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Document 52017IP0503

European Parliament resolution of 14 December 2017 on a European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility (2016/2327(INI))

OJ C 369, 11.10.2018, p. 114–131 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

11.10.2018   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 369/114


P8_TA(2017)0503

A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility

European Parliament resolution of 14 December 2017 on a European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility (2016/2327(INI))

(2018/C 369/15)

The European Parliament,

having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

having regard to the Commission communication of 20 July 2016 entitled ‘A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility’ (COM(2016)0501),

having regard to the Commission white paper of 28 March 2011 entitled ‘Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area — Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system’ (COM(2011)0144),

having regard to the Commission communication of 31 March 1998 entitled ‘Transport and CO2 — developing a Community Approach’ (COM(1998)0204), which was published following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol but was not translated into sufficient measures,

having regard to its resolution of 9 September 2015 on the implementation of the 2011 White Paper on transport: taking stock and the way forward towards sustainable mobility (1),

having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee of 23 February 2017 on the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 20 July 2016 entitled ‘A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility’,

having regard to Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles (2),

having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on Union guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network and repealing Decision No 661/2010/EU (3),

having regard to Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles (4) and to Regulation (EU) No 510/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2011 setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles (5),

having regard to Directive 1999/94/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 relating to the availability of consumer information on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in respect of the marketing of new passenger cars (6),

having regard to Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (EURO VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 and Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC (7),

having regard to Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 on the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and amending Directive 2009/16/EC (8),

having regard to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (9),

having regard to Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (10),

having regard to Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC (11),

having regard to Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (12),

having regard to the Commission communication of 30 November 2016 entitled ‘A European strategy on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems, a milestone towards cooperative, connected and automated mobility’ (COM(2016)0766),

having regard to the Master Plan for the deployment of Interoperable Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems in the EU,

having regard to Commission Directive 1999/52/EC of 26 May 1999 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 96/96/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers (13),

having regard to Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community (14) and to Commission Decision 2009/750/EC of 6 October 2009 on the definition of the European Electronic Toll Service and its technical elements (15),

having regard to Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 concerning a European rail network for competitive freight (16),

having regard to Council Directive 92/106/EEC of 7 December 1992 on the establishment of common rules for certain types of combined transport of goods between Member States (17),

having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1073/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 on common rules for access to the international market for coach and bus services and amending Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 (18),

having regard to Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (19),

having regard to Directive 2000/59/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2000 on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues (20),

having regard to the results of the 39th session of the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), held in 2016 in Montreal,

having regard to Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements (21), amended by Directive 2009/123/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 (22),

having regard to the report of Parliament’s Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector on the results of the committee’s work (A8-0049/2017),

having regard to its resolution of 2 December 2015 on sustainable urban mobility (23),

having regard to its resolution of 23 June 2016 on the renewable energy progress report (24),

having regard to Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC (25),

having regard to its recommendation of 4 April 2017 to the Council and the Commission following the inquiry into emission measurements in the automotive sector (26),

having regard to its mandate for interinstitutional negotiations on the revision of type approval and market surveillance, as adopted on 4 April 2017 (27),

having regard to the Circular Economy Package adopted by the Commission on 2 December 2015,

having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

having regard to the report of the Committee on Transport and Tourism and the opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (A8-0356/2017),

A.

whereas all 151 parties to the Paris Agreement, which was ratified by the EU on 4 November 2016 and which entered into force on the same date, have committed to keeping the global temperature increase to well below 2 oC above pre-industrial levels and to pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1,5 oC above pre-industrial levels;

B.

whereas given that road transport is responsible for over 70 % of transport greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and much of air pollution, action should be focused predominantly in this area, while efforts to reduce emissions should be intensified in all transport sectors;

C.

whereas natural gas (such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG)), and in particular biomethane, synthetic methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), could assist in the decarbonisation of the transport sector, in particular with regard to shipping and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs);

D.

whereas in its 2011 White Paper the Commission states that it aims to reduce transport GHG emissions by at least 60 % by 2050 compared with 1990; whereas in order to comply with the Paris Agreement it will be necessary to drastically reduce GHG emissions from transport by mid-century;

E.

whereas a reliable long-term emissions reduction trajectory can provide vehicle manufacturers with the necessary planning security for investments in new technologies;

F.

whereas the long-term decarbonisation of the transport sector requires the wide use of renewable energy sources, diversified according to the different modes of transport;

G.

whereas electric transport systems, whether private or public, can help tackle major problems related to urban mobility by reducing CO2 emissions and eliminating pollutants and noise altogether in a sustainable way; whereas the degree of sustainability of electric vehicles also depends on the use of renewable electricity;

H.

whereas transport is responsible for over 25 % of GHG emissions in the EU, of which road transport accounts for over 70 %; whereas transport is the main cause of air pollution in urban areas; whereas such air pollution causes over 400 000 premature deaths (28) per year in the EU and generates health costs of between EUR 330 billion and EUR 940 billion (29), amounting to between 3 % and 9 % of EU GDP; whereas particulate matter and nitrogen oxides have an especially adverse impact on public health;

