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Document 52018DC0293

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS EUROPE ON THE MOVE Sustainable Mobility for Europe: safe, connected, and clean

COM/2018/293 final

Brussels, 17.5.2018

COM(2018) 293 final

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

EUROPE ON THE MOVE

Sustainable Mobility for Europe: safe, connected, and clean


1.    INTRODUCTION

In his State of the European Union address of September 2017, President Juncker set out a goal for the EU and its industries to become a world leader in innovation, digitisation and decarbonisation. The Commission has adopted a comprehensive approach to ensure that the EU's mobility policies reflect these political priorities. Following the Low-Emission Mobility Strategy 1 , the Commission adopted two 'Mobility Packages' respectively in May and November 2017. 2 These set out a positive agenda and included legislative proposals and initiatives delivering on the low-emission mobility strategy and ensuring a smooth transition towards clean, competitive and connected mobility for all. The European Parliament and Council should ensure the rapid adoption of these proposals.

This third and last "Europe on the Move" package delivers on the new industrial policy strategy of September 2017, and is designed to complete the process of enabling Europe to reap the full benefits of the modernisation of mobility. 3 To do so, it is essential that tomorrow's mobility system is safe, clean and efficient for all EU citizens. We must take advantage of the possibilities of new technology to pursue several goals at the same time – to make European mobility safer and more accessible, European industry more competitive, European jobs more secure, and to be cleaner and better adapted to the imperative of tackling climate change. This will require the full commitment of the EU, Member States and stakeholders.

Technological change is touching all parts of society and the economy and transforming the lives of EU citizens. Transport is no exception to this trend. New technologies are radically changing the mobility landscape. They are disrupting conventional transport business models and industries, bringing new opportunities in the form of new mobility services and new players, but also challenges. The labour market and the required skills are quickly evolving, and the EU must remain competitive in the face of intense global competition. With the automotive and transport value chain accounting for 12 million jobs and an efficient transport system key to EU competitiveness, adapting to change is of critical importance for EU mobility policy.

The very concept of transport is being transformed and the traditional frontiers between vehicle, infrastructure and user are becoming increasingly blurred. No longer is the means of transport the focus; today, thanks largely to increased connectivity and automation, the user is more and more at the centre of a far more flexible and integrated mobility system.

The arrival on the market of increasingly automated and connected vehicles is the next frontier in transport and will revolutionise how citizens enjoy mobility in the future. This revolution has already begun and Europe must be prepared. Digital technologies are forcing change, but they can also help us to address many of the challenges facing today’s mobility system. Provided a robust regulatory framework is in place, automated vehicles and advanced connectivity systems will make vehicles safer, easier to share and more accessible for all citizens, including those who may be cut-off from mobility services today, such as the elderly and disabled. They can help reduce traffic congestion, thus increasing energy efficiency and improving air quality in addition to contributing to the fight against climate change. EU policies must be designed to harness these co-benefits and be properly coordinated.

Europe must be a leader in this transformation of the mobility system and the EU must take action where it can make a real difference. The EU is best placed to ensure that these developments address the needs of the circular economy; that full account is taken of societal benefits such as safety and quality of life; to boost innovation, jobs, and competitiveness; and to maximise the benefits for citizens' mobility on a European scale.

2.    SAFE MOBILITY: Putting safety first

Safety is fundamental to any transport system; it must always be the top priority. As mobility continues to grow and is radically transformed by digitisation, decarbonisation and innovation, the opportunities to further improve safety performance must be seized.

The safety record on the EU's roads is very good and compares favourably to other parts of the world. However, with a high number of fatalities and serious injuries still occurring on a daily basis, the EU and its Member States cannot afford to be complacent and must continue to strive for fewer casualties. In the Valletta Declaration on road safety of March 2017, the national governments of the EU Member States committed to further reductions in road fatalities and serious injuries and requested the Commission to coordinate action at EU level. They called upon the Commission to "prepare a new road safety policy framework for the decade after 2020, including an assessment of road safety performance taking into account the targets and objectives set out in this declaration". They undertook to set a target of halving the number of serious injuries in the EU by 2030 from the 2020 baseline.  4

Road safety in the EU has greatly improved in recent decades, thanks to action at EU, national, regional and local levels. Between 2001 and 2010, the number of road fatalities in the EU decreased by 43 per cent, and between 2010 and 2017 by another 20 per cent. Nonetheless, 25,300 people still lost their lives on EU roads in 2017, equivalent to some 70 lives lost per day, and about 135,000 people were seriously injured, including a large percentage of pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. These figures represent an unacceptable humanitarian and social cost. In monetary terms, the annual cost of road fatalities and serious injuries has been estimated to be more than EUR 120 billion, equivalent to approximately 1 per cent of GDP.

In spite of some Member States still making considerable progress in reducing road fatality rates, progress in the EU as a whole has stagnated in recent years. Although there was a decrease in fatalities by around 2 per cent in 2016 and 2017, some Member States have even reported increases. Reaching the EU objective of halving the number of road fatalities between 2010 and 2020 will be a major challenge. 5  

Significant contributing factors to road accidents are speed, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and the failure to wear seatbelts or helmets. In addition to these and alongside a growing phenomenon of distraction by mobile devices, new trends are emerging in a complex environment, calling for a flexible and dynamic approach. Special attention should be given to vulnerable road users, especially cyclists and pedestrians, because of the notable increase of their share in the number of deaths and serious injuries. The expected growth in these forms of sustainable mobility such as cycling underlines the urgency of specific measures to improve protection for these road users.

Technological advances, first and foremost in connectivity and automation, create new opportunities to eliminate or compensate for human error and a shift to driverless vehicles should bring more safety for citizens in the long run. However, new risks are emerging in the transition phase, some related to the functioning of highly automated vehicles in mixed traffic and the complex interaction between the driver and the vehicle (Human-Machine Interface), as well as cybersecurity issues. Other challenges will result from demographic change and different approaches to personal mobility.

Synergies between safety and sustainability measures should also be exploited better. For example, encouraging the use of zero-emission modes of transport must go hand-in-hand with making the environment for pedestrians and cyclists safer. New and safer forms of mobility may also go hand-in-hand with improved access to mobility for all members of society, in particular for the disabled and the growing share of elderly people.

This demonstrates that a reinforced approach to the implementation of EU road and vehicle safety policy is needed, with a strong focus on impact and results, being flexible enough for constant adaptation to changing circumstances and being inclusive.

The EU's long-term goal will remain moving as close as possible to zero fatalities in road transport by 2050 ("Vision Zero"). The same should be achieved for serious injuries. The EU will also pursue new interim targets to reduce the number of road deaths by 50 per cent between 2020 and 2030 as well as to reduce the number of serious injuries by 50 per cent in the same period (using the new common definition of serious injury agreed with all Member States). 6

To help achieve these goals, the Commission is proposing a common framework for road safety over the 2021-2030 period, accompanied by an Action Plan (Annex 1), to be elaborated in more detail in cooperation with Member States by mid-2019. This common road safety framework should be implemented by applying a "Safe System" approach, recommended globally by the World Health Organisation and adopted increasingly in EU Member States, regions and municipalities. Its overriding objective is to address the causes of accidents in an integrated way, building layers of protection that ensure that, if one element fails, another will compensate.

According to the "Safe System" approach, death and serious injury in road collisions are not an inevitable price to be paid for mobility. While collisions will continue to occur, death and serious injury are largely preventable. The "Safe System" accepts that people make mistakes and aims to ensure that such mistakes do not give rise to fatalities or serious injuries.

For example, better vehicle construction, improved road infrastructure, and lower speeds can all contribute to reducing the impact of accidents. The responsibility for the "Safe System" is shared in a coordinated manner across public and private sectors and its application is closely monitored to assess results and, if necessary, adapt measures taking into account experience, new data and new technologies.

Concrete results can be achieved through better coordination between Member States and the adoption of a ‘management by objectives’ approach. Effective action to address the known causes of accidents should combine different instruments and measures. Legislation may thus be supported by applying explicit road safety-related eligibility criteria to EU and national funding, as well as through improved transfer of 'lessons learnt' and best practices, and campaigns to raise awareness. This will ensure that actions that have high impact for safety are supported more directly by EU funding. The Commission is also calling for voluntary commitments from all stakeholders to match the ambitious "Vision Zero" goal (see Action Plan in annex 1).

The Commission will support this approach by putting forward key performance indicators in close cooperation with Member States that are directly linked to reducing fatalities and serious injuries. They will be defined in consultation with experts from Member State authorities as well as with a broad range of stakeholders, and should involve a common measurement methodology and agreed baseline and (to the extent possible) be linked to outcome targets. The Commission will consider ways to support Member States in the joint work on the methodology and measurements.

