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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Detailed Assessment of the National Policy Frameworks Accompanying the document COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Towards the broadest use of alternative fuels - an Action Plan for Alternative Fuels Infrastructure under Article 10(6) of Directive 201/94/EU, including the assessment of national policy frameworks under Article 10(2) of Directive 2014/94/EU

SWD/2017/0365 final

Brussels, 8.11.2017

SWD(2017) 365 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Detailed Assessment of the National Policy Frameworks

Accompanying the document

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

Towards the broadest use of alternative fuels - an Action Plan for Alternative Fuels Infrastructure under Article 10(6) of Directive 201/94/EU, including the assessment of national policy frameworks under Article 10(2) of Directive 2014/94/EU

{COM(2017) 652 final}


The methodology for the assessment of the National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) is organised in two work streams, a qualitative assessment that checks if the NPF covers all elements as regulated by the Directive and a quantitative assessment that evaluates if a given Member State (MS), through its targets and existing or planned measures, sufficiently supports the aim of the Directive to achieve a minimum level of alternative fuels infrastructure across the EU and cross-border continuity. The following sub-sections explain the methods employed.

1.1Qualitative assessment methodology

The qualitative assessment of the NPFs covers the completeness of the NPFs vis-à-vis the requirements of the Directive. For this purpose, a checklist was used (see table 1-1). The checklist summarizes the information if the NPF of a given Member State covers all elements as requested in article 3 of the Directive.

Table 1-1: NPF Checklist

1.2Quantitative assessment methodology

The quantitative assessment of the NPFs analyses if the NPF of a given Member State has established infrastructure targets that meet minimum requirements in terms of coverage and/or their relation to estimated future alternative fuelled vehicles. It also analyses if the existing or planned support actions or measures seem sufficient and are coherent with the vehicle estimates and infrastructure targets.

1.2.1Infrastructure sufficiency assessment method

The requirements, as documented in the table below, were used to assess the sufficiency of the infrastructure targets as established in the NPF.

Table 1-2: Infrastructure sufficiency requirements

Mandatory?

Fuels

Objectives / Distance requirement

Yes

Electricity for vehicles

One recharging point per estimated ten electric vehicles (and for information purposes: at least every 60 km 1 on TEN-T Core Network)

Yes

CNG

At least every 150 km on TEN-T Core Network and one CNG refuelling point per estimated 600 CNG vehicles 2

Yes

LNG for vehicles

At least every 400 km on TEN-T Core Network

Yes

LNG for maritime vessels

Coverage of maritime ports with mobile or fix installations to enable the circulation on TEN-T Core Network

Yes

LNG for inland waterway vessels

Coverage of inland ports with mobile or fix installations to enable the circulation on the TEN-T Core Network

No

Hydrogen

At least every 300 km on TEN-T Core Network

In this assessment step, it is also captured if and how a Member State has undertaken the designation of densely populated areas to be equipped with public recharging/refuelling points.

1.2.2Measure assessment method

A key aspect of the Directive is that the Member States are asked to plan and adopt measures to support the achievement of the targets and objectives of their NPF. The Directive explicitly refers to measures targeting three different aspects:

·measures necessary to ensure that the national targets and the objectives contained in the NPF are reached,

·measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services,

·measures to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public.

The measures, defined by a Member State in its NPF, are assessed in terms of their adoption status, scope, and comprehensiveness 3 . For the adoption status, the following four categories are differentiated: existing, adopted but not yet in effect, in process of adoption, and under consideration. The scope of the measures consists of two dimensions: coverage and effect. Coverage is an indicator of the number or share of vehicles or refuelling/recharging points eligible to benefit from the measure. Effect is an indicator of how much a measure could influence the purchase or investment decision for a given alternative fuelled vehicle or refuelling/recharging point. In the analysis, each measure is assigned one of the following scores: low, medium or high. Financial and nonfinancial measures are considered in the assessment. The overall measure comprehensiveness is assessed by fuel and mode. Comprehensiveness indicates by how much the totality of measures for a given fuel and mode addresses various deployment barriers. The score for comprehensiveness is binary: comprehensive/not comprehensive.

Measures are assessed individually by fuel and mode. For a given fuel/mode pair and aim (support to attainment of targets, public transport, non-public recharging points), they are clustered and receive an overall score that can be low, medium or high.

a.Assessing Single Measures

The individual measures are assessed in terms of status and scope.

Measure status can take three values:

·Low (L): measure is under consideration,

·Medium (M): measure is adopted or in process of adoption,

·High (H): measure is in effect.

Measure scope is evaluated against two dimensions, i.e. coverage (maximum eligible number or share of infrastructure items or vehicles) and effect (quantification of the impact, e.g., change in cost versus no-measure case), as can be seen in the table below.

Table 1-3: Criteria for Determining the Scope of a Measure

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure

Alternative Fuels Vehicles

Coverage

Max number of recharging/refuelling points eligible

Max number/share of vehicles eligible

Effect (Financial Measures)

Investment Cost Difference versus no-measure case

TCO (=Total Cost of Ownership) or Cost Difference versus no-measure case

Effect (Nonfinancial Measures)

Qualitative

Qualitative

Coverage can be assessed for all measure types alike, whereas effect is defined in quantitative terms for financial measures only and needs to be assessed qualitatively for nonfinancial measures. All measures are assessed against both dimensions, coverage and effect, assigning them to one of the categories low/medium/high for each dimension. For coverage, category thresholds are defined based on the maximum number of refuelling/recharging points or vehicles eligible relative to the number of points or vehicles that need to be added to reach the Member States’ NPF targets. The thresholds for coverage have been defined as follows: number of refuelling/recharging points or number of vehicles (as share) in scope for measure (<10% low, 10% – 50% medium, >50% high). For the effect, for financial measures, thresholds are based on the % investment cost, TCO or purchase price decrease brought about by the measure (versus absence of measure). The corresponding threshold values for the likely impact on deployment or development decisions by market actors have been defined as follows: impact on TCO difference versus conventional benchmark vehicle or for infrastructure investment cost (<10% low, 10% - 50% medium, > 50% high). For nonfinancial measures, the effect is judged qualitatively.

Then, for each measure where evaluations could be derived for status, coverage and effect, its expected overall impact is assessed based on the three scores, as shown in the table below. Following the precautionary principle, the overall measure impact is determined by the lowest evaluation the measure has received regarding its three attributes status, coverage and effect. For example, if the measure has a high coverage and effect but is only under consideration (thus low adoption status), the overall measure assessment will be ‘low’ because it cannot be guaranteed that it will ever come into effect. Likewise, if its status is high (measure in effect) but the measure covers only few infrastructure items or has a low effect, its overall assessment will also be ‘low’. Overall measure assessment will be ‘high’ only if all three attributes are evaluated as ‘high’.

Table 1-4: Assessment of Expected Overall Measure Impact

Measure

Status

Scope

Overall Measure Assessment

Coverage

Effect

MF1,1,1

H

H

H

H

MF1,2,1

L

any

any

L

MF2,1,1

M

H or M

H or M

M

Figure 1-1 presents the flowchart for the assessment of a measure. The measures are clustered by

·type (indexed by i),

oMeasures necessary to ensure that the national targets and the objectives contained in the NPF are reached (Art. 3 (1) 3rd indent), labelled M1,

oMeasures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services (Art. 3 (1) 4th indent), labelled M2,

oMeasures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure (Art. 4 (3)), labelled M3,

·alternative fuel (indexed by j),

·and mode of transport (indexed by k).

The measures Mi,j,k are classified as financial (MF) and nonfinancial (MNF) measures. Each measure receives three scores: S1 for status, S2 for coverage and S3 for effect. While for financial measures, the scope assessments, i.e. scores S2 and S3, are obtained on the basis of quantitative indicators, for nonfinancial measures, only score S2 can be obtained quantitatively. For nonfinancial measures, the score S3 for effect is based on qualitative indicators. The measure scores S1, S2 and S3 can only be determined correctly where a complete set of information is available. As explained above, the overall measure score SO is the minimum value of the three scores.

Figure 1-1: Workflow of overall measure assessment

b.Overall Measure Score and Comprehensiveness

For each cluster, the maximum score of all individual overall measure scores (SO) is taken as the cluster score. As a consequence, if a Member State has defined for a given fuel/mode and aim cluster one measure with a high adoption status, high coverage, and high effect, the total score for the cluster would also be high. Comprehensiveness indicates by how much the totality of measures for a given fuel and mode addresses various deployment barriers. It will take into account whether both infrastructure and vehicles are addressed or just one of them, what part of the vehicle population is addressed (e.g. for cars, whether private cars, company cars, commercial cars or several groups are subject to measures), and if financial as well as nonfinancial incentives are provided for within a cluster. The score for comprehensiveness is binary: comprehensive/not comprehensive. The comprehensiveness assessment is independent of the measure score. It is possible that a Member State defines a very comprehensive package of measures addressing a cluster but the total score for all measures could be low.



2Methodology for the assessment of EU-wide impacts from all NPFs

Possible impacts of all NPFs combined on the following EU-wide goals are assessed: (i) achieving a minimum level of refuelling and recharging infrastructure across the EU including cross-border continuity and enabling market uptake of alternative fuels transport systems; (ii) support to the achievement of EU climate and energy objectives; (iii) improvement of air quality; (iv) strengthening the EU's competitiveness and jobs in the alternative fuels infrastructure sector.

To this end, the targets and objectives from the different Member States' NPFs were used as input to models and calculation tools in order to derive the estimated impacts. The following sub-sections provide an overview on the models and calculation tools employed. Annex B provides more details.

2.1Method to assess a minimum infrastructure across the EU

The aim of this evaluation step is to verify if there remain any gaps in the EU-wide availability of refuelling and recharging infrastructure. The analysis builds upon the infrastructure sufficiency assessment derived from the Member States’ NPFs. The results of this analysis are displayed through summary tables for infrastructure sufficiency, results of the measure assessment and selected maps for specific fuels/modes.

The EU-wide analysis is carried out in four steps:

·identifying potential within-country gaps, based on a summary of Member State analysis,

·identifying potential cross-border gaps along the TEN-T network, based on the information provided in the NPFs and the minimum requirements given in Table 1-2 for the mandatory fuels infrastructure,

·calculation of a normalised difference index in order to describe differences in infrastructure density between Member States (see Box 2-1),

·summarising information on countries which have chosen to provide hydrogen infrastructure in order to identify potential coherent areas with hydrogen availability.

Box 2-1: Calculation of normalised difference index to describe differences in infrastructure density between Member States

A quantitative description of differences of Member States’ recharging or refuelling infrastructure density is given by a normalized difference index (NDI), calculated as:

NDI = |I1-I2| / (I1+I2),

where I = Number of AFI / Number of km of road network for a country (here countries 1 and 2).

The index takes values between “0” in case of the same density of infrastructure in two countries and “1” in case one of the countries has no infrastructure. A threshold NDI value can be defined to identify important discontinuities in infrastructure density, e.g. NDI=0.2 which indicates that one state has a 1.5 times higher infrastructure density than its neighbour country.

2.2Method to assess the fostering of deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The estimates from the individual NPFs are combined in an EU-wide view. The individual estimates are normalised and expressed as the share of alternative fuels vehicles/vessels per total stock in each Member State. Maps are generated to check how coherent or divergent the estimates are at Union level.

2.3Method to assess the promotion of the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The information on the promotion of the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services from the individual NPFs is combined in an EU-wide view. The various priorities of the Member States' NPFs are listed. Coherence or divergence of promotion measures at Union level is qualitatively assessed.

2.4Method to assess the support to EU climate and energy objectives

The future alternative fuels vehicle/vessel estimates and infrastructure targets from the NPF of each Member State are used as exogenous projected fleet shares in fleet impact calculation tools. Their impacts in terms of CO2, other pollutant emissions, final energy mix for road transport, and reduction of fossil oil use are calculated versus an update of the EU Reference scenario 2016 without NPFs (so-called "scenario without NPFs") 4 .

For road transport the JRC fleet impact model DIONE 5 is used. It is a European Commission owned road transport fleet projection tool and has been used amongst others to support scenario work for the Communication on a European Strategy for low-emission mobility 6 . It allows analysing scenarios of future road vehicle stock, activity, energy consumption and CO2 as well as air pollutant emissions up to 2050. DIONE was developed for assessing transport and energy (policy) options, such as fleet emission targets, vehicle technology transitions, alternative fuels mixes, scrappage schemes, etc. It builds on a detailed and flexible representation of vehicle types, their activities and efficiencies. DIONE can be employed to run scenarios varying in vehicle stock, new registrations, survival rates, activity, efficiency, fuel pathways for Well-to-Wheel (WtW) energy consumption and emissions, biofuel admixture shares, and driving patterns.

Scenarios can be run for any single EU Member State (plus some extra neighbouring countries) and pre-defined groupings such as EU28, EU15 and EU12, but it is also possible to define custom scenarios for any region, city, country or other entity of interest.

DIONE baseline is calibrated on the scenario without NPFs , developed with the PRIMES-TREMOVE transport model by ICCS-E3MLab. Fuel consumption and emission calculation for internal combustion engine vehicles is based on the COPERT 7 road transport emission inventory software. For alternative fuels vehicles, an energy and emission calculation methodology has been developed which takes account of vehicle characteristics, trip lengths and speed distributions. For both energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, DIONE can provide real world Tank-to-Wheel (TtW) results up to the year 2050 as well as Well-to-Wheel (WtW) results up to 2030. Well-to-Tank (WtT) emissions for fuels are aligned to the JRC-EUCAR-CONCAWE WtT data 8 . For light-duty vehicles' CO2 emissions, type approval or real world values can be calculated. In this assessment only direct transport emissions, i.e. TtW results were considered.

For waterborne transport and stationary airplanes, emission reductions and energy impacts were taken from the NPFs if the Member State provided these data. If not, emission and energy use factors were used to calculate the respective impacts. For stationary airplanes, the factors were derived based on calculations using emission and energy factors from ICAO 9 (International Civil Aviation Organization). For shore-side electricity, factors were derived based on calculations from a study commissioned by DG Environment 10 . For LNG for ships, factors were derived based on calculations from a study commissioned by DG MOVE 11 .

The following key performance indicators are calculated and summarised for the snapshots 2020, 2025, and 2030: CO2 reduction and reduction of fossil oil use versus the scenario without NPFs. As not all Member States provide estimates and targets for all snapshot years, some of the estimate/target numbers had to be inter- or extrapolated. As a general rule, if an NPF does not contain estimates beyond a given year, it was assumed that the AF vehicle or vessel number stays constant beyond that year.

2.5Method to assess air quality improvements

The results on air pollutant emissions from the previous assessment step are used as input to subsequent calculations with the SHERPA (Screening for High Emission Reduction Potential on Air) model 12 in order to assess air quality impacts. The results are displayed as difference maps of main pollutants versus a reference scenario without NPFs.

The SHERPA tool has been developed by the JRC with the aim of supporting national, regional and local authorities in the design and assessment of their air quality plans. It particularly helps identifying the most efficient administrative scale for potential actions in a multi-level governance decision context. SHERPA allows for a rapid exploration of potential air quality improvements resulting from national/regional/local emission reduction measures.

The tool is based on simplified relationships between emissions and concentration levels, which can be used to answer the following questions:

   What is the potential for local action in my region?

   What are the priority activities, sectors and pollutants on which to take action?

   At which scale (national, regional, local, etc.) should I act to be more efficient?

The SHERPA tool is currently distributed with default EU-wide data for emissions and source-receptor relationships at 7x7 km2 spatial resolution. Current data refer to 2010, and are related to a specific EU-wide air quality model and emission inventory.

SHERPA is used to evaluate the impact of the NPFs on air quality. As the current spatial resolution of the SHERPA model is 7x7 km2, the focus is on the impact of NPFs on urban/regional background (i.e. not hot-spot) concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 in various areas in Europe.

2.6Method to assess the strengthening of the EU's competitiveness and jobs

A computational model was developed for calculating the value creation and employment effects resulting from AFI build-up as described in the NPFs. It outputs Member States' domestic as well as the EU-wide effects resulting from infrastructure production and installation. Types of infrastructure covered by the model include electricity recharging points and CNG, LNG and H2 refuelling points for road transport.

Calculating the Gross Value Added (GVA) through AFI build-up

Figure 2-1 shows a model flowchart for the calculation of the domestic economic effects of recharging point build-up in a Member State. For each infrastructure type and Member State, AFI build-up targets are derived in a first step, calculated as the target number of recharging or refuelling points minus present number as given in the NPF. Summed over Member States, the number of total planned AFI installations of each type in the EU results. For the different types of infrastructure, target years are given by the Directive. AFI build-up is assumed to be linear up to the target year (e.g., 2020 for recharging points), with no further growth assumed in later years.

Figure 2-1: Flowchart of Added Value and Employment Calculation

Annual numbers of new AFI installed are multiplied by their net market prices to derive the Gross Value of Production (GVP). As the market price of a technology includes all value added along the value chain, it is a reasonable proxy for the calculation of gross value of production added.

In a next step, the share of each Member State in the production and installation of AFI needs to be determined, and imports from outside the EU need to be deducted. As the share of imported preliminary products differs among economic sectors, the GVP is sub-split. This is done by assigning the different technological components of an AFI installation (and thus their costs) to different economic sectors, on the basis of data on the composition and prices of the different AFI types. Price information was taken from recent studies and industry sources 13 . AFI GVP is assigned to the following sectors (in line with Eurostat NACE Rev. 2):

Table 2-1: Economic Sectors Considered

Sector

Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

Computer, electronic and optical products

Electrical equipment

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

Repair and installation services of machinery and equipment

Constructions and construction works

Eurostat Sector Number

C25

C26

C27

C28

C33

F

For each of these sectors, the sectoral GVP is multiplied by the sectoral domestic production share, yielding the sectoral domestic GVA for each of the six sectors for the AFI type and Member State under consideration. By default, the sectoral domestic share in AFI production in each Member State is assumed to be equal to the Member State's present sectoral share of production value within the EU, which is derived from Eurostat data 14 . The model allows reallocating domestic production shares as well as import shares from outside the EU for scenario analysis.

The national GVA effect resulting in the sectors C25, C26, C27 and C28 from the production is allocated completely (adjusted by preliminary imports) to the producing country. The costs of installing a recharging or refuelling point, occurring in sectors C33 and F, is divided into a GVA effect in the producing country and the country that installs the infrastructure.

Summing over the sectors, the Member States' domestic GVA effect from the particular infrastructure type results. For each Member State, total sectoral GVA effect includes the domestic effect of own AFI installation and the Member States exports of preliminary products for AFI installation to other EU countries. The sum over all AFI types per Member State is the total national GVA effect from the EU-wide implementation of AFI targets as envisaged in the NPFs, and the sum over all Member States yields the EU-wide effect. AFI maintenance costs are included via a multiplier representing annual costs as percentage of total investment per facility.

Calculating the employment effect of AFI build-up

As shown in Figure 2-1, the employment effect of building a given type of infrastructure in each Member State is derived from domestic GVA per sector, dividing it by productivity. This yields the amount of person-years required to build the AFI envisaged in the NPF, which is assumed to translate into employment.

As labour productivity varies for each Member State and sector, this calculation is done on sectoral level. Data on the number of persons employed in the production of AFI is not available, thus productivities in the sectors contributing to AFI build-up (see Table 2-1) were used. These were derived by dividing each Member State's sectoral gross value added by the number of employed persons, both taken from Eurostat 15 .

The domestic employment effect is derived by aggregating over all sectors, and the EU-wide effect by then aggregating over all Member States.

Sensitivities and scenario analysis

The model allows for running scenarios on a wide number of parameters. These include, for example:

-The allocation of AFI production and installation, intra-EU and international,

-Technology costs and sectoral shares,

-Technology types, e.g. normal vs. high power, number of points per recharging or refuelling point, etc.,

-The time frame of AFI build-up, and

-Labour productivity.

3Overview of targets, objectives and level of attainment from all NPFs

This section provides an overview of the targets and objectives, the measure scores and comprehensiveness in the Member States' NPFs as well as the current level of attainment per Member State. By adoption date of this Staff Working Document, 26 Member States had notified their NPFs to the Commission 16 . However, the cut-off date for NPFs to be included in the technical analysis of this Staff Working Document was 1 October 2017. By that time 24 Member States had notified 17 . The analysis in this Staff Working Document concentrates hence on the NPFs submitted by the cut-off date.

The Commission started infringement procedures against the Member States that did not sent their NPF to the Commission and against one Member State, the NPF of which did not contain any targets for alternative fuels infrastructure.

Figure 3-1 gives a high-level overview on the compliance of the NPFs with the requirements of the Directive.

Figure 3-1: Compliance of NPFs with requirements of the Directive

Besides the two Member States 18 that have not sent their NPF to the Commission, 16 Member States 19 have not defined alternative fuels infrastructure targets for all mandatory fuels/modes or do not meet all requirements of article 3 of the Directive and the Commission will consider the option to start infringement procedures also against these Member States.

From the analysis of the NPFs it becomes evident that they are not coherent at Union level. The NPFs are diverging in view of prioritising different alternative fuels. They feature very different ambition levels across Member States both in terms of projected future development of alternative fuels and their corresponding infrastructure. In general, the future estimates and targets are much lower than what was used as a basis for the proposed Directive. Even with low ambition, very few NPFs define sufficient corresponding targets for alternative fuels infrastructure. The adoption status and likely impact of support measures seems too low as to ensure that the national targets and objectives contained in the NPFs are reached. All this can lead to an emerging market fragmentation at EU level and even within certain Member States.

Table 3-1 gives an overview of the infrastructure targets sufficiency and level of attainment. Two NPFs 20 do not contain targets for publicly accessible recharging points, four 21 do not contain targets for CNG refuelling points, and six 22 do not contain targets for LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles along the road TEN-T Core Network. Four 23 NPFs do not contain targets for LNG refuelling points at maritime ports and three 24 do not contain targets for LNG refuelling points at inland ports.

Table 3-1: Overview of infrastructure targets sufficiency and level of attainment 25  



Table 3-2 provides an overview of vehicle/vessel future estimates and the current status of attainment.

Table 3-2: Overview of vehicle/vessel future estimates and current status 26  

Table 3-3 gives an overview of the measure scores and their comprehensiveness.

Table 3-3: Overview of measure scores and comprehensiveness

 

4Overall Contribution of NPFs to EU policy targets

This section describes the results of the analysis for important EU policy targets. It covers the aspects that are directly targeted by the scope of the Directive (alternative fuels infrastructure and vehicles/vessels) as well as other targets to which the Directive contributes as one initiative among other policies in place.

4.1Ensuring the build-up of a minimum alternative fuels infrastructure in the EU 

Recharging points

Figure 4-1 summarises the information for the targeted publicly accessible recharging points and EV estimates per NPF as well as the current attainment level. Almost all NPFs define targets for publicly accessible recharging points. However, only seven NPFs (Cyprus, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands and Portugal) define a target that would ensure at least one publicly accessible recharging point per 10 electric vehicles for 2020. For the Member States that provide future EV estimates, the ratio of electric vehicles per publicly accessible recharging point ranges from 5 (in Latvia) to 32 in the different NPFs. The planned targets, which are ambiguously defined in some cases, also fall significantly short of the originally proposed targets that were used for the impact assessment of the proposed Directive. The current attainment level for the 2020 targets of publicly accessible recharging points, calculated as the ratio between current and targeted recharging points ranges from 1% to 88%.

Figure 4-1: NPFs' 2020 recharging point targets and EV estimates, level of attainment 27  

The maps in Figure 4-2 show how the ratio of publicly accessible recharging points deteriorates in almost all Member States from today until 2020, when the targets for recharging points and EV estimates materialise.

Figure 4-2: Overview of recharging point sufficiency index per Member State, current (left) and 2020 (right).

Coverage of the TEN-T network largely seems to be progressing well, the distance targets being usually met. Some portions of the road TEN-T Core Network will remain without appropriate recharging infrastructure, according to the NPFs. The map in Figure 4-3 shows the assessment results for TEN-T Core Network coverage with recharging points by 2025.

Figure 4-3: Overview of recharging point sufficiency to ensure appropriate coverage of the TEN-T Core Network by 2025.

From the analysis of the NPFs recharging point targets, it becomes evident that they are not coherent at Union level. The NPFs are diverging in their ambition levels vis-à-vis the deployment of recharging points accessible to the public. Table 4-1 shows the normalised difference index for the density of recharging point targets using the total road network of an MS. The table reveals big differences between neighbouring Member States regarding their density of recharging point targets. If the normalised difference index is also interpreted as an indicator for cross-border continuity in the sense that the level of infrastructure density varies a lot across borders, the following cross-border continuity issues can be identified: Austria/Czech Republic, Belgium/France, Czech Republic/Germany, Germany/Denmark, Germany/Netherlands, Germany/Poland, Spain/France, Spain/Portugal, France/Luxembourg, Croatia/Hungary, Lithuania/Latvia, Lithuania/Poland, Netherlands/UK. Because of the lacking Greek and Romanian NPF, no normalised difference index can be calculated for Bulgaria.

Table 4-1: Normalised difference index for recharging point targets (2020) 28 .

CNG refuelling points

Some NPFs (Germany, Luxembourg, and Netherlands) express a pessimistic view on the viability of CNG for road, while others (Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Italy) consider this as a priority. Several Member States, especially the ones that currently have a rather high number of CNG refuelling points in comparison to CNG vehicles on the road, state that they have no plans to support a further increase of CNG refuelling infrastructure. The 2020 planned ratio of CNG vehicles to refuelling points ranges from 1,000 to 100, the target attainment level as of today, calculated by dividing the number of currently available CNG refuelling points by future targets, varies between 0 and 100%. Figure 4-4 provides an overview of the 2020 targeted CNG refuelling points accessible to the public and CNG vehicle estimates per NPF as well as the current level of target achievement.

Figure 4-4: NPFs' 2020 CNG refuelling point targets and CNG vehicle estimates, level of attainment 29  

The maps in Figure 4-5 show the sufficiency index for the current situation and for the 2020 targeted CNG refuelling infrastructure accessible to the public. A ratio of at least one publicly accessible CNG refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles in a given Member State is considered sufficient. 14 Member States (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, France, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and UK) did not provide any CNG vehicle estimates for the future. For these, the sufficiency index could not be calculated. Out of these thirteen Member States, three (Bulgaria, Cyprus, and Sweden) did not provide any targets for CNG refuelling points accessible to the public.

Figure 4-5: Overview of CNG refuelling point sufficiency index per Member State, current (left) and 2020 (right).

Table 4-2 shows the normalised difference index for the density of CNG refuelling point targets using the total road network of an MS. The table reveals big differences between neighbouring Member States regarding their density of CNG refuelling point targets. If the normalised difference index is also interpreted as an indicator for cross-border continuity in the sense that the level of infrastructure density varies a lot across borders, the following cross-border continuity issues can be identified: Belgium/Germany, Belgium/France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Czech Republic/Poland, Germany/Denmark, Germany/France, Germany/Luxembourg, Germany/Poland, France/Italy, Poland/Slovakia. Because of the lacking Greek and Romanian NPF, no normalised difference index can be calculated for Bulgaria.

Table 4-2: Normalised difference index for CNG refuelling point targets (2020) 30 .

LNG

LNG for heavy-duty vehicles is covered by 19 NPFs and initial steps to ensure adequate TEN-T coverage are taken. However, according to the NPFs, appropriate coverage of the road TEN-T Core Network with LNG refuelling points is not guaranteed. Several Member States mention the need of further technical developments of LNG heavy-duty vehicles (e.g. longer driving ranges). Moreover, several Member States plan to review their LNG refuelling infrastructure targets after performing further market and cost-benefit analyses.

According to the NPF, a total of 379 LNG refuelling points will be deployed across Europe. The map in Figure 4-6 shows the results of the assessment for the sufficiency of LNG refuelling points along the road TEN-T Core Network. The picture is very much dominated by the lack of or insufficient 31 LNG refuelling targets for heavy-duty trucks in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden. This leads to insufficient coverage of the road TEN-T network crossing these countries and consequently cross-border issues with all their neighbouring Member States.

Table 4-3 shows the normalised difference index for the density of LNG refuelling point targets using the road TEN-T Core Network of an MS. Because of the lacking Greek and Romanian NPFs, no normalised difference index can be calculated for Bulgaria. The table reveals big differences between neighbouring Member States regarding their density of LNG refuelling point targets along the road TEN-T Core Network. If the normalised difference index is also interpreted as an indicator for cross-border continuity in the sense that the level of infrastructure density varies a lot across borders, the following cross-border continuity issues can be identified: Austria/Hungary, Austria/Italy, Belgium/Germany, Czech Republic/Germany, Germany/France, Germany/Luxembourg, Germany/the Netherlands, Finland/Sweden, Croatia/Hungary, Hungary/Slovakia, Latvia/Lithuania, and Latvia/Estonia.

Figure 4-6: Results of the assessment for the sufficiency of LNG refuelling points along the road TEN-T Core Network.

Table 4-3: Normalised difference index for LNG refuelling point targets along the road TEN-T Core Network (2025) 32 .

Based on the targets provided in the NPFs, it is evident that some portions of the road TEN-T Core Network will remain without LNG refuelling infrastructure. In particular, attention should be paid to the Southern part of the Atlantic Corridor and LNG cross-border continuity Spain/Portugal, the Southern part of the Scandinavian Mediterranean Corridor, the central and Eastern part of the Mediterranean Corridor, the entire Orient-East-Mediterranean Corridor, and the Baltic part of the North-Sea Baltic Corridor.

The maps in Figure 4-7 show the results of the assessment for the sufficiency of LNG refuelling points in TEN-T Core Network maritime ports (left map) and LNG refuelling points in TEN-T Core Network inland ports (right map). The plans to deploy LNG in maritime and inland ports vary between high ambition (Finland, Hungary, Italy) and no consideration, leaving a number of ports without any solution for LNG refuelling. For most of the inland waterway corridors the coverage of LNG refuelling will likely be inadequate according to the targets of the NPFs.

Figure 4-7: Results of the assessment for the sufficiency of LNG refuelling points in TEN-T Core Network maritime ports (left map) and LNG refuelling points in TEN-T Core Network inland ports (right map).

Some NPFs aim at exploiting synergies between CNG, LNG and road and waterborne transport.

Electricity for stationary airplanes and shore-side electricity

Shore-side electricity and electricity supply for stationary airplanes are scarcely covered in the various NPFs and very few NPF contain any targets or measures for an increase of these alternative fuel sources.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is included in 14 NPFs 33 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and UK) and some Member States, for example Germany, have defined ambitious targets for hydrogen infrastructure. The map in Figure 4-8 shows the targets for hydrogen refuelling points across Member States by 2025 and Figure 4-9 gives an overview of the 2025 hydrogen refuelling point targets per NPF and current level of target achievement. First steps towards deployment of hydrogen vehicles and refuelling infrastructure are taking place, however it can be noted that while in central Europe hydrogen refuelling infrastructure will be deployed this will not be the case in North Eastern Europe.

Figure 4-8: NPF targets for hydrogen refuelling points for 2025

Figure 4-10 shows the maximum distance between hydrogen refuelling points that would be achieved, when they are evenly distributed on the road TEN-T Core Network within each Member State, if the 2025 targets of the NPFs are achieved. For most of the Member States that have defined targets for hydrogen refuelling the maximum distance would be, by a large margin, below 300 km.

Figure 4-9: NPFs' 2025 hydrogen refuelling point targets, level of attainment 34  

Figure 4-10: Maximum distance of hydrogen refuelling points for 2025 when evenly distributed on road TEN-T Core Network within Member States (according to NPF targets)

(1) http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC97690/eur_27468_en_online_v3.pdf This value is derived from field test data from various EU countries and it can be reasonably assumed that it would remove range anxiety concerns. See for more details: JRC (2015) Individual mobility: From conventional to electric cars. Available at:  
(2)  Current average ratio in Member States between conventional vehicles and gasoline/diesel refuelling point is 600 to one (one fuel station typically has several refuelling points).
(3) Here, only the measures that target one of the three above described aspects are assessed.
(4)  The scenario without NPFs builds on the Baseline scenario of the Impact Assessment accompanying the Proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/62/EC on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (SWD (2017) 180), and thus on the EU Reference scenario 2016, but excludes the incentives for alternative fuels provided at the Member State level. It has been developed with the PRIMES-TREMOVE model (i.e. the same model used for the EU Reference scenario 2016) by ICCS-E3MLab.
(5)  For more information see: Thiel, C., Drossinos, Y., Krause, J., Harrison, G., Gkatzoflias, D. and A.V. Donati (2016), Modelling electro-mobility: an integrated modelling platform for assessing European policies. Transport Research Procedia, DOI: http://10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.341 ; Harrison, G., J. Krause, & C. Thiel (2016), Transitions and impacts of passenger car powertrain technologies in European member states. Transport Research Procedia, DOI: http://10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.418
(6)  Communication on "A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility" [COM(2016)501] and accompanying Commission Staff Working Document [SWD(2016)244]
(7)  For more information see: http://emisia.com/products/copert  
(8) http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/about-jec/downloads For more information see:  
(9) The following factors were used: gate/position primarily used for short haul flights: yearly avoidance through the use of ground power and air climate units (replacing airplane's auxiliary power units(APU)): fuel -350t, CO2 -1080t, NOx -3.1t, PM10 -0.11t, HC -0.1t, CO -1.4t each per year and gate/position; for long haul flights: fuel -986t, CO2 -3037t, NOx -7.9t, PM10 -0.13t, HC -0.5t, CO -0.7t each per year and gate/position; for unspecified gate/position use the average of the values was taken. Basic energy/emission factors for APU use were taken from ICAO, Doc 9889 (2011), page 3-A1-24.
(10) The following factors for yearly fuel use/emission changes were used: for berths primarily used for small ships: electricity used: 1255MWh, MGO (marine gasoil) avoided: 285t, CO2 -653t, NOx -14.8t, PM -0.35t, VOC -0.49t; for medium ships: electricity used: 3482MWh, MGO avoided: 791t, CO2 -1811t, NOx -41.1t, PM -0.96t, VOC -1.36t; for large ships: electricity used: 8971MWh, MGO avoided: 2038t, CO2 -4665t, NOx -105.9t, PM -2.48t, VOC -3.49t. All calculated from European Commission – DG ENV (2005). Service Contract on Ship Emissions: Assignment, Abatement and Market-based Instruments - Task 2a – Shore-Side Electricity.
(11) The following factors for yearly fuel use/emission changes were used: for ferries: LNG: 38000m3, MGO avoided: 18037t, CO2 -14348t, NOx -859t, SO2 -177t, PM10 -12.6t, CH4 +786t; for cruise ships: LNG: 90824m3, MGO avoided: 43110t, CO2 -34293t, NOx -2052t, SO2 -424t, PM10 -30.1t, CH4 +1879t; for cargo ships: LNG: 10,000m3, MGO avoided: 4747t, CO2 -3776t, NOx -226t, SO2 -47t, PM10 -3.3t, CH4 +207t. All calculated from European Commission – DG MOVE (2015). Study on the Completion of an EU Framework on LNG-fuelled Ships and its Relevant Fuel Provision Infrastructure - Lot 3 - Analysis of the LNG market development in the EU.
(12) http://aqm.jrc.ec.europa.eu/sherpa.aspx  For more details see:
(13)

 Steer Davies Gleave (2016), Clean Power for Transport Infrastructure Deployment. Final Report, Study on behalf of European Commission, DGMOVE/2015 VIGIENo 495; Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (2016), Vergleich von CNG und LNG zum Einsatz in Lkw im Fernverkehr, Abschlussbericht; Information from the German National Platform Electromobility (NPE) and e-mobil BW, Germany.