I.

whereas the transport sector is the least decarbonised and still relies on fossil fuels for over 94 % of its energy needs; whereas its GHG emissions already account for almost a quarter of total CO2 emissions in the EU and are continuing to rise;

J.

whereas the development of passenger and freight transport is largely dependent on the effective use of a variety of modes of transport, and European transport policy should be based on efficient co-modality, under which the use of the most energy-efficient and sustainable transport modes should be prioritised where possible;

K.

whereas modal shift will lead to an optimal rebalancing between different transport modes, and will provide for interoperability within and between modes, promote more sustainable transport and logistics chains, and enhance seamless traffic flows across modes and nodes;

L.

whereas according to Special Eurobarometer 406, published in 2013, some 50 % of EU citizens use their private cars every day, while only 16 % use public transport and only 12 % use bicycles;

M.

whereas bunker fuel used for maritime transport is among the most polluting types of fuel, meaning that this sector has an ample margin for reducing its emissions by promoting and integrating alternative propelling systems;

N.

whereas the protection of public health and the environment should be a shared societal concern and responsibility, in which all stakeholders have an important role to play;

O.

whereas the Seventh Community Environment Action Programme clearly recognises the role of transport in achieving the Union’s 2050 vision of ‘living well, within the limits of our planet’;

P.

whereas since the adoption of the Biofuels Directive in 2003 the legislative framework has been changed repeatedly; whereas the legislative approach must have a certain degree of stability in order to attract investments in advanced biofuels;

Q.

whereas the transition to a circular economy also means that consumers will increasingly become service users, and this shift to new business models could have a significant impact on resource efficiency in the transport sector;

R.

whereas over 100 million Europeans are exposed to noise levels above the EU threshold of 55 decibels (dB), including some 32 million who are exposed to ‘very loud’ levels, i.e. in excess of 65 dB;

S.

whereas according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), noise from road traffic alone is the second most harmful environmental stressor in Europe, just behind air pollution, and whereas at least 9 000 premature deaths per year can be attributed to heart disease caused by traffic noise;

T.

whereas applying WHO guidelines on human exposure to PM2,5 would increase citizens’ average life expectancy by roughly 22 months and would generate annual savings of some EUR 31 billion;

1.

Welcomes the Commission’s communication ‘A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility’, and concurs that a shift to low-emission mobility is essential for the broader shift to a sustainable, low-carbon and circular economy; calls on the Commission and the competent authorities in the Member States to fully engage with the strategy;

2.

Underlines the fact that to abide by the Paris Agreement GHG emissions from transport will need to be near zero by mid-century, and that air pollutant emissions from transport will need to be drastically reduced if the WHO public health guidelines, at the very least, are to be met without delay;

3.

Notes that the shift towards low emission mobility is not only beneficial for public health and the environment, but also offers major challenges and opportunities for vehicle, railway, maritime and aeronautics manufacturers and suppliers as well as for innovative energy, transport and logistics and service providers, particularly SMEs; stresses that adequate support for fostering, on the basis of a cost-effective approach, new technologies and business models encouraging innovative partnerships between large companies, SMEs and start-ups is needed in order to achieve an effective reduction of GHG emissions within the transport sector;

4.

Recognises the need for significant changes in transport demand management and spatial planning in order to make the necessary shift to a multimodal approach; reiterates that transport should be seen as an important service and not as a goal in itself; supports, to this end, the implementation of the Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T); reiterates that the transition to a sustainable, circular and low-carbon transport sector entails increased awareness of service users with regard to resource efficiency; considers that one of the most important factors in terms of behavioural change involving switching to more sustainable modes of transport is an affordable, well-developed and multimodal public transport system that covers urban nodes and connects with rural areas;

5.

Recalls that regarding the 2011 White Paper on Transport, Parliament stressed that a European sustainable mobility policy needs to build on a broad range of policy tools in order to effect a shift towards the least polluting and most energy-efficient modes of transport in a cost-efficient manner; points out that a shift in the balance between modes of transport is necessary in order to disconnect mobility from the adverse effects of the present transport system such as congestion, air pollution, noise, accidents and climate change; acknowledges in this regard that the modal shift policy has not so far delivered satisfactory results;

6.

Encourage the Commission to act as the leading actor for global and harmonised measures with regard to more sustainable and efficient transport;

7.

Invites the Commission to ensure full implementation of the existing legislation and, if needed, to propose additional concrete measures in the transport sector in order to achieve the agreed EU climate objectives, covering all modes, including urban mobility, in a manner which does not jeopardise the competitiveness of the transport sector; also invites the Commission to promote the market uptake of technologies that contribute to low-emission mobility by increasing the efficiency of vehicles while preserving safety; asks the Commission, in the context of compliance with the Paris Agreement, to present an update of its 2011 White Paper on Transport;

8.

Is convinced that when sustainability is assessed the entire footprint, from manufacture through use to the disposal of vehicles and the requisite infrastructure, should be taken into account, and emphasises for that reason that only a technology-neutral energy mix can offer realistic and genuinely sustainable solutions;

9.