Legislation, including at EU level, will continue to play a key role within an integrated "safe system" approach. Since March 2018, the 'eCall' legislation came into force. 7 'eCall' automatically informs emergency services in the event of a serious accident and communicates the vehicle location. It is mandatory for passenger cars and light duty vehicles and a first series of vehicles equipped with the 'eCall' system are expected to be on EU roads by mid-2018. It can speed up emergency response times by up to 40 per cent in urban areas and 50 per cent in the countryside. Its extension to other vehicle categories is under consideration by the Commission.

As part of this 'Third Mobility Package', the Commission is adopting two proposals to further the goal of road safety. One aims to transform EU vehicle safety standards to include, for example, the latest safety features, and the other to improve safety management of road infrastructure.

The EU's automotive industry has been at the forefront of developing technologies enabling the introduction of increasingly affordable vehicle safety systems. Although these will all help to prevent accidents, more action is needed. Improved active and passive vehicle safety features to protect vehicle occupants, as well as pedestrians, cyclists and other vulnerable road users, are indispensable. That is why the Commission is proposing a comprehensive package of new mandatory vehicle safety measures that bundles the new accident avoidance systems with updated active and passive safety measures to improve the overall road casualty situation on EU roads. The new vehicle safety features are cost effective, feasible and show high potential for significantly reducing the number of fatalities and serious injuries for road users, both inside and outside the vehicle. They also pave the way for a broader roll-out of automated vehicles.

Refined test protocols will require manufacturers to equip cars with more advanced restraint systems to better protect an ageing population. The ever-increasing number of pedestrians and cyclists that have to share the road with vehicles will also be better protected, with new collision detection capabilities and improved direct vision by truck drivers. Societal issues such as speeding or using smartphones behind the steering wheel will also be addressed through the new proposed measures. All in all, these new vehicle safety measures are a crucial contribution to improved road safety.

The Commission's second legislative proposal aims to improve road infrastructure safety management, to reduce both the number of accidents and their severity. It improves the transparency and follow-up of road safety procedures (impact assessments, audits, inspections) and introduces a new procedure to map the risks of accidents across the entire network. This will make it possible to compare safety levels of roads across Europe and inform investment decisions, including for EU funding. In addition, the scope of legislation should be extended beyond the Trans-European Transport network to primary roads relevant to cross-EU transport, where a large percentage of severe accidents occur. This serves the interests of all EU citizens and businesses as they use the integrated road network and confirms the practice of a large number of Member States that have already extended the application of the EU legislation to include major roads outside the Trans-European Transport Network.

For the foreseeable future, advanced vehicle technology will have to rely on the current physical infrastructure. Therefore, the proposal will allow the future setting of infrastructure performance requirements (e.g. clear road markings and road signs) necessary for the introduction of new technological features such as lane departure avoidance systems. This will be a first example of the important contribution that infrastructure can make to the safe roll-out of connected and automated mobility systems.

The Commission will continue to play a leadership role at a global level on road safety matters, working closely with international organisations, in particular the United Nations, sharing technical know-how and good practice and exploring possible ways to participate in international funding initiatives. A special dedicated cooperation will continue in particular with the EU's neighbours, specifically the countries of the Western Balkans and Turkey, the Eastern Partnership, as well as the Mediterranean region.

Through the Action Plan and with the close cooperation of Member States and stakeholders, the Commission aims to ensure that as the mobility system is transformed over the coming years, safety continues to be put first. By implementing a "Safe System" approach', the measures put forward in this road safety framework should have a genuine impact and bring further significant and necessary improvements to the safety performance on the EU's roads and, most importantly, save lives.

3.    CONNECTED AND AUTOMATED MOBILITY: Building the road to the next frontier

3.1    A strategy for the roll-out of connected and automated vehicles in Europe

Driverless vehicles and advanced connectivity systems should make vehicles safer and easier to share, and open up access to mobility services for more users. These technologies can also help to address many of the major challenges facing today’s road transport system, such as road safety, traffic congestion, energy efficiency and air quality. They will significantly change mobility patterns and transform public transport and urban planning. Vehicles increasingly allowing the driver, at least in some driving conditions, to perform other tasks than driving should be available as commercial market products by 2020. These developments could change the entire automotive ecosystem. 8 Driverless mobility will also have far-reaching impacts on the EU economy as a whole, affecting its competitiveness and technological leadership, its growth potential (productivity and spill-over effects for other sectors including telecommunications or electronic commerce) and labour markets (redundancies but also new jobs and demand for new skills).

For Europe to remain in the global avant-garde of vehicle automation and connectivity and keep jobs in the EU, it is essential that key technologies are developed in Europe, that automated and autonomous driving is safe, and that the legal framework is modern and offers the right environment for technological progress.

European industry is well-positioned to compete globally. The EU car industry is one of the most competitive in the world, thanks to its technological innovations. The EU is a global leader in automation. Galileo satellite navigation services are also a clear asset offering better precision for positioning. Of course, as with every disruptive technology, the rollout of driverless vehicles will create risks as well as opportunities. Nevertheless, first estimates point to an overall encouraging economic effects, provided the EU seizes the opportunities and attracts related jobs on its territory. 9

According to research, over ninety per cent of accidents are caused by human error. 10 By removing the need for a driver, autonomous vehicles should significantly improve road safety. For example, driverless vehicles will better respect traffic rules and will react quicker than humans. Connected and automated vehicles can also help to reduce congestion, since they will make it easier to share vehicles and will foster new and improved business models (i.e. mobility as a service), making car ownership in cities less attractive.

The EU has already begun to prepare the ground, for example with the adoption of strategies on cooperative intelligent transport systems 11 , as well as on future 5G communications technology. 12 Unlike other parts of the world, much of the necessary legal framework is already in place in the EU. For example, the European vehicle type-approval framework was overhauled in 2018 introducing market surveillance rules, which ensure that a genuine EU internal market is in place for vehicles, including for driverless vehicles. This EU framework serves as a benchmark for international harmonisation with international partners in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The EU is also well-advanced on data protection rules that will frame the future of the digital single market.

However, more needs to be done. The EU needs a clear, forward-looking and determined agenda to maintain leadership in this highly competitive sector. Technology is moving fast and there is a strong need for a coordinated approach and priority setting for funding research, demonstration and deployment activities at European and national levels in order to make the most of the ongoing and future programmes, to maximise the concerted effort of public and private investment, and to fully exploit synergies between connectivity and automation. First steps have already been taking place on driverless vehicles at national level in the Member States (e.g. the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Sweden, Netherlands), especially when it comes to demonstrations and large-scale testing. Large-scale tests play an important role for developing and deploying the relevant technologies and fostering cooperation between the relevant actors, and the Commission supports cross-border coordination and large-scale cross-border trials of driverless vehicles with dedicated calls 13 .

Further enabling measures to guide the sector and the Member States are necessary to develop driverless vehicles and their interaction with future connectivity networks and other vehicles. They will include accelerating the deployment of services for cooperative intelligent transport systems. The Amsterdam Declaration called for clear EU guidance to avoid market fragmentation and make the right investment. 14 Some Member States have already adopted their own strategies and are starting to adopt national legislation. At EU level, an internal market approach is necessary to ensure minimum levels of harmonisation and interoperability, as well as legal certainty.

In response to these multifaceted challenges and to reap the full benefit of the new opportunities offered by these technological developments, the Commission is proposing an EU approach built on three interrelated strategic objectives:

-developing key technologies and infrastructure to strengthen EU's competitiveness;

-ensuring safe and secure deployment of connected and automated driving;

-addressing the socio-economic impacts of driverless mobility.

EU action can help by setting out a common vision for the future development of the sector and ensuring that the EU legal and policy framework on key issues (e.g. road safety and cybersecurity) is ready for the market deployment of new products and services. It can also offer supporting actions for development and cross-border deployment of key technologies, services and infrastructure, including the establishment of a partnership under the next EU Multiannual Financial Framework, empowering and benefiting both European citizens and European industry. And most importantly, the EU can also help address and forge common European solutions to the related societal issues, which are likely to be decisive for social acceptance of those new technologies; in particular the protection of personal data, underlying ethical choices linked with development of autonomous systems, clear allocation of liability in case of accidents, and the impacts on jobs and skills. 15  

Specific and complementary actions to allow reaching those three overarching objectives are set out in the accompanying Communication on an EU strategy for connected and automated mobility. 16

3.2.    Establishing a digital environment for information exchange in transport

In addition to initiatives contributing to the EU strategy for connected and automated mobility, this Third Mobility Package also includes two proposals aimed at establishing a fully digital and harmonised environment for information exchanges between transport operators and authorities. The proposed Regulations on a European Maritime Single Window Environment and on Electronic Freight Transport Information complement each other and will allow electronic and simplified exchanges between businesses and authorities along the transport routes from the point of entry in the ports of the EU to the goods' final destination. 17 These two proposals will cut red tape and facilitate digital information flows for logistic operations, better connecting the different transport modes, thus contributing to multimodal solutions.