(14)

 Total imports and EU-internal imports for each Member State are available from Eurostat at http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?wai=true&dataset=nama_10_exi , input-output tables for all member states based on http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/de/web/esa-supply-use-input-tables/data/workbooks .

(15)

 Annual enterprise statistics for special aggregates, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database .

(16) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.
(17) Slovenia and Greece notified after the cut-off date.
(18) ,Malta and Romania.
(19)  Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, and Slovakia.
(20)  Spain and Sweden.
(21)  Bulgaria, Latvia, Portugal, and Sweden.
(22)  Cyprus, Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Sweden.
(23)  Cyprus, Denmark, Ireland, and Sweden.
(24)  Czech Republic, Portugal, and Sweden.
(25)  Level of attainment is expressed as current status divided by future target (in %).
(26) Future estimate expressed as share of AFV per total (current) stock; "estimate reached" expressed as current number of AFV divided by future estimate (both in %).
(27)  Member states ordered by their estimated number of EV for 2020 (from high to low). When the right column (recharging points) is at least as high as the left column (EVs), the ratio of publicly accessible recharging points per EV is at least one to ten. No data available for the member states that did not notify their NPF to the Commission by 1st October 2017 (Greece, Malta, Romania, Slovenia).
(28)  Only for member states with a joint border or major ferry connections between one another. “0” means maximum coherence of targets, “1” means minimum coherence of targets.
(29)  Member states ordered by their estimated number of CNG vehicles for 2020 (from high to low). When the right column (refuelling points) is at least as high as the left column (CNG vehicles), the ratio of publicly accessible refuelling points per CNG vehicle is at least one to 600. No data available for the member states that did not notify their NPF to the Commission by 1st October 2017 (Greece, Malta, Romania, Slovenia).
(30)  Only for member states with a joint border or major ferry connections between one another. “0” means maximum coherence of targets, “1” means minimum coherence of targets.
(31)  In view of guaranteeing a maximum distance of at least 400 km between LNG refuelling points on the TEN-T Core Network
(32)  Only for member states with a joint border or major ferry connections between one another. “0” means maximum coherence of targets, “1“ means minimum coherence of targets.
(33)  The Danish NPF discusses hydrogen but does not commit to infrastructure targets for hydrogen.
(34)  Member states ordered by their targeted number of hydrogen refuelling points for 2025 (from high to low). No data available for the member states that did not include hydrogen targets in their NPF (Cyprus, Estonia, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia) and the ones that did not notify their NPF to the Commission by 1st October 2017 (Greece, Malta, Romania, Slovenia).
Top

Brussels,8.11.2017

SWD(2017) 365 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Detailed Assessment of the National Policy Frameworks

Accompanying the document

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSISON TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

Towards the broadest use of alternative fuels - an Action Plan on Alternative Fuels Infrastructure under Article 10(6) of Directive 2014/94/EU, including the assessment of national policy frameworks under Article 10(2) of Directive 2014/94/EU

{COM(2017) 652 final}


5.4.4 5.4.4 Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

5.4.5 5.4.5 Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3

5.4.6 5.4.6 Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered

5.4.7 5.4.7 Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

5.4.8 5.4.8 Conclusions and possible recommendations

5.5 5.5 Czech Republic

5.5.1 5.5.1 Description of the MS

5.5.2 5.5.2 Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted

1

2

3

4

4.1


4.2Fostering the deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels in the EU

Electric vehicles

Electric vehicles seem to be a priority for most Member States, but the estimates for future deployment vary a lot across Member States, with estimated 2020 shares ranging between 0.1% and 9.2% of the vehicle stock in the different Member States, with Luxembourg having the highest estimated share in the future. The current attainment level for these estimates, calculated as the ratio between current status and 2020 estimate, ranges for the NPFs that provided EV estimates from 0.2% to 83%. The map in Figure 4-11 shows the 2020 estimated shares of electric vehicles according to the NPFs.

Figure 4-11: NPFs' 2020 estimated shares of electric vehicles

Support measures are an important enabler to ensure the achievement of NPF targets and objectives are reached. They are very diverse across the NPFs. Also their adoption status varies a lot. As a good example, France can be mentioned in the field of electro-mobility as it has defined a very comprehensive portfolio of support measures, most of them already in place with a high likelihood to impact market actors' decisions towards electro-mobility. In some Member States the adopted measures or the ones in process of adoption may not create the impact necessary to achieve the NPF targets and objectives. Ten NPFs (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Sweden, and Slovakia) have not considered any measures to also encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public. The maps in Figure 4-12 provide an overview of support measures that aim at ensuring that the national targets and the objectives contained in the NPF are reached (left map: measures targeting the deployment of recharging points accessible to the public; right map: measures to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public).

Figure 4-12: Support measures for recharging points (left map: measures targeting the deployment of recharging points accessible to the public; right map: measures to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public)

Natural gas vehicles and vessels

For CNG vehicles, the divergence across Member States is even more evident than in the case for electric vehicles. Many NPFs do not give any numbers for future estimates and for the ones that provide estimates, the future share varies between 0.05% and 3.3% in 2020, with Italy having the highest projected share. For some Member States, this effectively means a reduction in CNG vehicles on the road versus today. The current attainment level for the future CNG estimates, calculated as the ratio between current status and 2020 estimate, varies between 0.2% and 100%. The map in Figure 4-13 shows the NPFs' 2020 estimated shares of CNG vehicles (left map) and support measures for the deployment of CNG refuelling points accessible to the public. The score and comprehensiveness of the support measures are more or less consistent with the view that the Member States express vis-à-vis the viability of CNG vehicles.

 

Figure 4-13: NPFs' 2020 estimated shares of CNG vehicles (left map); support measures for the deployment of CNG refuelling points accessible to the public

Only six of the NPFs contain estimates for LNG heavy-duty vehicles, and only Italy provides these for LNG vessels. Figure 4-14 shows the score and comprehensiveness of the support measures targeting the deployment of LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles.

Figure 4-14: Support measures for the deployment of LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles

Figure 4-15 shows the score and comprehensiveness of the support measures targeting the deployment of LNG refuelling points in maritime ports (left map) and inland ports (right map).

 

Figure 4-15: Support measures for the deployment of LNG refuelling points in maritime ports (left map) and inland ports (right map)

Many Member States did either define no measures or defined only measures with a likely low impact on the deployment of LNG refuelling points. This indicates, as also explicitly expressed in various NPFs, reliance on EU funds (for example Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)) for the deployment of an appropriate network of LNG refuelling both for heavy-duty vehicles and ships.

Hydrogen vehicles

Deployment of hydrogen vehicles will be linked to the availability of refuelling points. Only Bulgaria, Spain, Hungary and Netherlands provide numbers for future estimates and for those the future share will be less than 0.1% in 2025, with Italy having the highest projected share of 3.3%.

4.3Promoting the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

Most of the NPFs contain the definition of measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services. Depending on the Member States, they target different fuels, for example covering electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, and biofuels. They also target different modes, for example, rail, buses, taxis, and car sharing. The support measures promoting the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services contained in the Dutch, French, and UK NPF can be considered as good examples. Two Member States (Cyprus, Lithuania) did not consider any measures to promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services. Figure 4-16 shows the results of the assessment for the support measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

Figure 4-16: Support measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

4.4Increasing the EU energy security supply

The analysis of the NPFs reveals that, by 2020, 0.4% of fossil oil-based fuels could be displaced by alternative fuels relative to a scenario without NPFs. By 2030, this number would increase to 1.4%. MS with ambitious NPFs can reduce their fossil oil use much more. For instance, a reduction of 13% could be achieved in Austria by 2030 relative to a scenario without NPF.

4.5Contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport

Given the overall low ambition level of the AFI targets and corresponding AF vehicle/vessel (AFV) estimates contained in the NPFs, the contribution of the NPFs to the 2030 energy and climate policy objectives is low. Several NPFs do not provide AFV estimates beyond 2020. As a consequence of the NPFs, CO2 emissions from transport could be reduced by 0.4% by 2020 and 1.4% by 2030 compared to a scenario without NPFs. Action is needed to put the contribution of alternative fuels back on track for a meaningful impact on GHG emissions reductions from transport and minimising the EU's dependence on oil. MS with ambitious medium to long-term plans can serve as a proxy for showing what is possible. For Austria, for example, the CO2 emissions improvements caused by its NPF could lead to a 13% transport CO2 emissions reduction by 2030 relative to a scenario without NPF.

4.6Improvement of air quality

The low level of ambition of the NPFs also leads to rather small impacts in terms of air quality (see Figures 4-17 to 4-20). For NOx emissions from transport, the reduction caused by the NPFs would be around 0.37% by 2020 and 1.5% by 2030 compared to a scenario without NPFs. For PM2.5, the emissions would reduce by 0.44% by 2020 and 1.9% by 2030. For the most ambitious MS (Austria and Ireland), the reduction can lead to up to a 0.8% improvement in NO2 concentrations and a 0.26% improvement in PM2.5 concentrations by 2020 in certain areas, relative to a scenario without NPF. For 2030, this improvement can reach up to a 5.8% reduction in NO2 concentrations and a 2.1% reduction in PM2.5 concentrations in these MS. It can be positively noted that urban and suburban agglomerations, currently at highest risk to violate EU air quality targets, benefit over proportionally from air quality improvements as a result of the NPFs.

Figure 4-17: Reduction in PM2.5 concentrations versus a scenario without NPFs in the EU (2020)

Figure 4-18: Reduction in PM2.5 concentrations versus a scenario without NPFs in the EU (2030)

Figure 4-19: Reduction in NO2 concentrations versus a scenario without NPFs in the EU (2020)

Figure 4-20: Reduction in NO2 concentrations versus a scenario without NPFs in the EU (2030)

4.7Strengthening EU competitiveness and jobs

Effects of AFI infrastructure build-up were calculated using the model described in Section Error! Reference source not found.. The model was run using AFI-build-up targets for the different road transport AFI types (recharging points, CNG, LNG and H2 refuelling points). Table 4-4 shows the EU-wide value added and labour demand that can be achieved by fulfilling the 2020 NPF targets for publicly accessible recharging points and CNG refuelling points as well as the 2025 targets for LNG and H2 refuelling points announced in the NPFs. Total value-added up to 2025 sums up to 2.5 billion EUR with annual effects ranging from 135 to 475 million EUR. The economic effect is strongest for the period up to 2020, as this is the target year for recharging point and CNG infrastructure build-up. From 2021 to 2025, the ongoing installation of LNG and H2 creates a smaller economic benefit.

Table 4-4: Gross Value Added (GVA) and Employment Effects of Implementing the AFI targets for 2020 and 2025

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

Total

GVA (Mio EUR)

429

444

459

474

135

139

143

147

151

2,519

Employment (person-years)

7,745

8,048

8,341

8,641

2,625

2,705

2,784

2,863

2,943

46,693

The total effect on labour demand amounts to roughly 47,000 person-years until 2025, again with higher effects of around 8,000 person-years annually up to 2020 and then lower numbers of less than 3,000 person-years until 2025. This shows that the question to what extent AFI build-up can contribute to a sustained growth in employment depends to a large extent on the future build-up of infrastructure beyond 2020/2025. A calculation of the impacts of the further 2030 AFI targets announced by some Member States in their NPFs shows that even with only few Member States continuing to invest, a level of around 5,000 person-years can be maintained throughout 2030. Additional employment effects could be triggered by the substantial deployment of private recharging points (not accessible to the public) that several NPFs refer to. In conclusion, a consistent EU-wide build-up of infrastructure could trigger a sustained positive employment effect, and could contribute to translating the temporary extra labour demand resulting from NPF plans into permanent jobs. Moreover, respective qualification of workforce, which is more likely to occur in the presence of longer-term targets, can support the maintenance or increase of domestic shares in AFI production and installation. This again can have a positive impact on the EU sector's competitiveness.



5Full Assessment of Member States' NPFs

Each Member State NPF assessment contains at the end a one-to-two page summary with the main results of the assessment. Each summary contains a tabular overview of the current status of AF vehicles/vessels and their corresponding infrastructure, the future estimates for AF vehicles/vessels as well as the corresponding future targets for AF infrastructure. It also contains an assessment of the sufficiency of the defined targets and a qualitative assessment of the defined support measures.

Tabular overview explanations

 

AF Vehicles / Vessels

Publicly accessible AF Infrastructure

Measures

Fuel / Vehicles or Vessels / targets year

Current situation

Future Estimate

Future share (%)

Estimate reached (%)

Current situation

Target

Target attain-ment (%)

Sufficiency (Index)

Score

Compre-hensive-ness

Current

Future

Electricity / vehicles / 2020

Number of registered AF vehicles retrieved from EAFO in March 2017 (unless otherwise stated), AF vessels always from NPF

Estimate of future AF vehicles or vessel (according to NPF)

Future share in percent: calculated by dividing the future estimate (previous column) by total number of vehicles/vessels in Member State

Attainment of estimate (in percent): calculated by dividing the current situation (2016) by future estimate

Number of publicly accessible recharging/refuelling points available, retrieved from EAFO in March 2017 (unless otherwise stated), port infrastructure always from NPF

Target of publicly accessible recharging/refuelling points (according to NPF)

Attainment of target (in percent): calculated by dividing the current situation (March 2017) by future target

Number of EV per publicly accessible recharging point

H-High, M-Medium, L-Low score. X-nothing assessable defined For details see SWD

c-comprehensive, n-not-comprehensive. For details see SWD

CNG / vehicles / 2020

Number of CNG vehicles per publicly accessible CNG refuelling point

LNG / heavy-duty vehicles / 2025

Assessment of coverage (distance for road modes)

OK – sufficient

(OK) – seems sufficient, not all information provided in the NPF

i- insufficient

X – nothing defined/considered

LNG / seagoing ships / 2025

LNG / inland waterway vessels / 2030

H2 / vehicles / 2025

Other fuels

5.1Austria

5.1.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Austria is 1,084 km and the length of motorways is 1,719 km. The length of the total road network in Austria is 35,356 km.

The following lengths of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in Austria: 15% (559 km) of the Baltic - Adriatic Corridor, 3% (142 km) of the Orient / East Mediterranean Corridor, 2% (110 km) of the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor and 11% (485 km) of the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Austria is connected with the following Member States:
- Czech Republic (through the Baltic - Adriatic and the Orient / East Mediterranean Corridor),

- Slovakia (through the Baltic - Adriatic and the Rhine - Danube Corridor),

- Slovenia (through the Baltic - Adriatic Corridor),

- Italy (through the Baltic - Adriatic and the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor),

- Germany (through the Scandinavian - Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor) and

- Hungary (through the Orient / East Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

In July 2016, according to the Austrian NPF, Austria had 4,793,759 registered passenger cars. In 2015, it had 6,503,883 registered road vehicles of all types (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). The present situation of few AFV on Austrian roads, with for example less than 0.2% of electric passenger cars, is regarded by Austria as insufficient and in need of improvement.

Number of main agglomerations

·6 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·No maritime ports

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Austria is connected with Germany and Slovakia through the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Vienna/Schwechat)

·6 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.1.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the Austrian NPF is already existing and future extension is proposed. They cover a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers. The number of proposed measures is high and is covering various fuels and modes. The Austrian NPF puts a lot of emphasis on electric vehicles. The measures are presented in a well-structured and logical manner. They are often very limited in time and budget, although extension is foreseen for most of them. This could be perceived by market actors as a lack of predictability in terms of stability of support measures.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.1-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

13,338

2,486

64,000 – 175,000

3,500 – 4,700

930,000 – 1,700,000

Electricity for stationary airplanes

42

42

42

42

CNG for vehicles

6,165

173

171

171

171

LNG for road

1-2

LNG for inland ports

1-2

H2 for road

20

3

5

3-5

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points, *excluding L-category vehicles

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.1-2. Checklist results

5.1.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.1-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

5.37

18.3-37.3

-

-

CNG for vehicles

35.64

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.1-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, with 5.37, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, depending of the scenario, the range of values 18-37 of the index suggests that the targeted number of recharging points in the Austrian NPF may be insufficient. The Austrian NPF objectives for 2020 contain a network of 500-700 high power recharging points and 3,000-4,000 normal power recharging points.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points presented in the provided map and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled, already today. The Austrian NPF assumes that there will be one private recharging point available per EV. It also declares that the recharging infrastructure development beyond 2020 will depend on market needs.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Austrian NPF states that because of the current good coverage for recharging points in Austria no urban/suburban agglomerations were designated for the targets. Nevertheless, the Annex contains a map with the current recharging points and it is visible that the 6 urban agglomerations with more than 50,000 inhabitants, Wien, Graz, Linz, Salzburg, Innsbruck, and Klagenfurt are currently well covered with publicly accessible recharging points.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Austria's airport in the TEN-T Core Network, Vienna Schwechat, has according to the NPF, 42 fixed ground power units and several mobile ground power units. Other Austrian airports have mobile ground power units. As a minimum target, the Austrian NPF states that is aims at preserving the existing infrastructure.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF mentions that Austria has a basic network of shore-side electricity supply, without giving specific details. Future analysis will be performed under the "Aktionsprogramm Donau des bmvit 1 bis 2022".

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.1-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. The NPF is sceptical about future potential for CNG and foresees no further increase of CNG refuelling points except in Tirol. The currently available 171 public CNG refuelling points in Austria could probably support up to approximately 100,000 CNG cars on Austrian roads.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points presented in the provided map and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km is fulfilled, already today.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Austrian NPF states that because of the current good coverage for CNG refuelling points in Austria no urban/suburban agglomerations were designated for the targets. Nevertheless, the Annex contains a map with the current CNG refuelling points and it is visible that the 6 urban agglomerations with more than 50,000 inhabitants, Wien, Graz, Linz, Salzburg, Innsbruck, and Klagenfurt are currently well covered with publicly accessible CNG refuelling points.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

At country level, a target of 1-2 LNG refuelling points is foreseen, depending on market demand. Dual use LNG refuelling for vessels and heavy-duty trucks are proposed. The NPF mentions for the locations the port of Linz or Enns-Ennsdorf (TEN-T Core Network) and possibly the port of Vienna (TEN-T Core Network). If both LNG refuelling points were realised this would guarantee that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on Austrian territory.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Not applicable since Austria has no maritime ports.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

A target of 1-2 LNG refuelling points at Austrian inland ports is foreseen, depending on market demand. Dual use LNG refuelling for vessels and heavy-duty trucks are proposed. The NPF mentions for the locations the port of Linz or Enns-Ennsdorf (TEN-T Core Network) and possibly the port of Vienna (TEN-T Core Network).

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

A target of 5 hydrogen refuelling points is established for 2020. Currently, 3 hydrogen refuelling points are already in operation in Vienna, Linz and Innsbruck. For the future deployment, coordination will be sought with neighbouring countries to ensure besides appropriate coverage of urban/suburban agglomerations also an appropriate hydrogen infrastructure along the TEN-T Corridors.

5.1.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A main focus of the Austrian NPF is on electric vehicles. It estimates a share of roughly 1.3% - 3.7% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. Until 2030, this share is estimated to increase to levels between 20 and 35%. For any of the other alternative fuels or transport modes the Austrian NPF does not specify any future estimates for alternative fuels and vessels. Altogether, it can be concluded that the Austrian NPF is based on the assumption that electric vehicles will gain in importance while other alternative fuels and vessels remain niche products until the 2020 time-frame.

5.1.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Austrian NPF contains a big portfolio of measures. Most of the measures are already in effect, and their prolongation is considered. According to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for electric and CNG vehicles as well as alternative fuels in public transport services. For many EV targeted support measures, the eligibility is linked to the use of 100% renewable electricity, a useful provision for ensuring zero WtW emissions. Bicycle and electric bicycle deployment are also supported. For the other fuels and modes, the assessment score is low. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can indeed address many of the deployment barriers and as a consequence the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive. Since many of the measures are already existing and receive a medium score at least for electric vehicles, it can be derived that the Austrian NPF seems to have defined appropriate measures in order to attain the defined targets and objectives of the NPF. A large amount of support measures are only approved for one year at a time or a budget appropriation that is likely to be depleted within a given year. Although extension is foreseen for most of them, this could be perceived by market actors as a lack of predictability in terms of stability of support measures.

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that most measures presented address electric vehicles, which is one important focus of the Austrian NPF. A 2016 change in the rules for company car tax treatment triggered in 2016 a surge in battery electric vehicle registrations, which were mainly registered as company cars.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Austrian NPF contains several measures in this category, covering AFI and AFV, all fuel types and two modes of transport (road and rail). The measures for public road transport are already in effect and prolongation is considered. They were assessed as having a medium score.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Austrian NPF contains measures in this category, amongst others financially supporting the investment costs of building privately accessible recharging points. The measures for the promotion of deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure are already in effect in several of the Austrian Bundesländer and prolongation is considered. They were assessed as having a medium score.

5.1.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Austrian NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned. The NPF explicitly mentions stakeholder consultation, workshops, and a public consultation that were carried out during its drafting. A coordination committee on "Clean energy in transport" will be set-up in order to ensure follow-up of the implementation actions, future coordination among authorities and advice from stakeholders.

5.1.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Austria has cooperated with other member states through different fora. The NPF mentions a spring 2016 coordination meeting with Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Italy and Croatia; Austrian participation in the STF; and its participation in the Government support group on alternative fuels (led by NL, and DE).

5.1.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Austrian NPF fully addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. For all fuels and modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive.

The Austrian NPF puts a lot of emphasis on electric vehicles and contains, with more than 1.3% share by 2020, high estimates for the future deployment of EV, when compared with its current EV shares (0.3%). Austria has already today a relatively dense network of public recharging points. Eligibility for several support measures for EV is contingent on 100% renewable electricity contracts. This ensures zero emission electro-mobility also under a well-to-wheel perspective. Austria, already today, has a significant number of electric buses, some powered via overhead lines. Bicycles and electric bikes as well as their infrastructure also receive support. Regarding electricity supply for stationary airplanes, the Austrian NPF commits to maintaining the current infrastructure. For shore-side electricity the NPF mentions ongoing studies to study the possible extension of the basic existing network.

Today, the spatial distribution of recharging points and especially fast recharging infrastructure seems to appropriately cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of distance requirements in Austria. For the future, the targeted ratio of only one public recharging point per 18-37 electric vehicles estimated for 2020 could evolve to become a barrier for the further market deployment of electric vehicles. This could also lead to market fragmentation within the EU. It will be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments.

Austria currently has a sufficient network of CNG refuelling points. However, the Austrian NPF displays a sceptical view on the future prospects of CNG vehicles and does not foresee additional investments in CNG refuelling infrastructure.

Depending on market demand, 1-2 dual use LNG refuelling points for vessels and heavy-duty trucks are proposed in the NPF. If both LNG refuelling points were realised, this would guarantee that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on Austrian territory.

The Austrian NPF considers hydrogen for transport and targets a slight increase of hydrogen refuelling points.

The Austrian NPF contains a very comprehensive list of measures, most already in place and their prolongation foreseen. Most of them can be considered having a medium impact on market actor's decisions. Longer periods for their validity could provide certainty for market actors and hence increase the likelihood that the national targets and objectives of the NPF can be reached. The NPF contains a comprehensive list of support measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

The consideration of the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as stakeholders during the drafting of the Austrian NPF can be considered exemplary. Further coordination is planned in order to ensure follow-up of the implementation actions, collaboration among authorities and advice from stakeholders.

Austria is actively involved in coordinating its plans on alternative fuels infrastructure with other Member States as well as collaborating with them in this field.

5.2Belgium

5.2.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Belgium is 828 km and the length of motorways is 1,763 km. The length of the total road network in Belgium is 16,341 km.

The following lengths of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in Belgium: 5% (214 km) of the North Sea - Baltic Corridor, 18% (253 km) of the Rhine - Alpine Corridor and 12% (508 km) of the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Belgium is connected with the following Member States:
- Germany (through the North Sea - Baltic and the Rhine - Alpine Corridor)

- Netherlands (through the North Sea - Baltic and the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor)

- Luxembourg (through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor)

- France (through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

At the end of 2015, according to the Belgian NPF, Belgium had 5,661,742 registered passenger cars. In 2015, it had 6,396,720 registered road vehicles of all types (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). The present situation of few AFV on Belgian roads, with approximately 0.16% AFV in the passenger car fleet, is regarded by Belgium as insufficient and in need of improvement.

Number of main agglomerations

·11 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·8 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·10 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·4 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·no maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Belgium is connected with France through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor, and with the Netherlands through the North Sea - Baltic and the North - Sea Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 airports in the TEN-T Core Network (Brussels, Liège)

·2 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.2.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The measures listed in the Belgium NPF differ for the three different regions (Flemish Region, Walloon Region, and Brussels Capital Region). A number of measures are defined at the federal level and apply for all three regions. The majority of measures in the Belgian NPF is already existing and foreseen to stay in place. They cover a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers. The number of proposed measures is high and is covering various fuels and modes. The Flemish Region provides significant subsidies for the purchase of electric vehicles; the Walloon Region has defined few measures, and the Brussels-Capital Region emphasises the role of public transport. The measures are presented in a well-structured and logical manner. The level of support varies greatly across the three regions. This could lead to very different deployment levels of alternative fuels throughout Belgium.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.2-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

21,102

1,715

86,641

8,324

SSE for sea-going vessels

9

11

12

14

SSE for inland shipping

329

513

595

Electricity for stationary airplanes

Present

CNG for vehicles

4,285

58

42,581

333

LNG for road

2

2-14

LNG for maritime ports

3

>=4

>=4

>=4

LNG for inland ports

0

2

3

H2 for road

21

3

22

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points, SSE = Shore-side electricity

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.2-2. Checklist results

5.2.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.2-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

12.30

10.40

-

-

CNG for vehicles

61.40

127.90

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.2-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, according to the Belgian NPF, with 12.3, the index does not reach the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, the value 10.4 of the index suggests that the targeted number of recharging points in the Belgian NPF may be insufficient. This even more so as in 2020 the sufficiency threshold would largely be missed in the Walloon region (14.4) and Brussels Capital region (13.2). The Belgian NPF objectives for 2020 contain a network of 8,324 recharging points accessible to the public.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points presented in the provided maps, the distance calculations shown for the Walloon region, and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km will be fulfilled. The Belgian NPF does not contain targets for recharging infrastructure development beyond 2020.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Belgian NPF contains maps with information on planned recharging point deployment. According to this information, it can be assumed that the urban/suburban agglomerations in Belgium will be well covered with publicly accessible recharging points, although the ratio between estimated EV and targeted recharging points may give rise to concerns (see previous sub-section).

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Belgium's two airports in the TEN-T Core Network, Brussels and Liège, have according to the NPF, fixed ground power units and mobile ground power units. No plans are foreseen to increase these numbers.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF mentions that Belgium already has a network of shore-side electricity supply. A further increase of shore-side electricity is planned in most of the ports of the TEN-T Core Network.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.2-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. The NPF foresees a further increase of CNG refuelling points. The 2020 CNG infrastructure target clearly passes the sufficiency threshold value for the estimated CNG vehicles on Belgian roads in the same year.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points presented in the provided map and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km is fulfilled, already today, except for the A4 motorway which is part of the North Sea / Mediterranean Corridor. However, the number of planned CNG refuelling points gives confidence that the distance requirement should be met probably before 2025.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

Although the Belgian NPF does not explicitly identify urban/suburban agglomerations for CNG infrastructure coverage, it can be assumed that the deployment of the targeted CNG refuelling points should ensure appropriate coverage.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

At country level, a target of 14 LNG refuelling points is mentioned as the result of a sector survey. Only the location of two of the LNG refuelling points is indicated, the ports of Antwerp and Oostende. These two LNG refuelling points could ensure that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on Belgian territory.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

LNG refuelling is foreseen for all Belgian maritime ports of the TEN-T Core Network by 2025. Truck-to-Ship bunkering is already available today in several ports.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

LNG refuelling points are planned for several Belgian inland ports. Currently, nothing is planned for the ports of Liege and Namur.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

A target of 22 hydrogen refuelling points is established for 2020, the majority (20) are foreseen in the Flemish Region. Currently, one public hydrogen refuelling point is in operation at Zaventem near Brussels. For the future deployment, coordination will be sought with the Benelux countries to ensure besides appropriate coverage of urban/suburban agglomerations also an appropriate hydrogen infrastructure along the TEN-T Corridors.

5.2.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A main focus of the Belgian NPF is on electric and CNG cars. It estimates a share of roughly 1.5% electric cars and 0.8% CNG cars on the road in 2020. The Belgian NPF does not contain any estimates beyond 2020. For any of the other alternative fuels or transport modes the Belgian NPF does not specify any future estimates for alternative fuels and vessels.

5.2.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Belgian NPF contains a portfolio of different measures. Most of the measures are already in effect. They vary a lot by region. The Walloon Region has identified only few support measures. For the entirety of the Belgian NPF, according to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for electric and CNG vehicles as well as alternative fuels in public transport services. For the Brussels-Capital Region, electric bicycle deployment is also supported. For the other fuels and modes, the assessment score is low. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can indeed address many of the deployment barriers and, as a consequence, the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive. Since many of the measures already exist and receive a medium score at least for electric and CNG vehicles, it can be derived that the Belgian NPF seems to have defined appropriate measures in order to attain the defined targets and objectives of the NPF. The different levels of support in the three Belgian regions could lead to a certain market fragmentation within the country.

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that most measures presented address electric vehicles, which is one important focus of the Belgian NPF. The new market share of EV in Belgium more than doubled from 2015 (0.76%) to 2016 (1.74%). This can possibly be attributed to the zero-emission purchase premium that was introduced in the Flemish region in 2016.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Belgian NPF contains a very comprehensive set of measures in this category, covering mainly electric AFI and AFV. The measures cover buses, car sharing, park & ride, and electric taxis. Most measures for public road transport are already in effect. They were assessed as having a medium score.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Belgian NPF contains measures in this category, amongst others financially supporting the investment costs of building privately accessible recharging points. Several of the measures for the promotion of deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure are already in effect. In the Brussels-Capital Region, there is an obligation to foresee public and private recharging point installations at parking areas. The region considers widening the scope of this measure. The totality of measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure were assessed as having a medium score.

5.2.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Belgian NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned. The NPF explicitly mentions an interdepartmental transversal government working group that coordinated the drafting of the NPF. A National Steering Group on electric vehicles, since 2011, involves stakeholders to make recommendations regarding the introduction of electro-mobility in Belgium. From 2010 to 2014, eight sessions were held in the context of the Belgian Platform for Electric Vehicles and Alternative Fuels to discuss about alternative fuels in Belgium.

5.2.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Belgium has cooperated with other Member States through the Benelux regional cooperation. Other neighbouring Member States, such as France or Germany are not explicitly mentioned.

5.2.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

* - 2020

The Belgian NPF fully addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains tables of the current state and future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles in the transport sector. For all fuels and modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive.

The Belgian NPF puts a lot of emphasis on electric cars. It contains high estimates for the future deployment of EV with an estimated roughly 1.3% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. Today, the spatial distribution of recharging points seems to appropriately cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of distance requirements in Belgium. For the future, the targeted ratio of less than one public recharging point per 10 electric vehicles estimated for 2020 could evolve to become a barrier for the further market deployment of electric vehicles, especially in the Walloon and Brussels-Capital Region. This could also lead to market fragmentation within the EU. It will be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. Belgium has also defined ambitious targets for electric buses, especially in the Brussels-Capital Region. Other initiatives for electrifying public transport, such as taxi fleets and carpooling are presented in the Belgian NPF. Electric bikes as well as their infrastructure also receive support. The Belgian NPF contains targets for further increasing shore-side electricity in its ports but no plans to increase the electricity supply for stationary airplanes.

