indications in this specification.

An age reference is authorised for Pineau des Charente wines that have been aged in wood for at least three years. The age indicated may not exceed the length of time the product has been aged in wood. In the case of blended wines, the age indicated is that of the batch with the shortest period of ageing in wood.

Link to the product specification

https://info.agriculture.gouv.fr/gedei/site/bo-agri/document_administratif-0c371c80-33c1-440e-a943-9c8e2d3302d6


(1)  OJ L 9, 11.1.2019, p. 2.


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