4.    CLEAN MOBILITY: Meeting the climate challenge whilst keeping EU industry competitive

4.1    Creating a competitive batteries 'ecosystem' in Europe – A strategic action plan

Batteries production and development is a strategic imperative for Europe in the context of the clean energy transition and a key component of the competitiveness of its automotive sector. As such, it is also an integral part of the Commission's goal set out in the New Industrial Policy Strategy to make the EU the world leader in innovation, digitisation and decarbonisation. 18  

The immediate challenge to create a competitive and sustainable battery manufacturing industry in Europe is immense, and Europe has to move fast in the global race, to prevent major technology dependence on our competitors, but also to exploit the huge jobs, growth and investment potential of batteries. According to some forecasts, from 2025 onwards Europe could capture a batteries market of up to EUR 250 billion a year, served by at least 10 to 20 Gigafactories (battery cells mass production facilities), to cover EU demand alone. 19  

Given the scale and speed of investment needed, this industrial challenge cannot be dealt with in a fragmented manner.

In October 2017, the Commission launched a 'European Battery Alliance' 20 with key industrial stakeholders, active Member States and the European Investment Bank. This cooperative platform aims to facilitate the emergence of well-integrated and industry-led battery cell manufacturing projects bringing together EU strengths and supporting cooperation among the various players along the value chain, unlocking synergies and gaining in competitiveness and economies of scale. Since the launch of the 'European Battery Alliance', there have already been tangible developments with the announcements of industrial consortia or partnerships aiming at development of battery cell manufacturing and related ecosystems.

It is necessary to build on this momentum.

As part of the 'Europe on the Move' package, and following the consultation of and close cooperation with industry stakeholders (more than 120 actors) 21 under the 'European Battery Alliance', the Commission is putting forward a comprehensive Strategic Action Plan for batteries (Annex 2), setting out a set of concrete measures that will contribute to creating this innovative, sustainable and competitive battery "ecosystem" in Europe. 

Through this action plan, the Commission is not only promoting a cross-border and integrated European approach but also putting a major focus on sustainable batteries manufacturing throughout the value chain, starting with the extraction and processing of (primary and secondary) raw materials, the design and manufacturing phase of battery cells and battery packs, and their use, second use, recycling and disposal in a circular economy context. Such an approach will promote the production and use of high performing batteries and set sustainability benchmarks throughout the EU value chain.

The action plan combines targeted measures at EU level including in raw materials, research and innovation, financing/investment, standardisation / regulatory, trade and skills development, in order to make Europe the global leader in sustainable battery production and use, in the context of the circular economy.

More specifically its aims to:

·secure access to raw materials from resource-rich countries outside the EU, facilitate access to European sources of raw materials, as well as accessing secondary raw materials through recycling in a circular economy of batteries;

·support European battery cells manufacturing at scale and a full competitive value chain in Europe: bringing key industry players and national authorities together; working in partnership with Member States and the European Investment Bank to support innovative and integrated manufacturing projects at scale, with an important cross-border and sustainability dimension;

·strengthen industrial leadership through stepped-up EU research and innovation support to advanced (e.g. Lithium-ion) and disruptive (e.g. solid state) technologies;

·develop and strengthen a highly skilled workforce in all parts of the battery value chain in order to close the skills gap through actions at EU and Member State level providing adequate training, re-skilling and upskilling, and making Europe an attractive location for world class experts in batteries development and production;

·support the sustainability of EU battery cell manufacturing industry with the lowest environmental footprint possible. This objective should be notably implemented through setting out requirements for safe and sustainable batteries production in Europe;

·ensure consistency with the EU broader regulatory and enabling framework (Clean Energy Strategy and Mobility Packages, trade policy, etc.).

The identified actions have the potential to generate a short-to-medium term impact in particular on EU cells manufacturing as well as help to bring about longer term structural change that will contribute to the creation of a battery ecosystem in the EU covering the entire battery value chain and preparing the ground for the next generation of batteries technologies.

This collaboration will need to be further reinforced for the successful implementation of the different actions and the Commission counts on the commitment and engagement of all stakeholders in meeting the European battery challenge. To this end, the Commission will continue to liaise closely with Member States and industry in the framework of the European Battery Alliance to keep up the momentum and ensure that the commitment and actions taken are rapidly translated into tangible results.

With this action plan, the Commission wants to put Europe on a firm path towards leadership in a key industry for the future, supporting jobs and growth in a circular economy, whilst ensuring clean mobility and an improved environment and quality of life for EU citizens.

4.2    Completing the EU legislative framework on CO2 road transport emissions

In the European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility , the Commission made a political commitment to propose the first-ever EU legislation on the CO2 emissions from heavy duty vehicles. Under this third mobility package, the Commission is delivering on this commitment. 22 The proposal for CO2 emissions standards for lorries, buses and coaches is an important addition to the legislative framework to address greenhouse gas emissions from road transport. It follows on from the proposal for post-2020 CO2 emissions standards for cars and vans adopted in November 2017 as part of the Second Mobility Package.

This legislative proposal is necessary to help meet the EU commitments under the Paris Agreement and implement the 2030 climate and energy framework. In fact, CO2 emissions from the heavy-duty vehicle sector represent around one quarter of road transport emissions and these are set to increase further by 2030. Cost-effective achievement of EU's greenhouse gas emission reduction targets will not be possible without a contribution from the heavy-duty vehicle sector.

Transport operators, most of which are small and medium-sized enterprises, can miss out on fuel savings. Although it would be in their long-term interest to reduce their exposure to fuel costs through purchasing the most efficient vehicles, market and regulatory barriers mean that cost-effective and innovative technologies are not widely spread in the market. The Commission now proposes to lift some of these barriers, together with other instruments such as the Eurovignette Directive, the Clean Vehicles Directive, and the Action Plan on Alternative Fuel Infrastructure, recently proposed by the Commission under the previous two Mobility Packages.

EU manufacturers and component suppliers are at risk of losing their current leadership position on innovative technologies. Significant markets such as the United States, Canada, Japan, China and India have in recent years implemented fuel consumption and/or emission standards in order to stimulate innovation and rapidly improve vehicle efficiency. The Commission's proposal provides a concrete push for EU-led innovation and investments in low carbon technologies in this sector.

The Commission considers it most appropriate to regulate CO2 emissions from heavy duty vehicles following a step-by-step approach with an early review clause. The legislation should aim at reaping the first available benefits, ensuring that the most cost-effective and already available technologies rapidly penetrate the market of new largest new lorries. The four main groups of the largest lorries are the first types of vehicles for which the EU will have reliable and certified emission data, from 2019 onwards. They represent about 65 to 70 per cent of total greenhouse gas emissions of heavy-duty vehicles.

Following a review in 2022 on the basis of three years of official certification data, the effects of more advanced technologies should be progressively introduced. Furthermore, other types of vehicles, which are not yet covered by the necessary certification legislation, could be subject to CO2 emissions targets. This concerns buses and coaches, smaller lorries and trailers.

Buses, for which low- and zero-emission powertrains are most widely available, are not subject to the emissions reduction targets set in this first proposal as legislation to collect and certify their greenhouse gas emission data needs to be developed. However, the revised Clean Vehicle Directive and the Action Plan on Alternative Fuels Infrastructure will directly support the deployment of low- and zero-emission buses in cities through public procurement already now. This is complemented by support measures aimed at accelerating the roll-out of alternative fuels infrastructure, as identified in the Action Plan adopted as part of the second Mobility Package. Furthermore, the Clean Bus Deployment Initiative launched by the Commission and supported by the Committee of the Regions offers a platform to accelerate the roll-out of clean buses. 23

The Commission calls on the European Parliament and the Council to adopt this legislation without delay to avoid widening the emission gap between the heavy-duty vehicle sector and the rest of road transport, to allow transport companies to benefit from lower fuel costs and to secure long-term competitiveness of the EU manufacturers and component suppliers.

4.3    A new fuel price comparison methodology for consumers

With the rapid expansion of electro-mobility and vehicles using a range of different alternative fuels, the Commission is putting forward a methodology that will allow users to make a straightforward comparison of the pricing of these different fuels. 24 This will help to increase consumer awareness – including when making new vehicle purchases – and fuel price transparency and should contribute to a diversification of energy sources in transport and to a reduction of CO2 and other pollutant emissions in this area.