The Belgian NPF sees a growing role for CNG cars. It contains modest estimates for the further evolution of CNG cars, with an estimated share of 0.6% on the road in 2020. Belgium has today a sufficient network of public recharging and CNG refuelling points.

LNG refuelling is planned for all maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network and several inland ports. Furthermore, at least 2 LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles are targeted in the ports of Antwerp and Oostende. According to the results of a sector survey, that is mentioned in the NPF, these targets could be significantly exceeded. Altogether, the planned LNG refuelling points could guarantee that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on Belgian territory.

The Belgian NPF displays a strong commitment towards hydrogen. The deployment of 19 publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling points in addition to the three existing is planned.

The Belgian NPF contains a comprehensive list of measures, most already in place and foreseen to stay. Most of them can be considered having a medium impact on market actor's decisions, especially for electric and CNG cars as well as electrification of public transport. The measures listed in the Belgian NPF differ for the three different regions (Flemish Region, Walloon Region, and Brussels Capital Region). A number of measures are defined at the federal level and apply for all three regions. The level of support varies greatly across the three regions. This could lead to a certain market fragmentation within the country.

The consideration of the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as stakeholders during the drafting of the Belgian NPF is evident throughout the text of the NPF.

Belgium is actively involved in coordinating its plans on alternative fuels infrastructure with the Benelux countries and is collaborating with them in this field. It may be advisable to extend this cooperation effort also towards other neighbouring countries such as France and Germany.

5.3Bulgaria

5.3.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Bulgaria is 1,507 km and the length of motorways is 605 km. The length of the total road network in Bulgaria is 7,615 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Bulgaria is 18% (960 km) of the Orient / East Mediterranean Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Bulgaria is connected with Romania and Greece through the Orient / East Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2016, Bulgaria had 3,661,849 registered passenger cars in traffic use, out of which, 3,013,863 registered passenger cars. Presently around 6% AFV are driving on Bulgarian roads, out of which 0.08% of passenger cars are electric.

Number of main agglomerations

·Bulgaria has 18 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·4 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Bulgaria is connected with Romania through the Rhine-Danube Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Sofia)

·4 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Burgas, Gorna Orjahovitsa, Plovdiv and Varna)

5.3.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The Bulgarian long-term goal (after 2030) is to deploy electro-mobility, to use natural gas widely as standard fuel and to start deployment of hydrogen for transport. Accordingly, Bulgaria has put in place a corresponding legislative framework to support the use of alternative fuels. The majority of measures described in the Bulgarian NPF are legislative, regulatory, or administrative measures, necessary for the transposition of the Directive. Bulgaria makes use of European financial instruments (JESSICA and Regional Development Fund), as well as EC Regional Policy Operational Programmes and cross-border cooperation via the INTERREG programme in order to achieve conditions comparable to those MS that are more advanced in the deployment of alternative fuels and their infrastructure. Bulgarian organisations participates in many EU funded RD&D actions.

The NPF describes, in a well-structured and logical manner, a large number of possible measures to enhance the deployment of electro-mobility, hydrogen and natural gas vehicles and infrastructure. However, many of these measures will only be considered after stakeholder consultation, impact assessments, and cost-benefit analyses.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.3-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

58 (EAFO)
2,337 (NPF)

22 (EAFO) 43 (NPF)

35,000

2,500

70,000

6,000

130,000

9,000

Shore-side electricity supply

31

Electricity for stationary airplanes

1 airport

CNG for vehicles

80,875

105

LNG for road

3

1

2

4

LNG for inland ports

0

1

2

LNG for maritime ports

1

LPG

140,409

2,900

H2 for road

0

0

50

4

400

10

900

50

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points,

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the requirements of the Directive are only partly covered.

Regarding the deployment of an appropriate network of electric recharging points the Bulgarian NPF does not contain any designation of urban/suburban agglomerations to be equipped with recharging points. Moreover it is not clear if measures are defined to promote the development of private recharging infrastructure in Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian NPF does not contain any designation of urban/suburban agglomerations to be equipped with CNG refuelling points. In the Bulgarian NPF, the number of refuelling points for CNG and for LNG to be put in place along the TEN-T Core Network is not defined. The NPF just mentions that priority will be given for the construction of NG refuelling points along the TEN-T Corridors. Moreover, the NPF does not contain targets for LNG refuelling points at maritime and inland ports.

Table 5.3-2. Checklist results

5.3.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.3-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

2.64

14.00

12.00

14.00

CNG for vehicles

770.24

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.3-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. The Bulgarian NPF provides targets for the recharging network in 2020, 2025 and 2030. For 2020, the value 14 of the index is above the threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point and suggests that the targeted number of recharging points may be insufficient and this situation will be maintained in 2025 and 2030.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points available at the Bulcharge platform ( www.bulcharge.com ) and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is not fulfilled. The NPF considers that it is necessary to plan the potential places for installing recharging points adopting a rule that ensures points to be located at a distance no more than 100 km from another along the major roads. Hence, there is the risk that the distance between recharging points may be too large, possibly leading to range anxiety for BEV drivers.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Bulgarian NPF does not contain any designation of urban/suburban agglomerations to be equipped with recharging points.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Sofia's airport in the TEN-T Core Network provides power supply and pre-conditioned air from stationary facilities installed at the aprons of Terminal 2. Terminal 1 supplies electricity from Mobile Ground Power Units but without pre-conditioned air. Other airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Burgas, Gorna Orjahovitsa, Plovdiv, Varna) neither provide fixed electrical ground power nor pre-conditioned air system. At present, no analysis has been made at national level to assess the necessity and economic justification of stationary facilities.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

In Bulgaria, shore-side electricity supply is a technical service provided at public ports by the port operators. The capability to provide this service is part of the "certificate of fitness for operation" issued to the port.

The Bulgarian maritime ports and port terminals where ships are supplied with electricity have even geographical distribution. There are 7 maritime ports and port terminals (of national and regional importance) that provide shore-side electricity; among them Burgas port at the TEN-T Core Network and Varna at the Comprehensive Network.

There are 13 inland ports and port terminals (of national and regional importance) in which shore-side electricity supply is available. Ruse and Vidin of the TEN-T Core Network and the 4 ports and terminals of the TEN-T Comprehensive Network provide shore-side electricity.

The Bulgarian NPF acknowledges that "seeing that many of the Bulgarian ports have installations for the supply of shore-side electricity, the needs for modernisation of such installation should be investigated with regard to the possibilities for simultaneous supply of all vessels in the ports and the required power both total and at each point depending on the needs, the type and the size of the ships visiting the ports. As a result of this study the priorities for repair and construction of points should be identified, and the construction of the required equipment should be effected in compliance with the relevant standards. These technical requirements and standards should be reflected in the Bulgarian legislation". Accordingly the installations for shore-side supply of electricity to maritime transport, deployed or renewed after 18 November 2017, must comply with the technical specifications stipulated in Article 4(6) of the Directive.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

The Bulgarian NPF does not contain targets for CNG refuelling points. The currently available 110 public CNG refuelling points leads to a sufficiency index value of 770 and does not meet the sufficiency threshold of at least one refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points presented in the map at http://cngeurope.com/countries/bulgaria/ , it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km is fulfilled in most parts of the country, however not across the entire Bulgarian territory and not along the TEN-T Core Network.

The NPF recognises that the number of CNG refuelling points is insufficient along the TEN-T Corridors on the territory of Bulgaria and establishes as priority building infrastructure for CNG and LNG along the transport corridors of the TEN-T Network in Bulgaria by 2020.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Bulgarian NPF does not contain any designation of urban/suburban agglomerations to be equipped with CNG refuelling points. The distribution of the CNG refuelling points is relatively evenly through Bulgaria, with lower level of density in North-western Bulgaria and the Rila-Rhodope region. The NPF declares that in the period 2020-2025 emphasis should be placed on building CNG infrastructure in those areas.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

There is one LNG refuelling point in the Port of Ruse terminal, which was recently opened in the frame of the LNG Masterplan Rhine-Main-Danube ( http://www.lngmasterplan.eu/ ). The LNG terminal, part of a pilot project, is equipped with a truck refuelling point and a pontoon to be used for future refuelling of inland vessels as well as combined LNG/CNG refuelling points for trucks. Other terminals will be built in Sofia and Plovdiv over the next 3 years.

The NPF declares that "it is imperative to study the regional and national demand for liquefied natural gas for the needs of road transport before proceeding with the construction of refuelling points". It does not contain targets for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network. However the Bulgarian NPF affirms that, during the period 2020 to 2025, a greater focus will be placed on developing the CNG/LNG infrastructure on the motorway network (including TEN-T) and that in the period 2025-2030 the activities should be aimed at increasing the density of the distribution network for LNG and at promoting new technologies in the field of transport with alternative fuels.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

At present, no LNG refuelling infrastructure is in place on the premises of the Bulgarian maritime ports. In the NPF it is just affirmed that "the required LNG refuelling points is Bulgarian maritime ports are to be built by 31 December 2025". The NPF sets as priority the port of Burgas in the TEN-T Core and possibly Varna in the Comprehensive Network, however the decision on locations and deadlines for construction still depends on a study of the market needs and cost-benefit analysis to be prepared.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

At present no LNG refuelling infrastructure is in place on the premises of Bulgarian inland ports. Within the LNG Masterplan Rhine-Main-Danube ( http://www.lngmasterplan.eu/ ) a terminal has been built in the Port of Ruse, although it is not yet operative. The Bulgarian NPF just declares that "the required LNG refuelling points in Bulgarian inland ports are to be built by 31 December 2030". The NPF sets as priority the ports of Ruse and Vidin in the TEN-T Core and possibly Lom, Oryahavo, Silistra, Svishtov in the Comprehensive Network. However, the decision on locations and deadlines for construction still depends on a study of the market needs and a cost-benefit analysis to be prepared.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Bulgaria considers hydrogen as a way of integrating renewable energy sources in transport and has included hydrogen in its NPF. Three potential applications have been identified: fuel cell fork-lift trucks, water transport, and road transport.

Bulgaria will explore the possibilities to establish a national network of hydrogen refuelling points based on various mobility scenarios. The aim is to develop a strategy that is the most adequate to the Bulgarian economic conditions. The building of the first hydrogen refuelling point at the port of Burgas is at initial stage, other locations (Sofia, Stara, Zagora, Ruse) will be considered in the long term. The forecast of the Bulgarian Academy of Science is at least one point in operation and one point under construction after 2020 and four refuelling points in operation by 2030. The Bulgarian Electric Vehicle Industrial Cluster ( http://www.emic-bg.org ) considers a more optimistic scenario with four points by 2020, ten by 2025 and 50 by 2030. The NPF declares that the required infrastructure will be established in Bulgaria with a targeted distance between hydrogen refuelling points of about 200 km.

There are plans to establish at the port of Burgas a hub for cruise ships and to introduce fuel cell powered ships in the nature conservation areas in the region. An association has been formed for the implementation of this plan by Delphin Varna Shipping, Municipality Burgas, Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems — Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Regional Strategies – Burgas. Furthermore, there is the idea of constructing a hydrogen maritime ferry line linking Constanţa (Romania) with Varna and Burgas in Bulgaria and with Istanbul (Turkey).

5.3.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The key principle underlying the Bulgarian NPF is the technological neutrality in the sense that the public sector should not support only one type of alternative fuels. The implementation of the national policy will be done, on the other hand, with those technologies that are at the threshold of commercial use and for which the active policy of the state would bring the greatest added value (according to the NPF: electro-mobility and natural gas) as well as with technologies that are currently at the stage of testing/pilot projects but which could still benefit from the governmental support in the short run at least until the stage of semi-commercial use (hydrogen/fuel cell) is reached. In the Bulgarian NPF estimates for deployment of alternative fuels vehicles are only provided for electric and for hydrogen fuel cell cars.

The NPF considers that: "development of electro-mobility in Bulgaria should not be perceived in terms of electricity quickly replacing conventional transport fuels. Rather it is to be seen as an evolutionary process in which various fuels, including alternative ones, will be used in different market segments, complementing rather than competing with one another". Attention should currently focus on hybrid vehicles (that could provide sufficient range, leveraging the existing conventional fuels distribution network), also taking into account that the price of such vehicles is lower than those powered solely by electricity or hydrogen. Accordingly, Bulgaria estimates a share of 1% electric vehicles in 2020, 2% in 2025 and 4.3% in 2030, consisting of PHEV with an electric range of at least 40 km. For hydrogen vehicles, the ambition level is lower (estimate of 400 vehicles in 2025 that will represent 0.01% and 900 vehicles in 2030 accounting for a 0.028%).

The NPF declares that: "at present the natural gas vehicle market in Bulgaria is relatively well developed but the trends for its future are unfavourable". With more than 2% CNG vehicles on its roads, Bulgaria is among the Member States with the highest share of natural gas vehicles. Nevertheless, the NPF states that, in practice, the CNG market is in standstill and there is no new demand due to both the lack of offer of CNG models and the disadvantageous price of CNG compared to LPG fuel.

Although no targets have been set for LNG heavy-duty vehicles, the Bulgarian NPF says that in the period 2020-2025 it would be necessary to support investments in a fleet of HDV and buses running on LNG.

LPG is broadly used in Bulgaria in road transport with currently a 3.74% share of LPG fuelled cars of the total number of cars. The NPF does not contain any future projections of the market development for LPG vehicles nor infrastructure.

5.3.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Bulgarian NPF contains a total of 29 measures; however, many are just targeting transposition provisions of the Directive outside the scope of Article 3 or are very vaguely defined. 25 measures are in effect and 4 under consideration. This, according to the assessment methodology, leads to low overall assessment scores for most of the fuels, modes and measure types addressed. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (for example budget) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

Support measures in support to the deployment of AFV, contained in the Bulgarian NPF, comprise tax incentives for electric and for CNG vehicles. Also free parking in" blue zones" for electric vehicles is granted in several Bulgarian cities. However these measures do not significantly influence the AFV total cost of ownership and there is risk that these measures might not be sufficient to ensure attainment of the targets and objectives of the NPF.

Lower excises duties than for petrol or diesel are applied to CNG and LPG, and biofuels are exempt from excise duties. There is at present a considerable number of CNG and LPG propelled vehicles on the Bulgarian roads. However, from the data presented in the NPF it does not seem that, in the future, these measures will have a sustained impact on the market of those AFV or increase the use of biofuels.

From the Bulgarian NPF it is not clear whether measures to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public (private electro-mobility infrastructure) are in place or will be taken in the future. In the NPF, it is proposed to encourage the installation of recharging infrastructure through direct investment, fiscal incentives and administrative facilitation measures. The scope and content of such measures (result of the correspondent impact assessment and cost-benefit analysis) it is not yet specified.

To support achievement of its targets and objectives Bulgaria relies on European Commission policies for regional development, in particular the Operational Programmes "Environment", "Rural Development", "Competitiveness and Innovation", and "Science and Education for Smart Growth", Structural Funds, the European financial instrument JESSICA. Moreover, Bulgarian organisations participate in many EU funded RD&D actions.

Bulgaria plans to co-finance projects for building infrastructure for compressed and liquefied natural gas along the transport corridors of TEN-T Network making use of Cohesion Funds, in particular through the Connecting Europe Facility as well as through funds under cross-border cooperation programmes (INTERREG) with other Member States. The achievement of Bulgarian targets is therefore linked to the availability of European funds to finance CEF, Regional development and RD&D programmes.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Bulgarian NPF contains 6 measures in this category, covering AFI and AFV, all fuel types and mainly road transport. Two measures relate to public procurement: e.g. pilot projects for the use of electric buses in the city of Sofia and the use of Jessica funds for urban transport and infrastructure. Similarly, funds from the EU Regional Policy Bulgarian Operational Programmes "Environment" and "Regions in Growth" could be used in projects to respectively reduce pollution of public transport and to build refuelling and recharging infrastructure that would serve public transport services. Due to their low status (projects under consideration) and due to a lack of financial information, these measures were assessed as having a low score.

In addition, Bulgaria has put in place two regulatory measures concerning public transport: the most relevant is the Energy from Renewable Sources Act and the National Action Plan for Energy Sources that lays down the commitments and responsibilities for municipalities that should consider biofuel and energy from renewable sources in transport services within their area of responsibility. The second one refers to the requirement of electric (PHEV and BEV) taxis to be painted in green.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

From the Bulgarian NPF it is unclear if measures are defined to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public (private electro-mobility infrastructure). The NPF just mentions a project that envisages the construction of recharging infrastructure and the provision of electric vehicles for shared use by occupants of residential building with an indicative budget of approximately 150 k€ per location; although it is not clear whether the budget comes from public, private or public-private shared funds.

5.3.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Bulgarian NPF does not explicitly mention consultation with regional and local authorities. It seems that the interests of the stakeholders concerned have been taken into account, at least for the deployment of electric vehicles and recharging infrastructure for which the proposals of the Electric Vehicles Industrial Cluster and the Bulgarian Electric Vehicles Association are presented in the NPF. The Bulgarian NPF recognises the need of involving industrial associations and municipalities for deployment of hydrogen vehicles and refuelling infrastructure and the benefit of public-private partnerships to help creating a market and demand of CNG.

5.3.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Bulgaria cooperates with Romania through the INTERREG V-A cross border cooperation programme (2014-2020), which finances activities under different priority axes. One requirement for eligibility of proposals is that it must contribute to the development of refuelling infrastructure for alternative fuels.

Coordination is mentioned in the Bulgarian NPF in the case of the planning of a hydrogen maritime ferry line linking Constanta (Romania) with Varna and Burgas in Bulgaria and with Istanbul (Turkey). Regarding NG refuelling points, cooperation is foreseen with candidate countries (Serbia) and along the TEN-T through the Connecting Europe Facility. It can be concluded that for these fuels Bulgaria shows intentions to cooperate with the neighbouring countries to ensure EU-wide circulation.

5.3.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Bulgarian NPF addresses only part of the requirements of Article 3 of the Directive. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. However, the NPF does not contain any designation of urban/suburban agglomerations to be equipped with recharging points and with CNG refuelling points. In the Bulgarian NPF, the number of refuelling points for CNG and for LNG to be put in place along the TEN-T Core Network is not defined. Bulgaria intends to develop an alternative fuels infrastructure network that it is considerate of the Bulgarian economic conditions with lower initial investments and minimised risks in the first years.

The Bulgarian NPF recognises that electrification of the propulsion of vehicles could contribute to the development of environmentally friendly road transport in Bulgaria however in a long term perspective. Bulgaria expects a rather rapid deployment of electric vehicles, mainly PHEV. It estimates the share of EV in Bulgaria to be roughly 1% by 2020. For electric recharging infrastructure, the current situation, with 22 publicly accessible recharging points, is sufficient. The Bulgarian targets for the recharging network in 2020, 2025 and 2030 might not be enough if the estimates for electric vehicles in Bulgaria are met. It may be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. The NPF does not contain concrete targets to increase the availability of electricity supply for stationary airplanes. For shore-side electricity it focuses on plans for modernising the existing infrastructure.

Bulgaria has already today a relatively dense network of CNG refuelling points in parts of the country and the NPF foresees that this will further grow to cover the complete Bulgarian territory and the Bulgarian part of the TEN-T Corridors. The Bulgarian NPF does not contain future estimates for the number of CNG vehicles.

It has a target of 4 LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles, which is insufficient to ensure appropriate coverage of the TEN-T Core Network on Bulgarian territory.

The Bulgarian NPF contains some targets for LNG bunkering infrastructure for inland and seagoing vessels. Building of the bunkering infrastructure is to a certain extent dependent on the availability of European funds.

Bulgaria considers hydrogen technologies as a way of integrating renewable energy sources in transport and has included hydrogen in its NPF. The NPF estimates the share of hydrogen vehicles to be around 0.01% by 2025 in Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian NPF is based on a well-defined legislative framework and on investment support that to some extent relies on European Union co-funding instruments and Cohesion Funds. The NPF contains large number of possible initiatives with support measures to enhance the deployment of electro-mobility, hydrogen and natural gas vehicles and alternative fuels infrastructure, also for public transport. All these measures, if implemented, could help overcome deployment barriers. Since most of these measures are still only under consideration, there is a certain risk that the national targets and objectives of the NPF may not be reached.

The Republic of Bulgaria, in its NPF, declares interest to cooperate with the neighbouring countries to ensure EU-wide circulation of vehicles and vessels, especially for natural gas. It may be advisable to extend this cooperation also for the other fuels and modes.



5.4Cyprus

5.4.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Cyprus is 156 km and the length of motorways is 257 km. The length of the total road network in Cyprus is 4,767 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Cyprus is 3% (138 km) of the Orient / East Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2015, Cyprus had 472,692 registered passenger cars and 653,774 registered road vehicles of all types. Presently only very few (< 0.05%) AFV are driving on Cypriot roads.

Number of main agglomerations

·2 cities > 50,000 inhabitants - Nicosia, Limassol (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·No inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·No inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network (Limassol)

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Larnaca)

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Larnaca)

·1 airport in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Paphos)

5.4.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The NPF mentions that, for the future development and further penetration of alternative fuels in transport, a study entitled “Technical Assistance in order to assess and formulate recommendations for the promotion and penetration of alternative fuels in the transport sector” conducted by the German organisation Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH is currently being carried out. The results of this study will be used to identify the most efficient scenario for promoting the use of alternative fuels in transport, initially by 2020 and by 2030 at a later stage, taking account of the impact on other sectors, such as electricity, and on environment. New plans, measures and programmes for other alternative fuels and necessary infrastructure on the basis of the results of the study will be decided at a later stage.

The NPF contains the description of 16 support measures. The Cyprus NPF has as main objective the introduction of electricity in road transport, the set of corresponding measures being assessed as comprehensive with a medium score.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.4-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

75

36 (EAFO) 32 (NPF)

100-2000

100

>100

>100

CNG for vehicles

0

LNG for road

0

LNG for inland ports

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

LNG for maritime ports

0

H2 for road

0

LPG

for road

64 (NPF)

>20

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Public Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points. Besides electricity, not enough data are provided concerning the other alternative fuels current or future vehicle and infrastructure situation. The NPF mentions that plans, measures and programmes for these alternative fuels will be decided based on the results of studies that are still ongoing.

The NPF mentions the current use of fuels in Cyprus being: 57% petrol, 41.5% diesel and 1.5% biodiesel.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the requirements of the Directive are to a large extent not covered.

Table 5.4-2. Checklist results

5.4.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.4-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

2.08

1 - 20

CNG for vehicles

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

The current sufficiency index IS for electricity infrastructure is 2.08 meeting the assessment threshold by a large margin but the value of the index for 2020 depends on the scenario for the number of electric vehicles. The large range of provided values makes the assessment difficult. The exact spatial distribution is not presented in the NPF but details are provided regarding the number and maximum distance in between the planned recharging points along the road segments of the TEN-T Core and Comprehensive Network for 2020. The distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled since the declared maximum distances between points are lower than 55 km.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

On this matter, the Cypriot NPF contains sufficient information. Four municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (Nicosia, Strovolos, Limassol and Larnaca), 7 municipalities with more than 2,000 inhabitants and 3 communities with more than 250 inhabitants are designated in the NPF for equipment with electric recharging points (25 normal power and 2 high power).

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The NPF mentions the Department of Civil Aviation intends to examine the possibility of installing electricity supply for stationary airplanes at the airports of Larnaca and Paphos in the end of 2017. Cost-benefit studies and the views of the managing company Hermes Airports Ltd. and the Concessions Coordination Committee will be considered.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF states this matter is currently under assessment by the Cyprus Ports Authority that participates in the Elemed project, which relates to a study on the provision of shore-side electricity for ships moored in Cypriot ports that are part of the TEN-T Core Network.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Currently, natural gas (LNG and CNG) is not used in the Cypriot transport sector, since there is no natural gas (NG) market in Cyprus due to its geographical isolation, the small market size and the lack of interconnections with other NG networks.

The degree of sufficiency for CNG AFI is not possible to be calculated due to the lack of data provided in the NPF 2 .

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Cyprus NPF does not offer information about this issue.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The Cyprus NPF does not provide targets for road LNG refuelling points by 2025 3 .

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The Cyprus NPF does not provide targets for LNG refuelling points in maritime ports by 2025 4 .

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Not applicable since Cyprus has no inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

The Cyprus NPF states that, at the present stage, there has been no decision on the use of hydrogen in transport.

5.4.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The Cyprus NPF doesn’t indicate future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles and vessels, except a very wide range of values concerning electric vehicles in 2020. These estimates represent a quite modest future share of electric vehicles in 2020, in the interval 0.02% and 0.32%.

The NPF provides the current number of LPG vehicles stating that the legislative framework for the implementation of LPG use in vehicles has been completed and more than 20 applications for planning authorisation for LPG refuelling points have been submitted. According to the NPF, the use of LPG as road transport fuel will be possible from 2017 onwards.

5.4.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3

The Cyprus NPF has presented a medium number (16) of support measures, most of them being vaguely defined. The lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) for the 8 assessable ones makes their assessment difficult. The majority of measures have the status ‘under consideration’ and therefore receive a low assessment score.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The Cyprus NPF contains 15 measures ensuring national targets and objectives. Eight of them are of regulatory or administrative type and 7 are of financial or nonfinancial type being eligible for assessment. All these 7 assessable measures regard the electricity for road transport, 6 having a low assessment score due to their status and lack of information about effectiveness and only one having a medium assessment score. Overall, this cluster is considered comprehensive and having a medium assessment score.

The NPF states also that the energy policy regulates the blending shares of biofuel in conventional fuels (especially diesel), a threshold of at least 2.4% energy content being mentioned.

The vehicle registration tax and the annual circulation tax currently in place in Cyprus are based on CO2 emissions which could also contribute to the deployment of AFV in the country.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Cyprus NPF does not offer clear information in this area, but it states that different policy measures, including measures related to public transport, may be examined on the basis of the results of the on-going studies mentioned above.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The NPF presents one legislative type measure about the mandatory installation of an electricity supply system with an output of up to 3.7 KW in each parking space, for new buildings or buildings undergoing large-scale renovation, with at least two residential units, for potential future recharging of electric vehicles. This measure received the status ‘under consideration’ and it will be carried out in consultation with the competent building authorities and all interested and affected parties, decisions on the action to be taken will be made by the end of 2018.

5.4.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The NPF mentions different ministries and entities will work on defining the future measures. In the case of electricity supply at the airports, the Cyprus NPF states the views of the managing company Hermes Airports Ltd. and the Concessions Coordination Committee will be considered. The introduction of policy measures in the local plans of large cities will be examined.

5.4.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

In the frame of the European POSEIDON-MED ΙΙ LNG Bunkering project, Cyprus cooperates with Greece and Italy. Within this project, a study will be carried out regarding the future deployment and placement of LNG refuelling infrastructure at Cypriot ports.

5.4.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

From the Cyprus NPF, it is transparent that alternative fuels are at an early deployment stage in Cyprus. The Cyprus NPF addresses only a small part of the requirements of Article 3 of the Directive, mainly electro-mobility. For the future development and further penetration of alternative fuels in transport, a study entitled ‘Technical Assistance in order to assess and formulate recommendations for the promotion and penetration of alternative fuels in the transport sector’ has been commissioned. The purpose of the ongoing study is to present a comprehensive proposal regarding future penetration scenarios for various alternative fuels in the transport sector in Cyprus, as well as promotion policies and measures, taking account of the specific characteristics of Cyprus, to achieve the climate and energy targets related to the transport sector.

In the case of electricity for road transport, which constitutes the focus of the Cyprus NPF, the requirements of the Directive were fulfilled and details were given about the targeted recharging infrastructure for 2020 in terms of number and placement. Even though the future estimates of electric vehicle stock are rather modest, being situated in the range of 0.02% to 0.32% of the future vehicle stock, the proposed set of measures can support reaching the declared objectives since it was evaluated as being comprehensive and having a medium assessment score. In the case of electricity supply at airports and shore-side supply in its maritime ports, the Cypriot authorities are currently examining the situation and studies are carried out. The decision of setting targets and support measures are foreseen for the future.

Besides electro-mobility, the national strategy for the other alternative fuels is briefly or inadequately treated in the Cyprus NPF, being dependent on the results of currently on-going studies. For CNG and LNG fuels, the NPF contains neither future estimates for vehicles nor targets for refuelling infrastructure. The lack of ambition for natural gas can be partially explained by the small market size in Cyprus and the lack of interconnections with other natural gas networks. However, the Cypriot NPF declares intentions to foster LNG use in maritime transport, also in cooperation with Greece and Italy

The Cyprus NPF does not contain any targets for hydrogen in transport.

The Cyprus NPF contains a medium size portfolio of support measures, many being currently discussed and planned and receiving in consequence the status ‘under consideration’. The majority of the proposed measures necessary to ensure national targets concern electricity for road transport, this cluster that contains 7 assessable measures received a medium assessment score. The use of alternative fuels for public transport activity is too vaguely addressed and additional concrete details would have been desirable.

Regarding the cooperation with other Member States, the NPF states that Cyprus cooperates with Greece and Italy in the frame of the EU funded POSEIDON-MED ΙΙ LNG project. A study regarding the future deployment and placement of LNG refuelling infrastructure at Cypriot ports will be carried out within this project.

5.5Czech Republic

5.5.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in the Czech Republic is 1,017 km and the length of motorways is 776 km. The length of the total road network in the Czech Republic is 55,762 km.

The following lengths of TEN-T Road Corridors are present in the Czech Republic: 6% (230 km) of the Baltic - Adriatic Corridor, 9% (473 km) of the Orient/East - Mediterranean Corridor and 11 % (495 km) of the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, the Czech Republic is connected with the following Member States:
- Austria (through the Baltic - Adriatic and the Orient/East - Mediterranean Corridor)

- Poland (through the Baltic - Adriatic Corridor)

- Germany (through the Orient/East Mediterranean Corridor and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Slovakia (through the Orient/East Mediterranean Corridor and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

At the end of 2014, according to the Czech NPF, the Czech Republic had 4,893,562 registered passenger cars and 6,996,674 registered road vehicles of all types (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). The present situation of less than 0.2% of AFV is regarded by the Czech Republic as insufficient and in need of improvement.

Number of main agglomerations

·131 towns > 10,000 inhabitants (source – Czech NPF)

·69 towns > 20,000 inhabitants (other sources - Czech statistical office)

·18 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·4 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·4 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·No maritime ports

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, the Czech Republic is connected with Germany through the Orient/East - Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 airports in the TEN-T Core Network (Ostrava/Mošnov and Václav Havel Prague)

·1 airport in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Brno/Tuřany)

5.5.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the Czech NPF are proposed for the future. Many of them are legislative, regulatory, or administrative measures, necessary for the transposition of the Directive. The number of proposed measures is high and is covering almost all areas, the future measures being presented in a well-structured and logical manner. However, while many measures are considered and several could have a tangible impact on the deployment of alternative fuels and its infrastructure, only few are in effect or adopted.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.5-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

1,386

451

17,000

1,300

100,000

250,000

CNG for vehicles

10,227

108

50,000

200

130,000

300

200,000

340

LNG for road

180

1-2

500

5

1300

14

LNG for inland ports

H2 for road

1

3-5

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points,

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the majority of the requirements of the Directive are covered. The Czech NPF does not contain targets for LNG refuelling at inland ports.

Table 5.5-2. Checklist results

(1) BMVIT = Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology
(2)  Directive 2009/73/EC, with which the Laws on the Regulation of the Natural Gas Market of 2004 to 2012 are harmonised, provides that Cyprus may derogate from specific articles, since it may qualify either as an isolated or an emergent market. This may explain the absence of data for current and future situation of using NG in transport.
(3)  The Cyprus Council of Ministers decided on the 22nd of June 2016 to approve NG introduction in liquefied form (LNG) as soon as possible. Pursuant to the above Decision, the Public Natural Gas Company (DEFA) was given a mandate and proceeded to prepare a study which analyses the options for LNG maritime transport and storage/processing/regasification in an on-shore or off-shore unit, as well as for its land transport and distribution. The study will also include a schedule for the detailed planning of the infrastructure that will be initially required for liquefied NG to be used for electricity production immediately following its introduction, as a first stage. On the basis of the results of this study, a new proposal will be submitted to the Council of Ministers for decision making.
(4)  The Cyprus Ports Authority participates in the ‘Poseidon Med II’ European project, which was submitted under CEF-MOS, to prepare and carry out a study regarding the placement and future deployment of LNG refuelling infrastructure at Cypriot ports. The decisions on installation of LNG refuelling points at maritime ports along the Core TEN-T Network will be made after the completion of this study.
Top

Brussels,8.11.2017

SWD(2017) 365 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Detailed Assessment of the National Policy Frameworks

Accompanying the document

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSISON TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

Towards the broadest use of alternative fuels - an Action Plan on Alternative Fuels Infrastructure under Article 10(6) of Directive 2014/94/EU, including the assessment of national policy frameworks under Article 10(2) of Directive 2014/94/EU

{COM(2017) 652 final}


5.12.6 5.12.6 Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered

5.12.7 5.12.7 Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

5.12.8 5.12.8 Conclusions and possible recommendations

5.13 5.13 Croatia

5.13.1 5.13.1 Description of the MS

5.13.2 5.13.2 Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted

5.13.3 5.13.3 Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

5.13.4 5.13.4 Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

5.13.5 5.13.5 Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3

5.13.6 5.13.6 Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered

5.13.7 5.13.7 Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

5.13.8 5.13.8 Conclusions and possible recommendations

5.14 5.14 Hungary

5.14.1 5.14.1 Description of the MS

5.14.2 5.14.2 Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted

5.14.3 5.14.3 Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

5.14.4 5.14.4 Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

5.14.5 5.14.5 Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3

5.14.6 5.14.6 Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered

5.14.7 5.14.7 Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

5.28.6 5.28.6 Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered

5.28.7 5.28.7 Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other member states

5.28.8 5.28.8 Conclusions and possible recommendations

1

2

3

4

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.5.1

5.5.2


5.5.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.5-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

3.07

13.08

-

-

CNG for vehicles

94.69

250

433

588

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.5-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, with 3.07, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, the value 13.08 of the index suggests that the targeted number of recharging points in the Czech NPF may be insufficient. The Czech NPF objectives for 2020 contain a backbone network of 500 fast recharging points and an additional backbone network of 800 normal recharging points.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points presented in the provided map and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled, even starting from 2020. No clear numeric target is provided for the recharging network in 2025. The Czech NPF declares that recharging infrastructure development will depend on market needs with a further expansion being however expected.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The planned recharging point network for 2020 is supposed to ensure coverage of major urban agglomerations (cities) with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants and a location map is attached. The Czech NPF states that the regional centres will also be covered and a share of 27% of population will have access to the infrastructure which constitutes a promising objective. In 2025, according to the NPF, a further expansion is expected and all towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants (131 towns) will be covered by the recharging infrastructure, allowing 52% of the Czech Republic's population to have access to public recharging points.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The situation at the three airports (Prague, Ostrava and Brno) that are part of the TEN-T Network is presented. For Prague airport, considered a “major airport” in the NPF, the future installation of electricity supply for all aprons is under consideration. For the other two airports, the Czech NPF does not consider advantageous to establish any objectives in terms of infrastructure for electricity supply for stationary airplanes at airports. No detailed justification is given for this decision.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF identifies a current (Brno dam) and possible future demand (Prague), but considers that the installation of shore-side electricity supply is not efficient. The Czech NPF does not contain a detailed justification for this consideration. However, a reanalysis of the situation is envisaged for the future.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.5-3 shows that the established targets for CNG refuelling points pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles, and can be considered sufficient.