Notes that a sustainable transition in transport requires systemic multi-stakeholder action from civil society, consumers, social partners, SMEs, innovative start-ups, major corporations that are global players, and politicians and official bodies at all levels of government;

10.

Calls on the Commission to recognise the increasing importance of embedded emissions by incorporating incentives for life-cycle emissions accounting;

11.

Calls on the Commission to recognise the growing importance of measuring life-cycle emissions, from energy supply emissions through to manufacturing and end-of-life emissions, by putting forward holistic proposals that guide manufacturers towards optimal solutions, in order to ensure that upstream and downstream emissions do not erode the benefits related to the improved operational energy use of vehicles;

12.

Calls on the Commission to urgently introduce and improve CO2 standards for all road transport, as cost-effective vehicle standards in all probability represent the most effective measure for improving energy efficiency in the EU in the period up to 2030;

13.

Recalls that energy efficiency should be considered as the best energy alternative, and that, therefore, all measures to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way and to reduce energy demand should be prioritised, promoted, and duly integrated into transport policy and European climate action;

Optimising the transport system

Enhancing efficiency

14.

Calls on the Commission and the Member States to review connectivity between different regions of the EU, also as regards remote, disadvantaged and border regions of the Union; calls on the Commission, in this respect, to review the EU approach to aviation connectivity and explore the possibility of developing a connectivity index, also taking into account the interplay with other transport modes; underscores that this should be combined with investments in and promotion of sustainable alternatives;

15.

Strongly encourages the Member States to accelerate the implementation of the Single European Sky, as the current fragmentation leads to longer flight times, delays, additional fuel burn and increased CO2 emissions; points out that this would contribute to achieving a 10 % reduction in emissions;

16.

Calls on the Commission to maintain high innovation ambitions by encouraging research into the use of photovoltaic energy in the aviation sector (for example, Solar Impulse 2) and alternative renewable liquid fuels;

Fair and efficient pricing

17.

Considers that clearer price signals across all transport modes which better reflect the polluter-pays and user-pays principles are essential in ensuring fairness and a level playing field for different transport modes in Europe; points out that existing policies should be reassessed from that perspective;

18.

Considers that each transport mode should cover its marginal costs, both for infrastructure wear and tear (‘user pays’) and for external costs, e.g. for air pollution and noise pollution (‘polluter pays’); believes that applying those two principles EU-wide will help address the current charging discrepancy between transport modes;

19.

Underlines that transport pricing legislation should not create unfair competition to the disadvantage of more sustainable modes such as rail, and urges the Commission to come up with proposals to guarantee fair competition in this regard;

20.

Welcomes the Commission’s efforts at developing standards for interoperable electronic tolling systems in the EU, as well as the forthcoming revision of the Eurovignette directive, which should include distance-based charging and differentiation on the basis of CO2 emissions, as well as the possibility of differentiation of charging on the basis of updated Euro standards; believes that the extension of distance-based charging should cover all passenger cars and vans, while allowing for some form of flexibility for remote and sparsely populated areas;

21.

Emphasises that a modal shift in transport requires promotion of and investment in multimodality and public transport;

22.

Asks the Commission to update its ‘manual on external costs from transport’ as a matter of urgency, taking into account real driving emissions data;

23.

Stresses that aviation represents the mode furthest away from internalising its external costs, and therefore calls on the Commission to live up to the Paris Agreement and explore the possibilities for harmonised international measures for kerosene taxation for aviation and the removal of the VAT exemption on air passenger tickets;

Logistics and digitalisation

24.

Recognises that logistics can play a crucial role in reducing transport’s carbon impact through environmentally-friendly collaborative strategies addressing supply chain integration, multimodal transport, consolidation of deliveries and reverse logistics; considers that digital technologies are critical to these objectives;

25.

Considers that intelligent transport systems, platooning and autonomous and connected vehicles can constitute an important asset in improving the efficiency of both individual and commercial transport in the road, rail, maritime and air sectors;

26.

Acknowledges that connected car technology will not only improve road safety but also has significant environmental implications, and notes the dense network infrastructure required to guarantee high capacity and low latency needs for a 5G network to make best use of the opportunities for connected and autonomous vehicles to improve mobility in the urban environment; recognises that, in line with the wider process of digitisation across European industry, many companies will have to underpin their transformation strategy with mobility, thus affording significant opportunities for SMEs and start-ups in the transport sector, and believes this should be supported;

27.

Stresses that public transport, as part of the concept of mobility as service, has a vast potential to reduce traffic volumes and the related emissions, and calls on the Commission to foster digitisation and connectivity of public transport systems in order to remove barriers between transport modes and systems and incentivise their use; considers, at the same time, that the measures taken should be tailored according to the specificities of the areas concerned, be they urban or rural, as in rural areas economic viability is more difficult to achieve; calls, therefore, on the Commission and the Member States to develop specific initiatives for more efficient transport in rural environments and areas that are hard to access, also taking into account public service obligations;

28.