4.4    Improved tyre labelling

The EU Regulation on the labelling of tyres promotes fuel efficient and safe tyres with low external rolling noise to ensure fuel savings, as well as safety of road transport. 25 It also aims to provide greater information to consumers, through a standard label, to influence purchasing decisions. As tyres can make a 20-30 per cent difference in a vehicle's fuel consumption, their performance has a significant impact on the fuel efficiency and emissions of vehicles.

The Commission's proposal aims to strengthen the Regulation and make it more effective. 26 In particular, it is meant to ensure clear visibility of the label to consumers when they buy a tyre. This also means for potential buyers to recognise the label or understand the performance markers, in terms of accuracy and reliability for instance. In addition, the Regulation aims to broaden the range of performance parameters on the label to include new elements, and eventually take more account of other EU policy priorities like the circular economy agenda. Finally, the Regulation strengthens the enforcement of market surveillance.

4.5    Design requirements for lorries to reduce CO2 emissions and improve safety

The aerodynamic performance of vehicles has a direct impact on CO2 emissions. The Commission is therefore proposing to revise legislation on weights and dimensions of certain road vehicles to bring forward the date allowing manufacturers to put new heavy goods vehicles with more rounded and aerodynamic cabins on the market by three years to 2019. 27 Together with the Commission's proposal to introduce CO2 standards for heavy goods vehicles, the proposal is intended to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport and benefit the environment. Another objective is to improve the safety of other road users and the visibility and comfort of drivers, while continuously facilitating intermodal transport.

4.6    Revising the framework for energy taxation to promote electro-mobility

Although there will be no comprehensive overhaul of the Energy Taxation Directive as part of this package, the Commission will continue to explore options to promote electro-mobility in the context of a future revision of the Directive. Moreover, approach based on setting only minimum rates of taxation at EU level allows Member States already now, even without a need to change EU legislation, to adapt their rates to support low-emission mobility. In particular Member States should review existing preferential treatment for diesel fuel.

4.7    Streamlining the implementation of the Trans-European Transport core network to achieve low-emission mobility

Infrastructure is an indispensable tool for the deployment of clean, safe, digital and connected solutions in the transport system. The Trans-European Transport network is Europe's transport infrastructure backbone. The Commission's goal is to ensure that it is efficient, smart, safe and sustainable. It has a strong influence on the mobility patterns for freight and passengers by setting common requirements, generating quality infrastructure projects and triggering innovation. To this end, this 'Third Mobility Package' includes a proposal for a Regulation aiming at facilitating the implementation of the Trans-European Transport core network and promoting multi-modality. The proposed measures aim at simplifying permit-granting, public procurement and other administrative procedures to deliver a more efficient process, more transparency and greater public acceptance. This proposal will thus serve as a catalyst for cleaner, safer and more connected mobility by giving priority treatment for the authorisation of the related projects on the Trans-European Transport core network.  28  

In addition, the package will be supported by a call for proposals under the Connecting Europe Facility. EU grants worth EUR 450 million will be available for investments in projects directly contributing to road safety, digitisation and multi-modality in the transport sector.

5.    CONCLUSIONS

With this third 'Europe on the Move' Package, the Commission is completing its broad range of legislative proposals and enabling measures, which form a comprehensive, integrated, and forward-looking approach to achieving clean, connected and competitive mobility for EU citizens. Digitisation, decarbonisation and innovation mean that mobility is at a turning point. The EU must seize upon the new opportunities they bring whilst being properly prepared to adjust to the multiple challenges during the transition. Mobility is the cornerstone of freedom of movement of people and goods, which is fundamental to the smooth functioning of the European Union. It is therefore essential that we get it right and that the EU, and in particular its important mobility industries, is able to maintain its leadership in this vital sector for the economy and society, remain competitive into the future, and ensure that mobility services are safe, clean and sustainable. The Commission therefore calls on the co-legislators to swiftly adopt the legislative proposals under this Parliament and thereby ensure that 'Europe is on the Move'.

(1)

   COM(2016) 501.

(2)

   COM(2017) 283, COM(2017) 675.

(3)

   COM(2017) 479.

(4)

   Council conclusions on road safety, 8 June 2017, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9994-2017-INIT/en/pdf  

(5)

   "Towards a European road safety area: policy orientations on road safety 2011-2020", COM(2010) 389 final. White Paper - Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system, COM(2011) 144.

(6)

   Council conclusions on road safety, 8 June 2017, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9994-2017-INIT/en/pdf  

(7)

   Regulation (EU) 2015/758 and Decision No 585/2014/EU .

(8)

   Automation impacts all transport modes (waterborne, air, rail and road), passengers and freight, public and individual transport, but arguably, for the general public, the automation of road transport will have the biggest impact.

(9)

   Commission study (2018): https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/analysis-possible-socio-economic-effects-connected-cooperative-and-automated-mobility-CCAM-Europe

(10)

   Commission's report on Saving Lives: Boosting Car Safety in the EU, COM(2016) 787.

(11)

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/AUTO/?uri=CELEX:52016DC0766

(12)

    https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016DC0588  

(13)

    http://ec.europa.eu/research/index.cfm?pg=newsalert&year=2017&na=na-030417 .

(14)

    https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/ba7ab6e2a0e14e39baa77f5b76f59d14/2016-04-08-declaration-of-amsterdam---final1400661.pdf

(15)

   See also Communication on Artificial Intelligence for Europe (COM(2018) 237) and Staff Working Document on liability for emerging digital technologies (SWD(2018) 137).

(16)

   COM(2018) 283.

(17)

   COM(2018) 278 and COM(2018) 279.

(18)

   They have also been identified as one of the priority intervention areas in the GEAR 2030 High-Level Group Report on the future of the automotive industry. https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/26081/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native

(19)

   Source: European Institute of Innovation and Technology Inno-energy http://www.innoenergy.com/  

(20)

    https://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/policy/european-battery-alliance_en

(21)

   More than 120 industrial and innovation actors have participated in this exercise and collectively endorsed recommendations for priority actions, which are being implemented. http://www.innoenergy.com/eit-innoenergys-role-within-the-european-battery-alliance/

(22)

   COM(2016) 501.

(23)

    https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/cleanbus_en  

(24)

   Under Article 7(3) of Directive 2014/94/EU, Commission Implementing Regulation on a common methodology for alternative fuels unit price comparison in accordance with Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, C(2018)2751.

(25)

   Regulation 1222/2009.

(26)

   COM(2018) 296.

(27)

   Directive (EU) 2015/719. COM(2018) 275.

(28)

   COM(2018) 277.

Top

Brussels, 17.5.2018

COM(2018) 293 final

ANNEX

to the

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

EUROPE ON THE MOVE
Sustainable Mobility for Europe: safe, connected and clean


Annex 1: Strategic Action Plan on Road Safety

This Annex outlines specific actions envisaged under the current Commission mandate, i.e., until end Q3 2019. These actions are set out with a specific target time frame. It cannot of course prejudge action for the next Commission but instead sets out additional envisaged actions for the post 2019 period indicatively and without a specific target time frame.

1. Enhanced road safety governance

To counter the trend of stagnating road safety figures in the EU and move closer to the long-term goal of zero road fatalities in the EU by 2050 ("Vision Zero"), a new approach is needed. The EU road safety policy framework 2021-2030, to be elaborated in detail by 2019, is based on the Safe System approach.This involves setting clear targets, monitoring progress with the help of a set of key performance indicators directly linked to preventing deaths and serious injuries for all road users. It requires coordinated action of all sectors and for all road users under an enhanced governance structure.

Key Actions on governance

The Commission will flesh out the principles for an EU road safety policy framework 2021-2030 set out in the present Communication [Q2/2019], including

·a list of key performance indicators to be connected to target outcomes, established in close cooperation with Member States;

·an enhanced mandate of the High Level Group on Road Safety (made up of high ranking representatives of national administrations) to include strategic advice and frequent feedback; and

·the new role of European Road Safety Ambassador, a well-known personality, to coordinate road safety efforts with Member States and spread good practice both inside the EU and internationally.

Throughout the framework period, the Commission (steered by a cross-DG coordination group) will engage with Member States and stakeholders to monitor and accelerate progress, for example by organising biannual results conferences and by promoting voluntary commitments, in particular in the context of an enhanced European Road Safety Charter 1 .

2. Stronger financial support for road safety

An important lever at the EU's disposal to accelerate the delivery of results is to support road safety initiatives with various funding solutions. Infrastructure upgrades can be supported from regional funds in the current financial framework. Moreover, in today's call for the Connecting Europe Facility, 200 million Euro are being made available for road safety and digitalisation. In the longer run, it will be important to provide stability and coherence in funding solutions for infrastructure upgrades, other road safety actions as well as capacity building.