The 2025 target of 300 public CNG refuelling points and their spatial distribution presented in a map allow the visual assessment of a sufficiently uniform geographical coverage without important gaps and indicate the fulfilment of the distance requirement of at least one CNG refuelling point every 150 km. During the period 2020 to 2025, the Czech NPF states that a greater focus will be placed on the motorway network (including TEN-T Core Network) and the distance requirement will be clearly overachieved.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

At least 131 towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (including the 77 former district towns) are foreseen for installation of CNG refuelling points. The chosen quantitative threshold will assure the access to the CNG infrastructure of a 52% share of the Czech Republic's population, which is an ambitious target.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

At country level, a target of 5 LNG refuelling points is established and the future coordination with neighbouring countries (Germany, Austria) is under consideration. This target is presented by the Czech NPF to be sufficient in order to extend the Blue Corridors system in the territory of the Visegrad countries to the Czech Eastern border. If a uniform distribution along the TEN-T Core Network is assumed, the proposed number of LNG refuelling points is assessed as sufficient and fulfilling the distance criteria of at least one refuelling point every 400 km. A visual assessment was not possible since the map mentioned in the text of the NPF is not present.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Not applicable since the Czech Republic has no maritime ports.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Very limited deployment of LNG vessels is expected by the Czech NPF on the Elbe-Vltava waterway, at least during the initial phase (period to 2030). No demand for LNG for ships is anticipated, so no building of LNG refuelling points is foreseen in the NPF. This omission could have a negative impact on the circulation of LNG inland waterway vessels throughout the TEN-T Core Network. The decision not to include LNG refuelling at inland ports in the Czech NPF would have merited a more detailed discussion of market needs. Monitoring and possible revision in the future are envisaged by the Czech Republic.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

A target of 2-3 hydrogen refuelling points is established with location in the largest cities (Prague/Ostrava/Brno). Hydrogen refuelling points in Ústí nad Labem or Pilsen are taken into consideration for connecting with the existing hydrogen network in Germany (Dresden, Munich). The presented target is considered indicative, the Czech Republic stating the need of a feasibility study before confirming the commitment to it.

5.5.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A main focus of the Czech NPF is on CNG vehicles. It estimates a share of roughly 1% CNG vehicles on the road in 2020. For electric vehicles, the ambition level is lower (estimate of 0.35% for 2020). For LNG heavy-duty vehicles, the Czech NPF estimates a share of 0.4% by 2025. The Czech NPF does not contain any estimates for LNG vessels. Altogether it can be concluded that the Czech NPF is based on the assumption that alternative fuels and vessels remain niche products until the 2020 time-frame.

5.5.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Czech NPF contains a total of 70 measures. However, many are targeting transposition provisions of the Directive or are very vaguely defined. 19 measures are in effect, 2 in process of adoption, and 49 under consideration. This, according to the assessment methodology, leads to low overall assessment scores for most of the fuels, modes and measure types addressed. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (for example budget) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, many fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can indeed address many of the deployment barriers and, as a consequence, the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive. But as most are only under consideration there is a risk that they may not lead to adoption and consequently may not be sufficient to ensure attainment of the targets and objectives of the NPF.

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that most financial measures presented address CNG road vehicles, which is one important focus of the Czech Republic.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Czech NPF proposes 5 measures in this category, covering AFI and AFV, all fuel types and two modes of transport (road and rail). Four of these measures are of financial type (direct incentives), dealing with support of AFV acquisition and AFI building. Due to their low status (under consideration) and due to a lack of financial information, these measures were assessed as having a low score.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Czech NPF proposes one measure in this category, regarding the investment aid for the construction of corporate infrastructure for electric vehicles. Since the adoption status is low (under consideration), its score is low.

5.5.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

From the Czech NPF it is unclear whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned have been considered. At one occasion, the Czech NPF mentions the intention to organise a working group in order to enable the revision of relevant legislation necessary to allow access of CNG vehicles to parking garages.

5.5.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Coordination is mentioned in the Czech NPF in the case of hydrogen infrastructure by considering the connection with the existing network of Germany. Regarding LNG refuelling points, coordination is foreseen with the neighbouring countries Germany and Austria for ensuring the continuity with the LNG Blue Corridor System. It can be concluded that for these fuels the Czech Republic shows intentions to cooperate with the neighbouring countries to ensure EU-wide circulation.

5.5.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Czech NPF broadly addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. For most fuels and modes, it establishes sufficient targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive. It does not contain a target for LNG refuelling points at inland ports.

The Czech NPF puts a comparably low emphasis on electric vehicles and estimates only 0.35% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. Today, the spatial distribution of recharging points and specifically fast recharging infrastructure seems to appropriately cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of distance requirements in the Czech Republic. For the future, the targeted ratio of only one public recharging point per 13 electric vehicles estimated for 2020 could evolve to become a barrier for the further market deployment of electric vehicles. This could also lead to market fragmentation within the EU, especially in the context of the rather low estimated EV shares in the Czech NPF. It will be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. Regarding electricity supply for stationary airplanes the NPF only mentions that further installations for the Prague airport are under consideration. The NPF does not provide any targets for shore-side electricity.

The Czech Republic already today has a relatively dense network of CNG refuelling points and the NPF foresees that this will further grow in line with the expected market needs, which are comparably high in the NPF, with estimates of 1% CNG cars on the road in 2020.

The NPF has established targets for LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles that will likely ensure appropriate coverage of the road TEN-T Core Network on Czech territory.

The Czech NPF does not contain targets for LNG refuelling at inland ports. This omission could have a negative impact on the circulation of LNG inland waterway vessels throughout the TEN-T Core Network. The decision not to include LNG refuelling at inland ports in the Czech NPF would have merited a more detailed discussion of market needs. This may need to be revisited also in light of estimated market needs from other Member States.

The NPF establishes targets for hydrogen refuelling points.

The Czech NPF contains a very comprehensive list of measures, which, if implemented, could help overcome deployment barriers. Since the adoption status of most of these measures is low, there is a certain risk that the national targets and objectives of the NPF may not be reached. The NPF also contains a list of considered support measures to promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

The Czech Republic, in its NPF, declares interest to cooperate with the neighbouring countries to ensure EU-wide circulation, especially for LNG and hydrogen for road transport. It may be advisable to extend this cooperation also for the other fuels and modes.

5.6Germany

5.6.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Germany is 6,363 km and the length of motorways is 12,917 km. The length of the total road network in Germany is 217,460 km.

The following lengths of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in Germany: 35% (1,393 km) of the North Sea - Baltic Corridor, 26% (1,398 km) of the Orient / East - Mediterranean Corridor, 30% (1,895 km) of the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor, 50% (707 km) of Rhine - Alpine Corridor and 27% (1,191 km) of the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Germany is connected with the following Member States:
- Poland (through the North Sea - Baltic Corridor)

- Netherlands (through the North Sea - Baltic and the Rhine - Alpine Corridor)

- Belgium (through the North Sea - Baltic and the Rhine - Alpine Corridor)

- Czech Republic (through the Orient/ East Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Austria (through the Scandinavian - Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Denmark (through the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor)

- France (through the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2014, according to Eurostat, Germany had 44,403,124 registered passenger cars. According to the German NFP, in 2016, it had 54,602,441 registered road vehicles of all types (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). Of these, 0.9% were LPG vehicles, 0.2% used natural gas, and 0.1% were battery electric vehicles.

Number of main agglomerations

·125 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·21 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·68 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·6 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·15 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Germany is connected with the Netherlands through the North Sea - Baltic and Rhine - Alpine Corridors, with Austria through the Rhine - Danube Corridor, with France through the Rhine-Alpine and the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor, with the Czech Republic through the Orient/East-Mediterranean Corridor, with Luxembourg through the Rhine-Alpine Corridor and with Poland through the core network.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·11 airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·13 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.6.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The measures described in the German NPF cover a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers. The number of measures is high and is covering various fuels and modes. All measures in the German NPF are already existing or adopted, and for some of them future extension is proposed. Measures are strongly focussing on electric vehicles and infrastructure for road, but measures are also proposed for other road AFI/AFV types as well as waterborne transport. For many measures, information on planned budget and boundaries is scarce such that they can be assessed only qualitatively.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.6-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

87,914    

18,078

1,000,000

43,000

Electricity for stationary airplanes

95%

**

CNG for vehicles

116,970

900

LNG for road

4

(3****)

9

LNG for inland ports

5/2*

4

(3****)

Demand oriented

Demand oriented

Demand oriented

LNG for maritime ports

H2 for road

215 (NPF) 109 (EAFO)

50

100

(400)

***

(1,000)

***

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuesl Recharging/Refuelling Points, *5 operating in Germany, 2 under German flag, **95% of terminal positions covered at 11 airports, *** maximum numbers, depending on the deployment of AFV, ****on TEN-T Core Network

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that many requirements of the Directive are covered. However, the NPF does not fulfil all requirements with regard to LNG, in particular it does not establish target numbers for LNG refuelling points in ports, nor does it define an LNG distribution system.

Table 5.6-2. Checklist results

5.6.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.6-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

4.86

23.26

-

-

CNG for vehicles

128.12

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.6-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

With regard to electricity, the German NPF states that existing recharging points result from a variety of initiatives and projects targeted towards research, thus not necessarily covering expected demand. The numbers of recharging points are particularly high in present project regions (Modellregionen, Schaufenster) such as around Stuttgart, Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg, as well as in Northrine-Westphalia. This is also visible from a map of public recharging points included in the NPF.

Germany intends to provide country-wide full coverage of fast recharging points as well as normal recharging points where vehicles can be expected to be parked (shopping, leisure activities and overnight). For 2020, the NPF estimates a need of 36,000 normal plus 7,000 fast charging points accessible to the public. When contrasting the total number with the target of 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2020, an IS of 23.26 results, thus significantly off the target value of 10, suggesting that the envisaged number of recharging points in the German NPF may be insufficient. When excluding PHEV, which may require a lower coverage of recharging points, and considering only BEV numbers of 250,000 to 500,000 mentioned in the NPF as scenario values, a more favourable index of 5.8 to 11.6 results. Based on the study ‘LADEN2020’, the AFI targets for electric recharging infrastructure are considered sufficient in the German NPF.

While no information is given regarding the geographical distribution of planned recharging points, a total number of 107 recharging points would be sufficient to fulfil the average distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km along the TEN-T Core Network. Given the much higher numbers of targeted recharging points, it is highly likely that the German plans are in accord with the requirement of TEN-T coverage, even starting from 2020. No target is quantified for the recharging network in 2025.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The German NPF defines agglomerations as cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants and at least 1,000 inhabitants per km2, in accord with German immission protection regulation. While the NPF states that the need of recharging infrastructure has been deduced on the basis of use patterns, transport demand and special distribution requirements, no information on the spatial distribution of planned recharging points is included in the NPF.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

According to the German Airports Association as cited in the NPF, 95% of existing terminal positions are equipped with ground power supply at 11 German airports. It is not mentioned whether this relates to the 11 German airports in the TEN-T Core Network (Berlin, Bremen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Hannover, Köln-Bonn, Leipzig-Halle, München, Nürnberg, Stuttgart). About 25% of tarmac positions and outside parking spaces are served with mobile ground power units, i.e., diesel-based electricity generation as of 2016. The NFP presents a sceptic position with regard to the cost-benefit relation of equipping tarmac positions with ground power supply. Some pilot studies for alternative fuels use for ground power units are mentioned, but no AFI targets are specified.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

Germany has 6 maritime ports and 21 inland ports within the TEN-T Core Network. The German NPF describes the installation of shore-side electricity supply for maritime ports as economically unfavourable and technically difficult, whereas perspectives were more promising with regard to inland ports, where energy requirements are lower and emissions and noise reduction requirements play a more important role. Several pilot projects have been launched. No targets are set. According to the NPF, responsibility for infrastructure development in inland and maritime ports lies with the federal states and support programmes should be addressed at that level.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

As Table 5.6-3 shows, CNG infrastructure sufficiency is given as of today in Germany, with an IS of presently 128.12 AFV per refuelling point. The average distance of CNG refuelling points is less than 150 km between points even in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network according to the NPF. On German highways, on average there are approximately two CNG refuelling points per 100 km within a radius of 2 km, which are often deployed along two-sided motorway service areas. On the A20, however, there is only one petrol station with natural gas available on a route of 322 km. Maps included in the NPF show that CNG points are geographically well distributed, and that in most of the German territory, the nearest CNG refuelling point can be reached within less than 20 min driving time. The NPF does not foresee any further CNG infrastructure targets. The currently available 900 public CNG refuelling points in Germany could probably support more than 500,000 CNG vehicles on German roads, five times more than currently on the road.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The German NPF defines agglomerations as cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants and at least 1,000 inhabitants per km2, in accord with German immission protection regulation. According to the NPF, in German agglomerations the closest CNG refuelling point can be reached within a maximum 15 minute driving time, thus the NPF concludes that urban agglomerations are well equipped within the meaning of the Directive.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

With regard to LNG, the NPF sets the target to establish a basic network which ensures the movement of LNG HDV across Europe by 2025. According to the plan, the TEN-T Core Network can be covered by a network of 9 points, with exemplary optimised locations shown in a map included in the NPF. For LNG trucks circulating on the TEN-T Core Network this may imply deviating from the shortest route in order to refuel. According to the NPF, the assessment of costs and benefits of LNG infrastructure, including environmental benefits, is currently ongoing. Thus, targets for an LNG supply infrastructure for road transport beyond the ‘initial basic network’ could not presently be derived. The formulation remains vague with regard to what is included in the ‘initial basic network’, thus the determination of Germany to build the 9 points needed for TEN-T coverage may need to be reconfirmed.

In the NPF, it is explained that there are currently no LNG refuelling points in Germany and existing vehicles are refuelled in the Netherlands. While it had been planned to build some points within the European project LNG Blue Corridor, this plan seems to have been abandoned due to lack of demand.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

There are six maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network in Germany: Bremerhaven, Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Rostock, and Wilhelmshaven. For maritime vessels, the declared NPF objective is to establish an LNG service station network by 2025 that allows the operation along the routes of the TEN-T Core Network. The equipment of ports should follow market requirements.

In Germany, there is currently no stationary LNG infrastructure for waterways, and shore-to ship concepts are seen as presently not economically viable. Truck to ship bunkering facilities are operational in the following maritime ports: Bremerhaven, Brunsbüttel, Hamburg and Rostock. In anticipation of more demand for LNG, the ports of Wilhelmshaven, Lübeck, Rostock, Hamburg and Brunsbüttel have announced interest for and declared intent of developing LNG bunkering facilities. According to the NPF, future demand can be covered by truck-to-ship and potentially ship-to-ship concepts. However, the fact that no quantified plans for maritime port LNG AFI build-up are announced raises some concern that lagging AFI construction might have negative impacts for the viability of LNG inland waterway vessels or seagoing ships.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

There are 21 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network in Germany. For inland waterway vessels, the declared NPF objective is to establish an LNG refuelling network by 2030 which allows the operation along the routes of the TEN-T Core Network. The equipment of ports should follow market requirements.

In Germany, there is currently no stationary LNG infrastructure for waterways. Truck to ship bunkering facilities are operational in the following inland ports: Bremerhaven, Mannheim, Brunsbüttel and Hamburg, and future demand could be covered by truck-to-ship and potentially ship-to-ship.

The fact that no quantitative plans for inland port LNG AFI build-up are announced raises some concern that lagging AFI construction might negatively impact LNG vessel viability at some important inland waterways that cross German territory, such as the Danube, Main, Elbe and canals connecting these.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

By end 2016, 50 H2 refuelling points provide a basic supply in the agglomerations Berlin, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Munich, Rhine-Main and Rhine-Ruhr and cover first locations on central transport axes. An industrial joint venture plans to provide basic coverage for Germany with approximately 100 H2 refuelling points (700 bar) by 2020, which will cover the TEN-T Core Network. Further expansion will depend on the development of the hydrogen vehicle stock. Up to 400 H2 refuelling points could be available in Germany by 2025.

5.6.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A main focus of the German NPF is on electric vehicles. It estimates a share of roughly 1.8% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. For any of the other alternative fuels or transport modes the German NPF does not specify future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles. However, the German plan also allows for potentially ambitious market uptake of CNG and H2 vehicles, where infrastructure sufficiency is already given or planned to be achieved in the near future. The NPF specifies a target share of 4% of natural gas in 2030. For other alternative fuels and vehicle types, it can be concluded that the German NPF is based on the assumption that these will remain niche products until post-2020.

5.6.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The German NPF contains a big portfolio of measures. The measures in the German NPF are already existing or adopted, and for some of them future extension is proposed. According to the assessment methodology, a high overall assessment score is derived for hydrogen for road vehicles, and medium scores for electricity and LNG on the road. For the other fuels and modes the assessment score is low, as in a number of cases the lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can address many of the deployment barriers and, as a consequence, the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive. For road electricity, many measures have been defined, including adopted or existing measures for both fast recharging and normal recharging infrastructure as well as vehicle subsidies and tax exemptions, with medium scores, such that it can be derived that the German NPF seems to have defined appropriate measures in order to attain the defined targets and objectives for road electro-mobility. The same can be said for road H2 infrastructure build-up, where a programme for installing 50 refuelling points has already been put into practice, and further support for infrastructure is available, leading to an overall high measure assessment. For CNG, the overall measure assessment is low but still in line with AFI targets, as these have already been fulfilled for road CNG. LNG road measures have a medium score. The most promising measure for supporting road LNG deployment is a reduction of energy tax for LNG which is currently granted up to 2018. A draft legislation for extending the measure beyond 2018 is under discussion. Due to absence of assessable information on measures targeting LNG infrastructure, it may need to be reconfirmed if road LNG measures suffice with view to the target.

Measures for LNG in ports have low scores, partly due to the absence of assessable information, which however is commensurate with the target ambition.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The German NPF contains several measures in this category, covering AFI and AFV, all fuel types and two modes of transport (road and rail). Measures focus on applied R&D support and market introduction projects. With little information given about budget and target numbers, the measures were assessed as having a low overall score.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The German NPF contains a few measures in this category, including income tax exemption of charging and charging devices employees receive from their employer, and subsidies for private infrastructure of buses (M2, M3) and commercial vehicles (N2, N3). Measure scores were assessed as low.

5.6.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The German NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of some stakeholders concerned. One element of consultation mentioned in the NPF is the dialogue between the Federal Government and the Länder with regard to recharging infrastructure development, which seems to have involved municipalities as well. For LNG for ships, a dialogue among harbours, federal ministries, and authorities is coordinated by the Federal Government.

5.6.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Germany has cooperated with other member states through different fora. The NPF mentions Germany’s involvement in the Government Support Group (GSG) for harmonizing national strategy frameworks, the Sustainable Transport Forum (STF) as a forum for exchange on alternative fuels, the European Forum for Sustainable Shipping (ESSF), institutionalised bilateral cooperation with France, Italy and UK, and the Workshop European Cooperation for interoperability of H2 infrastructure.

5.6.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

*5 operating in Germany, 2 under German flag, ** maximum numbers, depending on the deployment of AFV, *** on TEN-T Core Network

The German NPF addresses most of the requirements of Article 3. It presents the current state of alternative vehicle uptake and infrastructure and derives targets for future recharging points, LNG refuelling points (road), and H2 refuelling points (road). It does not establish targets for LNG refuelling points in ports beyond the already existing facilities.

A main focus of the German NPF is on electric vehicles. It estimates a share of roughly 2% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. This is a comparably high estimate and will require a rapid growth of EV deployment in Germany in the coming years. While the targeted number of recharging points seems adequate to cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of distance requirements in Germany, the ratio of only one public recharging point per 23 electric vehicles estimated for 2020 could evolve to become a barrier for the further market deployment of electric vehicles. This could also lead to market fragmentation within the EU. It will be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. The NPF does not provide any targets for further deployment of electricity supply for stationary airplanes. For shore-side electricity, it does not contain targets. Instead, it refers to pilot projects with a focus on inland ports.

The NPF enables for potentially significant further market uptake of CNG vehicles. Germany has already today a relatively dense network of CNG refuelling points, offering a good coverage in most regions and in all urban agglomerations. Available infrastructure could probably support more than five times the CNG vehicles on the road in Germany today. No CNG infrastructure build-up beyond present levels is intended.

The German NPF defines a network of nine road LNG refuelling points that could guarantee fulfilment of the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles along the TEN-T Core Network on German territory. However, LNG propelled heavy-duty vehicles may have to deviate from the shortest route in order to refuel when travelling on the TEN-T Core Network.

The NPF does not establish target numbers for LNG refuelling points for ports, nor does it define an LNG distribution system as required by the Directive. According to the NPF, LNG infrastructure build-up will be pursued depending on market needs.

The German plan allows for potentially ambitious market uptake of H2 vehicles, where infrastructure sufficiency is planned to be achieved in the near future.

The German NPF contains a comprehensive list of measures which are already existing or adopted. Measures are focussed on electric vehicles and infrastructure for road, but measures are proposed also for other road AFI/AFV types as well as for waterborne transport. Most of them can be considered having a medium or low impact on market actor's decisions. Some measures attain a low overall measure score due to scarce information on planned budget and boundaries which allows for qualitative evaluation only. Measures presented seem sufficient to contribute to the achievement of the targets set in the NPF. The NPF also contains several support measures to promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

Interests of regional and local authorities as well as stakeholders have been considered during the drafting of the German NPF. Germany is actively involved in coordinating its plans on alternative fuels infrastructure with other Member States as well as collaborating with them in this field.

5.7Denmark

5.7.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

In Denmark, the length of the road TEN-T Core Network is 813 km and the length of motorways is 1,216 km. The length of the total road network in the country is 74,130 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Denmark is 7% (456 km) of the Scandinavian – Mediterranean Corridor, which connects Denmark with Sweden and Germany.

Number of registered road vehicles

The Danish NPF provides data on the number of registered road vehicles as of August 2016. In Denmark, there were 2,912,085 road vehicles (cars, buses, light and heavy goods vehicles) in that year, of which 2,460,023 were cars. About 99% of the total vehicle stock is currently powered by either gasoline or diesel.

Number of main agglomerations

·4 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·No inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·No inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·2 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network (Copenhagen and Aarhus)

·20 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Copenhagen – Kastrup)

·3 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.7.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

A reasonable number of policy measures of relevance to the Directive is mentioned, mainly targeting passenger cars. The infrastructure requirements for biogas and biofuels are disregarded, for the NPF assumes that those can be met with available infrastructure. Denmark considers that no further specific measures related to alternative fuels infrastructure for public transport (buses) and electricity supply for trains and stationary airplanes are needed. Government policy does not currently address hydrogen.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.7-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

10,228

2,540

30,621*

3,000

65,621*

Electricity for stationary airplanes

CNG for vehicles

226

13

20

LNG for road

0

LNG for maritime ports

1

2

Demand oriented

H2 for road

82

10

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points, *the number of electric buses, LDVs and HDVs are assumed to remain constant from 2016, due to undefined estimates for these vehicle categories in the NPF.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the Danish NPF does not meet all the requirements of article 3 of the Directive.

Table 5.7-2. Checklist results

5.7.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.7-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

4.03

10.21

-

-

CNG for vehicles

17.38

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.7-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Currently, an index of 4.03 is determined for electric vehicles. Hence, this technology passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, an index value of around 10 suggests that the targeted number of recharging points for Denmark is in line with the proposed threshold. The share of fast recharging points is about 23%.

The Danish NPF highlights that 33 motorway service areas were equipped with electric recharging points in 2016. Based on a visual inspection of spatial distribution of recharging points along the TEN-T Core Network, the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km appears to be fulfilled already today.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The NPF designates urban and suburban agglomerations around the country’s largest cities: Copenhagen (200 publicly available recharging points in place), Aarhus (35), Odense (7), Aalborg (9) and Esbjerg (9). Therefore the four Danish cities identified as main urban agglomerations are served by existing recharging points. The area surrounding the capital appears to benefit from a well-established network.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The airports in Copenhagen – Kastrup, Billund and Aalborg account for more than 97% of all passenger flights in the country. These airports are equipped with devices that enable electricity supply for stationary airplanes. The number of ground power units is not communicated in the NPF and no future targets are provided.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

Given the absence of TEN-T Core Network inland ports in Denmark, this area is excluded from the analysis. With regards to maritime ports, no targets are defined in the NPF. The decision to invest in shore-side electricity supply in Danish maritime ports is basically entrusted to the private sector.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.7-3 shows that the number of CNG refuelling points currently available in Denmark is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. Once the 6 CNG refuelling points planned enter into operation, there will be 20 such points in Denmark. This infrastructure could support approximately 12,000 CNG vehicles. In 2016, the stock of CNG vehicles was 327.

The index values for 2020 and 2025 are not calculated because of the lack of future CNG vehicle estimates. Under the assumptions of 20 CNG refuelling points in operation from 2020 onwards, the sufficiency levels for 2020 and 2025 would still be appropriate even if the CNG vehicle share would grow significantly.

A map showing where CNG refuelling infrastructure is placed and planned accompanies the NPF. Based on this map, it can be concluded that the requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km along the TEN-T Core Network is not met. It seems that neither CNG refuelling points exist nor are planned in: (i) Aarhus (preventing trips on a CNG vehicle between either Aalborg or Vejle to Aarhus); (ii) Esbjerg (preventing a round-trip from Vejle to Esbjerg); (iii) Herning (preventing a round-trip from Vejle to Herning); and (iv) Hirtshals (preventing a round-trip from Aalborg to Hirtshals). Furthermore, no refuelling of CNG is possible on the way Odense – Copenhagen. Last, Southern Zealand and Falster and Lolland islands have no CNG refuelling infrastructure.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

According to the NPF, the main Danish urban and suburban agglomerations are well served by current CNG refuelling infrastructure. Aalborg, Odense, Jutland’s ‘Triangle Region’ and Copenhagen are mentioned. Another main agglomeration, Aarhus, is not cited in this context.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The expectation of the Danish government is that the development of road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T network will not take place before 2025. Denmark, according to its NPF, will act only once the experiences of other Member States with road LNG infrastructure are known.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The Danish NPF identifies the ports of Frederikshavn and Hirtshals as candidates for LNG refuelling to vessels. Whereas the LNG terminal in Hirtshals opened in 2015, the LNG facility in Frederikshavn is expected to be complete at the end of 2017. These two ports are part of the TEN-T Comprehensive Network. For ports of Copenhagen and Aarhus, the only ones that belong to the TEN-T Core Network, financial sustainability studies with EU funds have been prepared. The NPF endorses the continuation of EU funding for this purpose.

The Danish government highlights to role to be played by market forces in this sector and contemplates two feasible solutions: in the short-run, truck-to-ship LNG bunkering; in the long-run, ship-to-ship. The government of Denmark opens up the door to a reassessment of its position in the future, in view of the needs of the TEN-T Core Network.

No 2025 target for LNG infrastructure in maritime ports is defined.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Not applicable since Denmark has no inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Although there are 10 hydrogen refuelling points and 68 hydrogen vehicles in use in Denmark, the government has decided to exclude, at present, hydrogen from the policy framework. This is motivated by the government’s expectation that significant cost reductions for this technology are unlikely to occur before 2025.

5.7.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

Drawing from the projections by the Danish Energy Agency, the NPF does not envision a rapid uptake of electric, natural gas and hydrogen vehicles. Despite this, the NPF focuses on electric vehicles for road transport. In 2016, electric cars accounted for ca. 1.4% of new car sales. Denmark expects growth in the stock of electric cars from 8,043 to 65,000 units between 2016 and 2025. Estimates for other types of vehicles or vessels are not indicated in the NPF.

5.7.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

Despite the slow market penetration of electric, natural gas and hydrogen vehicles envisioned in the NPF, the government of Denmark has provided support to alternative fuels infrastructure deployment.

Though not wide-ranging, the policy measures described in the NPF touch upon key aspects of the Directive. They focus on electricity for road transport. Most measures are of a financial nature and refer to existing legislation, rather than measures under consideration. Based on clustering analysis, three policy packages addressing electricity, CNG and other alternative fuels (biogas and biofuels) for road transport have been identified. Only the package dealing with electricity is deemed to be comprehensive.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

A set of almost 20 policy measures that can ensure national targets and objectives could be found based on the information provided by the NPF. The majority of these measures addresses electro-mobility, targeting both vehicles and infrastructure. Several demonstration projects and trials have also been implemented. However, some of the policy measures (e.g. incentives for building alternative fuels infrastructure over the period 2013-2015) listed in the NPF were introduced in the past and did no longer exist at the time the NPF was produced.

The Danish government signals its willingness to re-consider public support if conditions vary substantially on various policy issues (e.g. in the context of phasing-in the registration tax for electric cars). The phasing-in of this tax resulted in a lower number of electric cars sold in 2016 compared to late-2015, as indicated in the NPF.

Other modes receive little attention in terms of concrete support measures. For instance, the only policy measure targeting shore-side electricity supply mentioned in the NPF is lower electricity taxation, in compliance with the EU minimum tax.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

In Denmark, there are a few measures defined for alternative fuels infrastructure deployment in connection with public transport services.

In the NPF, a distinction between bus and rail operations is drawn for public transport. Concerning the former, the government finds that the tendering process in place is satisfactory and foresees no extra measures to promote alternative fuels infrastructure deployment. For the railway network, the government expects that, without further policy measures, electricity will deliver 85% of train services in 2030. To achieve that, the government seems to rely on the Finance Act for 2017. The size of the funds is not mentioned, however. With the information contained in the NPF, it is not possible to assess whether this is a realistic course of action.

Finally, the NPF states, within the context of public procurement and tendering, that a gas refuelling network is envisaged in Copenhagen and surrounding agglomerations for 2020.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

Neither data nor discussion of measures that could promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure are given in the Danish NPF.

5.7.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Danish NPF provides little information on this aspect of the Directive. Cooperation with stakeholders is mentioned only in the context of the market development for LNG in the shipping sector.

5.7.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

No information on ongoing or planned cooperation and coordination activities with other member states could be found in the Danish NPF.

5.7.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

*the number of electric buses, LDVs and HDVs are assumed to remain the constant from 2016, due to undefined targets for these vehicle categories in the NPF. **for road CNG infrastructure, no 2020 targets are defined. Since there are 14 points and 6 planned, the assumption of 20 is adopted.

The Danish NPF addresses most of the requirements of Article 3. It presents the current state of alternative vehicle uptake and infrastructure and derives targets for future recharging points and CNG refuelling points (road). It discusses LNG refuelling in maritime ports and H2 refuelling points (road). It does not establish targets for LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles. The government in Denmark is committed to achieve the goal of becoming a low-emission society, independent of fossil fuels by 2050. The Danish government seeks to promote a market-driven (i.e. determined by market players) development of infrastructure deployment and to limit public financial aid, so that greater pressure on public finances can be avoided. Technology neutrality is emphasised in the NPF.

For electricity, the Danish NPF is relatively well-balanced in terms of future targets and description of policy measures. Notwithstanding, the latter is fundamentally based on current, rather than planned measures. The NPF estimates that the EV share (of all vehicles on the road) will remain below 1% until 2020. The prospects of shore-side electricity supply in Danish maritime ports are not good. The only policy measure mentioned in the NPF is a tax relief for electricity. However, this incentive was not sufficient to make the investment in shore-side electricity supply attractive in the context of the Nordhavn expansion of the Port of Copenhagen. At the opposite extreme lies the status of electricity supply for stationary airplanes. Denmark considers itself a leader in this matter. Notwithstanding, communication of the number of ground power units installed in the three largest airports would facilitate the assessment.

For other alternative fuels, the NPF is not comprehensive.