Supports initiatives for mobility management aimed at achieving more efficient and environment-friendly intermodal transport services and smart mobility, which can be key to promoting the concepts of mobility as a service and synchronised intermodality (‘synchromodality’); believes that in order to further enhance mobility as a service, suitable attention should be paid in the future regulation to the contribution of Intelligent Transport Management Systems (ITS), the development of ICT capabilities, interoperability of systems, sharing services and integrated multimodal ticketing;

29.

Notes that urban freight vehicles contribute disproportionately to air and noise pollution and have a negative impact on congestion; calls, therefore, for better optimisation of the supply chain in urban areas; calls on the Commission to encourage the use of zero-emissions light-duty commercial vehicles, zero-emissions buses, waste trucks, taxis and freight bicycles in last mile logistics;

30.

Stresses the potential benefits of lightweighting and of a more efficient use of the current infrastructure, including better distribution of traffic and enhanced intermodal solutions;

31.

Calls on the Commission to emphasise, in the framework of the Digital Single Market legislation, the potential of safer, smarter and greener means of transport for road traffic, and to promote projects for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-road devices, as part of boosting the economy for innovation and opening up new business opportunities for European ICT companies;

32.

Stresses the importance of investing in optimal hinterland connections in order to decrease the ecological footprint of hinterland transport by encouraging the use of multimodal connections, sustainable rail transport, inland shipping, real time transport data and IT applications along the corridors of the Trans-European Transport Networks;

33.

Is convinced that promoting mobility management initiatives in regions and cities, institutions and industry has a considerable potential for reducing the need for citizens to travel both in terms of distance and speed;

34.

Calls on the Member States to support pilot projects that will encourage greater use of electric vehicles and alternative advanced biofuel vehicles;

35.

Stresses that there is a need for a holistic EU approach to enable a swift digitalisation of transport, which, together with better transport planning and the change towards ‘mobility as a service’ will highly contribute to improving efficiency and will have profound effects on society;

36.

Considers that better transport planning, better use of digitalisation and logistics are fields where the potential for emissions reduction is huge, and that numerous cheap and easy measures could be in place very fast with a measurable effect, such as flow and load optimisation, as well as e-Freight; calls therefore on the Commission to list and identify such measures, in order to promote them in a near future; calls for a coherent legislative framework and standards that will allow innovative logistical and transport solutions to be deployed throughout Europe;

37.

Supports the Commission and the transport operators to elaborate projects that contain consistent information on a comparative CO2 footprint from different transport modes through publications, information, booking and ticketing;

38.

Stresses the imperative need of adapting ICT standardization policy to market and policy developments in order to achieve interoperability for e-Freight and Intelligent Transport Systems;

39.

Stresses the importance of interoperability for reducing emissions from HGVs, in both urban and extra-urban transport;

Low-emission alternative energy

40.

Underlines the fact that electric mobility solutions based on sustainable energy sources afford great potential for decarbonising transport; considers, however, that optimisation of the technology involved and large-scale provision of infrastructure facilities are unlikely before 2030; reiterates its call for technological innovations;

41.

Welcomes efforts to deploy and ensure comprehensive and interoperable infrastructure for supplying renewable energy and/or sustainable alternative fuels to alternatively powered vehicles; calls on the Commission, in this regard, to coordinate with the Member States to ensure the full transposition of the relevant provisions of Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure as well as of Article 8 of Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings as amended by Directive (EU) …/… (procedure 2016/0381(COD));

42.

Calls on the Commission to adopt an ambitious action plan for the market uptake of electric vehicles and to issue Member States with guiding recommendations to encourage them to implement fiscal incentives for zero- and low-emission vehicles; stresses that the availability and accessibility of charging and refuelling infrastructure, including in private and public buildings in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (Directive 2010/31/EU, EPBD), and the competitiveness of electric vehicles, are essential for increasing consumer acceptance; highlights the importance of ensuring that electricity generated for electric vehicles comes from sustainable energy sources; calls in this connection for a long-term European initiative on next-generation batteries as well as for the development of the necessary infrastructure to encourage sustainable production standards of low-emission energy and vehicles;

43.

Calls on the Commission to swiftly present its evaluation on the implementation of the Clean Power for Transport Directive (Directive 2014/94/EU) by Member States, and to take action on those Member States which have not yet presented a national strategy;

44.

Considers that an obligation for fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG emissions of energy supplied through renewable electricity, hydrogen, sustainable and advanced biofuels, synthetic fuels or other low-carbon fuels (e.g. CNG, LNG) would be one of the most effective approaches for reducing the climate impact of road transport;

45.

Reminds the Commission how urgent it is, with a view to taking tangible action geared to the sustainable energy transition of the whole of society, to transfer the financial incentives which fossil fuels continue to enjoy to alternative and sustainable forms of energy;

46.

Calls for a more ambitious approach for renewables in transport than that proposed in the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive, in order to achieve the long-term decarbonisation of the transport sector;

47.

Urges that specific incentives be put in place for the deployment of sustainable alternative fuels for those transport modes that currently have no alternatives to liquid fuel; believes that such incentives should be reflected in the new Renewable Energy Directive as well as in the Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans, as foreseen in the proposed regulation on governance of the Energy Union;

48.