Key Actions on enabling and funding

The Commission will:

·encourage the use of EU financial support from the European Structural and Investment Funds for road safety upgrades of infrastructure, especially in Member States with comparatively poor road safety performance, and encourage the use of the Connecting Europe Facility [Q2/2018];

·streamline and strengthen funding support for road safety actions in the next Multiannual Financial Framework bearing in mind the complementarity of the different funding instruments [Q2/2018];

·investigate how to provide stability in funding support for road safety actions under the next Multiannual Financial Framework, such as joint cross-border road traffic enforcement operations organised in cooperation between police bodies [Q3/2018]; and

·investigate possibilities to financially support capacity building at Member State level, for example related to Safe System strategies (eg Key Performance Indicators measurement methodology) [Q3/2019].

In addition, the Commission will explore, in close cooperation with the European Investment Bank, how to facilitate public authorities' access to appropriate financial support for procuring safer fleets. One example could be a possible Safer Transport Facility or an extension of the existing Cleaner Transport Facility. 2 The Commission will also explore how to fund research and innovation needed for the development and implementation of Safe System strategies.


3.    Safe roads and roadsides

The Safe System approach to road engineering involves matching road function, design, layout and speed limits to accommodate human error in a way that crashes do not lead to death and serious injury. The Commission is today proposing to revise the Road Infrastructure Safety Management Directive to mandate more transparency and network-wide risk mapping and to extend its scope beyond the Trans-European Networks to all primary roads.

Key Actions for safe roads and roadsides

The Commission will:

·carry out preparatory work and establish an expert group whose task will be to elaborate a framework for road classification that better matches speed limit to road design and layout in line with the Safe System approach [Q3/2019]; and

·facilitate exchange of experience on Safe System methodologies between practitioners (eg in a Forum of European road safety auditors) [on adoption of the revised Road Infrastructure Safety Management Directive].

Throughout the framework period, the Commission will seek to identify further EU action, such as defining specific safety objectives for Trans-European Networks roads in the next revision of the Trans-European Networks guidelines.



4.    Safe vehicles

The EU has been successful in reducing deaths and serious injuries by improving vehicle safety through successive iterations of the Vehicle General Safety Regulation and the Pedestrian Safety Regulation. The Commission is proposing to revise these Regulations to make some important safety features mandatory, such as Intelligent Speed Assistance, Autonomous Emergency Braking (including in relation to pedestrians and cyclists) or improved direct vision for trucks. As a follow-up, it will be important to prioritise the work of the EU and in the United Nations in developing new vehicle safety regulations (for example Autonomous Emergency Braking for trucks including pedestrian and cyclist detection and direct vision standards). Public procurement also presents an interesting opportunity to positively influence the pace of the uptake of safety technologies.

In addition, the Commission is proposing to revise the Tyre Labelling Regulation to improve consumer information, in particular on the safety performance of tyres.

Key Actions on safe vehicles

The Commission will:

·start to assess whether retrofitting the existing fleet (particularly buses and trucks) with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems is feasible and cost-effective [Q4/2018]; and

·encourage Member States to consider, whilst preserving competition in the internal market, national incentives to fast-track proven technologies by a range of means including procurement, safe travel policies, tax and insurance incentives [Q2/2018].

The Commission will seek voluntary commitments, for example from

·employers/associations of road hauliers (eg using vehicles with the latest safety features ahead of these being required by law),

·public authorities (eg cities favouring the purchase of the safest, not only the cleanest, cars for their fleets in public procurement),

·manufacturers (eg rolling out safety features beyond the minimum requirements for all price segments),

·insurers (eg changing the structure of premiums in favour of safer vehicles),

·the car renting & sharing sector (eg promoting safe cars in car rental and leasing activity, regular maintenance), and

·driving schools (eg training new and existing drivers and riders in how to use new vehicle safety features).

The Commission will evaluate the need for further action, including as regards tyre regulations to test grip performance on end-of-life tyres, as regards the legal framework for vehicle roadworthiness testing, including actions to tackle potential vehicle tampering by owners/holders, and as regards making safety considerations more prominent in EU public procurement legislation.

5.    Safe road use

The safety behaviour of road users (speed, use of protective equipment like seatbelts and crash helmets, driving without alcohol and other drugs, driving, riding and walking without distraction) and its enforcement are also key in the prevention and mitigation of severe crashes. The proposal for a revised General Safety and Pedestrian Safety Regulation covers some features that promise high safety gains (Intelligent Speed Assistance, drowsiness recognition technology, standardised interfaces for alcohol interlocks).

Key Actions on safe road use

The Commission will:

·start to assess options to improve the effectiveness of the directive on cross-border enforcement of traffic offences, on the basis of an evaluation carried out in 2016 [Q4/2018];

·launch a study into the feasibility of a possible legislative initiative on the mutual recognition of driving disqualifications [Q1/2019];

·transpose United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulation making seatbelt reminders mandatory for all seats [Q4/2018];

·work with Member States to enable necessary conditions for the functioning of overridable Intelligent Speed Assistance, including regarding the availability of speed limits in a digital format, and consider the feasibility and acceptability of non-overridable Intelligent Speed Assistance in the future [Q3/2019]; and

·start to assess how to strengthen the EU recommendation on permitted blood alcohol content, eg recommending stricter limits for professional drivers and/or novice drivers and giving guidance on the use of alcohol interlocks [Q3/2018].

The Commission will seek voluntary commitments, for example from

·employers/associations of road hauliers (eg strengthened education and awareness raising among professional drivers, beyond the legal requirements for training for professional drivers),

·the education sector (eg making road safety part of regular curricula) and user organisations (eg promoting safe behaviour, taking age and gender factors into account),

·public authorities (eg requiring the fitting of alcohol interlocks in public procurement),

·coach travel operators (eg awareness-raising campaigns on seatbelts), and

·taxi and ride-sharing companies (eg providing their fleet with child seats).

The Commission will also seek to encourage and support research under the future research and innovation programme on developing testing methods and cheaper tools for drug detection as well as on automatic assessment of fitness to drive and on avoiding inattention including distraction by electronic systems integrated in vehicles. It will assess whether to mandate individual electronic seatbelt reminders in coaches and to develop a code of good practice with industry to ensure that in-car information systems and phones are designed in a way to allow safe use. The Commission will identify the need for further action, for example in relation to the definition and implementation of the notion of "safe speed"; cyclist helmets and protective clothing for motorcyclists; and/or graduated licencing for novice drivers.

6.    Fast and effective emergency response


Effective post-crash care, including fast transport to the correct facility by qualified personnel, reduces the consequences of injury. In this context, the effects of the roll-out of eCall, the automated emergency call in the event of a crash, should be closely monitored.

Key Actions on emergency response

The Commission will:

·start to assess the effect of eCall and evaluate the possible extension to other categories of vehicles (heavy goods vehicles, buses and coaches, motorcycles, and agricultural tractors) [Q3/2019,] and

·facilitate closer contacts between road safety authorities and the health sector to assess further practical and research needs (eg how to ensure matching injuries with qualified staff and appropriate medical facilities) [Q3/2018].

The Commission will seek voluntary commitments, for example from

·commercial and public transport operators (eg providing first responder training for drivers),

·manufacturers (eg installing eCall in new cars of existing types or retrofitting it),

·insurers (eg reducing insurance premiums for cars that have eCall installed).

7.    Future-proofing road safety

Connectivity and automation have tremendous road safety potential in the long run, but their risks, for example related to cyber-security and the functioning of highly automated vehicles in mixed traffic, need to be addressed. As part of the mobility package, the Commission is therefore proposing a comprehensive strategy on connected and automated mobility.

The collaborative economy (for example car and bike sharing schemes) and some environmental measures offer opportunities for mutual benefits when they are combined with road safety measures (eg safer and more attractive environments for walking and cycling), but also come with risks such as more unprotected users on the roads.

Any future initiative will have to take into account the specific needs of vulnerable road users and of different user groups (age, gender, disabilities). In addition, the field of occupational safety may need reinforced action.

Key Actions on emerging challenges

The Commission will:

·adopt specifications on cooperative intelligent transport systems (delegated act under the Intelligent Transport Systems Directive), including vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication 3 [Q4/2018];

·work closely with stakeholders to launch a process towards developing a code of conduct for the safe transition to the higher levels of automation, to make sure that requirements and procedures take road safety considerations (mixed traffic, interaction with other road users, platooning) fully into account, in particular ensuring coherence among national traffic rules and avoiding contradiction with EU vehicle rules [Q3/2019]; and

·set up a Safe City challenge or award [Q3/2019].