The NPF highlights the lack of market momentum for private ownership of CNG cars. The NPF does not contain any future estimates for CNG vehicles. Although the sufficiency index for CNG refuelling points is adequate, it seems that Aarhus in particular could benefit from CNG infrastructure deployment for two reasons: it is the second-largest city in the country and it is located along the TEN-T Network between Aalborg and Vejle.

In terms of LNG for road transport, no infrastructure targets are given.

There appears to be a lack of policy measures targeting LNG in the Danish maritime ports.

At present, Denmark foresees insignificant market uptake for hydrogen vehicles before 2025.

The support measures defined in the Danish NPF are unlikely to have a high impact on removing market barriers.

The NPF does not provide any information on stakeholder engagement and cooperation with other Member States.

 

5.8Estonia

5.8.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Estonia is 481 km and the length of motorways is 140 km. The length of the total road network in Estonia is 16,489 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Estonia is 5% (192 km) of the North Sea - Baltic Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Estonia is connected with Latvia through the North Sea - Baltic Corridor.

Number of registered road vehicles

According to the Estonian statistics agency, Estonia had 703,100 registered passenger cars and 961,300 registered road vehicles of all types in 2016. Presently less than 0.7% AFV are driving on Estonian roads, out of which 0.31% are LPG vehicles, 0.21% use CNG, and 0.13% are electric vehicles.

Number of main agglomerations

·3 cities > 50,000 inhabitants: Tallinn, Tartu, Narva (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·no inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network / TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network (Tallinn)

·7 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Tallinn)

·4 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Tartu, Pärnu, Kuressaare, Kärdla)

5.8.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

Estonia prioritises increasing the proportion of alternative fuels use in road transport. By 2020, Estonia seeks to increase the use of renewable energy sources in road transport to 10% of the amount of fuel consumed. This objective is to be achieved through three types of fuel – liquid biofuels, biomethane and electricity.

In the medium term, according to the Estonian NPF, gaseous fuels (apart from LPG) are considered the most cost-effective alternative fuels having the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Emphasis is on methane because it can easily be substituted by biomethane from renewable sources. Biomethane is considered beneficial from an environmental and energy security perspective.

The number of proposed measures by the Estonian NPF is very limited and their descriptions lack important details necessary for their assessment. They cover road transport and shore-side electricity supply.

All the measures for electricity in road transport in the Estonian NPF are already expired and no measure is existing anymore or is planned.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.8-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

1,257

384

384

384

Electricity for stationary airplanes

5

5

5

5

SSE for maritime ports

>1

>11

>11

CNG for vehicles

2,000 (NPF)

6 (NPF)

>16

LNG for road

0

1

LNG for maritime ports

1

0

>=1

H2 for road

0

1

LPG

for road

3,000 (NPF)

>200

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Public Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points

The NPF does not provide future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles and vessels.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the requirements of the Directive are only partially covered.

Table 5.8-2. Checklist results

5.8.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.8-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

3.28

-

-

-

CNG for vehicles

333.33

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

In March 2011, the Estonian government entered into a contract with the Mitsubishi Corporation for the sale of emission allowances, in order to launch an electro-mobility programme in Estonia. They received 507 I-Miev cars for social workers in return, offered an incentive of up to 50% of the price but not more than 18,000 € for the purchase of a BEV, and installed 165 public CHAdeMO high power recharging points. The incentive scheme started in 2011 and was discontinued in 2014, when the funds allocated to it were exhausted. With this electro-mobility programme Estonia achieved an impressive 1.36% EV average share of total registrations in the period 2011-2014, but the reduction of this average share to 0.25% in the period 2015-2016 indicates that this momentum could not be sustained without the high purchase incentive. This may also suggest that a large-scale deployment of public recharging infrastructure cannot guarantee a success in EV deployment if it is not accompanied by other support measures.

The index for public recharging points, with 3.28, is sufficient by a large margin. This situation is possible to continue also in the future due to the relative large number of electric recharging points and the slow increase of electric vehicle number after 2014, when EV incentives disappeared.

In fact, the Estonian NPF considers the present recharging infrastructure sufficient and only adjustments are planned in the future (e.g. adding ‘Combo 2’ sockets to the existing CHAdeMO sockets for the high-power recharging points). Since imprecise targets (>100) were provided only for the public high power recharging infrastructure, the current number of public recharging points available in the country (from EAFO) was considered to be maintained.

The NPF states that the current high power recharging infrastructure covers the whole country, the average distance between points being 40 to 60 km. However, no spatial distribution details are presented in the NPF. According to the map provided at the Estonian electro-mobility programme website ( http://elmo.ee/charging-network-2/ ) the spatial distribution seems quite homogeneous.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

On this matter, the Estonian NPF contains insufficient information since it does not provide any detail about the recharging infrastructure existing or planned in urban/suburban agglomerations. According to the Estonian electro-mobility programme website ( http://elmo.ee/ ), all settlements with over 5000 inhabitants are equipped with public high power recharging points, For the bigger cities the coverage is as follows: 38 in Tallinn, 11 in Tartu, 5 in Pärnu, 3 in Viljandi, and 2 in Narva).

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The NPF states that electricity supply for stationary airplanes at Estonian airports with international flights is already present. It does not provide any further details or future plans.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

According to the NPF, Estonia’s TEN-T ports are now equipped with shore-side electricity supply, and if there is demand and the costs are proportionate to the benefits, including environmental benefits, the Estonian government will also consider installing shore-side electricity supply at other ports by 2025.

The port of Tallinn cooperates with other Baltic ports to implement a shared system of standards for electrical connections at those ports. Under the Estonia-Latvia cross-border cooperation programme, a network of small ports will be created by 2019: 10 ports will be reconstructed or built and shore-side electricity supply will be available for all of them.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

There are now 6 CNG refuelling points in Estonia, which cover the road TEN-T Core Network at intervals of at most 150 km. The current situation for CNG is satisfactory (the current sufficiency index IS value is equal to 333.33 and Estonia is meeting the requirement of at least one CNG refuelling point per estimated 600 CNG vehicles) but the lack of estimated vehicle data does not allow to assess the future one.

The NPF mentions a 2030 Energy Management Development Plan named “Increasing the introduction of alternative fuels in transport” that promotes the use of natural gas in road transport. For the next period, the activities of the plan will focus on the creation of a comprehensive network of CNG refuelling points covering the whole country and on the promotion of biomethane production.

The NPF establishes the objective for the percentage of methane fuels in energy consumption for road vehicles to 5% in 2020 and 10% in 2030. This may in the future require significantly more CNG vehicles on the road and then the coverage of CNG refuelling points may become insufficient.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Estonian NPF provides limited information on this aspect of the Directive, only the cities Tartu and Võru are mentioned having had projects related to infrastructure for refuelling natural gas-powered buses.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The NPF mentions that an LNG terminal including an LNG bunkering terminal is due to be completed in 2017, at the Harbour of Muuga, part of the Tallinn port. Alongside the terminal, a distribution system will also be developed, including loading facilities for LNG tank vehicles.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The first LNG vessel in Estonia began sailing the Tallinn–Helsinki line in 2017. The NPF mentions that an LNG terminal including an LNG bunkering terminal is due to be completed in 2017, at the Harbour of Muuga, part of the Tallinn port, the only maritime port of the TEN-T Core Network in Estonia. Alongside the terminal, a distribution system will also be developed. The future creation of LNG refuelling points beyond the TEN-T Core Network of maritime ports will depend on the demand that will appear after the completion of this terminal.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Not applicable since Estonia has no inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

The Estonian NPF considers that, in the long term, hydrogen could become a very important energy carrier in the transport sector, providing that the price of vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells falls significantly. The Estonian government has expressed its support for a first pilot project, in which the University of Tartu and the private sector plan to jointly create a hydrogen refuelling point and production facility in Pärnu, on the road TEN-T Core Network. In the context of this project, there are also plans to acquire the first hydrogen-powered public buses; afterwards being possible to assess more accurately the potential for using hydrogen-powered vehicles.

5.8.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The Estonian NPF does not indicate future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles and vessels. The NPF seems to implicitly assume, given the focus of the plan and the proposed measures, future growth for vehicles using methane-based fuels.

The NPF provides the current number of LPG vehicles and refuelling points stating that the infrastructure is increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, the NPF does not contain any future projections of the market development for LPG vehicles nor infrastructure.

5.8.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3

The Estonian NPF has presented only a reduced number of support measures that are very vaguely defined. The lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) makes their assessment difficult. Some of the measures are in process of adoption or only under consideration and therefore their assessment score is low.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The Estonian NPF contains a limited number of measures ensuring national targets and objectives.

No future or existing measures are presented in the NPF regarding electricity as alternative fuel. Only five measures that are already expired are presented related to this field (they were active in the period 2011-2014). The rest of 6 presented measures concern shore-side electricity supply (2), natural gas and biomethane based fuels (2), hydrogen (1) and biofuels (1) for road transport. Among these three are financial support measures (two with a low score and one with a medium score). The cluster with two measures concerning CNG and biomethane can be considered. The NPF mentions also biofuels are promoted in the short term and that Estonia’s energy policy regulates the blending shares of biofuels in petrol and diesel (gradually increasing up to at least 10% as of 2020).

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The NPF presents two financial support measures regarding public transport that relate to the public procurement of buses. Firstly, a direct incentive for building natural gas refuelling points for buses. Secondly, a pilot project that involves also plans to acquire hydrogen-powered public buses. Both measures were assessed as having a low score.

Information about rail transport is included in the NPF (current use of electricity, plans to test an LNG-powered locomotive).

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

Neither data nor a discussion of measures that could promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure are provided in the Estonian NPF.

5.8.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Estonian NPF does not explicitly mention consultation with regional and local authorities. The NPF just mentions a pilot project supported by the government in which the University of Tartu and the private sector plan to jointly construct a hydrogen refuelling point and a production facility in Pärnu.

5.8.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The NPF mentions that, under the Estonia-Latvia cross-border cooperation programme, a network of 10 small ports with shore-side electricity supply will be created by 2019. The port of Tallinn cooperates with other Baltic ports for the implementing shared standards for shore-side electricity supply.

5.8.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Estonian NPF addresses partially the requirements of Directive’s Article 3. For many aspects more details would have been needed for an accurate assessment. The NPF does not contain any future estimates for alternative fuels vehicles. Vague targets are provided concerning AFI for 2020 (>100 for high power recharging points and >10 for biomethane refuelling points). Spatial distribution details or references to urban areas and the TEN-T network are not presented. Estonia is focusing on increasing the proportion of alternative fuels use in road transport and is seeking to increase the use of renewable energy sources in road transport to 10% of the amount of fuel consumed. The objective is to be achieved through three types of fuel – liquid biofuels, biomethane and electricity.

The Estonian NPF lacks concrete targets for EV infrastructure and information about the future EV vehicle market development. It neither contains targets for further deployment of electricity supply for stationary airplanes nor shore-side electricity.

One of the Estonian NPF's main objectives is the introduction of methane-based fuels in transport. Longer term preference is biomethane because of its environmental and energy security benefits. Promoting the creation of a comprehensive network of natural gas refuelling points is considered to be the main challenge in the period leading up to 2020.

Regarding LNG, the NPF mentions that an LNG terminal including an LNG bunkering terminal is due to be completed in 2017, at the Harbour of Muuga (part of the Tallinn port) where a distribution system will also be developed, including loading facilities for LNG tank vehicles.

For hydrogen, a first pilot project is pointed out, in which the University of Tartu and the private sector plan to jointly create a hydrogen refuelling point, a production facility in Pärnu.

The Estonian NPF contains a reduced and vaguely described portfolio of existing and proposed measures covering road transport and shore-side electricity supply. All the measures concerning the use of electricity for road transport (private or public infrastructure) have expired and no future ones are proposed. Support measures for natural gas infrastructure and the promotion of biomethane are vaguely mentioned and lack concrete information (e.g. start year, budget). Biofuels are promoted in the short term and Estonia’s energy policy regulates the blending shares of biofuels in petrol and diesel (gradually increasing up to at least 10% as of 2020). For LNG, no measures are proposed at this moment but the degree of interest and need will be further investigated after the completion of the first terminal in 2017. The NPF presents two measures regarding public transport that relate to public procurement of CNG and hydrogen public buses.

The NPF mentions cross-border cooperation focussing on shore-side electricity supply.

5.9Greece

By 1st October 2017 (cut-off date for the Commission NPF assessment) Greece had not notified an NPF to the Commission. 1  

5.10Spain

5.10.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Spain is 5,706 km and the length of motorways is 14,981 km. The length of the total road network in Spain is 165,362 km.

The following lengths of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in Spain: 48% (2,727 km) of the Mediterranean Corridor and 46% (2,040 km) of the Atlantic Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Spain is connected with the following Member States:
- Portugal (through the Mediterranean Corridor)

- France (through the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2015, according to the Spanish NPF, Spain had 30,623,318 road vehicles of all types, of which 22,355,022 passenger cars. There are presently few (0.23%) AFV on Spanish roads, with for example just 0.06% of electric passenger cars.

Number of main agglomerations

·24 cities > 250,000 inhabitants (source – NPF)

·111 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 inland port in the TEN-T Core Network

·13 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·24 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·10 airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·29 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.10.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The measures presented in the Spanish NPF are established within the regulatory framework of the "Strategy to promote alternative energy vehicles in Spain, 2014-2020" approved in June 2015. The strategy seeks to place Spain as a reference country in the sector of alternative fuels vehicles for road transport and contains 30 concrete measures. The measures proposed in the Spanish NPF cover various fuels and modes. They comprise a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers; however, most of them are nonfinancial as a consequence of the last years financial crisis and budgetary restrictions. The majority of measures in the NPF already exist and, for instance, fiscal incentives for AFV are included in the Spanish Regulations.

Spain considers electricity, hydrogen, CNG, LNG and LPG as main alternative fuels to comply with Directive 2014/94/EU. While most of the measures cover all these AF, Spain has also established some measures specific for the deployment of low emission vehicles (EV and FCV) and related recharging/refuelling infrastructure. The measures are presented in a well-structured and logical manner. They are often very limited in time and budget, with annual extension foreseen. This could be perceived by market actors as a lack of predictability in terms of stability of support measures.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.10-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

12,883

1754

38,000 – 150,000

2,600,000

Electricity for stationary airplanes

410

410

410

410

CNG for vehicles

2,929 (EAFO) 4,366 (NPF)

45

17,200

54

76

76

LNG for road

306

19

800

44

44

44

LNG for maritime ports

0

3

13

LNG for inland ports

1

H2 for road

11

4

500

20

20

20

LPG for road

50,000 (NPF)

200,000-250,000

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that most of the requirements of the Directive are covered. The Spanish NPF does not contain a 2020 target for recharging points.

Table 5.10-2. Checklist results

5.10.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.10-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

7.34

-

-

-

CNG for vehicles

65.09

226.32

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.10-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, with 7.34, the index meets the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per (public) recharging point. It must be noted that the Spanish NPF assumes that EV recharging is, in 90% of the cases, made at private garages (at home or at work-place) and, according to that assumption, there will be almost one private recharging point available per EV. In addition to these private points, the public infrastructure is aimed to guarantee autonomy of EV passenger vehicles and to provide coverage for public transport (electric taxis) and the urban logistics sector. Since the NPF does not provide any targets for the number of recharging points in 2020, the sufficiency index could not be calculated.

According to the visual assessment of the spatial distribution of recharging points presented in the map https://www.electromaps.com/puntos-de-recarga/mapa and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled, already today. The Spanish NPF objectives for 2025 contain a network of 40 fast recharging points, located along the TEN-T Corridors. The NPF also declares that the recharging infrastructure deployment will depend on the EV market evolution and on the efforts of regional and local authorities.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Spanish NPF states that at present there are 91 locations with public recharging points in urban areas. In the NPF, the urban/suburban agglomerations of more than 250,000 inhabitants were designated for the targets and priority will be given for deployment of recharging points in the biggest urban/suburban areas. The NPF declares that the four Spanish urban agglomerations with more than one million inhabitants, Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla and Valencia, are currently already well covered with publicly accessible recharging points.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Nine of the ten Spanish airports in the TEN-T Core Network have, according to the NPF, fixed ground power units (343), most include pre-conditioned air. In several Spanish airports of the TEN-T Comprehensive Network a total of 67 fixed ground power units are available. The Spanish NPF provides a table with the foreseen investments in ground power supply units at the different airports for the period 2016-2030 and states that those investments are assumed to be mainly replacements of obsolete infrastructure.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF mentions that Spain has shore-side electricity supply at one point in Melilla Port (TEN-T Comprehensive Network) and feasibility studies are being carried out for seven other ports. The NPF declares that the target for 2020 is to have shore-side electricity supply in four additional ports: La Luz-Las Palmas, St. Cruz de Tenerife, Palma de Mallorca (in the TEN-T Core Network) and Pasajes (TEN-T Comprehensive Network). In case that the private sector does not provide shore-side electricity, the Spanish Port Authority could step in.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.10.-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. The NPF acknowledges the good positioning of Spain regarding natural gas (7 regasification terminals, 250 tanker trucks, 932 satellite terminals, etc.) and mentions the interest of the private sector to build 11 CNG and 20 combined CNG/LNG refuelling points by 2020. The combined CNG/LNG refuelling points will be located in the urban agglomerations of the TEN-T Core Network.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points presented in the map provided by the Iberian association for gas-powered mobility, GASNAM, (http://gasnam.es/estaciones-gas-natural-vehicular/) and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km could be fulfilled by 2020.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Spanish NPF states that, taking into account the already existing CNG points and considering the planned ones, Spain is on good track to meet the requirement of an appropriate number of publicly accessible CNG refuelling points in urban/suburban agglomerations of more than 250,000 inhabitants by 2020.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Spain has already 15 publicly accessible LNG refuelling points and another 9 are under construction. They are located on or at a minimal distance to the TEN-T Core Network. To meet the requirements of an LNG refuelling point every 400 km, 10 new points will be needed, which will be deployed depending on market demand, the technology evolution, and the increase of LNG vehicles' autonomy. As the private sector will build 20 combined CNG/LNG refuelling points by 2020 located in the urban agglomerations of the TEN-T Core Network, the NPF declares that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on the Spanish territory.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Spain has already 277 LNG refuelling points in its ports, divided in 250 truck-to-ship and 27 container-to-ship facilities. The more than 900 satellite terminals provide enough capacity to cope with any potential increase in the NG demand for maritime transport, without any additional investment. The NPF declares that at present LNG supply in all the ports in the TEN-T Core Network can be covered by Truck-to-Ship bunkering. In addition, Spain can supply LNG to other EU countries (as done for instance in the Port of Naples to fuel the ship F.A Gauthier). However, in the frame of the project Core LNGas Hive (2015-2020) new supply infrastructure will be deployed before 2020, namely ship-to-ship bunkering in the ports of Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao (TEN-T Core Network) and Ferrol (TEN-T Comprehensive Network) and 4 bunkering terminals in Barcelona, Cartagena, Bilbao (TEN-T Core Network) and Ferrol. Further assessment of the LNG bunkering options will be made based on the market evolution and will be provided in future revisions of the Spanish NPF.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Spain has only one inland port (Sevilla) that can be covered by Truck-to-ship bunkering.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

A target of 20 hydrogen refuelling points is established for 2020. Currently, 6 hydrogen refuelling points (350 bar) are already in operation in Andalucía, Aragon and Castilla La Mancha. Roll-out of hydrogen refuelling points is being carried out in the frame of European initiatives (POCTEFA-INTERREG) and demo projects, co-funded through the FCH-JU and CEF. For the future deployment, coordination will be sought with the neighbouring countries France and Andorra to ensure an appropriate hydrogen infrastructure along the TEN-T Corridors.

5.10.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The main focus of the Spanish NPF is on LPG vehicles, followed by natural gas and then electric vehicles. It estimates a share of roughly 1.3% AFV on the road in 2020. Currently, 50,000 LPG vehicles are registered and this number is expected to increase to 200,000-250,000 in 2020. CNG vehicles on Spanish roads are expected to increase from almost 4,400 today to 17,200. For electric vehicles the estimates of 150,000 in 2020 and 260,000 in 2030 seem rather ambitious taking into account that at present there are less than 20,000 electric vehicles registered in Spain and that the NPF does not contain any targets for public recharging infrastructure. For LNG heavy-duty vehicles, the estimate is 800 vehicles in 2020. The Spanish NPF does not provide any estimate for LNG ships; however, it does mention that 3 ferries (one just with an LNG auxiliary motor and two LNG propelled) will come into service by 2020.

5.10.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Spanish NPF contains almost 60 measures at national level and it also showcases measures at Autonomies and Region levels. Most of the measures cover all alternative fuels types (also biofuels) and are already in effect. Some of the financial support measures have a duration of one year and prolongation or termination is decided on an annual basis. According to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for the majority of the measures. Nevertheless, it must be noted that Spain has put in place a considerable number of regulatory measures which may favour the deployment of AFV and AFI. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (for example budget or quantification of the incentives) makes it difficult to assess the scope according to the same methodology. Some of the measures are not adopted or only under consideration and therefore their assessment score is low.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can indeed address many of the deployment barriers and, as a consequence, the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive. Since many of the measures are already in place and receive a medium score it can be derived that the Spanish NPF seems to have defined appropriate measures in order to attain the defined targets and objectives of the NPF. A large amount of support measures are only approved for one year at a time or receive a budget appropriation that is likely to be depleted within a given year. This could be perceived by market actors as a lack of predictability in terms of stability of support measures.

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that most measures presented address all alternative fuels for road transport vehicles. Measures with a focus on a particular fuel (electricity, hydrogen) are oriented to the deployment of the correspondent recharging/refuelling infrastructure, especially along the TEN-T Corridor. The measures in the Spanish NPF emphasize the role of LNG in maritime transport. This contrasts with few measures for promoting the deployment of shore-side electricity supply.

In addition, a number of measures are established at regional and local levels to promote electro-mobility in Andalucia, Islas Baleares, Canarias, Castilla y Leon, Castilla la Mancha, Catauña, Comunidad Valenciana, Extremadura, Comunidad de Madrid, Pais Vasco and Ceuta and for the deployment of hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure in particular in Aragon, and Comunidad Valenciana.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Spanish NPF contains 3 specific measures in this category; two of them adopted, aim at facilitating permits for AFV in public transport services and a third one, under consideration, aims at mandating environmental aspects as one criterion in the tendering procedures for public transport services.

In addition measures are taken at regional and local levels in Andalucia (electric buses in Malaga, natural gas buses in Sevilla, alternative fuels taxis, electric vehicles at Andalucia's government offices), in Castilla y Leon (electric buses in Valladolid) in Cataluña (incentives for low emission taxis) and in Madrid (procurement of CNG buses).

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Spanish NPF contains four regulatory measures in this category; three are adopted. They are assessed as having a high score since they address important barriers to the deployment of private recharging points. In particular, Spain has made mandatory the provision of appropriate electrical installations (for possible later addition of private recharging infrastructure) in all new buildings, both one-family houses with private parking place and residential buildings with common private garage. Moreover all new collective parking areas (e.g. in offices and companies buildings and in public garages) must have a recharging point per 40 parking places.

5.10.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Spanish NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned, in particular taking into account the needs from SMEs. The NPF explicitly mentions stakeholder participation in its drafting. It also refers to the workgroup with the Spanish Autonomous Communities and Regions to co-ordinate the measures proposed in the NPF with those plans and measures of the different Autonomous Communities and Regions. Local authorities' interests have been brought in through both the Spanish Association of Municipalities and Provinces and the Smart Cities' Network. In addition, the national government has set up an online inquiry to receive from the 8,114 Spanish municipalities information about intended measures and plans relevant for the NPF.

5.10.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Spain has cooperated with other Member States through different fora. The NPF mentions the signature in November 2015 of the Spanish, Portuguese and French governments of the common "Spanish-Portuguese-French Initiative for the promotion of electric vehicles". The initiative contains 10 actions for EVs deployment and the establishment of a work-group to improve co-ordination and set up a project for public recharging infrastructure at the Iberian Peninsula.

Co-operation with neighbouring Member States to ensure adequate coverage of the TEN-T Core Network has, in particular, been established between Spain and Portugal for deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure for electricity, natural gas and LPG and between Spain, Andorra and France in a common project for development of a transnational corridor of hydrogen refuelling points.

5.10.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

*2020 estimate

The Spanish NPF addresses most of the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. For most fuels and modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive. The Spanish NPF does not contain a 2020 target for recharging points. This violates a basic requirement of the Directive. It can pose a serious risk to cross-border continuity and a functioning internal market for electric vehicles.

The Spanish NPF estimates a comparably low share of roughly 0.5% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. While the spatial distribution of recharging points seems to cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of distance requirements in Spain, the absence of targets for publicly accessible recharging points for 2020 is a risk to the further market deployment of electric vehicles. This could also lead to market fragmentation within the EU, especially in the context of the rather low estimated EV shares in the Spanish NPF. It will be important to establish appropriate infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. The Spanish NPF contains modest targets and measures for increasing shore-side electricity in its ports. Coverage of electricity supply for stationary airplanes at the major airports is already good and no increase is foreseen.

The Spanish NPF focusses on LPG and natural gas, for which substantial infrastructure is already in place. It considers strong growth of CNG and LPG vehicles and establishes appropriate refuelling infrastructure targets consistent with the vehicle projections.

The Spanish NPF strongly emphasizes LNG. There are already 15 publicly accessible LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles present in the Spanish territory and it is foreseen to have 44 by 2020. Altogether, the planned LNG refuelling points could guarantee that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the road TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on the Spanish territory.

LNG refuelling is available for all maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network and in several ports of the comprehensive network, and additional bunkering terminals and ship-to-ship refuelling are planned.

Spain has considered hydrogen in its NPF. The deployment of 20 publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling points and 500 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020 is foreseen.

The Spanish NPF contains an extensive list of measures, most already in place. Most of them can be considered having a low to medium impact on market actor's decisions. Regulatory measures have been put in place to facilitate infrastructure deployment. Longer durations for the validity of financial support measures could provide certainty for market actors and hence increase the likelihood that the national targets and objectives of the NPF can be reached. The NPF also contains several support measures to promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

The consideration of the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as stakeholders during the drafting of the Spanish NPF can be viewed as exemplary. Further co-operation will continue in the follow up phase of the NPF.

Spain is actively involved in coordinating its plans on alternative fuels infrastructure with other Member States as well as collaborating with them in this field, in particular for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure for electricity, natural gas and LPG. Spain and France collaborate for the establishment of a hydrogen refuelling point corridor connecting the two countries.

5.11Finland

5.11.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Finland is 1,070 km and the length of motorways is 810 km. The length of the total road network in Finland is 26,892 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Finland is 5% (348 km) of the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Core Network, Finland is connected with Sweden.

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2016, Finland had 3,346,005 registered passenger cars in traffic use. In 2016, it had 6,316,531 registered vehicles of all type (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). Presently only a few (1%) AFV are driving on Finnish roads, 0.11% of passenger cars are electric.

Number of main agglomerations

·21 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·no inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network/ TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·4 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·12 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T maritime ports network, Finland is connected with Sweden through the Scandinavian - Mediterranean Corridor and Estonia through North Sea - Baltic Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·18 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.11.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the Finnish NPF already exist, and, for most, the future extension is foreseen. They cover various types, addressing many deployment barriers. Some measure descriptions lack important information needed for an assessment. Many measures focus on the biofuels and their increased share in the fuel mix in road and waterways transport. Electro-mobility is promoted mostly with financial measures, taxation schemes and public procurement incentives. The Finnish set of measures cover many alternative fuels and seem to set Finland on a good track to reach the targets laid down by the Directive.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.11-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

3,436

971

22,000

2,000

106,000

263,000

25,000

Electricity for stationary airplanes

3

SSE for maritime ports

1

4

CNG for vehicles

1,344

24

5,800

55

17,000

55

53,000

LNG for road

8

2

9

11

LNG inland

1

LNG for maritime ports

12

2

4

6

6

Ethanol (E85) for road

36,000

100

250

H2 for road

1

2

21

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.11-2. Checklist results

5.11.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.11.-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

3.54

11.00

10.5

CNG for vehicles

56.00

105.45

309

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.11.-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

The current sufficiency index for EVs is 3.54 meeting the assessment threshold by a large margin. In 2020, it does not satisfy the assessment threshold of 10 AFV. In 2030, the sufficiency could be met with additional effort, even though it is slightly above the threshold of 10 vehicles per recharging point.

Appropriate locations of recharging points to be put in place in 2020 on the TEN-T Core and Comprehensive Network are provided on a map. The total target for recharging points and the distribution visualized on the map gives confidence that the minimum coverage target of one recharging point at least every 60 km of TEN-T network will be achieved in 2020.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Finnish NPF considers urban agglomerations as cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. The NPF provides a map showing recharging points distributed along TEN-T Corridor, Core and Comprehensive Network and densely populated areas by 2020 with depicted recharging point locations. The NPF further provides a table where existing and 2020 target recharging points are counted for every city, urban agglomeration and villages stating a detailed plan for the recharging point’s distribution.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Finland has 3 TEN-T Core Network and 18 Comprehensive Network airports, already providing comprehensive range of ground power, with both sockets and mobile equipment when needed. Only the smallest airports do not facilitate ground power systems since it is not economically viable, according to the NPF.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

Currently there are 3 Finnish ports offering shore-side electricity supply: the port of Helsinki, Oulu and Kemi. A cooperation agreement was signed in 2016 between the port of Helsinki, Turku, Stockholm and Tallinn to further promote use of shore-side electricity in the port Turku and Helsinki, and the agreement is currently being finalized. It would ensure the SSE availability in the main maritime ports.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.11.-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. The targets will also be sufficient in 2020, while there are no infrastructure targets for 2025. However, if the target of 55 CNG refuelling points is met in 2020 and the number remains constant until 2025, this will also fulfil the sufficiency target in 2025, with 309 vehicles per one refuelling point.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points up to 2020, and checking the TEN-T Core Network routes, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG at least every 150 km will be fulfilled by 2020, except on the E75 route between Oulu and Jyväskylä. No further information is provided for CNG infrastructure after 2020, and it may need a revision.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Finnish NPF contains a table listing 55 CNG refuelling points available in 31 agglomerations, towns and villages in 2020. The NPF also contains a map that depicts existing and planned CNG refuelling points throughout urban agglomerations and Core/Comprehensive road Network that sets Finland on a good track to ensure sufficient infrastructure in urban and suburban areas.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Currently there are 2 road LNG refuelling points in Finland. The NPF targets 9 LNG refuelling points for road vehicles in the 2020 and depicts them on the map provided. If the target will be achieved in 2020, Finland will meet the minimum coverage target of one refuelling point every 400 km on the TEN-T Core Network. Moreover, LNG terminals built for shipping needs will also serve heavy-duty vehicles, and it will ensure coverage for needs of heavy-duty vehicles in 2030.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

There are currently 2 maritime ports with LNG refuelling points. Target for 2025 is to build 4 more LNG refuelling points, which will also serve heavy-duty trucks, totalling to 6 LNG refuelling points in maritime ports, which according to the NPF will be enough to fulfil the market needs in Finland.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Currently there are no inland waterways LNG refuelling points in Finland. The NPF states one mobile bunkering point will be available for LNG vessels navigating in the Saimaa channel until 2030.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Currently there are 2 hydrogen refuelling points in Finland. An ambitious target of 21 hydrogen-refuelling points is established for 2030, ensuring the maximum distance target of 300 km, each serving a radius of 150 km.

5.11.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The Finnish NPF contains ambitious estimates for the deployment of several alternative fuels vehicle options. The focus is on vehicles compatible with high blends of biofuels and on electric vehicles, both in private and public road transport. Moreover, the NPF targets that every refuelling point would offer high-blend biofuel as a part of the product range. In 2050, Finland targets near zero-emission transport, aiming at 50% of all new vehicles to be powered by an alternative fuel already in 2025. The target in shipping and aviation is 40% GHG reduction, planned to be achieved mainly by switching to LNG and biofuels. Finland estimates a share of roughly 0.6% electric vehicles on the road in 2020, and around 7.4% in 2030. For CNG road vehicles, the estimate share for 2020 is around 0.16%, while in 2030 it is 1.5%.

5.11.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Finnish NPF contains a large portfolio of measures. Most of the measures are already in effect and prolongation is considered for most of them. According to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for electricity, biofuels, CNG and LNG vehicles and infrastructure measures. However, measures considering biofuels and electricity display the highest commitment for the road transport and set confidence of reaching the target of near-zero emission transport in Finland. The NPF promotes LNG through the measures to be the main shipping and long haul transport fuel in the future. Road transport is a main NPF focus, with some waterborne and airborne shipping. For some measures, the Finnish NPF provides ambiguous and limited information concerning the promotion of various fuels, which makes the assessment difficult at times.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, major alternative fuels types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can address many deployment barriers for electricity, biofuels and LNG. The portfolio of all measures can be considered comprehensive for electricity, biofuels, CNG and public electric road transport. One main focus of the NPF is on biofuels, and measures further address the deployment of biofuels to increase their share, even though the national target of 10% according to the Directive 2009/28/EC on renewable energy has already been surpassed. These measures set Finland on a good track to meet the national target for biofuel share in transport of 30% by 2030.