Recalls that 94 % of European transport relies on oil products, and believes that sustainable domestic biofuels reduce fossil fuel import dependence, thereby strengthening EU energy security;

49.

Calls on the Commission to propose the phasing-out of direct and indirect subsidies for fossil fuels by 2020 at the latest;

50.

Calls on the Commission and Member States to support the potential of LNG to render mobility, the economy and employment sustainable (30);

51.

Underlines the role that natural gas (for example, CNG and LNG), and in particular biomethane, synthetic methane and LPG, could play in the transition towards the decarbonisation of the transport sector, especially with regard to shipping, HDVs and city buses;

52.

Takes note of the limits proposed in the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive with a view to phasing down first generation biofuels by 2030 and achieving long-term decarbonisation of the transport sector; calls on the Commission, in this connection, to distinguish between first-generation biofuels with high GHG efficiency and a low risk of indirect land use change and those which do not meet those criteria, and to take measures as soon as possible to phase out the use of feedstocks, including palm oil, that drive deforestation or the use of peat land, as a component of biofuels; stresses the importance of a stable and predictable legislative environment that takes due consideration of investment cycles to attract necessary investments in advanced biofuels; takes note of the potential climate benefits of EU agricultural production based on biofuels with high GHG efficiency and a low risk of indirect land use change, especially with regard to emissions from large-scale animal protein imports from non-EU countries;

53.

Encourages the Commission to develop objective criteria for the recognition of advanced biofuels in order to stimulate innovation and market uptake;

54.

Stresses the importance of achieving the long-term decarbonisation of the transport sector, and invites the Commission to encourage the greater market penetration of advanced biofuels with high GHG efficiency, which comply with the waste hierarchy as part of the circular economy and which respect strong environmental and social sustainability criteria, in order to further reduce fossil fuel use and GHG emissions; welcomes the Commission’s proposal to strengthen the GHG savings requirements for biofuels so as to ensure that they continue to deliver on the EU climate goals; stresses the importance of robust and credible accounting concerning emissions and removals deriving from bioenergy under the proposed Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Regulation (COM(2016)0479);

55.

Stresses that only crop-based biofuels that comply with sustainability criteria should count towards Member States’ climate targets under the proposed Effort Sharing Regulation (COM(2016)0482);

56.

Calls on the Commission to follow closely the development of hydrogen technology from renewable energy sources and to commit to a feasibility study on the role and possibilities of hydrogen in the European transport system;

57.

Stresses that synthetic fuels (liquid and gaseous) derived from surplus renewable energies, in particular solar- and wind-energy at peak production that would otherwise be wasted, could contribute to reducing the GHG emissions of the existing fleets from a life-cycle perspective, while also increasing renewable energy yield;

58.

Calls on the Commission and Member States, in the context of the circular economy, emissions and climate policy, and the Union’s renewable energy targets, to increase and fully support the production of green biogas through manure processing;

59.

Welcomes the fact that EU businesses are currently world leaders in synthetic fuel technologies, and sees this as an opportunity to strengthen economic growth and high-quality employment in the EU; stresses, therefore, the importance of creating a framework that encourages the further development and roll-out of such technologies;

60.

Considers that the promotion of Guarantees of Origin could lead to an important increase in the share of renewable energy in the transport sector;

61.

Notes that the EU approach to sustainable energy should be technology-neutral and that the goals of EU sustainability policies should be focused on reducing climate- and health-damaging emissions;

62.

Asks the Commission to make full use of the potential of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) as regards conducting research into clean energy for transport;

63.

Welcomes the support existing under Horizon 2020 for research, development and innovation in the field of clean transport and sustainable energy, and asks for this support to be pursued in the next MFF (Multiannual Financial Framework);

64.

Underlines the importance of R&D for tackling technological challenges regarding low-emission mobility; urges the Commission to continue its strong support for research programmes such as Clean Sky and SESAR (the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research);

Transport infrastructure and investment

65.

Urges the Commission and the Member States to intensify EU cofinancing of transport projects that contribute to climate action and air quality and the minimisation of other external costs, in the framework of the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) and the TEN-T;

66.

Considers that Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) projects are key for the European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility, and regrets that the CEF budget was used to feed EFSI; asks, therefore, for the CEF budget to be restored, and reiterates that EFSI II should be financed from other sources; considers furthermore that the financing of CEF-eligible projects by EFSI should be avoided;

67.

Highlights the importance of a successful use of EFSI or of combining EFSI with the ESIFs; considers that Member States should invest more in their railway system and make efforts to increase the absorption rates of cohesion funding for rail projects;

68.

Points to the importance of maintaining the infrastructure network in good condition and with high levels of quality, since this facilitates traffic flow and also makes it possible to reduce congestion and hence levels of CO2 and other pollutant emissions;

69.

Urges the Commission to make more funds available for cities to bid jointly for infrastructure or technologies that would contribute to decarbonising urban transport and reducing air pollution from road vehicles: notes that this would include, but not be limited to, public recharging stations for electric vehicles, car and bicycle sharing systems, and the development of public transport;

70.