The Commission will seek voluntary commitments, for example from

·operators, fleet managers and hauliers (eg adopting a corporate road safety policy);

·trade associations (eg giving road safety guidance to SMEs, especially as regards safety of delivery vans in urban areas); and

·national authorities (eg following good practice examples in fighting and campaigning against vehicle tampering).

Throughout the framework period, the Commission will evaluate the need for further EU action, such as in promoting the harmonisation of human-machine interfaces fitted to vehicles to ensure all drivers and users can interact with vehicles without compromising safety and addressing access to in-vehicle data. The Commission will evaluate whether to review legislation on driving licences, roadworthiness, training of professional drivers and driving time to take developments in cooperative, connected and autonomous mobility into account. Furthermore, the Commission will explore road safety aspects of urban mobility planning, safety at work, fitness to drive and ride and new business models in personal transport.

The Commission will also encourage and support research and innovation under the next framework programme with the aim of informing road safety policy, including as regards new mobility patterns and societal changes, the interaction between humans and technology, in particular human-machine interfaces and the safe transition towards automation, enforcement and security.

8.    The EU's global role: exporting road safety


The Commission's road safety focus beyond the EU is on its immediate neighbours, in particular the countries of the Western Balkans and of the Eastern Partnership, who are preparing to sign road safety declarations in the course of 2018, as well as Turkey.

In addition, the EU's road safety role vis-à-vis the United Nations and in particular the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, should be assessed.

Key Actions for improving road safety outside the EU

The Commission will:

·further develop road safety cooperation with the EU's neighbours, in particular the Western Balkans and the Eastern Partnership, building on Road Safety Declarations being adopted in 2018, in particular by sharing best practice and supporting capacity building [Q3/2018].

The Commission will also evaluate how we might strengthen the coordination of traffic rules (UN Geneva and Vienna Conventions), including at the EU level, so that traffic rules can be adapted to cooperative, connected and autonomous mobility in a harmonised way. And the Commission will explore how to cooperate with international financing initiatives, such as the UN Road Safety Trust Fund.

(1)

   The European Road Safety Charter is a civil society platform for road safety, created by the European Commission, with more than 3500 members today.

(2)

    http://www.eib.org/projects/sectors/transport/cleaner-transport-facility  

(3)

   See COM(2018) 283 - Communication: "On the road to automated mobility: An EU strategy for mobility of the future"

Top

Brussels, 17.5.2018

COM(2018) 293 final

ANNEX

to the

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

EUROPE ON THE MOVE
Sustainable Mobility for Europe: safe, connected and clean


ANNEX 2 – Strategic Action Plan on Batteries

I. Policy context

Batteries development and production is a strategic imperative for Europe in the context of the clean energy transition and is a key component of the competitiveness of its automotive sector.

In October 2017, the European Commission launched the 'European Battery Alliance' 1 cooperation platform with key industrial stakeholders, interested Member States and the European Investment Bank.

The immediate challenge to create a competitive and sustainable battery manufacturing industry in Europe is immense, and Europe has to move fast in this global race. According to some forecasts, from 2025 onwards Europe could capture a batteries market of up to EUR 250 billion a year, served by at least 10 to 20 Gigafactories (battery cells mass production facilities) 2 to cover EU demand. Given the scale and speed of investment needed, this strategic challenge cannot be dealt with in a fragmented manner.

With this Strategic Action Plan, the Commission aims to put Europe on a firm path towards leadership in a key industry for the future, supporting jobs and growth in a circular economy, whilst ensuring clean mobility and an improved environment and quality of life for EU citizens.

The Commission is promoting a cross-border and integrated European approach covering the whole value chain of the batteries ecosystem, and focusing on sustainability, starting with the extraction and processing of raw materials, the design and manufacturing phase of battery cells and battery packs, and their use, second use, recycling and disposal in a circular economy context..

Batteries Value Chain

Such an approach will promote the production and use of high-performing batteries and set sustainability benchmarks throughout the value chain.

This Strategic Action Plan has been developed in close consultation with stakeholders including industry and Member States in the framework of the 'European Battery Alliance', and builds on the industry-led approach whereby EU industry players have themselves adopted and are starting to implement targeted actions. 3  

This Strategic Action Plan combines targeted measures at EU level including in raw materials (primary and secondary), research and innovation, financing/investment, standardisation / regulatory, trade and skills development, in order to make Europe a global leader in sustainable battery production and use, in the context of the circular economy.

More specifically its aims to:

·secure access to raw materials from resource-rich countries outside the EU, facilitate access to European sources of raw materials, as well as accessing secondary raw materials through recycling in a circular economy of batteries;

·support European battery cells manufacturing at scale and a full competitive value chain in Europe: bringing key industry players and national and regional authorities together; working in partnership with Member States and the European Investment Bank to support innovative manufacturing projects with a important cross-border and sustainability dimensions throughout the battery value chain;

·strengthen industrial leadership through stepped-up EU research and innovation support to advanced (e.g. Lithium-ion) and disruptive (e.g. solid state) technologies in the batteries sector. This should target support in all the steps of the value chain (advanced materials, new chemistries, manufacturing processes, battery management systems, recyling, business model innovations), be closely integrated with the industrial ecosystem and contribute to accelerating the deployment and industrialisation of innovations;

·develop and strengthen a highly skilled workforce in all parts of the battery value chain in order to close the skills gap through actions at EU and Member State level providing adequate training, re-skilling and upskilling, and making Europe an attractive location for world class experts in batteries development and production;

·support the sustainability of EU battery cell manufacturing industry with the lowest environmental footprint possible, for example by using renewable energy in the production process. This objective should be notably implemented through setting out requirements for safe and sustainable batteries production;

·ensure consistency with the broader enabling and regulatory framework 4  (Clean Energy Strategy, Mobility Packages, EU Trade Policy, etc.) in support of batteries and storage deployment.

II.    Strategic Action Areas

1.Securing the sustainable supply of raw materials

The EU raw materials strategy aims at securing access to raw materials for the EU economy. 5 The policy which was given new impetus in 2012 with the launch of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials is based on: (1) sustainable sourcing of raw materials from global markets: (2) sustainable domestic raw materials production; and (3) resource efficiency and supply of secondary raw materials. In September 2017, the Commission adopted a renewed EU industrial policy strategy which highlighted the importance of raw materials, particularly critical raw materials, for the competitiveness of all industrial value chains, for the EU economy. 6

The EU must therefore secure access to the supply chains for batteries raw materials. Lithium-ion is currently the main chemistry of choice for electro-mobility and will dominate the market in the coming years. Various raw materials are required in lithium-ion batteries including lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, graphite, silicon, copper and aluminium. The supply of some of these materials, in particular cobalt, natural graphite and lithium, is of concern today and for the future in view of the large quantities needed and/or very concentrated supply sources. The sustainability of the extraction and exploitation of these resources is fundamental and recycling of materials will increasingly become important for diversifying the EU's supply and should be encouraged in the context of the transition to a circular economy. 7

The EU should therefore secure access to raw materials from resource-rich countries outside the EU, while boosting primary and secondary production from European sources. It should also promote eco-design, substitution and more efficient use of critical battery materials, their second use and recycling.

Key Actions

The Commission will:

·build on the EU list of Critical Raw Materials, established in 2017, to map the current and future primary raw materials availability for batteries; assess the potential within the EU for sourcing battery raw materials including Cobalt (Finland, France, Sweden, and Slovakia), Lithium (Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden), Natural Graphite (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia and Sweden), Nickel (Austria, Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom); assess the potential in the whole EU for sourcing of secondary raw materials; put forward recommendations aimed at optimalising the sourcing of batteries raw materials within the EU. [Q4 2018]

·use all appropriate trade policy instruments (such as Free Trade Agreements) to ensure fair and sustainable access to raw materials in third countries and promote socially responsible mining. [ongoing]

·support research and innovation aimed at cost-effective production, substitution and more efficient use of critical raw materials for batteries, with a view to develop standards (see strategic action area 5 below). [2018-2020]

·launch a dialogue with Member States, through the Raw Materials Supply Group and the High Level Steering Group of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (EIP Raw Materials), to determine the fitness of their raw materials policies, mining codes and incentives for exploration to address the strategic needs of materials for batteries. Present the results of this exercise at the High Level Conference of the EIP Raw Materials in November 2018. [Q4 2018]

2.Supporting European projects covering different segments of the battery value chain, including cells manufacturing

The 'European Battery Alliance' is moving fast. Since its launch in October 2017, there have already been tangible developments with the announcements of industrial consortia or partnerships aiming at development of battery cell manufacturing and related ecosystems. To remain the world leader for automotive manufacturing and innovation, action is needed – and is already taking place - to ramp up battery cells manufacturing in Europe, and to build on and reinforce the other segments of the battery value chain (e.g. materials, manufacturing machinery and processes, battery management systems, etc), as part of an integrated and competitive ecosystem.