For electricity and CNG, the overall measure assessment grade is medium and most of the measures back up the vehicle estimates and infrastructure targets. Some measures address electricity for shore-side supply and for stationary airplanes, and it appears that Finland will meet the national target for these alternatives. The overall LNG measure assessment is medium, covering road, maritime and inland waterways infrastructure. The most promising LNG measure is an energy grant to support the building of 4 LNG/LBG terminals for shipping and HDVs needs, which represents 57% of the planned LNG waterways infrastructure until 2030.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The NPF measures imply that electricity will play a leading role in public transport. Four demonstration projects yielded the procurement of 22 electric buses and 34 recharging points in different cities. Moreover, increasing share of drop-in biofuels will also be promoted in the public transport.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

In the respective section, the Finnish NPF lists some general measures. Although the information is scarce vis-à-vis these measures, Finland recognises company cars as a natural way of promoting new costly technologies, such as electricity, and it will target the taxation system for low emission company cars to support the corresponding infrastructure.

5.11.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Finnish NPF mentions local initiatives. It also mentions that the LNG action plan was prepared by a number of different authorities and together with companies and associations relevant to the sector.

5.11.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The Finnish NPF states that a cooperation agreement was signed between Finland, Sweden and Estonia on promoting the usage of shore-side electricity on the Baltic Sea.

5.11.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

*2030

The Finnish NPF fully addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. For all fuels and modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive. The Finnish NPF focuses on biofuels to meet the near-zero emission transport target by 2050, and states ambitious measures to achieve them. Low and high blends are planned to be used in different modes of transports, ensuring less fossil oil dependency and less GHG emissions.

The NPF states high recharging point targets and vehicle estimates, and contains some measures to deploy electricity in transport, such as tax reductions and direct investments for private and public electro-mobility. The given recharging points target and its spatial distribution seems to cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of number of publicly accessible recharging points as well as distance requirements in Finland. The ratio of recharging points per estimated number of electric vehicles is on the borderline to sufficiency until 2030, and close monitoring may be needed to ensure sufficiency. In Finland, 22 electric buses have been procured for public transport for demonstration projects in 4 cities. The Finnish NPF contains targets to further promote and increase shore-side electricity in ports and ground power for stationary airplanes is already offered in the major airports.

Finland currently has a sufficient CNG infrastructure in terms of vehicles per refuelling point and will continue to have in 2025. The NPF provides a map of spatial CNG distribution where minimum coverage criteria does not hold on the TEN-T Core Network in 2020, and no information about CNG infrastructure until 2025 is provided. Thus, additional revision could be necessary to secure the minimum coverage criteria until 2025.

LNG with gradual increase of renewable share is foreseen as the main shipping and long-haul transport fuel. Six LNG refuelling points in maritime ports and one mobile inland waterway bunker are planned until 2030. Nine road LNG refuelling points on the TEN-T Core Network will ensure the minimum coverage criteria of one LNG refuelling point at least every 400 km for heavy-duty motor vehicles, already by 2020.

Furthermore, the Finnish NPF displays a strong commitment towards hydrogen. The deployment of 19 publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling points in addition to two existing is planned, ensuring the distance of 300 km between two points.

The Finnish NPF contains a comprehensive list of measures, with most already in place and foreseen to stay. Most of them could have a medium impact on electricity, CNG and LNG in the road transport, and high impact on LNG in shipping. However, some measures could not be assessed due to the limited information contained in the NPF. The NPF contains a comprehensive list of support measures that can promote the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

Finland considered regional and local authorities, stakeholders’ interests and cooperation with other Member States in some instances.

5.12France

5.12.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in France is 5,283 km and the length of motorways is 11,552 km. The length of the total road network in France is 398,533 km (including motorways, main/national roads, and secondary/regional roads).

The following lengths of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in France: 13% (767 km) of the Mediterranean Corridor, 36% (1,583 km) of the Atlantic Corridor, 38% (1,611 km) of the North Sea –Mediterranean Corridor, 0.4% (18 km) of the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, France is connected with the following Member States:
- Germany (through the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- England (through the North Sea -Mediterranean Corridor)

- Belgium (through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor)

- Luxembourg (through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor)

- Spain (through the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Corridor)

- Italy (through the Mediterranean Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

At the beginning of 2016, France had about 32,300,000 registered passenger cars (M1) and about 38,500,000 registered road vehicles of all types. The French NPF considers the present situation of about 0.2% of AFV on French roads as insufficient, and in need of improvement.

Number of main agglomerations

·25 urban agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants for which measures to promote air quality are implemented (source: Decree of 28 June 2016 pursuant to Article R.221-2 of the French Environment Code)

·61 urban agglomerations with more than 100,000 inhabitants for which measures to promote air quality are implemented (source: Decree of 28 June 2016 pursuant to Article R.221-2 of the French Environment Code)

·114 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·11 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network and 10 ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·8 maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network and 19 in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, France is connected with Belgium and Luxembourg through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor and with Germany through the Rhine - Alpine Corridor. France plans to expand the existing inland waterways network by 27% along the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·8 airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·19 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.12.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the French NPF is already existing. They cover a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers. The number of proposed measures is high, covering almost all areas, and the measures are presented in a well-structured and logical manner. The French NPF presents all the measures existing or being developed, diverse in nature (legislative and regulatory, incentive, informative, calls for projects, research and development, cross-border coordination and projects financed by European programs) and promoting, directly or indirectly, the deployment of alternative fuels and corresponding infrastructure. The French NPF puts a lot of emphasis on electric vehicles offering substantial direct incentives for purchase.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.12-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

118,663

16,081

960,000

35,000

(2,400,000 in 2023)

7,000,000*

CNG for vehicles

7,606

43

79 / 210**

116 / 260**

LNG for road

40

1

25 / 40**

LNG for inland ports

0

3

LNG for maritime ports

1

7

H2 for road

30 (NPF) 16 (EAFO)

11 (NPF) 9 (EAFO)

30

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Public Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points,

* - includes some private and semi-public recharging points, ** - sector actors estimations.

Unfortunately, not enough data are provided concerning AFV estimations. The French NPF states that a review of the level of development of alternative fuels and infrastructure will be made by 2019 and the objectives of this framework and the actions required to achieve them will be updated as appropriate.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.12-2. Checklist results

 

5.12.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.12-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

7.38

27.43

-

-

CNG for vehicles

176.88

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. In italic index of sufficiency resulted after power extrapolation for AFI and AFV (see table 5.12.1)

Table 5.12-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AFI Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding electric vehicles, for the current situation, with a value of 7.38, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 EV per recharging point. For 2020, the value 27.43 of the index suggests that the targeted number of recharging points in the French NPF may be insufficient. The French NPF objectives for 2020 contain a network of 35,000 recharging points (4 points/station) or 21,000 recharging points (2 points/station) accessible to the public. The NPF states that this network would be sufficient for EVs to circulate in 2020 from the physical accessibility point of view (access time on foot in urban areas denser than 450 inhabitants/km2, access time by car in the rest of the areas).

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points in the provided map and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled, and the entire French metropolitan territory is well covered.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

All the departments of metropolitan France are equipped with recharging points open to the public. At the end of 2015, the average equipment of a French department is around one recharging point open to the public for 10,000 inhabitants. The designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with recharging points takes into account the criteria of population level and density. The zones with more than 5,000 inhabitants and 450 inhabitants/km2 are called dense zones (968 living areas corresponding to 89% of the population) and the target is defined as one recharging point per 3,000 inhabitants. The remaining populated zones are called rural zones and are grouped in 676 living areas. For the rural zones, one recharging point per living area is considered sufficient by the French NPF. This approach leads to obtaining 21,300 recharging points (2 points/station) or 35,000 recharging points (4 points/station), values considered appropriate and fulfilling the requested spatial distribution for 2020.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

For many airports, which belong to the TEN-T Core network, there are regulations or recommendations for maximum periods of use of auxiliary power units (APUs) with the purpose to encourage the airport operators to equip themselves with alternatives means to the use of APUs. The main French airports are already equipped with fixed or mobile ground power units. The majority (7 out of 8) of the TEN-T Core Network airports are equipped with Sockets of 400 Hz for parking positions at the terminals: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly, Lyon, Nice, Lille, Toulouse and Marseille. Also the addition of mobile ground power units is investigated.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

According to the French NPF, the current demand of shore-side electricity is considered low with a high uncertainty about the potential of the market. Currently, one French maritime port (Marseille-Fos) offers an electrical connection, delivering high power (above 1MVA), designed for commercial ships. In addition, several maritime ports (Marseille, Nantes, Bordeaux...) already offer, or will offer in the very short term, a service of shore-side electricity for ships with longer mooring time (wintering and ship repair). Almost all French maritime commercial ports, belonging to the TEN-T Core Network, performed studies on this issue, and included the development of shore-side electricity supply in their development strategy towards greener environment activities.

Concerning inland ports which have lower energy needs, the shore-side electricity terminals for riverboats are installed in the town of Andelys (Normandy), in the port Lyon Gennevilliers and on the river basin of the North and Pas-de-Calais departments (60 electricity terminals). Several projects are also being investigated on sites managed by the port of Paris. In the coming months, the installation of a harmonised shore-side electricity supply service will be completed along the Seine for inland waterway freight vessels. Given the results of a national level, socio-economic cost-benefit assessment and considering the development strategies of the ports, by 2025 the following ports are likely to offer shore-side electricity supply: the maritime port of Marseille and the inland ports of Paris, Strasbourg, Le Havre, Rouen, Lille and Lyon. Other possible ports were identified: Nantes, Bordeaux, Havre (in the case of a demand increase); la Rochelle, Rouen (in the case of traffic growth and the emergence of a demand via regular routes); Marseille (for cruise ships depending on market needs and technological constraints).

Prospects for the development are therefore potentially significant, but the business case remains a challenge. The NPF considers that the regulatory developments regarding restrictions on pollutant emissions from ships, the use of alternative fuels for ship propulsion and the connection technologies will determine the future development of shore-side electricity.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

For the vehicle stock, the French NPF only communicates one number for natural gas vehicles (NGV) that includes both CNG and LNG. Currently, the consumption of natural gas in the French transport sector remains low: it represented in 2014 less than 0.02% of the final energy consumption of the transport sector. The park of NGV in France counted 12,199 vehicles at the end of 2015, primarily captive fleet vehicles with dedicated fuelling points. Table 5.12-3 shows that the current situation for CNG refuelling points passes the sufficiency threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles (under the assumption that most NGV are indeed CNG vehicles).

The actors of the sector envisage 210 CNG refuelling points in 2020 and a minimum of 260 CNG refuelling points in 2025. The CNG refuelling points map presented for 2025, with the localisations also along the axes of the TEN-T Core Network accessible to heavy-duty vehicles, allows the visual assessment of a uniform geographical coverage without important gaps and indicates the fulfilment of the distance requirement of at least one refuelling point every 150 km (even though the maximum distance value chosen in the French NPF is 200 km).

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The French NPF considers CNG an appropriate solution also for heavy-duty vehicles. The target consists in developing CNG refuelling points mainly for heavy-duty vehicles for medium and short-range distances, these points remaining accessible also to light vehicles.

Planned distribution of CNG refuelling points, open to the public, is based on population densities of French urban areas as main criterion dimensioning the network and on physical accessibility to the refuelling points. The appropriate number of CNG refuelling points open to the public is estimated at approximately 80 points by the end of 2020, and 115 points by the end of 2025, including about 70 along the axes or within urban areas of the TEN-T Core Network.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

By the end of 2020, according to the French NPF, the network envisaged by the actors of the sector would contain 40 LNG refuelling points. Using the same criteria as for the CNG refuelling points estimation, it results that, along the TEN-T Core Network, by the end of 2025, the appropriate number of LNG refuelling points, strictly necessary in the sense of the Directive, is 25. This number of LNG refuelling points will assure a normal circulation at least on the TEN-T Core Network. By 2025, the number of LNG refuelling points is estimated to be with 40 well above this threshold. The LNG localisation map presented confirms the uniform geographical coverage without important gaps and the fulfilment of the distance requirement of at least one refuelling point every 400 km.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The marine LNG refuelling of a ship is a reality in France since the first operation took place in May 2016 at the port of Le Havre, but all the ports show a collective ambition to develop marine LNG refuelling capacities. To do this, they can rely on four methane terminals available on the three coastal areas of the country: Channel - North Sea, Atlantic and Mediterranean. The TEN-T Core Network maritime ports include the ports of Marseille - Fos, Bordeaux, Nantes Saint-Nazaire, Le Havre, Rouen, Dunkirk and Calais. The maritime port of La Rochelle, belonging to the TEN-T Comprehensive network, is fully integrated in this approach.

Two scenarios for the evolution of LNG demand, one base and another more optimistic, were developed by the actors in the field and the state services within a prospective exercise. The French NPF commits to the base scenario which involves the provision of LNG bunkering by 2025, at least, on one port of each coastal area. The Mediterranean coast is designed as a major area to develop a substantial marine LNG refuelling offer. The North Channel-North Sea coast is also a market with high potential for marine LNG bunkering, owing to its strategic geographical position and its inclusion in the SECA zone. The Atlantic coast already offers a service for LNG tankers from the Montoir methane terminal and its capacity should increase soon. The fixed objectives for 2025 include the ports of Nantes St- Nazaire, La Rochelle, Bordeaux for the Atlantic coast; the ports of Havre, Rouen, Dunkerque for the English Channel - North Sea coast and the port of Marseille-Fos for the Mediterranean Sea coast. Within the optimistic scenario, the ports of Calais, Dieppe, Nice, Brest, Roscoff, Toulon, Caen Ouistreham, and Cherbourg were identified as possible candidates for the further extension of the LNG refuelling point network.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Regarding inland ports, the French NPF mentions that the uncertainty over future demand remains too important to set a goal on the horizon of 2030. Nevertheless, according to the projections of the economic actors, truck to ship mobile bunkering offers or small fixed points could emerge by 2030 in several inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and at least on each main inland waterway system. The inland ports considered for the 2030 horizon are Rouen, Le Havre and Strasbourg. Possible additions could be Paris and LNG on each main French inland waterway system: Seine, Rhine, Northeast, Northern France, and Rhône-Saône.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

France has taken steps to promote the deployment of a network of refuelling infrastructure dedicated to hydrogen, a sector still emerging. This deployment is based on a bottom-up approach within specific networks and it involves an ongoing first step of establishing captive fleet clusters. Various projects are being developed and local administrations show a strong interest for hydrogen. France fixed as a goal that these projects can be implemented by 2025, which would lead to a number of points in the order of 30 refuelling points accessible to the public. This goal could reach 50 within an optimistic scenario. These targets could be revised upwards in the event of a strong increase in the offer of available vehicles and related market conditions.

5.12.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The focus of the French NPF is mainly on electric vehicles, but it also features substantial coverage of CNG, LNG and hydrogen. The volume, thematic distribution and comprehensiveness of the taken measures reflect these priorities. Only two estimations regarding future AFV are given in the French NPF: 2.4 million EVs in 2023 and 7 million of recharging points (includes besides public also semi-public and some private points) in 2030.

Even if the number of EV (battery electric or plug-in hybrids) on French roads is still low compared to the total stock of road vehicles (0.2% from total fleet), the EV market is continuously growing since several years.

The development of NGV in France focussed so far on public transport and many communities now have a fleet of buses running on CNG. It then expanded to cleaning vehicles, garbage trucks, and captive fleets of light-duty vehicles. Currently, the consumption of natural gas in transport remains low: it represented in 2014 less than 0.02% of the final energy consumption of the transport sector in France. The use of LNG as maritime fuel is today one of the main technological solutions to cope with current and future environmental requirements in ports and coastal areas, and its development is today in France considered a priority.

5.12.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The French NPF has a big portfolio of measures, the great majority already in effect. These measures are structured in: legislative and regulatory (20), informative (11), incentive (15), call for projects (6), RTD&D (3) and measures for cross-border coordinated actions and projects funded by European programmes (11). The measures defined in the French NPF can be considered comprehensive for the following fuels in road transport: electricity, CNG, LNG, and hydrogen.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

As mentioned before, electricity for road modes is a main interest in the French NPF. This cluster achieves a high overall assessment score. The development of the market for EVs in France is supported by incentivising clean mobility. EVs can benefit, for example, from direct incentives for the purchase or lease of low emission vehicles (up to € 10 000 per vehicle) and from the requirement to renew public fleets with more environmentally friendly vehicles. 75% of the EVs, registered in France in 2016, were BEVs.

Other alternative fuels, CNG, LNG and hydrogen receive also considerable attention within the NPF, benefitting from several measures of calls for projects, incentives for building the infrastructure, and tax incentives.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The French NPF proposes three regulatory measures in this category, covering all fuel types, two modes of transport (road and rail) with the aim to foster AFI and AFV in public transport.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The French NPF proposes three measures in this category, two financial and one regulatory. They concern (i) programmes to facilitate the installation and partial financing of private recharging points by energy companies via certificates of energy saving, (ii) the deduction of up to 30% of expenditures from the income tax for energy performance improvements like building recharging points, and (iii) regulations imposing the provision of ducts and the dimensioning of the electrical installations for potential later installation of recharging points in new residential buildings with covered parking lots. These measures can have a high impact on the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure.

5.12.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The definition of the NPF was based on a consultation process involving, on one hand, the state services and the public institutions concerned within a steering committee and, on the other hand, all concerned stakeholders (transporters, manufacturers, distributors, environmental protection associations, local communities), within a monitoring committee during the various stages of the document's development. Stakeholder consultation is enshrined in a law regarding the deployment of recharging points in public spaces. It specifies that the conditions of this deployment must be subject to a consultation between different stakeholders and local communities. Another law stipulates that urban agglomerations can exercise the right to construct and maintain recharging points. A guide helps local and regional authorities, as well as private actors, wishing to coordinate, operate or build infrastructures in areas open to the public.

5.12.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The measures chapter of the French NPF contains a section on cooperation with neighbouring Member States for interoperability and alternative fuels deployment. This section includes all the projects, measures and initiatives with European character in which France participates with other MS in order to develop cross-border continuity of different alternative fuels solutions. In addition, projects funded by the Connecting Europe Facility involving several Member States as partners are listed.

5.12.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

* sector actors estimation

The French NPF fully addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future development of alternative fuels and corresponding infrastructure in the transport sector. For the different fuels and modes, it discusses targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive. However, for some fuels/modes the target commitment is ambiguous, which, at times, makes it difficult to understand the ambition of the French NPF.

The focus of the French NPF is mainly on electric vehicles with estimates of roughly 1.6% EV on the road in 2020. Based on the targets provided, it can be concluded that the aims for recharging infrastructure accessible to the public seem insufficient in comparison with the future estimated EVs. Each department of metropolitan France is already today equipped with at least one recharging point. It seems that the distance requirement on the TEN-T Core Network of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled. The French NPF also highlights the role that electricity can play in airports for use by stationary airplanes, shore-side electricity supply for inland waterway vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports.

The current and targeted number of CNG refuelling points can be considered sufficient, although the NPF does not provide future estimates for CNG vehicles. The NPF focus for CNG is on the TEN-T Core Network and nine French large urban areas. The French NPF emphasizes the role that natural gas vehicles can play for the public transport sector, cleaning vehicles, garbage trucks, and captive fleets of light-duty vehicles. The provided information indicates the fulfilment of the distance requirement of at least one CNG refuelling point every 150 km.

For heavy-duty trucks, the committed target provides the appropriate number of LNG refuelling points, which is strictly necessary in the sense of the Directive and this number is assumed to assure a normal circulation at least within the road TEN-T Core Network. The localisation map confirms the uniform geographical coverage without important gaps and the fulfilment of the distance requirement of at least one refuelling point every 400 km.

The French NPF commits to the provision of LNG bunkering by 2025, at least, on one maritime port of each coastal area of the country: Channel - North Sea, Atlantic and Mediterranean. According to evolving market demand, truck to ship mobile bunkering offers or small fixed points could emerge by 2030 in several inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network. France targets to equip at least three ports with LNG refuelling on its inland waterways.

France has taken steps to promote the deployment of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure and funds several ongoing projects in this field. This deployment is based on a bottom-up approach within specific networks and it involves establishing captive fleet clusters. The targets could be revised upwards in the event of a strong increase in the offer of available vehicles and related market conditions.

The French NPF has a big portfolio of measures, the great majority already in effect. These measures are structured in: legislative and regulatory (20), informative (11), incentive (15), call for projects (6), RTD&D (3) and measures for cross-border coordinated actions and projects funded by European programmes (11). The measures defined in the French NPF are comprehensive for the following fuels in road transport: electricity, CNG, LNG, and hydrogen. They can be considered exemplary for electric vehicles and the associated infrastructure.

France cooperates with neighbouring countries and other Member States to support EU-wide circulation for AFV and cross-border continuity for AFI. An important enabler for this cooperation is, according to the French NPF the Connecting Europe Facility.

5.13Croatia

5.13.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Croatia is 1,107 km and the length of motorways is 1,295 km. The length of the total road network in Croatia is 17,726 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Croatia is 6% (315 km) of the Mediterranean Corridor, which connects Croatia with Hungary and Slovenia.

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2016, Croatia had 1,474,000 registered passenger cars and 1,775,700 registered vehicles of all types (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). Presently a few (4.02 %) AFV, mainly LPG cars, are driving on Croatian roads, while 0.06% of passenger cars are electric.

Number of main agglomerations

·29 cities > 20,000 inhabitants (source – NPF)

·5 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network

·6 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Croatia is connected with Hungary through the Rhine -Danube Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Zagreb, Pleso Airport)

·6 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.13.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The Croatian NPF offers a low number of measures on alternative fuels infrastructure and vehicle deployment. Many measures contain limited information and could not be assessed. The overall score for electricity is medium, while for CNG and LNG is low, and only measures regarding electric recharging points and vehicles are comprehensive. Measures mostly address road transport. Prolongation of some existing measures is foreseen until 2020. Although the NPF lists several measures under consideration with little information, the overall low number of adopted or existing measures could hamper the NPF target achievement.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.13-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

496 (EAFO)

856 (NPF)

126

296*

602**

806***

Electricity for stationary airplanes

9a

9a

9a

9a

SSE for inland ports

2b

4b

SSE for maritime ports

3b

CNG for vehicles

211 (EAFO) 427 (NPF)

2

13

19

LNG for road

2

7(+)****

LNG for maritime ports

1

7

LNG for inland ports

2(+2)*****

LPG for road

87,000 (EAFO) 57,911 (NPF)

334

H2 for road

0

1 or 2

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points, * 222 normal and 74 high power, **434 normal and 168 high power, ***554 normal and 252 high power, **** in case of additional demand, mobile facilities can be supplied, ***** in case of additional need, 2 more inland ports could supply LNG, a number of international airports, b number of ports

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that almost all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.13-2. Checklist results

5.13.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.13.-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

2.19

-

-

-

CNG for vehicles

105.50

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.13.-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

The current sufficiency index for EVs of 2.19 meets the assessment threshold by a large margin. The sufficiency index could not be determined for the future since the Croatian NPF does not provide any future vehicle estimates. The NPF states that the recharging points target could be adjusted to the market needs in the future, and states that until 2020, recharging points will be available every 50 km of the highway and in every urban agglomeration. The target stated gives the impression that the distance requirement will be met. Some locations of the recharging points in urban agglomerations are described in the table at the end of the NPF. However, no map or spatial distribution is provided by the NPF.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Croatian NPF considers urban agglomerations as 29 cities/towns with more than 20.000 inhabitants. Recharging points are indicated in a table for 14 urban agglomerations. Nevertheless, the NPF states that by 2020, all of the 29 agglomerations will facilitate recharging points.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Croatia has one TEN-T Core Network airport, six comprehensive network airports and all together nine international airports. According to the NPF, all nine airports already offer ground power. It does not provide explicit information on GPU coverage.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF states that currently 2 inland waterways ports offer shore-side electricity supply points. The 2025 target is to build another 2 shore-side electricity supply points in the TEN-T Core Network inland waterways ports, and 3 shore-side electricity supply points in the TEN-T Core Network maritime network ports. Thus in 2025 Croatia plans to have 7 shore-side electricity supply points in TEN-T Core Network ports.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.13.-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. Since no vehicle estimates are provided for the future period, the future sufficiency index cannot be calculated. Targets for 2025 are 19 CNG refuelling points, which will satisfy the minimum coverage criteria of 150 km, according to the NPF. The NPF does not provide visual distribution information, rather states that these 19 locations are planned with having in mind a minimum coverage criteria of 150 km, proximity to the CNG pipeline network and profitability of existing locations, i.e. fuel distributors, both on the highways and in agglomerations.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Croatian NPF states a minimum of 12 urban agglomerations will feature CNG refuelling points until 2020. These agglomerations have been designated according to economic viability considerations, according to the NPF. Until 2025, the NPF states a total of 19 refuelling points, distributed in urban agglomerations highways and local roads. The target of 19 refuelling points sets Croatia on a good track to meet a minimum coverage target. However, no spatial distribution is presented by the NPF to assess if the minimum coverage criteria will be met.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Currently there are no road LNG refuelling points in Croatia. At country level, the 2025 target is 2 road LNG refuelling points, located in Zagreb and Rijeka. The target for 2030 is set to 7 LNG refuelling points allocated at the peripheries of larger agglomerations. The NPF also mentions that additional mobile LNG refuelling points could be made available on highways if there is additional demand in 2030. With 2 LNG refuelling points, Croatia will not meet the minimum distance criteria of at least one refuelling point every 400 km in 2025 on the TEN-T Core Network, as it would not provide sufficient coverage for the south of Croatia. However, the NPF does not state if the inland waterway or maritime LNG refuelling points will also be available to use for heavy-duty road vehicles.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Currently there are no LNG refuelling points in the maritime ports in Croatia. The NPF targets 1 LNG refuelling point in the TEN-T Core Network port of Rijeka by 2025, and a total of 7 maritime LNG refuelling points, located in the main ports in 2030.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Currently there are no inland waterway LNG refuelling points in Croatia. The NPF states that 2 LNG refuelling points will be installed in the TEN-T Core Network, in 2030, with an option of additional refuelling points in two other ports if more demand emerges.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Currently there is no hydrogen refuelling point in Croatia. The NPF predicts no demand for hydrogen infrastructure by 2030, but a pilot project on the Mediterranean Corridor is possible if demand arises. In that case, one or two hydrogen refuelling points would be available, in Zagreb and/or in Rijeka.

5.13.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The Croatian NPF contains estimates for the deployment of several alternative fuels vehicle options. It estimates a share of roughly 0.06% electric vehicles currently on the road. There are no estimates for the future share of electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles are gradually introduced in the municipalities, such as for tourism in the national parks and reserves, replacing conventional vehicles and vessel. The NPF estimates the current share of CNG vehicles of 0.03% on the road. CNG buses are gradually introduced as an alternative in public transport in some urban agglomerations, but there is no information about future CNG vehicle estimates in the Croatian NPF. Currently, there is a substantial number of LPG vehicles, which amounts to 4% of the total registered vehicles, but no future estimates are provided.

5.13.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Croatian NPF contains a portfolio of different measures. Most of the measures are already in effect. According to the assessment methodology, a low overall assessment score is derived for electric, CNG and LNG vehicles. The assessed measures mostly address electricity for road transport. The total number of measures provided is very low and the information presented is very limited. This makes the assessment difficult at times.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can address some of the deployment barriers for electricity, CNG, and LNG. The portfolio of electric vehicles and infrastructure deployment can be considered comprehensive, with a medium overall score. Most of the measures are financial, and along one solid measure to co-finance the electric vehicle purchase likely with a medium impact, the rest of the measures will likely have low impact on electric vehicles deployment.

For CNG, the defined measures are not comprehensive. Measures focus mostly on CNG in public transport vehicles. For LNG the overall measures receive a low and non-comprehensive score. Even though Croatia participates in the EU joint programmes regarding LNG infrastructure deployment in the port of Rijeka, no other measures have been stated to further address the deployment of infrastructure or vehicles/ vessels to reach the 2030 targets in inland, maritime or road transport.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Croatian NPF states two measures on promoting alternative fuels in public transport. Their focus is on co-financing of 20 CNG buses in Rijeka and upgrading the CNG refuelling point for public transport buses in Zagreb.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

In the respective section, the Croatian NPF lists some general measures. The scope of these measures vis-à-vis the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure is not clear.

5.13.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Croatian NPF states that in the drafting process of the NPF, local authorities had an important role in assessing the future targets for recharging and CNG infrastructure. Moreover, for LNG refuelling points in ports, port authorities were involved in assessing the potential profitability and targets.

5.13.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The Croatian NPF does not explicitly mentions international cooperation with other Member States. However, the NPF states international cooperation in three occasions. One is the LNG infrastructure deployment in maritime transport, as a part of COSTA II, an LNG bunkering project. The cooperation was made with Italy, Slovenia, Greece and Cyprus. Another international cooperation was made through Civitas DYD@AMO project, to promote electro-mobility in city transport. The cooperation was made with Germany, Poland and Spain. Third international cooperation was PRO-E-BIKE between Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden, and the project was on electric bicycles deployment in cities.

5.13.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Croatian NPF addresses most of the requirements of Article 3. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the current state, but a somewhat limited discussion of future scenarios for most alternative fuels in the transport sector. For all fuels and some modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive. The NPF does not contain concrete measures to encourage and facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public.

The NPF does not contain vehicle estimates for the future deployment of EVs. The given recharging points target and especially fast recharging infrastructure seems to cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of number of publicly accessible recharging points as well as minimum coverage requirements in Croatia in 2020. The NPF does neither consider shore-side electricity nor electricity supply for stationary airplanes.

The NPF does not contain vehicle estimates for the future deployment of CNG vehicles. Croatia currently has a sufficient network of CNG refuelling points when compared to CNG vehicles, but it does not meet the minimum coverage requirements. Regarding the 2025 minimum coverage target in terms of distance requirements, the existing measure for the deployment of CNG refuelling points seems sufficient. Croatia already counts a high number of CNG buses and future promotion of CNG vehicles for public transport is foreseen.

The Croatian NPF plans two LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles in road transport until 2025 and seven until 2030. Moreover, the NPF plans one LNG refuelling point in maritime transport in 2025 and seven until 2030. Furthermore, two LNG refuelling points for inland waterways are planned until 2030. It is not specifically stated in the NPF whether the inland waterways and maritime LNG refuelling points will be accessible for LNG heavy-duty vehicles. In case they are accessible, Croatia would meet the minimum distance requirement of one LNG refuelling point every 400 km on the road TEN-T Core Network in 2025.

The NPF does not consider hydrogen for transport.

The Croatian NPF contains a list of measures with a low impact score on overcoming deployment barriers in electro-mobility, CNG and LNG vehicles and infrastructure deployment. Only measures concerning electro-mobility are considered comprehensive. Most of the existing or planned measures end in 2018 or earlier, with no prolongation explicitly stated. The majority of measures stated in the NPF could not be assessed due to the limited information provided.

Croatia considered local authorities and stakeholders’ interest, and coordinated the NPF with the local authorities. Moreover, Croatia cooperated with many Member States in projects concerning electro-mobility and LNG infrastructure deployment.

5.14Hungary

5.14.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Hungary is 1,090 km and the length of motorways is 1,767 km. The length of the total road network in Hungary is 31,760 km.

The following parts of the TEN-T Road Corridors are present in Hungary: 11% (604 km) of the Mediterranean Corridor, 9% (469 km) of the Orient/ East - Mediterranean Corridor and 10% (469 km) of the Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Hungary is connected with the following Member States:
- Austria (through the Orient / East Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Slovakia (through the Orient / East Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Romania (through the Orient / East Mediterranean and the Rhine - Danube Corridor)

- Croatia (through the Mediterranean Corridor)

- Slovenia (through the Mediterranean Corridor)

Number of registered road vehicles

In 2014, Hungary had 3,107,695 registered passenger cars. In 2014, it had 4,968,408 registered vehicles of all type (motorcycles, passenger cars, microbuses and buses, goods vehicles, tractor units, trailers and semi-trailers and special vehicles). Presently only a few (0.56%) AFV are driving on Hungarian roads, 0.01% of passenger cars are electric.

Number of main agglomerations

·22 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·7 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·No maritime ports

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Hungary is connected with Croatia and Slovakia through Rhine - Danube Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Liszt Ferenc International Airport)

·4 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.14.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the Hungarian NPF already exists. The NPF contains a low overall number of proposed measures. They cover a variety of types, addressing several deployment barriers. For some, information is limited. The Hungarian NPF focuses most measures on electric vehicles under the “Jedlik Anyos Plan”, with a couple of solid CNG and LNG measures. The measures are presented in a well-structured and logical manner, mostly addressing road transport. They are often very limited in time and budget, mostly not mentioning development after 2018, which may hamper the NPF target achievement.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.14-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

790 (EAFO)

395 (NPF)

205

21,200

2,250

81,600

8,100

181,900

18,100

Electricity for stationary airplanes

9

SSE for inland ports

28

36

CNG for vehicles

5,512 (EAFO) 2,385 (NPF)

8

40,000

62

213,750

145

326,800

286

LNG for road

0

0

2,550

23

6,300

83

14,200

224

LNG for inland ports

1

6

8

LPG for road

24,872 (NPF) 85,000 (EAFO)

611

22,000

630

35,000

650

45,000

700

H2 for road

35

2

75

5

150

14

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points, all estimates and targets correspond to the realistic scenario

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that almost all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.14-2. Checklist results

5.14.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.14.-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

3.85

9.42

10.07

10.05

CNG for vehicles

689

645

1474

1142

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.14.-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. The current sufficiency index for EVs is 3.85 meeting the assessment threshold by a large margin. Also for 2020, it passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point for the realistic scenario. Moreover, the index is close to the assessment threshold for 2025 and 2030.