Stresses the importance of financial support measures for innovation in the sector and preservation of the environment during infrastructure work;

Empowering citizens and decision-makers towards behavioural change

71.

Encourages cities to include GHG reduction targets and clean air strategies in their mobility plans (e.g. the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs)), and calls on the Commission to prioritise EU cofinancing of urban mobility projects which contribute to achieving such targets, including through support of innovations that enable cities in this respect;

72.

Takes the view that one of the most efficient ways of reducing emissions and improving transport efficiency is to promote collective public transport; considers it important to boost the role of public transport services; calls further on the Commission and Member States to promote and incentivise the purchase of cleaner, less polluting vehicles by both public authorities and private fleets;

73.

Stresses the opportunities offered by Green Public Procurement for more sustainable transport, in particular for (sub)urban buses;

74.

Calls on the Commission to strengthen the networks of front-runners among cities which prioritise sustainable mobility, including walking, cycling, enhancing public transport, car-pooling and car-sharing, in their city planning, and to enable local, regional and national authorities to share best practices in terms of both GHG emission reductions and clean air strategies in this respect; calls on the Commission also to encourage local, regional and national authorities to fully integrate the needs and procedures of transport, housing and land-use planning in order to better achieve the climate policy goals;

75.

Calls on the Commission and the Member States, taking into account the failure of European standards for light-duty vehicles to reflect real-world emissions, to examine the benefits of introducing a label or standard for Ultra Low-Emission Vehicles (ULEVs) that would meet emission limit values in real driving conditions;

76.

Considers that more attention must be paid to increasing the integration and attractiveness of non-motorised forms of transport, since this would comprehensively reduce the attractiveness of private forms of transport;

77.

Calls on the Commission to include the transport needs of citizens in rural and remote areas in its strategies for low-emission mobility;

78.

Encourages all public entities to incorporate sustainability criteria into public procurement;

79.

Supports the Commission, the Member States and the regions in investing more in the combination and integration of the EuroVelo Cycling Network with the TEN-T rail networks;

80.

Stresses that a proposal for the revision of the General Safety Regulation is overdue, and calls on the Commission to publish such a proposal by the end of 2017; considers that the technology for ‘intelligent speed adaption’ is mature and can save many lives, and should therefore be introduced for all vehicles without further delay; underlines that ‘direct vision’ for lorries is a very effective solution for avoiding accidents with vulnerable road users, and that mandatory standards in this regard should be part of the proposal;

Sector-specific demands

Motorcycles, cars and vans

81.

Calls on the Commission to come forward with a proposal for 2025 standards for cars and vans in line with the position expressed by Parliament in the procedures concerning two legislative acts in 2013 (31), and confirmed in the associated Commission statements on the 2025 target (32); stresses that these average fleet standards should be calculated on the basis of the new Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), and should reflect the long-term emissions reduction trajectory set out in the EU 2030 climate and energy framework and the long-term objectives of the Paris Agreement;

82.

Welcomes the introduction of the new WLTP; stresses, however, that in the light of the fact that research shows that the new WLTP laboratory test cycle will still diverge by around 20 % from real-world emissions and will remain open to test optimisation and manipulation, a targeted ex-post real driving emissions (RDE) methodology for CO2 emissions should be developed to complement the WLTP; notes that this methodology could be based on measuring devices already present in vehicles, for example fuel consumption meters (FCM); notes in addition that, to that end and with a view to obtaining reliable data, a standard approach to collecting, storing, using and communicating fuel consumption values should be developed, making maximum use of sensors already present in cars while fully respecting privacy rules; calls on the Commission to consider additional solutions to curb CO2 emissions from the transport sector, and in particular to take greater account of the contribution of lightweighting to directly reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles;

83.

Recalls that, in order for RDE tests to be effective in reducing discrepancies between the emissions measured in the laboratory and on the road, the specifications of the test and evaluation procedures should be set out very carefully and should cover a wide range of driving conditions, including the different temperatures, engine loads, vehicle speeds, altitudes, types of road and other parameters experienced when driving in the Union;

84.

Calls for the swift adoption of a harmonised, mandatory and transparent EU labelling system, which would provide consumers with accurate, robust and comparable data on the fuel consumption, life cycle, CO2 emissions and air pollutant emissions of cars placed on the market; calls for the revision of the Car Labelling Directive (Directive 1999/94/EC), which could be amended to include a mandatory requirement to provide information on other air pollutant emissions, such as NOx and particulate matter;

85.

Calls on the Commission to review the Clean Power for Transport Directive (Directive 2014/94/EU) and to come forward with a proposal for a regulation on CO2 standards for car fleets entering the market from 2025 onwards, with the aim of phasing out new CO2-emitting cars;

86.

Calls on the Commission to introduce a minimum target for the share of zero-emission cars for all manufacturers;

87.

Emphasises the benefits for the European economy of an early transition to those vehicles that the life cycle assessment (LCA) findings have found to have the lowest climate impact; stresses that such a transition will ensure that European carmakers remain competitive on the global stage while preserving existing jobs and creating new ones;

88.