Member States and the industry have called on the Commission to continue acting as a facilitator in bringing key industry players together and to support manufacturing projects with an important cross-border dimension and which integrate different elements of the batteries value chain.

Key Actions

The Commission will:

·pursue its partnership work with stakeholders across the battery value chain to promote and facilitate large-scale projects leading to manufacturing of the next generation of batteries, and to establish an innovative, integrated, sustainable and competitive battery value chain in Europe. [2018-2019]

·engage in a regular dialogue with the relevant Member States to explore efficient ways to jointly support innovative manufacturing projects going beyond the state-of-the-art, and best pool EU and national resources to that end. This could for instance take the form of an Important Project of Common European Interest. 8 [Q4 2018]

·continue to work closely with interested Member States and the European Investment Bank to make public funding or financing for battery cells manufacturing projects available in order to incentivise, leverage and 'de-risk' private sector investment. For this purpose, the Commission will coordinate, raise awareness of and facilitate access to the various funding and financing instruments available (e.g. European Investment Bank 9 , InnovFin Energy Demo Projects 10 , Horizon 2020 11 , European Regional Development Fund 12 , European Fund for Strategic Investments 13 , Innovation Fund 14 ) in support of innovative battery-related deployment projects, including pilot lines and the deployment at scale of cutting-edge technologies. This will include transparent and inclusive information sessions on the eligibility criteria for these instruments to those companies and Member States with an established interest in the subject matter. [2018-2019]

·at the request of interested regions and in cooperation with relevant Member States, facilitate the development of an "interregional partnership on batteries" in the framework of the existing Smart Specialisation thematic platforms on energy or industrial modernisation. 15 [Q1 2019]

·work in close cooperation with the relevant Member States and regions to channel the available research and innovation funding under Cohesion Policy (2014-2020: EUR 44 billion) that may be used inter alia for batteries). 16 [2018-2020]

·establish, in close cooperation with the European Investment Bank, a dedicated batteries funding and financing portal (single investment hub) to facilitate stakeholders' access to appropriate financial support and assist in any blending of financial instruments. [Q4 2018]

·more generally, encourage private investors across the value chain to make full use of the possibilities available through sustainable finance as set out in the Commission's Action Plan on financing sustainable growth. 17 [2018-2019]

3.Strengthening industrial leadership through stepped-up EU research and innovation support covering the full value chain

In order to drive European competitive advantage, significant resources should be targeted at supporting constant incremental (e.g. advanced lithium-ion) and disruptive (e.g. solid state) research and innovation. Research should be conducted in advanced (primary and secondary, i.e. recycled) materials, battery chemistries, advanced manufacturing processes, recycling, and second-use. This should be well-connected with the industrial ecosystem of the value chain in order to accelerate industrialisation of EU innovations.

Key Actions

The Commission will:

·in collaboration with Member States make available, research and innovation funds (H2020 18 ) for battery-related innovation projects, according to pre-identified short- and longer-term research priorities across the batteries value chain. 19 This should comprise also innovative deployment projects, including pilot lines for batteries manufacturing and primary / secondary raw materials processing. [2018-2020]

·launch calls in 2018 and 2019 for proposals for an additional total amount of EUR 110 million for battery-related research and innovation projects (in addition to EUR 250 million already allocated to batteries under Horizon 2020; and EUR 270 million to be allocated in support of smart grids and energy storage projects as announced in the Clean Energy for all European package. 20 [2018-2019]

·support the creation of a new European Technology and Innovation Platform to advance on battery research priorities, define long-term visions, elaborate a strategic research agenda and road-maps. The leadership of the European Technology and Innovation Platform will be taken by the industrial stakeholders, research community and Member States, while Commission services will support the setting-up process and contribute in their respective areas of responsibility. [Q4 2018]

·prepare the launch of a large-scale Future Emerging Technologies Flagship research initiative, which could support long-term research in advanced battery technologies for the 2025+ timeframe. These Future Emerging Technologies Flagships run typically for a period of 10 years with an overall support of around EUR 1 billion, co- funded from the EU budget. 21 [Q4 2018]

·support breakthrough market-creating innovation in areas such as batteries through the pilot of the European Innovation Council.  22 A budget of EUR 2.7 billion is made available for 2018-2020 to support 1,000 potential breakthrough projects and 3,000 feasibility awards. This pilot scheme can be helpful for batteries breakthrough technology (expected to be part of projects for applications in transport, energy system, manufacturing etc.). [2018-2020] 

·optimise solutions for integration of stationary storage and electric vehicles in the grid within Horizon 2020 smart grid and storage projects 23 as well as Smart Cities and Communities’ projects. 24 Promote successful battery integration solutions with a clear replication potential becoming part of the match-making exercise being launched by the European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and communities (matchmaking between cities, businesses, banks, investors and project promoters). [2018-2019]

·build on the experience of Joint Technology Initiatives and the European Institute of Technology / Knowledge and Innovation Communitities to explore the feasibility and suitability of different forms of public-private partnerships, including for batteries development. 25 [2020-]

4.Developing and strengthening a highly skilled workforce in all parts of the value-chain

The EU labour force is higly qualified but sufficient specialised battery related skills are missing, especially on applied process design and cells manufacturing. Actions at EU and Member State level should be taken to close the skills gap.

Key Actions

The Commission will:

·map out the skills needed along the value chain, identifying also means to fill the gap and relevant timeframe for implementation. [Q4 2018]

·open access to the EU's battery testing laboratories hosted by the Commission's Joint Research Centre for skills and capacity-building. 26 Other research centres will be encouraged to follow suit. [Q4 2018]

·propose batteries as a key topic for funding in the framework of the Blueprint for Sectoral cooperation on skills in order to address short and medium term skills needs throughout the battery value chain. 27 [2018-2019]

·work with relevant stakeholders to make available to companies the pool of experts specialised in cell chemistries, manufacturing processes, battery management systems, etc. [2018-2019]

·work with relevant stakeholders to create links between the educational network and the European pilot line network to gain manufacturing experience and know-how. [2018-2019]

·encourage Member States to make use of the European Social Fund funds in addressing training needs for professionals in the area of batteries. [ongoing]

·help universities and other education / training institutions to build new degree courses in cooperation with industry. [2018-2019]

5.Supporting a sustainable battery value chain – ie requirements for safe and sustainable batteries production - as a key driver for EU competitiveness

A sustainable battery value chain should be well-integrated into the circular economy and drive the competitiveness of European products. The EU must therefore support the growth of a high performing, safe and sustainable battery cells and battery packs/modules production with the lowest environmental footprint possible. Various instruments could be considered to drive robust environmental and safety requirements that could be a trend-setter in global markets. To this end, full advantage should notably be taken of the EU Batteries Directive, currently under review and the Eco-design Directive framework, where opportunities to design an innovative and future-proof regulation could be pursued.

A prerequisite to the sustainability of a European battery value chain, notably in the context of the circular economy, is to analyse in detail the key determinants for the production of safe and sustainable batteries.

This should also cover the entire value chain, from sustainable and responsible supply of raw materials to production processes, system integration and recycling.

Key Actions

The Commission will:

·assess current collection and recycling targets for batteries at the end of their life, in the context of the review of the EU Batteries Directive including the recovery of materials (evaluation expected to be completed in September 2018).  28 [Q4 2018]

·launch a study on the key determining factors for the production of safe and sustainable ('green') batteries. [Q4 2018]

On that basis:

·identify the possibility of developing a standardised EU life cycle assessment scheme for batteries, in particular by taking into account the results of the "Product Environmental Footprint" pilot project in close cooperation with industry. 29

·put forward battery sustainability 'design and use' requirements for all batteries to comply with when placed on the EU market (this comprises an assessment and suitability of different regulatory instruments such as the Ecodesign Directive and the Energy Labelling Regulation and the EU Batteries Directive ). [Q4 2018]

·monitor the coherence of different regulatory instruments (e.g. REACH, Waste Framework Directive, etc) to ensure smooth functioning of the internal market for batteries, waste batteries and materials obtained from recycled batteries.

·advance interaction with stakeholders and the European standardisation bodies in order to develop European standards for enabling the safe and sustainable production, (re-)use and recycling of batteries, amongst others through the use of prenormative research. [2018-2019]

·analyse how best to promote the second-use of advanced batteries and the use of bi-directional batteries [Q4 2019]

·promote ethical sourcing of raw materials for the batteries industry. [Q1 2019]

6.Ensuring consistency with the broader enabling and regulatory framework

Due to the global value chains, batteries need to be an important element of the European Union relations with its global trading partners.