Appropriate locations of recharging points to be put in place in 2025 on the TEN-T Core Network is still to be determined, but planning activities have begun. The total target for recharging points even in the low penetration scenario gives confidence that the minimum coverage target of one recharging point at least every 60 km of TEN-T Core Network from the Directive will be achieved.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Hungarian NPF considers urban agglomerations as cities with more than 50.000 inhabitants. The NPF provides a table with the target for recharging/refuelling points distributed along urban/suburban agglomerations and other densely populated areas by 2020, where a detailed target for each of the 22 agglomerations for recharging points counts in total 328 recharging points. This corresponds to only around 30% of the total defined target for the low penetration scenario. The table also reveals rather low EV infrastructure targets in all agglomerations except Budapest, with respect to the number of inhabitants.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Hungary has one TEN-T Core Network airport Liszt Ferenc International Airport, which according to NPF, contains ground power units at only 9 gates/positions (out of 57 on two terminals). However, the NPF also states that several new constructed gates will feature ground power units. No quantitative targets are given.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The NPF states that in 2015, Hungary had 28 shore-side electricity supply points The 2020 target is to build another 4 shore-side electricity supply points in the TEN-T Core Network and additional 4 shore-side electricity supply points outside the TEN-T network. Thus in 2020 Hungary plans to have 36 shore-side electricity supply points in inland ports.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.14.-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is not sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. In addition, due to very high estimates for CNG vehicles and non-proportional expansion of refuelling points, the number of publicly accessible CNG refuelling points in the future will also likely be insufficient. The NPF contains three possible scenarios for CNG refuelling point expansion, and, depending on the scenario, the sufficiency index also varies. It seems insufficient in all scenarios. The NPF provides a visual tool and depicts locations of the operating and planned CNG points. Furthermore, the NPF states that on TEN-T Corridors passing through Hungary, the minimum distance requirement will be covered in 2020 with 38 CNG refuelling points. It also foresees that the minimum distance requirement of 150 km will be met on the TEN-T Comprehensive Network.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Hungarian NPF contains a table listing 56 CNG refuelling points available in the 22 agglomerations in 2020. The chosen quantitative threshold will assure proximity access to the CNG infrastructure of a 53% share of the Hungarian population, which is an ambitious target and sets Hungary on a good track to meet a minimum coverage target.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Currently there are no road LNG refuelling points in Hungary. At country level, a 2025 target depending on the scenario is from 36 to 182 LNG refuelling points for road transport. The NPF states that already in 2020, with 15 refuelling points, the maximum distance between two neighbouring LNG refuelling points is 156 km on the TEN-T Corridors, which will fulfil the distance criteria of at least one refuelling point every 400 km. Moreover, the distance criteria of at least one refuelling point every 400 km will also be met on the TEN-T Comprehensive Network in 2020 when the maximum distance between two neighbouring LNG refuelling points on this network will be 137 km.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Not applicable since Hungary has no maritime ports.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Currently there are no inland waterways LNG refuelling points in Hungary. The NPF states that within TEN-T network, in 2025, 6 LNG refuelling points will be built and in 2030, 1 LNG refuelling point will be built. Moreover, 3 LNG refuelling points will be built outside TEN-T network in 2025.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Currently there is no hydrogen refuelling point in Hungary. A target of 5 hydrogen refuelling points is established for 2025. The NPF aims at reaching 14 hydrogen refuelling points by 2030.

5.14.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The Hungarian NPF contains ambitious estimates for the deployment of several alternative fuels vehicle options. It estimates a share of roughly 0.4% - 1.62% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. Until 2030, this share is estimated to increase to levels between 1.8% and 13.5%. The Hungarian NPF also states a high number of CNG and LNG vehicles in three scenarios for 2025, in case of CNG passenger cars even exceeding the electric passenger cars estimates, but the high estimates are not supported with measures. Hungarian NPF facilitates a measure to develop LNG bunkering vessel, with addition of financial measure to aid LNG bus development, where the content of the measure is not clear thus cannot be assessed. Moreover, NPF states a substantial target for LPG refuelling points, exceeding the CNG targets, and a high estimate of LPG vehicle estimates.

5.14.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Hungarian NPF contains a portfolio of different measures. Most of the measures are already in effect. According to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for electric vehicles and one LNG infrastructure measure. CNG infrastructure deployment is supported with a high impact measure. For some measures the, Hungarian NPF provides only vague and ambiguous information regarding, which limits the overall assessment for a certain alternative fuel. This makes the assessment difficult at times. In addition, the NPF contains mostly measures for road transport.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category cover: AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can address some of the deployment barriers for electricity, CNG, and LNG. The portfolio of all measures can be considered comprehensive for electricity for cars. Measures that address electric infrastructure and vehicles deployment score an overall medium score. Financial measures after 2018 for electric vehicles are not discussed in the NPF.

For CNG the overall measure assessment is high but not comprehensive as only one measure on the deployment of infrastructure could be assessed. This measure will ensure that Hungary meets the 2020 CNG infrastructure target. For LNG the overall measure assessment is medium, covering both water and road transport infrastructure. The most promising LNG measure is to deliver 5 LNG/L-CNG refuelling points for HDVs, which represents around 30% of the 2020 LNG target. However, the lack of other measures for LNG could lead to the situation that the targets will be difficult to achieve.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Hungarian NPF states two measures on promoting alternative fuels in public transport out of which only one is tangible, and it is mostly limited to electric buses in Budapest and not addressing any other mode or fuel.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

In the respective section, the Hungarian NPF lists some general measures. The scope of these measures vis-à-vis the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure is not clear.

5.14.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Hungarian NPF mentions local initiatives. However, it does not describe explicitly, whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned have been considered.

5.14.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The Hungarian NPF does not mention any cooperation with other Member States.

5.14.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

- all estimates and targets correspond to the realistic scenario

The Hungarian NPF addresses most of the requirements of Article 3. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for most alternative fuels in the transport sector. For all fuels and some modes, it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive.

It contains a large bandwidth of estimates for the future deployment of EV ranging for the 2 extreme EV penetration scenarios from 0.3% to 1.4% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. The given recharging points target and especially fast recharging infrastructure seems to cover the needs of electric vehicles in terms of number of publicly accessible recharging points as well as distance requirements in Hungary. The NPF mentions that new gates at the Liszt Ferenc International Airport will feature ground power units, No quantitative targets are provided. For shore-side electricity it targets a modest growth at its ports.

For CNG cars, the estimated shares are slightly higher than for EV. Hungary currently does not meet the threshold of at least one CNG refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles on the road. The NPF states very high estimates for CNG vehicles that would also for the future lead to a sufficiency index of less than one refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles. Regarding the 2020 minimum coverage target in terms of distance requirements the existing measure for the deployment of CNG refuelling points, seems sufficient. Hungary already counts a high number of CNG trucks and buses and the NPF contains very ambitious estimates for 2020.

The Hungarian NPF has firm plans for building 5 LNG road refuelling points for 2020. Beyond, for 2025 it targets, between 36 and 182 LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles in road transport and plans a pilot liquefaction plant for vessels and heavy-duty trucks. It also describes a project for an LNG ship-to-ship bunkering vessel. Moreover, the NPF states that Hungary should already in 2020 appropriately cover LNG infrastructure, both on TEN-T Corridors and the Comprehensive Network, for road and inland waterways.

Hungary, in its NPF, has established targets for the deployment of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, accessible to the public.

The Hungarian NPF contains a comprehensive list of measures that could have a medium impact on overcoming deployment barriers, especially in electro-mobility. Most of the existing or planned measures end in 2018 or earlier, with no prolongation foreseen. It may be challenging to achieve NPF targets and corresponding vehicle deployment estimates for electricity until 2020 even in the low penetration scenario. For CNG, the described measures may create a too low impact vis-à-vis the high estimates. The NPF does not list any measures in support of LNG refuelling point deployment.

Cooperation with neighbouring Member States is not mentioned in the NPF. It may be advisable for Hungary to coordinate its NPF with neighbouring Member States.

5.15Ireland

5.15.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The total road length of Ireland (including motorways, main/national roads and secondary/regional roads) is 17,059 km from which 897 km is motorways. Ireland has one Network Corridor (the North Sea – Mediterranean) crossing its country and covering rail, road, airports and ports. It stretches from Northern Ireland (Belfast) to the Irish ports of Cork and Dublin with a total length of 478 km.

Number of registered road vehicles

Ireland, with a population of 4,757,976 (according to the 2016 census given by the Irish NPF) had 2,026,977 registered passenger cars (M1) and a total of 2,725,538 registered road vehicles of all types. The present situation of less than 0.1% of the total vehicles being electric (2,374 in total), around 0.1% running on LPG (3,000 vehicles) and only 10 vehicles running on compressed natural gas is insufficient and considered in need of improvement. Ireland has an ambitious goal that by 2030 all new cars and vans sold in Ireland should be zeroemission capable.

Number of main agglomerations

·5 cities > 50,000 inhabitants: Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·3 ports in the TEN-T Core Network: Dublin, Cork and Shannon Foynes (near Limerick).

·2 ports on the TEN-T Comprehensive Network: Rosslare and Waterford.

·No TEN-T inland ports.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·2 airports in the TEN-T Core Network: Dublin and Cork.

·6 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network: Donegal, Inishmore, Kerry, Knock (Connaught), Shannon (Limerick) and Waterford.

5.15.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted

Short description of the measures

The Irish NPF contains an extensive and detailed description of measures. They cover a wide variety of types and various fuels and modes. Some already existing financial measures particularly for electric vehicles (and LPG vehicles) have resulted in a slight shift towards the purchase of more alternative fuels vehicles in Ireland.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030.

Table 5.15-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

2,176

2,732

(832 public)

25,005

18,970

(950 public)

262,600

201,200

(1,100 public)

823,455

701,450

(1,250 public)

CNG for vehicles

10

3

(1 public)

4,200

19

(13 public)

31,050

70

(27 public)

45,550

102

(49 public)

LNG for road

 

LNG for ports

 

LPG for vehicles

3,000

578

(78 public)

3,600

 

 

 

 

 

H2 for road

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that several of the Directive's requirements have not been covered. For electro-mobility the Irish NPF largely relies on private recharging infrastructure. It did not consider electricity recharging points at public transport stations or within other networks. Ireland also has not considered LNG as alternative fuel in their country. Electricity for stationary airplanes and shore-side electricity have not been considered in the Irish NPF. Synthetic and Paraffinic Fuels, Biofuels and LPG are also included in the Irish NPF.

Table 5.15-2. Checklist results

5.15.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.15-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

2.8 (0.9*)

26.6 (1.3*)

239.6 (1.3*)

662.8 (1.2*)

CNG for vehicles

10 (3.3*)

323 (221*)

1150 (443.6*)

929.6 (446.6*)

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF public Recharging/Refuelling points, * = for total number of AFI (including private)

Table 5.15-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding electric vehicles, for the current situation, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, 2025 and 2030, the threshold is passed if the private recharging points are considered. However, the targeted number of public recharging points in the Irish NPF may be insufficient.

According to the Irish NPF, fast chargers are available approximately every 60 km on Ireland’s main intercity roads, including the TEN-T Core Network. In the map of electric recharging points in Ireland (provided by the ESB, Electricity Supply Board), this statement can be corroborated.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

Initially, two areas are designated to be equipped with publicly accessible recharging points and CNG refuelling points under this framework: the cities and counties of Dublin and Cork. The population of these two areas account for approximately 40% of the total population of Ireland. The long-term objective (post-2025) of this framework is to equip all key urban areas in Ireland with the required level of recharging and refuelling infrastructure necessary to support a continuing uptake of alternative fuels usage. By 2030, most of the recharging points are planned to be installed in the areas of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The Dublin Airport in the TEN-T Core Network is currently using mobile ground power units for use by stationary airplanes. Pier 4 has already 27 fixed electrical ground power units. The airport is currently undertaking a study to assess the feasibility of installing these units on Pier 100. Pier 4 and Pier 100 serve the majority of airplanes at the Dublin airport. The Dublin Airport Authority (DAA) also installed 2 new units in Pier 3 in late 2016.

The NPF states that for old and smaller airports a life-cycle cost assessment would be required before investment in electricity supply for stationary airplanes could be justified.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The Irish NPF does not include estimates or targets for shore-side electricity supply for the Irish ports. However, among the measures to be considered by the end of 2018, the development of a feasibility study of shore-side electricity supply for seagoing ships in TEN-T Core Network ports (Dublin, Cork and Shannon Foynes) is included. Based on the results of the study, targets for shore-side electricity supply should be established. The study on shore-side electricity supply should also investigate the possibility for reducing the tax rate for shore-side electricity in the short term to stimulate demand.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

The two available CNG refuelling points in Ireland are private and are still in demonstration phase. They are operated by Gas Networks Ireland (GNI); one point on their premises in Cork and another temporary point operating in Dublin. These two points are insufficient to cover the whole surface of Ireland, not fulfilling the requirement of refuelling points every 150 km as required by the Directive. Table 5.15-3 shows that these two private CNG points and the ones planned for 2020, 2025 and 2030 are sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles, but for 2025 and 2030 only if the private refuelling points are considered.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Irish government plan is to install four CNG refuelling points in the Dublin area and two in the Cork area respectively by 2020. The plan is that by 2030, there would be 17 public CNG points in the Dublin area, 7 in the Cork area, 4 in Limerick, 2 in Galway and another 2 points in Waterford.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The Irish NPF does not propose targets for LNG infrastructure and justifies this by the small size of the Irish TEN-T Core Network. The total distance between the cities of Belfast and Cork (the TEN-T road Corridor connecting Northern Ireland with Ireland) is just over 400 km. While the distance of the Corridor in the Republic of Ireland is approximately 360 km it also connects the road to the TEN-T Core Network port of Shannon Foynes. The NPF mentions a lack of demand from domestic or international transporters to provide LNG for heavy-duty vehicles in Ireland.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

At the moment, there are no LNG projects planned at the TEN-T Core and Comprehensive Network ports in Ireland. The NPF mentions lack of demand at this stage. Further market analysis will be required. Supply by carrier from the UK is considered feasible. The ports have advised that a common set of regulations and safety procedures would also need to be developed. Ireland has committed to setting targets for the LNG facilities at the three TEN-T maritime ports in 2019.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Ireland does not have any inland port the TEN-T Network.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Ireland has no immediate plans to establish a hydrogen refuelling network as, according to the NPF, the cost of the infrastructure is massively disproportionate to current demand. The NPF proposes some measures to be considered by the year 2020.

5.15.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A main focus of the Irish NPF is on electric vehicles. It foresees that all the vehicles sold from 2030 in Ireland will be zero emissions or zero emission capable. As stated in the Irish NPF, all other category of vehicles will continue on a positive trajectory towards greater penetration of low emission vehicles in line with development in technologies. The ambitious plan of achieving a penetration of 800.000 EVs in the national vehicle fleet by 2030 could result in a cumulative reduction in CO2 emissions from the transport sector of approximately 7 megatons (Mt) between 2017 and 2030. Policies relating to the provision of energy, particularly electricity and gas, from renewable sources would need to be fully aligned to the forecasts.

5.15.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The Irish NPF contains a detailed list of measures for electricity, natural gas and biomethane, hydrogen, biofuels, LPG and synthetic and paraffinic fuels. The list contains existing support, measures to be implemented and measures to be considered in the coming years.

Within the measures already in effect for electricity, aside from grants for research, technological development and demonstration projects, the following financial measures are in place: tax incentives and direct incentives for purchase of electric vehicles, which exist since 2008 (company tax incentives) and since 2011 (for vehicle purchase and registration). These measures can be rated as medium/ high, however, it seems that so far these measures have not had a significant impact in Ireland because at the moment, the amount of electric vehicles is less than 0.1% of the total amount of vehicles. The registration tax relief of up to 5000 euros for battery electric vehicle exists for 10 years whereas for plug in hybrid electric vehicles it is in place since 7 years.

Similarly, for natural gas (compressed and liquefied) and biomethane, aside from funds for innovation projects by GNI (Gas Networks Ireland) and supported by the Gas Innovation Group existing from 2015, some tax incentives like lower fuel excise duties are existing since 2015 to increase the number of natural gas vehicles in Ireland (which in 2015 were only 10). The budget of 2017 restarted this measure for a period of eight years. However, details of the exact budget involved are not given. Another measure existing from 2010 is the biofuel obligation scheme which is related to renewable energy targets in transport (10% by 2020), more than to the development of the alternative fuels infrastructure but which would result in an increase on the usage of biomethane.

The lower fuel excise duty also exists for LPG vehicles since 2013 and is extended for another ten years. This together with the LPG infrastructure on the Irish roads (78 refuelling points including the TEN-T Corridors), has resulted in 3000 LPG vehicles on the road, having in 2015 the highest share of all alternative fuels vehicles in Ireland.

The measures already adopted and to be implemented in the coming years have been rated as having a medium impact. For example, one important measure is the direct incentives for the installation of 5 publicly accessible CNG points at strategic locations by 2017. One point in Dublin port has already been inaugurated in February 2017. This measure will help reach the targets of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. However, more of these points would be necessary in the future to meet this ratio with the big amount of CNG vehicles that have been estimated for the years 2025 and 2030. In this context, company tax incentives are provided from 2017, specifically to encourage private investment in refuelling infrastructure and equipment for natural gas.

Among other important measures proposed in the Irish NPF is the establishment of a low emissions vehicles taskforce by 2017. This taskforce will revise/propose future measures and policies for Ireland. It will focus on: (1) market growth, stimuli and visibility (low emission zones, public parking recharging...), (2) recharging infrastructure, energy regulation and pricing, (3) planning legislation, building regulation and public leadership. Ireland, by 2018, will start implementing new measures on the basis of the recommendations by the mentioned taskforce.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

In the Irish NPF, different measures have been taken into account for the promotion of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services. The establishment of the green bus fund in 2017, the support of the use of biomethane in the public transport and freight sector (also to be implemented in 2017) and a scrappage scheme for taxis (from 2018 on taxis aged 7 years or older could be replaced by an electric vehicle) have been considered measures having a medium impact. The measures for the coming years 2018 and 2020 like a feasibility study of electrifying elements of the rail system, the facilitation of trials of synthetic and paraffinic fuels in buses and rails or the establishment of a partnership to facilitate trials of electric vehicles in the public sector and public transport fleets are only under consideration and have been rated as having a low impact.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Irish NPF includes a group of measures for the promotion of the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure. As measures with high/medium impact, company tax incentives (companies allowed to write off 100% of purchase value against profit of same year) have been given since 2008 and 2000 free home recharging points have been installed. The importance of these measures is reflected in the high amount of private recharging points actually in Ireland where in 2015, 70% of the recharging points were private. The future of these infrastructural assets is unclear and it would be preferable if future recharging systems were independent from state subsidies (capable of operating on commercial basis).

Other regulatory measures for electric recharging points (building regulations and addressing the misuse of recharging point spaces) and to be implemented in 2018 have been rated as having a medium impact.

5.15.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Irish NPF was drawn up alongside a Strategic Environmental Assessment under the SEA Directive (2001/42/EC) and an AA, Appropriate Assessment (under the Habitats Directive 92/42/EEC) which were carried out by the Irish Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTAS). The SEA/AA teams were involved in both DTTAS and stakeholder meetings on the development of this framework. Likely significant impacts were identified and mitigation measures included in the AA. Following public consultation, updates to the Framework were screened by the SEA/AA team and amendments were made. A commitment has been given to liaise with the Irish Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment on the roll-out and implementation of the Renewable Electricity Plan and the Steering Group monitors current research and development of emerging technologies.

5.15.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

No specific cooperation activities have been listed in the Irish NPF. However, it is stated that the development of alternative fuels use in Ireland has already benefited from close cooperation with neighbours, specifically Northern Ireland.

Facilitated by support from EU funding programmes, the interoperability of infrastructure has been central to developments across the island of Ireland. As referred to previously, an EU-funded cross border project in 2013 helped to extend the EV fast-recharging network in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The investment involved the roll-out of new fast (rapid) recharging points, which were installed at service stations and other prime locations along key interurban routes, including a section of the TEN-T Core Network corridor between Belfast and Dublin.

It is hoped that this level of cooperation will continue to grow in the future, ensuring that all future infrastructure will be interoperable and that the range and availability of alternative fuels will continue to increase its penetration across the island.

In the absence of a LNG terminal, the alternative is to supply LNG to Ireland by truck or shuttle carrier from a full-scale terminal in a neighbouring Member State. The nearest LNG terminal to Ireland is located in Milford Haven in the United Kingdom (UK).

5.15.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Irish NPF addresses partly the requirements of Article 3. It contains a discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. For all the mandatory fuels and modes except for LNG it establishes targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive.

The spatial distribution of the available recharging points fulfils the requirement of having chargers available every 60 km on Ireland’s main intercity roads, including the TEN-T Core Network. The actual number of public recharging points is also sufficient to cover the requirement of one recharging point every 10 electric vehicles. However, the number of electric recharging points foreseen for 2020, 2025 and 2030 seem to be insufficient for the foreseen number of electric vehicles in Ireland if only the public recharging points are taken into account. Ireland supports the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure. To increase the number of electric vehicles in Ireland, vehicle purchase and registration tax incentives exist since 2011. Company tax incentives exist since 2008. The registration tax relief for battery electric vehicles will be extended until 2021 and for plug in hybrid vehicles until 2018.

The Irish NPF does not include concrete plans for shore-side electricity supply for maritime ports. The development of a feasibility study of shore-side electricity supply for seagoing ships in TEN-T ports (Dublin, Cork and Shannon Foynes) is considered for 2018. Based on the results of the study, targets for shore-side electricity supply should be established.

The Dublin Airport in the TEN-T Core Network is currently using mobile ground power units for use by stationary airplanes. However, the Irish NPF does not include targets for electricity supply for stationary airplanes only a life-cycle cost analysis of rolling out Fixed Electrical Grown Power units at airports is considered for 2018.

Regarding CNG, the current number of vehicles in Ireland is insignificant. The number of refuelling points is also insufficient to cover the Irish territory, not fulfilling the requirement of refuelling points every 150 km. In order to improve this situation, the Ireland has established direct incentives for the installation of 5 public CNG points in 2017. For 2020, the targeted number of public refuelling points would be sufficient to have one for every 600 vehicles. The number of public points seems to be insufficient to cover all the foreseen CNG vehicles in Ireland. The inclusion of biomethane as transport fuel in the biofuel obligation scheme since 2010 assists the promotion of the vehicles running with natural gas.

The Irish NPF does not consider any LNG refuelling points in Ireland (neither for road nor for maritime ports). Ireland has committed to setting targets for the LNG facilities at the three TEN-T maritime ports in 2019.

The Irish NPF does not include hydrogen. It has already identified measures to be considered by 2020 and plans to analyse opportunities to further the advancement of hydrogen infrastructure.

In Ireland, since 2013 tax incentives like lower fuel excise duty for LPG vehicles exist. They are foreseen to be active at least until 2023. These measures together with the already existing infrastructure for LPG have led to substantial LPG vehicle shares in Ireland.

The Irish NPF contains a comprehensive list of financial support measures already in place for the support of electricity, CNG (biofuels included) and LPG vehicles and infrastructure. They can be considered having a medium impact on market actor's decisions. Longer periods for their validity could provide certainty for market actors and hence increase the likelihood that the national targets and objectives of the NPF can be reached. For other modes and fuels the measures in the Irish NPF seem to have a rather low impact because they are only in planning phase. The Irish NPF has included a group of measures to be implemented in the coming years 2017 and 2018 (e.g. establishment of the green bus fund and scrappage scheme for taxis) which have been considered to have a medium impact on the promotion of alternative fuels in public services. Finally, the tax incentives for the installation of free home recharging points have had an important impact on the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure in Ireland.

The NPF states that the development of alternative fuels use has benefitted from close cooperation between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

5.16Italy

5.16.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Italy is at present 3,300 km and it will increase to 4,145 km in 2025. The total road extension is 181,619, while the length of motorways is 6,751.

Number of registered road vehicles

The number of registered vehicles in Italy was 49.2 million in 2014, out of which 37.1 million were cars, 6.5 million powered two-wheelers, 3.9 million duty vehicles and 97,914 buses.

In term of fuels, the majority is represented by gasoline vehicles with 51%, followed by diesel with a 41%. LPG/gasoline dual fuel vehicles have a share of 6%, and CNG/gasoline dual fuel vehicles 2%. The presence of vehicles with more advanced alternative fuels such as PHEV, BEV and FCEV is negligible (around 0.01%).

Number of main agglomerations

·76 cities cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·4 inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network (6 inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network)

·14 maritime ports on the TEN-T Core Network (25 maritime ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network)

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·11 airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·22 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.16.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The Italian NPF is embedded in a law: Decreto Legislativo no. 257 of the 16th December 2016 2 . It covers the transposition of the AFID in the Italian law, followed by annexes dedicated to individual alternative fuels: electricity, hydrogen, LNG and CNG, and LPG. The annex on electricity for transport is in fact part of another law of 2014, the Infrastructural National Plan for the recharging of electrical vehicles, updated on the 26th September 2014 3 .

The Italian NPF is very comprehensive, but clearly relies on already existing infrastructure for compressed natural gas and vehicles deployment realistic measures.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.16-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

11,663

2,205

45,000 – 130,000

6,500 – 19,000

Electricity for stationary airplanes

CNG for vehicles

1,057,461

1,101

1,350,000

1,350

1,800,000 – 2,300,000

1,600 -

1,900

LNG for road

8 L-CNG

& 3 LNG

16

80

30,000 – 35,000

800

LNG for inland and maritime ports

0

7

10

40

12

60

20

H2 cars

1,000

10

27,000

140

2,900,000

350

H2 buses

100

10

1,100

56

3,700

96

LPG for road

2,137,078

3,767

-

2,400,000

-

2,500,000

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that all the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.16-2. Checklist results

5.16.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.16-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

5.29

6.88

-

-

CNG for vehicles

960

1,000

1,171

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.16-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points.

Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, with 5.29, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, for both scenarios, the value obtained for the index is close to 7, suggesting that the targeted number of recharging points in the Italian NPF is sufficient. The NPF objectives for 2020 contain a network of 2,000-6,000 fast recharging points and 4,500-13,000 normal recharging points.

For the case of fast recharging points, the NPF gives details about their deployment locations and chronology. By 2020, 500 fast recharging points (>40kW) will be constructed at already existing service areas on the motorways (giving priority to the TEN-T Core Network), 1,750 fast recharging points at already existing fuel points on normal roads and 1,750 at points of interest (giving priority to railway stations, parking near metro lines, airports and ports). As distance conditions between 2 locations the NPF mentions a maximum threshold of 50 km and a minimum one of 20 km. The Italian NPF assumes that there will be 2-4 normal recharging points corresponding to one fast recharging point.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The NPF gives priority in the short term to the deployment of recharging points within urban areas and commuting zones related to them, broadening the focus in the medium long term to suburban and motorway service areas even with the provision of fast recharging points, both at public areas and, especially, at current fuel stations. The type of recharging points to be deployed depends on the duration of the vehicle stop. Three different scenarios are identified. They depend on how many vehicles can be charged per day. Corresponding public or semi-public locations are proposed.

All garages and private/public car parks should contain an adequate number (consistent with the size of the parking lot) of recharging points. In the case of new construction, the NPF stipulates that at least 5% of the total number of places available shall be dedicated to electric vehicles.

The municipality will be taken as reference regarding the geographical distribution of targets, the number of normal/fast recharging points will be identified according to the following criteria: number of inhabitants, number of circulating electric vehicles, number of vehicles per inhabitant; and ratio private/total parking spaces.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

The main Italian airports open to commercial traffic have ground power supply units (GPU) (400 Hz) located at the aprons. These facilities are available at over 80% of the existing aprons at the three intercontinental airports Roma Fiumicino, Milano Malpensa and Venice (part of the TEN-T Core Network). GPUs are also available to varying degrees in nearly all airports with annual passenger traffic of over 1.5 million persons (corresponding to the TEN-T Core and Comprehensive Network).

The Italian NPF notes that the action plan for reduction of CO2 levels drawn up by Italy in order to respond to specific ICAO decisions promotes an increase of the number of aprons with GPUs and further expansion of this type of facilities will be planned after a cost-benefit analysis.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The Italian NPF states that many Italian ports have already prepared or are developing various economic and environmental impact studies of the electrification of the docks. It is mentioned that they all agree on the decisive contribution of the ports electrification to the effective reduction of air pollutant emissions, and that many take into account the costs-benefits balance or analyse the advantages of an integrated energy approach for the port area. Studies for the ports of Trieste and Genova are referred. No clear target is provided at this moment. The NPF indicates that decisions are needed case-by-case following in-depth examinations of questions relating to local environmental issues, maritime traffic, power generation and grid access.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

The current AFI sufficiency index for CNG in Italy (Table 5.16-3 above) is 1 to 960 and does not meet the criterion of at least 1 CNG refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles. Nevertheless, the Italian NPF considers this value as sufficient. The NPF plan strives to increase the ratio for NG in 2025 to a value above 1,000 for reasons of economic viability. These values are characterised by a high level of uncertainty, due to the fact that in general the NG refuelling stations have only one NG dispenser, while the gasoline/diesel ones have in average more than one. The NPF concludes that an AFV/AFI station number similar to that of conventional vehicles can cause long waiting times at the station, especially in combination with the longer refuelling time required for NG tanks. In conclusion, considering the uncertainties, it is doubtful that an index of 1,000 already expected in 2020 in major cities will be enough to guarantee drivers comfort and avoid bottlenecks.

According to the Italian NPF, the minimal coverage condition along the TEN-T Core Network is already met today, with an average of 80 km between two points. However, due to the geographical inhomogeneous distribution mentioned above, certain areas in south Italy respect only marginally the minimal condition of 150 km distance (assessment based on approximated distance measurements between points in Calabria and Sicily). Sardinia is not served by the Italian NG distribution system, and it does not make either part of the road TEN-T Core Network.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The distribution of NG vehicles and dispensers is geographically inhomogeneous, with 7 provinces representing 81% of the total NG vehicles park. In average for the whole of Italy, the NPF projects shares in the trend scenario at 3.6% and 4.8% of the vehicle stock respectively for 2020 and 2025. The targets identify a desirable level of 6% CNG cars on the road by 2025. Specific targets are provided for the five cities Roma, Milano, Napoli, Catania, and Palermo.

The Italian NPF assesses technical/legal needs for improving the situation in the least developed areas, considering the possibility to make use of biomethane plants and also the synergy resulting from the LNG plan to guarantee favourable conditions for points in off-grid areas.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

The Italian NPF has developed a detailed scenario for the development of the LNG distribution infrastructure, based on primary and secondary LNG storage points and various LNG transportation systems.

At the moment, 3 LNG refuelling points are in function in Italy, while 8 CNG dispensers make use of LNG storage. Assuming a minimum requirement of one LNG point each 400 km on the TEN-T Core Network, the target of 5 LNG refuelling points would not be enough to cover the whole length of the Italian TEN-T Core Network length in 2025. The same is true for 2030 with planned 7 LNG refuelling points on the Italian TEN-T Core Network. The NPF acknowledges this and mentions that for a supply distribution fine enough to guarantee a reasonable minimal LNG availability at least 20 LNG refuelling points along the Italian TEN-T Core Network would be needed.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Italy has 14 maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network. For all of them a figure for the LNG demands for maritime navigation has been evaluated for 2025, based on a study performed by the TEN-T project COSTA. For 2025, 12 TEN-T ports will have a LNG distribution point, and for 2030, 20 ports will be covered, considering also additional interested ports beyond the TEN-T Core Network.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Considered the limited extension of the Italian inland navigation system (2 purely inland ports in the TEN-T Core Network plus 2 additional mixed maritime-inland), it is not surprising that the NPF focuses mainly on maritime ports. Nevertheless, a total of 20 LNG supply points is foreseen for 2030, which also includes inland ports. The inland ports are characterised by a difficult supply infrastructure, which is assumed to rely on ISO containers.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

The Italian NPF considers the deployment of hydrogen vehicles and strategically focuses on a gradual development of vehicles and related refuelling points. It considers also in a comprehensive way the aspect of hydrogen production both from methane reforming as well as from renewable energy sources via electrolysis, including the concept of power-to-fuel. The strategy focuses at first (2025 horizon) on captive fleets, because their refuelling and mobility can be easily planned and optimised. From 2026 onwards, according to the Italian NPF, the technology is expected to be fully fledged, with also public refuelling points and private cars. For the captive fleets foreseen during the early development, the refuelling points capacity is designed to address the needs of each of the fleets. The location of the planned refuelling points, and their geographical distribution and timeline development is given tentatively in a map, respecting the TEN-T Core Network priorities. The majority of the points is foreseen in north of Italy. In the south, the distance between refuelling points will come below 400 km in 2025, which could be marginally acceptable for bus, but does not respect that criterion of maximal 300 km between points. However, till 2025 the Italian NFP focuses more on the development of bus fleets in urban environments, so that long distance hydrogen based transport will develop only on a 2050 horizon. The evolution of the market and of the technology has been modelled up to 2050, when it is expected that the minimal criteria for distance and sufficiency index will be respected.

Road and waterborne LPG refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include LPG in their National Policy Framework

The main reason for the development of LPG in Italy since 2000 has been the needs for reduction of pollution in big urban centres. As primary indicator of the geographic distribution of LPG availability, the Italian NPF gives a figure based on surface density of LPG refuelling points (number/100 km2) per region. As in the case of CNG, the northern regions show a density higher than the national average, while southern Italy shows the minimum. In term of index of AFI sufficiency, the national average results 542, in a range from 757 in Liguria to 274 in Marche. The plan aims at a slow growth of LPG bi-fuel vehicles, which is supposed to grow by 11% until 2030 by maintaining the same measures adopted so far.