Hopes that an increasing amount of funding will be allocated to technological research on the production, handling and disposal of the batteries of electric motors, to ensure that they are increasingly eco-friendly;

89.

Notes that the Commission has launched a number of infringement procedures against Member States that have breached Directive 2008/50/EC on air quality by continuously exceeding NO2 and PM10 limit values; urges the Commission to exercise its powers of control to prevent the placing on the market of polluting diesel-powered cars that contribute significantly to the release of NO2 and PM10 into the atmosphere and do not comply with the EU rules on the type approval and emissions of passenger and light-duty vehicles;

90.

Stresses the need to promote wide SME participation in the manufacture of vehicles and components so as to ensure a level playing field in the transport market and encourage research and innovation;

91.

Calls on the Commission to ensure that CO2 regulation post-2020 takes account as far as possible of all technological approaches to reducing CO2 emissions on the roads; notes that regulation should take particular account of the possibilities afforded by the latest alternative fuels (for example, electrofuels, synthetic fuels, power to gas and power to liquid);

Heavy-duty vehicles

92.

Notes that HDVs will be responsible for 40 % of total road transport CO2 emissions if no additional measures are taken by 2030; urges the Commission, therefore, to come up with a proposal on the certification, monitoring and reporting of HDVs by the end of 2017, as well as with ambitious 2025 CO2 standards by 2018, based on the best available data; welcomes the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) freight efficiency simulator, and stresses the need to continue ensuring access to transparent, realistic and up-to-date monitoring data;

93.

Calls on the Commission to start developing a European Low Carbon Trucking Strategy on the basis of a comparative study, in order to facilitate the market uptake of energy-efficient and zero emission buses and trucks; points out that there are already Member State initiatives looking at zero emission road freight;

94.

Considers that the growing use of clean engines for heavy duty vehicles, for instance electric or LNG powered, should be supported, and that this requires important and strategic infrastructure investments;

95.

Calls on the Commission to establish, and allow Member States to introduce, incentives for the transit of low or zero emission vehicles and priority for their movement throughout the TEN-T networks;

96.

Underlines that low and zero emission city buses could help to significantly reduce pollutant emissions in urban areas; calls, therefore, for the introduction of zero emission city buses through the insertion of European green public procurement criteria in the Clean Vehicles Directive (Directive 2009/33/EC), currently under revision; calls on the Commission and the Member States to facilitate and promote the use of available EU funds, such as the ESIFs, to support the corresponding measures;

97.

Stresses that it is important to create the right conditions to stimulate low emission alternative energy for transport, and notes that this can be facilitated by ensuring that industry has a clear and long-term framework on which to base investment concerning the decarbonisation of fuels and other new technologies; calls on the Commission to consider undertaking a feasibility study on the potential solutions on offer, on which a low carbon strategy for road freight transport can be based;

98.

Supports the Commission’s plan for a Clean Bus Platform bringing together bus operators, local authorities, bus manufacturers and energy supplies in order to encourage the rapid take-up of cleaner vehicles, and calls on the Commission to promote the bus as an environmentally sustainable form of public transport;

99.

Notes that there are many new technologies, and innovations based on existing technologies, that can have significant environmental benefits, such as better tyres, improved lubricants, more efficient transmission and hybrid engines, and that Europe should look to be a technological leader in this regard; calls on the Commission to investigate the role of such technologies in improving both efficiency and environmental performance;

100.

Stresses the importance of improving air quality in the EU and adhering to the EU ambient air quality limits, as well as to the WHO recommended levels; calls on the Commission, in this connection, to review the emissions limits set out in Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, and to come forward with proposals, as appropriate, for new technology-neutral Euro 7 emission limits applicable by 2025 for all light-duty vehicles covered by this Regulation;

101.

Underlines the fact that emission reduction and air-quality targets necessitate measures that concern older vehicles, too, and recalls, in this regard, that retrofitting is the fastest and most cost-effective way to reduce emissions and pollutants from older fleets, since the systematic implementation of advanced diesel exhaust after-treatment systems enables older heavy-duty vehicles, such as buses and trucks, to operate in an environment-friendly manner, meeting even the strictest emission requirements and achieving maximum NOx, NO2 and PM reductions; calls on the Commission, therefore, to come up with common EU guidelines to encourage the Member States to fully deploy possible retrofitting solutions, and also to ensure eligibility for funding in the context of EU financial instruments for the decarbonisation of the transport system;

Type approval and market surveillance

102.

Calls for a more comprehensive and coordinated type approval and market surveillance system at EU level, involving strong and reliable EU oversight and a system of controls, in order to address the failures and legal loopholes identified in the aftermath of ‘Dieselgate’; stresses the importance of the swift adoption of the Commission proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers (COM(2016)0031), and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles; recalls in this connection Parliament’s negotiating mandate adopted on 4 April 2017; confirms that the future adoption of the aforementioned regulation should ensure a consistent and more transparent level playing field for all stakeholders in the vehicle sectors, establish effective rules to protect consumers, and ensure the full implementation of the new type approval and market surveillance framework;

103.