Under the Energy Union, and most notably under the Clean Energy for all Europeans Strategy and the Low-Emission Mobility Strategy, the Commission has also adopted a wide range of proposals and enabling measures to accelerate the uptake of renewable and clean energy, notably with respect to energy storage and electro-mobility. The rapid finalisation at EU level and ambitious and swift implementation at national level of these supply- and demand-side measures can stimulate and remove obstacles for the establishment of an EU innovative, sustainable and competitive batteries 'ecosystem'.

The Commission will:

·monitor and tackle unfair practices in third countries, such as the subsidisation of raw materials or other production inputs, through the application of EU Trade Defence Instruments measures. If the legal conditions are fulfilled, the Commission may launch anti-dumping and/or anti-subsidy investigations with a view to determining wheter the adoption of trade defence measures would be warranted. [ongoing]

·monitor and tackle market access distortions/barriers by continuing – in line with the EU Market Access Strategy – to focus on and remove third country and investment barriers in the automotive and other sectors relevant to batteries. 30 [2018-2019]

·ensure consistency between rules of origin for electric vehicles and battery cells in the framework of the EU's exernal trade policy by providing that Free Trade Agreement negotiations covering rules of origin for electric cars and/or batteries take full account of the development of the production and trade of electric cars and batteries. [2018-2019]

·ensure that the EU policy / broader regulatory framework coherently addresses emerging human, health and environmental concerns related to batteries and is conducive to the development and deployment of innovation in new battery technologies [ongoing].

and calls on the European Parliament and Council to swiftly adopt:

·the revised Clean Vehicles Directive

·the new CO2 emission standards for cars and vans, and heavy duty vehicles

·the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II)

·the recast of the Electricity Market Regulation and Directive

and will work closely with the Member States to:

·ensure timely transposition and effective implementation of this legislation and of the amended Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings

·accelerate the deployment of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure as recommended in the Action Plan and supported by Connecting Europe Facility deployment

III. Conclusions and next steps

The Commission calls on

EU industrial stakeholders participating in the 'European Battery Alliance' to:

·take forward and implement industry-led initiatives 31 and projects in order to establish a competitive battery value chain in Europe.

the participating Member States to:

·step up their support to industry-led projects related to battery cell manufacturing or other parts of the supply chain using national instruments and/or appropriate EU funding mechanisms for which they are responsible (i.e. structural funds), as appropriate.

·simplify and accelerate approval and permitting procedures (environmental, manufacturing, construction) for pilot lines and relevant industrial projects.

The Commission will continue to work in partnership with both interested Member States and the industry in the framework of the European Battery Alliance to keep up the momentum and ensure that these actions are implemented in accordance with deadlines, and that tangible results are delivered as a result.

The Commission will issue a report on the implementation of this strategic action plan in 2019.

(1)

    https://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/policy/european-battery-alliance_en

(2)

   Source: European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Inno-energy http://www.innoenergy.com/  

(3)

   More than 120 industrial and innovation actors have participated in this exercise and collectively endorsed recommendations for priority actions, which are being implemented. http://www.innoenergy.com/eit-innoenergys-role-within-the-european-battery-alliance/

(4)

   Clean Energy for All Europeans Strategy: COM(2016) 860; Low-Emission Mobility Strategy COM(2016) 501; Europe on the Move – Mobility Package I: COM(2017)283; Mobility Package II: COM(2017) 675.

(5)

   COM(2008) 699. See also forthcoming Staff Working Document Report on Raw Materials for Battery Applications.

(6)

   A Renewed Industrial Policy Strategy: COM(2017) 479.

(7)

   There is for example a risk reducing factor in the assessment of the supply risk of the criticality assessment methodology (JRC report, 2017, https://publications.europa.eu/s/gcBP ).

(8)

   Important Projects of Common European Interest are projects involving more than one Member State contributing to the Union’s strategic objectives and producing positive spillovers on the European economy and society as a whole. In case of research, development and innovation projects, such projects must be of a major innovative nature, going beyond the state of the art in the sectors concerned – see Commission Communication 2014/C 188/02 of May 2014.

(9)

    http://www.eib.org/  

(10)

    http://www.eib.org/products/blending/innovfin/products/energy-demo-projects.htm  

(11)

    https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/  

(12)

    http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/funding/erdf/  

(13)

    http://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/innovation/funding/efsi_en  

(14)

   The Innovation Fund established under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme aims at supporting innovative first-of-a-kind demonstration projects in the field of energy storage, innovation in low-carbon technologies in industrial sectors , environmentally-safe carbon capture and storage, and innovative renewables. It will be created through the sales of 450 million allowances under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which may represent EUR 4.5 billion at price of EUR 10 per allowance or EUR 11 billion at price of EUR 25 per allowance. The first call is planned for 2020.

(15)

    http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

(16)

   121 Smart Specialisation Strategies have been developed in a bottom-up process based on broad stakeholders involvement. The EUR 44 billion that can be channelled through these Smart Specialisation Strategies complements an estimated EUR 70 billion from the European Regional Development Fund for supporting an energy-efficient and decarbonised transport sector. They assist in using European Regional Development Fund and generate pipeline of industrial projects through interregional cooperation, cluster participation and industry involvement. [Q1 2019].

(17)

    https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/180308-action-plan-sustainable-growth_en  

(18)

   An additional EUR 110 million has been made available specifically for batteries research and innovation under Horizon 2020. Around EUR 200 million will be allocated specifically to battery research and innovation between 2018-2020 in addition to almost EUR 150 million already spent under Horizon 2020. The Clean Energy for all Europeans package announced EUR 270 million to be allocated in support of smart grids and storage projects, which are also expected to contain substantial battery-related components.

(19)

   As of today, they are based on the Strategic Energy Technology Plan Action 7 Implementation Plan https://setis.ec.europa.eu/batteries-implementation , the conclusions of the European Commission (DG Research and Innovation) European Battery Cell Research and Innovation Workshop held on 11-12 January 2018 focused on programming additional EU funding for batteries research and innovation under H2020, and the Strategic Transport Research and Innovation Agenda roadmap on transport electrification (SWD(2017) 223 of 31 May 2017).

(20)

   Smart grids and storage projects are expected to contain substantial battery-related components. In addition, the JRC has a dedicated project on batteries for energy storage primarily for transport applications.

(21)

    https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/fet-flagships . The Flagship preparatory phase action should be completed by Q4/2018 and funding would start under the next research and innovation framework programme.

(22)

        https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/european-innovation-council-eic-pilot  

(23)

   Approximately EUR 90 million per year; battery integration (including also second use and vehicle to grid solutions) traditionally attracts non-negligible part of this financing, even if calls are technology neutral. The cluster of smart grid and storage projects (BRIDGE) goes beyond technical innovation aspects and looks into improvements of business models, regulatory issues, data management and consumer acceptance.

(24)

   Also approximately EUR 90 million per year, with many projects proposals including also (battery-based) storage elements, even if calls are technology neutral.

(25)

   The Joint Undertakings launched under Article 187 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, are a special legal instrument implementing Horizon 2020 through a public-private partnership (PPP) in key strategic areas. Their aim is to implement research and innovation activities to enhance competitiveness and to tackle the grand societal challenges with the active engagement of Europe's industry. The seven Joint Undertakings currently in operation implement specific parts of Horizon 2020 in the areas of transport (CleanSky2, Shift2Rail and SESAR), transport/energy (FCH2), health (IMI2), bio-economy (BBI) and electronic components and systems (ECSEL).

(26)

    https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/research-facility/open-access

(27)

   The Blueprint for Sectoral Cooperation on Skills is a framework for strategic cooperation to address short and medium-term skills needs in a given economic sector. The Blueprint currently focuses on five pilot sectors including: Automotive; Maritime Technology; Space (geo-information); Textile, Clothing, Leather & Footwear (TCLF); and Tourism. It will be extended to additional sectors in the future. It is funded under Erasmus Plus.

(28)

   Directive 2006/66/EC, OJ L 266, 26.9.2006, p. 1.

(29)

   i.e. capable of Grid-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Grid operating mode.

(30)

   This will be carried out using the main platforms of coordination that already exist such as the Market Access Advisory Committee (MAAC) and expert Working Groups (MAWG) in Brussels, as well as in the Market Access Teams (MATs) on the ground in third countries.

(31)

   European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Inno-energy http://www.innoenergy.com/eit-innoenergys-role-within-the-european-battery-alliance/

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