The NPF shows interest in the use of LPG also for waterborne applications. At present, only some pilot projects have put a very limited number of vessels in circulation. Despite the availability of technical regulations since several years, no progress has been registered in the development of plans for using LPG in waterborne transport.

5.16.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

A major focus of the Italian NPF is on natural gas vehicles (CNG) and vessels (LNG). This is based on the historical infrastructure investments of Italy for this fuel, and consequently the availability of a well-developed transmission and distribution network.

For electric vehicles, Italy adopts a very conservative approach. The NPF estimates for 2020 a share of new sales of 1% - 3% and only 0.1% - 0.4% electric vehicles on the road and does not contain any estimates beyond 2020.

Regarding CNG vehicles, Italy experiences at present a growth of 85,000 cars/year. On this basis the trends for 2020 and 2025 have been calculated (in italics in the table 5.16-1). This would represent the current trend extrapolation expected simply based on the present situation and development. Considering however the environmental benefits and related costs, a higher annual growth is considered in the so-called 'reasonable targets' scenario, aiming at 6% of NG cars and 1,900 distribution points in 2025. Specific targets for the already more developed provinces are also given.

A critical role is attributed to LNG, in particular for seagoing ships, considering the importance of the Italian coastal areas and the need to reduce emissions from conventional fuels. At present, only one LNG vessel has been commissioned in Italy, by the Italian marine. Considering the need to adapt available infrastructure and the typical fleet turnover time of ships, it is not expected that before 2025 Italy will see a considerable number of LNG vessels. The NPF gives expected targets up to 2030, differentiating between new vessels and converted ones, with a total of 60 vessels in total for that year. The main focus of the first phase of development (up to 2020) is on public transport, especially of the point -to-point kind, and also ships for harbour service (towage service). The following line of development (2020 onwards) is expected to focus on passengers and containers vessels on fixed routes. For heavy-duty vehicles on the road, a model has been used to study the LNG market evolution and its environmental impact, according to different scenarios which make use of a detailed description of the present travel patterns. A range of heavy-duty vehicles with LNG propulsion (both dual- as well as monofuel) is expected for 2030, from 30,000 to 35,000 units, while nothing is expected by 2025. This assumes a very rapid growth in only 5 years.

Regarding hydrogen, the Italian NPF strategy foresees first the development of captive fleets, and only in a second phase, beyond 2025, the significant growth of private car fleets. The development is modelled up to 2050, when almost 20% of the total car stock could be represented by hydrogen vehicles. According to the Italian NPF, after 2025 costs for fuels, vehicles and infrastructure will start to become comparable to those of the incumbent technologies, with a fully-fledged market in 2050.

Regarding LPG, at present, LPG/gasoline bi-fuel vehicles represent 5.5% of all road vehicles. The growth of LPG vehicles accelerated in the last 10-15 years as consequence of policies aiming at reducing the environmental impact of cars. The increase of the market share and competition have contributed to increase the attractiveness for this type of vehicles (improvement of efficiency, reduction of costs), both for conversions (retrofitting) as well as for new registrations. The current trend scenario foresees the continuation of the present measures, which will induce a slow increase of the LPG car stock from 2.2 million today to 2.5 million in 2030.

5.16.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Italian NPF is a law which tackles almost all alternative fuels envisaged by the AFID. It contains also a considerable amount of measures of the regulatory, administrative, financial (fiscal) and technical types.

According to the assessment methodology, a medium overall assessment score is derived for electricity for road vehicles. In some cases, the lack of concrete information (many exceptions are mentioned for the nonfinancial measures) makes it difficult to assess the coverage according to the same methodology.

The adopted measures for natural gas seem effective because of the already developed infrastructure and of the fact that the measures already in place have demonstrated their market impact. Traditionally, the introduction of CNG (and of LPG, which is also considered in the Italian NPF) has been triggered by the need of abatement of emissions from transport. One of the critical aspects of the already existing measures relies on the economic benefit in term of fuel costs. This is obtained thanks to a favourable excise regime which more than compensates the higher CNG vehicle price (versus conventional alternatives). The new law maintains and consolidates the existing measures for natural gas. Additional measures are foreseen to eliminate some bottlenecks, especially related to the geographical inhomogeneity of the infrastructure and to consider biomethane. Based on the Italian historical background related to NG technologies, the NPF presents a plan for a quick introduction of LNG: both in tandem with CNG for road vehicles, as well as specifically for maritime navigation. Also here, according to the Italian NPF, the most effective measure facilitating the introduction of LNG in maritime transport would be the adoption of very strict criteria on emissions in most of the coastal areas and seas.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The electricity for road cluster achieves a medium overall assessment score having the majority of the measures already adopted. The cluster was considered comprehensive since it contains measures targeting both vehicle and infrastructure deployment and it addresses various deployment barriers through a combination of financial and nonfinancial measures. However, it is important to note the unambitious estimated share of electric vehicles for 2020 and the cessation of the incentives for the purchase of reduced CO2 emissions vehicles from 2015.

Articles 9 to 14 of the Italian NPF are dedicated to measures aiming at simplifying the administrative procedures related to LNG infrastructure, in terms of general authorisation for storage and transport, and for both direct use of cryogenic NG, as well as distribution for gaseous NG. These measures are law and have been assessed as high. The same is valid also for the measures prescribed by Articles 18-19, aiming at the increase of the utilisation of alternative fuels on the road (EV, CNG, LNG). It requires, among others, refuelling points for alternative fuels for every new station, facilitating the installation of the infrastructure and imposing to the local administrations the commitment to procure a fixed minimal fraction of alternative fuels vehicles for new fleets. This however is valid only for the municipalities where the concentration of particulates has trespassed the limits for a long period of time. For this reasons this bundle of measures can be assessed as medium-high.

In the case of CNG, the NPF lists all technical bottlenecks, for which additional measures are under consideration. These bottlenecks relate to the need of an update of the existing safety regulations, the introduction of self-service refuelling, the revision of CNG pipelines capacity prescriptions and of constraints related to the connection of the refuelling point to the pipelines. This additional bundle of nonfinancial measures has been assessed as low because of their implementation status (only under consideration).

The costs of LPG at the refuelling point is lower than the cost of conventional fuels because of a lower fuel excise duty on LPG. According to the NPF, this has been the principal factor driving a constant growth of LPG vehicles in the past years. Therefore, the measures already in place will be maintained to guarantee the present rate of growth.

Article 16 is dedicated to the case of hydrogen, which lists this fuel among all the other fuels for transport. However, this is the only legal measure adopted. The NPF annex on hydrogen calculates the financial measures necessary to the deployment of the technology, but states also that the financial coverage does not exist at present. In this case, the measure has been assessed overall as low, for this optional fuel.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

In the case of CNG, many captive fleets are already in place in the main urban centres. One measure already in place to support development of public transport is the adoption of green public procurement criteria in public tenders. CNG vehicles are classified as ‘green’ vehicles, making them eligible for bonus points in tender procedures. This mechanism has allowed in the last 3 years for an expansion of the CNG bus fleet for local transport up to 9% of the total in Italy. There has also been financial support to regions promoting tender procedures for CNG buses, particularly in urban areas. It is not clear if this financial incentive is still in place and the measure cannot be assessed for now.

The strategy for the nucleation of a maritime LNG-fuelled fleet is that the Italian NPF relies on conversions or replacement of vessels for public transport services.

Regarding hydrogen, the first phase, up to 2020, focuses exclusively on captive fleets for public transport and the related captive refuelling points. Technical measures are partially already in place, while others are planned. The NPF recognises the need of a considerable public investment contribution to support the introduction of this technology, for both the vehicles as well as the infrastructure (production/distribution). Up to 47 M€ are estimated necessary up to 2020, and additional 420 M€ in the 2020-25 period. The Italian NPF aims at a sharing of 60% from European funds and 40% national and local governments. The general assessment of these measures is low, due to the fact that financial coverage is only under consideration.

The NPF includes also a measure imposing a minimum share of 25% of alternative fuels vehicles purchase in the case of renewal of the public fleets stating that for local public transport fleets the target refers only to urban services.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The NPF imposes the provision of ducts for the possible installation of electrical infrastructure for charging of electric vehicles in covered or uncovered parking lots in the case of newly built or renovated residential buildings with at least 10 housing units. This is required for at least 20% of the total number of parking spaces.

5.16.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Italian NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as other stakeholders. For example, specifically for the LNG case, a National Strategy for the LNG was prepared by a working group consisting of all stakeholders. Another example is the hydrogen part of the NFP, which has been managed by the H2Mobility Italy with the participations of all public research, governmental and industrial stakeholders. The first Infrastructural National Plan for the recharging of electric vehicles was elaborated through a shared process with the main stakeholders in the sector that the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport has coordinated. Currently an inter-ministerial technical committee is in charge of monitoring the implementation of the plan.

5.16.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

The level of inter-MS cooperation and coordination is in the Italian NPF fuel-specific.

For the CNG case, this dimension does not exist: this is not surprising considering the fact that this fuel is much more deployed in Italy than in the neighbouring countries. The support of LNG for heavy-duty road vehicles in some countries is considered a motivation for its gradual introduction also in Italy. The NPF plans to dedicate particular attention to the refuelling points along the cross border corridors and to consider the results of the related TEN-T projects. In the case of LNG for maritime applications, the project COSTA has already studied integrated solutions for the Mediterranean area. Similar is the case of Hydrogen, which relies on related European projects, among which those of the TEN-T family (especially the most recent European project for fuel cells buses, MEHRLIN, is supposed to present the nucleation, near the border with Austria, of an Italian corridor for long distance hydrogen buses to reach the Adriatic coast). However, the NPF does not give evidence of structured collaboration with other MS, beyond these EU initiatives.

5.16.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

The Italian NPF fully addresses the requirements of Article 3. It contains an extensive discussion of the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector. However, not for all fuels and modes it establishes hard targets, because the NPF uses scenario dependent projections relying on 'expected trends' or 'evolution' rather than real quantitative targets.

For electric vehicles, the Italian NPF adopts a very conservative approach. For 2020, low shares of new sales (1% - 3%) and of electric vehicles on the road (0.1% - 0.3%) are estimated, and the NPF does not contain any estimates beyond 2020. The Italian NPF has established sufficient 2020 targets for recharging points accessible to the public consistent with the rather low estimates for EV for the same year. The NPF ensures appropriate coverage of the TEN-T Core Network with fast recharging points. Regarding electricity supply for stationary airplanes the Italian NPF refers to ongoing cost-benefit analyses. No concrete targets are established. For shore-side electricity the situation is similar, although there seems to be a general consensus on its decisive role to reduce air pollution.

The Italian NPF puts a lot of emphasis on CNG, for which Italy has already today a dense network of public refuelling points, especially in the northern regions. Nevertheless, on a country level, Italy does not currently nor will it in the future meet a level of at least one CNG refuelling point per 600 CNG vehicles on the road. According to the Italian NPF, CNG vehicles can contribute a lot to reduce CO2 emissions in transport. The aim is to increase the share of the CNG vehicle park on the road from 2% to 3.3% in 2020 and 6% in 2025. Considering the leading position of Italy in relation to CNG vehicles, it could be explored if more ambitious targets could be set for its development beyond 2025.

A number of 5 dual-use LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty trucks are proposed in the NPF along the TEN-T Core Network by 2025. This would not guarantee that the maximum distance requirement for LNG refuelling points along the road TEN-T Core Network would be fulfilled on Italian territory.

The Italian NPF considers the development of a LNG infrastructure for maritime applications as strategic and critical in the context of the implementation of the Directive. Plan for its development, including designing of storage quantities in all 14 maritime TEN-T Core Network ports and beyond is part of the NPF and can be considered exemplary.

A very comprehensive plan has been developed for the deployment of hydrogen technologies (hydrogen production, distribution and fuel cell vehicles). Targets have been set up to 2050 and the amount of public funding needed to achieve the targets has been calculated. However, the Italian NPF states that the financial coverage for this hydrogen roll-out could not be provided, so that the plan has to be considered a 'potential scenario'. In essence, the targets for hydrogen technologies appear too ambitious vis-à-vis the lack of financial coverage considered essential for their achievement. It is therefore expected that the only evolution, which will take place in the near term, will be local, and related to the inter-MS corridor linking Italy with Austria.

The Italian NPF contains a comprehensive list of measures, partially already in place in the case of CNG. Most of them can be considered as having a medium impact on market actor's decisions. Since the Italian NPF is a law, it guarantees long periods of validity which could provide certainty for market actors and hence increase the likelihood that the national targets and objectives of the NPF can be reached. The NPF report identifies additional technical and administrative bottlenecks which need to be eliminated to enable the expected developments. However in some cases it is not clear if and which practical measures have been / will be taken to achieve the goal (for example, the facilitations of the present requirement for CNG refuelling point to be at not more than 1,000 meters from the CNG distribution grid, or the mentioned still existing difficulties related to the permitting procedures for LNG in ports).

Regional and local interests have been considered in the evaluation of the measures, as well as industrial and public R&D stakeholders. In fact, regional authorities and municipalities play a critical role in ensuring the implementation of the actions, having jurisdiction on infrastructure for highways, respectively for local infrastructure. A particular attention in the Italian NPF has been dedicated to the island Sardinia, which at the moment is the only region of Italy deprived of a NG distribution infrastructure.

Evidence of collaboration of Italy with other Member States has been found mainly in the frame of European projects, especially of the TEN-T family.

5.17Lithuania

5.17.1Description of the MS

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Lithuania is 665 km and the length of motorways is 309 km. The length of the total road network in Lithuania is 21,254 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Lithuania represents 20% of the North Sea - Baltic Core Network Corridor. Lithuania does not form part of any other TEN-T Corridors.

Through the TEN- T North Sea - Baltic Core Road Network Corridor, Lithuania is directly connected with Latvia and Poland.

Number of registered road vehicles

At the end of the 2015, Lithuania had 1,244,063 registered passenger cars. In 2015, it had 1,443,046 registered road vehicles of all types (mopeds, motorcycles, passenger cars, buses, trolleybuses, lorries, road tractors, semi-trailers, special-purpose road vehicles, trailers). Currently, only a few AFV are present on Lithuanian roads, for example 0.1% of EV.

Number of main agglomerations

·6 cities > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat)

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network

The Namunas river represents the Lithuanian TEN-T Core inland waterways Network and its length is 265 km. It connects the Klaipėda maritime port with the city of Kaunas. The Lithuanian inland waterways network does not enable international connections.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Vilnius)

·2 airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network (Palanga, Kaunas)

5.17.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The prevailing number of measures in the Lithuanian NPF is still under consideration or in process of adoption. Existing or adopted measures aim at biofuels production and use as well as fleet renewal in public transport.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.17-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

155

26

1,200

100

100

CNG for vehicles

80

3

10

10

LNG for road

0

0

1

LNG for inland ports

0

0

1

LNG for maritime ports

1

1

1

LPG for road

112,000

690

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points.

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that most of the requirements of the Directive are covered. The NPF does not contain support measures for a number of fuels and modes.

Table 5.17-2. Checklist results

5.17.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.17-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

5.96

12.00

-

-

CNG for vehicles

26.67

-

-

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.17-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding electric vehicles, for the current situation, with 5.96, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point, which is not the case for the 2020 target, when, according to the estimations, the country will only have an index of one recharging point per 12 electric vehicles.

The visual assessment of the spatial distribution of recharging points presented and checking the routes of the TEN-T Core Network shows that the distance requirement regarding one electricity recharging point at least every 60 km is not fulfilled today. The NPF does not mention explicitly that coverage of the road TEN-T Core Network would be ensured in the future for Lithuania.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

Publicly accessible recharging points are targeted for urban and suburban agglomerations of more than 25 000 inhabitants and the NPF contains specific targets per agglomeration.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

Lithuania's airports in the TEN-T Core and Comprehensive Network, Vilnius, Kaunas, Palanga, are, according to the NPF, already equipped with ground power units (this is valid also for Siauliai airport). The Lithuanian NPF does neither contain any information on how many aprons are equipped with GPU's nor does it present any plans for their further increase.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

The Klaipėda maritime port and inland ports in the country are equipped with shore-side electricity supply facilities. The NPF does not see additional needs for further development of SSE in Lithuanian ports.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.17-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. Targets for an increase of the number of CNG refuelling points by 2020 and 2025 are foreseen. However, as the NPF does not provide estimates for the future deployment of CNG vehicles, their CNG infrastructure sufficiency for 2020 cannot be assessed.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of CNG refuelling points presented in the provided map, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km is currently not fulfilled, but with the targeted increase of refuelling points appropriate coverage could be ensured.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

The Lithuanian NPF states that publicly accessible CNG refuelling points plans are being designed for seven bigger agglomerations - Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Šiauliai, Panevėžys, Telšia, Marijampolė, (agglomerations with more than 50,000 inhabitants) and two suburban agglomerations with less than 50,000 inhabitants - Ukmergė, Elektrėnai. The deployment of CNG refuelling points is currently being pursued according to this logic whilst respecting infrastructure sufficiency requirements.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Despite existing fleet of 161 public transport buses with engines fuelled by LNG, no publicly accessible road LNG refuelling points are mentioned in the Lithuanian NPF. One LNG refuelling point for heavy-duty vehicles is targeted for 2025.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

According to the Lithuanian NPF, there are no further plans for an extension of LNG refuelling points in ports, besides the already existing LNG refuelling point in Klaipėda, Lithuania's only maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

A 2025 target of 1 inland port LNG refuelling point is foreseen at country level.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

The Lithuanian NPF opted not to cover the deployment of hydrogen refuelling points.

5.17.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

Great attention in the Lithuanian NPF is paid to the deployment of electric vehicles. At the beginning of 2015, Lithuania had 65 electric cars on the road. The Lithuanian NPF estimates 1,200 electric vehicles by 2020. 2025 estimations were not available in the Lithuanian NPF. For LNG and CNG, the NPF contains infrastructure targets for 2020 and 2025. For any of the other alternative fuels or transport modes the Lithuanian NPF does not specify any future estimates for alternative fuels and vessels. Altogether, it can be concluded that the Lithuanian NPF is based on the assumption that electric vehicles will gain in importance while other alternative fuels and vessels remain niche products until the 2020/2025 time-frame.

5.17.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The Lithuanian NPF contains several measures, most of them under consideration or in the process of adoption. According to the assessment methodology, a low overall assessment score is derived for electric and CNG vehicles and a medium score for biofuels and alternative fuels in public transport services. Bicycle deployment is being supported by administrative measures permitting to carry bicycles in public transport means. For the presented measures, the lack of concrete information (for example budget ceiling) made it difficult to assess the scope.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that despite mentioning electric vehicles as one of the core priorities, most measures presented do not explicitly address this topic. The measures of this category cover mainly biofuels. The lack of support measures for electricity in road transport could lead to the situation that the deployment of electric vehicles will fall short of the estimates.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Lithuanian NPF contains several measures in this category, covering mainly LNG and electric buses, as well as further electrification of rail. The measures for public road and rail transport are already existing or in the process of adoption. They were assessed as having a medium score.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Lithuanian NPF does not contain measures relevant for this category.

5.17.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The contents of the Lithuanian NPF have been subject to consultation with various stakeholders like the Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Transport, a private sector company Smart Continent LT, or municipal authorities. Urban mobility plans and several budgets have been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities. The NPF, however, does not explicitly mention concrete stakeholder consultation steps.

5.17.7Assessment of MS cooperation and coordination with other Member States

Lithuania is cooperating with other Member States through the Rail Baltica project. It aims amongst others at improving the electrification rate of rail in the Baltic States. Another important inter-governmental initiative is the one between Baltic States improving the accessibility of Lithuania and interoperability between Baltic Sea region states. Beyond that, the NPF does not mention any cooperation or coordination in the field of alternative fuels.

5.17.8Conclusions and possible recommendations 

Tabular overview

* = target for 2025

The Lithuanian NPF does not fully address the requirements of Article 3. A short discussion on the current state and future scenarios for alternative fuels in the transport sector in Lithuania is presented in the NPF. Targets as required by Article 3 of the Directive were established for CNG, LNG, and electricity for vehicles.

The Lithuanian NPF places attention on electric vehicles without possessing currently a dense network of publicly accessible recharging points. The spatial distribution of recharging points does not currently cover the needs of vehicles in terms of distance requirements; the ratio of only one public recharging point per 12 electric vehicles estimated for 2020 may be seen as a risk to the further market deployment of electric vehicles. It may be important to closely monitor this development and correct infrastructure targets in line with the market developments. Lithuania, today, has 10 hybrid buses (electricity + CNG). Bicycles as well as their infrastructure also receive support. The NPF neither contains any targets for increasing the availability of electricity supply for stationary airplanes nor for shore-side electricity.

Lithuania currently has a sufficient network of CNG refuelling points. Targets for an increase of the number of CNG refuelling points by 2020 and 2025 are foreseen. However, as the NPF does not provide estimates for the future deployment of CNG vehicles, their CNG infrastructure sufficiency for 2020 cannot be assessed.

Despite existing fleet of 161 public transport buses with engines fuelled by LNG, no publicly accessible road LNG refuelling points are mentioned in the Lithuanian NPF. One LNG refuelling point for heavy-duty vehicles is targeted for 2025.

According to the Lithuanian NPF, there are no further plans for an extension of LNG refuelling points in ports, besides the already existing LNG refuelling point in Klaipėda, Lithuania's only maritime port in the TEN-T Core Network.

The NPF does not cover hydrogen for transport.

The Lithuanian NPF contains a list of measures, most of them, however, still under consideration with little details revealed in the NPF. Most of them can be considered having a low or medium impact on market actor's decisions. Their low implementation status could create uncertainty for market actors and hence decrease the likelihood that the national targets and objectives of the NPF could be reached.

The interests of regional and local authorities, as well as stakeholders have been considered during the drafting of the Lithuanian NPF. Further coordination is planned in order to ensure follow-up of the implementation actions, collaboration among authorities and advice from stakeholders.

Lithuania is actively involved in coordinating its plans on rail infrastructure with other Member States as well as collaborating with them in this field. Beyond that, the NPF does not mention any cooperation or coordination in the field of alternative fuels.



5.18Luxembourg

5.18.1Description of the MS 

Length of the road TEN-T Core Network

The length of the road TEN-T Core Network in Luxembourg is 69 km and the length of motorways is 152 km. The length of the total road network (including motorways, main/national roads and secondary/regional roads) in Luxembourg is 2,880 km.

The length of the TEN-T Road Corridors present in Luxembourg is 1% (32 km) of the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor.

Through the TEN-T Road Corridors, Luxembourg is connected with Belgium and France, through the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of registered road vehicles

At the end of 2015, according to the Luxembourg NPF, the Member State had 427,103 registered vehicles. At the end of 2014, Luxembourg had 373,000 registered passenger cars. The present situation of few AFV on Luxembourg roads, with less than 0.3% AFV in the vehicle fleet, is regarded by Luxembourg as insufficient and in need of improvement.

Number of main agglomerations

·1 city (main urban agglomeration) > 50,000 inhabitants (source – Eurostat) – Luxembourg

Number of ports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 inland port in the TEN-T Core Network (Port of Mertert)

·no inland ports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

·no maritime ports

Through the TEN-T inland waterways network, Luxembourg is connected with Germany through the Rhine - Alpine and the North Sea - Mediterranean Corridor, and with France through the North Sea -Mediterranean Corridor.

Number of airports in the TEN-T Core Network

·1 airport in the TEN-T Core Network (Luxembourg Airport)

·no airports in the TEN-T Comprehensive Network

5.18.2Summary of the National Policy Framework submitted 

Short description of the measures

The majority of measures in the Luxembourgish NPF already exist and are foreseen to stay in place. The number of measures is not so high but they are presented in a well-structured and logical manner in the NPF. They cover a wide variety of types, addressing many deployment barriers. The Luxembourgish NPF puts a lot of emphasis on electric vehicles. The first subsection contains five legal measures regarding the electricity market, the public infrastructure, taxi services, environmental policy and tax reform. These legal measures contain also financial and nonfinancial aspects, which are treated in the second subsection dealing with incentive and funding measures related to the construction of infrastructure and to the investment programmes for RTD&D. The subsection on "Other measures" presents instruments for implementing alternative infrastructure and for purchasing alternatively fuelled cars. Other subsections treat the measures for private recharging points and for public transport.

Table with the national targets and objectives established for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure at the horizon 2020, 2025 and 2030

Table 5.18-1. The national targets and objectives regarding alternative fuels infrastructure

Fuel

Current (EAFO March 2017)

2020

2025

2030

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

AFV

AFI

Electricity for vehicles

1,535

155

40,000

1,758

44,000

1,962

48,000

2,170

Electricity for stationary airplanes

24

28

CNG for vehicles

234

7

200

2

100

2

100

LNG for road

0

0

30/150

1

1

LNG for inland ports

H2 for road

2

0

Legend: AFV = Number of Alternative Fuels Vehicles, AFI = Number of Alternative Fuels Recharging/Refuelling Points

Checklist to assess whether all requirements to be addressed in the NPF are fulfilled

The checklist shows that the majority of the requirements of the Directive are covered.

Table 5.18-2. Checklist results

5.18.3Assessment of targets and objectives (infrastructure) established

Infrastructure sufficiency for recharging points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.18-3. Index of AFI sufficiency

Fuel

Index of AFI sufficiency, IS

Current (end 2015)

2020

2025

2030

Electricity for vehicles

9.90

22.75

22.43

22.12

CNG for vehicles

33.43

100

50

-

Legend: Index of AFI sufficiency, IS =Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points

Table 5.18-3 shows the values of the sufficiency index IS = Number of AFV / Number of AF Recharging/Refuelling points. Regarding the electric vehicles, for the current situation, with a value of 9.90, the index passes the assessment threshold of 10 AFV per recharging point. For 2020, the value 22.75 of the index suggests that the targeted number of recharging points in the Luxembourgish NPF may be insufficient. The Luxembourgish NPF objectives for 2020 contain a network of 1,754 recharging points accessible to the public. The NPF states that this network would be sufficient to recharge at least 40,000 electric vehicles based on a technical and economic study conducted by the Government and the Luxembourg Regulation Institute in 2011. According to this study in Luxembourg 95% of primary recharging would be made at private recharging points (in particular home recharging points) and approximately 5% of total recharging would be made using the public recharging infrastructure.

According to the visual assessment of spatial distribution of recharging points presented in the provided map and considering the lengths of the TEN-T Core Network and of the total road network, it results that the distance requirement of one recharging point at least every 60 km is fulfilled, already today. The NPF provides as well the detailed number of normal power and high power to be installed in specific park-and-ride areas along the TEN-T Core Network (on the Corridor “North Sea – Mediterranean Sea” (A3 and A6 motorways) and on the connection Luxembourg - Coblence (A1 motorway)) and a future adequate coverage of the TEN-T Core Network is assured.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with electric recharging points

The Luxembourg NPF contains the envisaged exact number of recharging points to be built in 2020, 2025 and 2030 in 24 communes with more than 3000 inhabitants. According to this information, it can be assumed that the urban/suburban agglomerations in Luxembourg will be well covered with publicly accessible recharging points, although the ratio between estimated EV and targeted recharging points may give rise to concerns (see previous sub-section). The NPF delivers also the exact number of recharging points planned outside the TEN-T Network and the urban/suburban agglomerations in park-and-ride facilities and on other roads of rural communes.

Electricity supply at airports for use by stationary airplanes

According to the NPF, the Luxembourg airport, the only one in the TEN-T Core Network, currently has 24 ground power units for stationary airplanes and their specific locations are provided. A plan is foreseen to increase this number by adding 4 extra points in 2017-2018.

Shore-side electricity supply for inland waterways vessels and seagoing ships in maritime and inland ports of the TEN-T Core Network and in other ports (2025)

In the Mertert inland port, the only inland port on the Luxembourg TEN-T Core Network, there is currently no shore-side power supply infrastructure for inland waterway vessels. The NPF mentions it was observed that there would be limited demand for a shore-side power supply for inland waterway vessels and that the installation costs would be disproportionate to the benefits. Consequently, no shore-side power supply is envisaged in the NPF until 2025.

Infrastructure sufficiency for CNG refuelling points (number and distance, 2020 and 2025)

Table 5.18-3 shows that the currently available number of CNG refuelling points is sufficient to pass the threshold value of one CNG refuelling point per 600 vehicles. Even if the NPF foresees a decrease of the number of CNG refuelling points, the CNG infrastructure target clearly passes the sufficiency threshold value for the estimated CNG vehicles on Luxembourg roads for the years 2020 and 2025. The number of CNG refuelling points will be decreased because these points are considered of poor economic viability in the medium term and the target number is considered sufficient in terms of the demand from national and international users.

Considering the length of the TEN-T Core Network, it seems that the distance requirement of one CNG refuelling point at least every 150 km is and will remain fulfilled.

Designation of the urban/suburban agglomerations selected to be equipped with CNG refuelling points (2020)

Since the CNG refuelling points target for 2020 is reduced compared to the current situation, no new urban/suburban agglomerations are designated to be equipped with CNG refuelling points.

Road LNG refuelling points along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

With regard to LNG, Luxembourg does not have currently any road-refuelling infrastructure. The installation of one refuelling infrastructure for road transport is envisaged for 2020 and 2025 in a service area on a highway of the TEN-T Core Network, the Corridor North Sea – Mediterranean Sea. In the beginning, the LNG refuelling may be provided by a mobile point installed on a truck.

LNG refuelling points in maritime ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2025)

Not applicable since Luxembourg has no maritime ports.

LNG refuelling points in inland ports along the TEN-T Core Network (2030)

Currently Luxembourg does not have any LNG refuelling infrastructure for inland waterway transport. Due to the high autonomy of LNG-powered vessels, (according to the assumptions of the NPF of Luxembourg a round trip between the ports of Rotterdam and Bale without the need to refuel on the way is possible), an LNG refuelling infrastructure in the port of Mertert (only inland TEN-T Core Network port) is not deemed as viable and the implementation of an LNG infrastructure in Luxembourg for vessels circulating on the Moselle river has not been considered. However, a “ship to ship” refuelling vessel operating in neighbouring waters or a “truck to ship” refuelling truck is mentioned as a solution on a case by case basis in the port of Mertert.

Hydrogen refuelling points on networks determined by Member States having decided to include hydrogen refuelling points accessible to the public in their National Policy Framework (2025)

Hydrogen is not part of current the NPF and no target is set. Even though the Luxembourgish NPF considers that significant technological progress is still necessary in order to turn this industrial sector competitive, the evolution of hydrogen as an alternative fuel will be monitored closely.

5.18.4Deployment of alternative fuels vehicles and vessels

The main focus of the Luxembourgish NPF is on electric vehicles. It estimates a share of more than 9% electric vehicles on the road in 2020. For CNG vehicles, the ambition level is much lower (only 0.05% CNG vehicles estimated for 2020) and decreases compared to the current situation. For the heavy-duty vehicles fleet the Luxembourgish NPF estimates a share of approximately 2.5% LNG heavy-duty vehicles by 2025. The Luxembourgish NPF does not contain any estimates for LNG vehicles. Altogether, it can be concluded that the Luxembourgish NPF is based on the assumption that electric vehicles will gain in importance while other alternative fuels and vessels remain niche products until the 2020 time frame.

5.18.5Assessment of the measures to implement Article 3 

The NPF of Luxembourg contains a portfolio of measures. According to the assessment methodology, a High overall assessment score is derived for electric vehicles, a Medium overall score for Hydrogen vehicles and a Low overall score for CNG vehicles. This is a consequence of Government estimation that the CNG will only play a marginal part and consequently the focus is placed on the promotion of electric mobility, which is considered the most suited for the decarbonisation of the transport sector. 14 measures from a total of 17 concern electricity as alternative fuel. Bicycle and electric bicycle deployment are also supported. For the other fuels and transport modes, the assessment score is low as well as for the measures concerning the promoting of the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services.

Assessment of the measures that can ensure national targets and objectives

The measures of this category are the most numerous (11 from 17) and cover AFI and AFV, several fuel types, modes of transport, financial and nonfinancial support. The totality of these measures can indeed address many of the deployment barriers and consequently the portfolio of all measures can be considered quite comprehensive.

From the alternative fuel and mode of transport clustering analysis, it resulted that most measures presented address electric vehicles (8 from 11) and this cluster is a comprehensive one, revealing the focus of the Luxembourgish NPF. Since many of the measures already exist and receive a high score at least for electric vehicles, it can be derived that the Luxembourgish NPF seems to have defined appropriate measures in order to attain the defined targets and objectives.

Assessment of the measures that can promote alternative fuels infrastructure in public transport services

The Luxembourgish NPF contains three measures in this category, covering only AFV, with only electric and Hydrogen fuel types and road as mode of transport. Two of them are financial or nonfinancial type and they were assessed as having a Low score since they only address the taxi services.

Assessment of the measures that can promote the deployment of private electro-mobility infrastructure

The Luxembourgish NPF contains only one measure in this category, which is of regulatory type. The measure stipulates only that the distribution system operators should cooperate on a non-discriminatory basis with all public or private persons willing to set up or operate recharging points on sites accessible to the public in order to integrate them into the joint central management system. However, there is no measure or regulation planned to facilitate the deployment of recharging points not accessible to the public.

5.18.6Assessment of the provided evidence whether the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned has been considered 

The Luxembourgish NPF has been established respecting the interests of regional and local authorities, as well as those of the stakeholders concerned. There are two regulations (one Grand Ducal and another Ministerial) that provide evidence that the interests of local authorities and stakeholders have been considered. 800 recharging points will be installed at communal level until 2020, and their locations are to be determined by the communal authorities in close collaboration with the distribution system operators and shall fulfil the criteria of proximity to communal interest facilities.

5.18.7Asse