Welcomes the guidance on the evaluation of auxiliary emission strategies and the presence of defeat devices, published by the Commission on 26 January 2017 with a view to supporting Member States and the competent authorities in detecting defeat devices;

104.

Regrets the adoption of high conformity factors for NOx emissions which act as a loophole enabling excessive emissions, including from cars post-2020; urges the Commission to review the conformity factor for real driving emissions (RDE) tests of NOx emissions in 2017, as set out in the second RDE package, and to continue to revise it annually in line with technological developments, so as to bring it down to 1 by 2021 at the latest;

105.

Calls for the swift adoption of the fourth RDE package to complete the regulatory framework for the new type approval procedure, and for the swift application of this framework;

Railways

106.

Supports strongly the new Commission calls for proposals on missing cross-border rail links at regional level, and welcomes the perspective of minimising or reducing the climate impact; calls on the Commission to continue taking these projects into account, and to issue calls for applications within the framework of the Connecting Europe Facility, as well as in the framework of amending Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 concerning a European rail network for competitive freight, so as to better take into account the real effectiveness of the different types of rail transport in terms of their impact on energy efficiency in the transport sector;

107.

Endorses the priority given by the Commission to investments in rail infrastructure, in particular regarding missing links and cross-border connections; recalls in this context that for freight transport in particular, rail is an efficient and sustainable mass transport system;

108.

Supports achieving the transition from road transport to rail transport (Shift2Rail) by increasing the interoperability of the various transport modes;

109.

Urges ambitious proposals for the Combined Transport Directive that better promote efficient freight transport and encourage a modal shift towards rail and inland waterways, in order to reach the 2030 and 2050 modal shift targets laid down in the ‘Ten goals for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system’ of the 2011 Transport White Paper;

110.

Calls on the Member States, the Commission and rail stakeholders to take all necessary actions for the implementation of the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking, in order to accelerate the integration of advanced technologies into innovative rail product solutions, increase the attractiveness of rail transport, and bolster the position of the European rail industry;

111.

Calls on the Member States, without delay, to thoroughly and effectively implement Directive 2012/34/EU, Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/909 and the 4th Railway Package, in order to ensure the competitive setting of Track Access Charges enabling fair cross-modal competition;

112.

Calls on the Commission to examine the disadvantages of passenger rail transport (e.g. those related to taxation, track charging and direct and indirect subsidies) compared to other modes of transport, and to establish a level playing field;

113.

Reiterates the importance of interoperability and coordination with the other transport modes, of improved reliability and noise reduction, and of seamless multimodal transport;

114.

Stresses the need for a full, effective and uniform implementation of Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 concerning a European rail network for competitive freight that will benefit both freight and the industry;

Aviation

115.

Asks the Commission to improve aviation efficiency, inter alia by ensuring the speedy implementation by Member States of the Single European Sky, actively participating in the work of ICAO in order to secure ambitious international CO2 standards, and providing appropriate funding for the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Joint Undertaking and the Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiatives;

116.

Recalls that airspace is also part of the EU single market, and that any fragmentation resulting from its inefficient use or from diverging national practices (concerning, for instance, operational procedures, taxes, levies, etc.), causes longer flight times, delays, extra fuel burn, and higher levels of CO2 emissions, in addition to negatively impacting the rest of the market and hampering the EU's competitiveness;

117.

Stresses that the aviation sector should adequately, fairly and effectively contribute to the achievement of the 2030 climate targets and the objectives of the Paris Agreement, and therefore to the Climate Action Sustainable Development Goal (SDG);

118.

Notes the decision of the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly to develop a global market-based measure (MBM) scheme for international aviation; calls on the Commission to assess the decision, including the voluntary commitments and reservations made by states, and to monitor progress towards the implementation, both international and domestic, of the decision in the 67 states that intend to voluntarily participate in the global MBM; calls on the Commission to carry out an assessment in a timely manner of the suitability of the provisions of the scheme, which provides for carbon-neutral growth, in order to curb the rise in emissions in the aviation sector in accordance with the Paris objectives; notes that a review of the ICAO scheme is envisaged every three years, which should allow scope for it to be made more ambitious and robust;

119.

Takes note of the Commission proposal of 3 February 2017 for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC to continue current limitations of scope for aviation activities and to prepare to implement a global marked-based measure from 2021 (COM(2017)0054), which proposes continuing with the limited geographical scope of the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) for aviation; calls on the Commission to carry out a further assessment and review of the EU ETS for the period post-2020 once there is more clarity as to the implementation of the global MBM;

120.

Stresses the importance of providing incentives to use the best and shortest flight routes in order to save on fuel and reduce harmful emissions, as compared to longer routes chosen to avoid airspaces, which involve higher costs;

121.

Stresses the importance of continuing to boost research in this area in order to step up investment in technologies for the development of sustainable aviation by promoting the design of lighter aircraft, the use of digital and satellite technology to support a more efficient management of flight routes, and the production and use of alternative new-generation fuels, especially given that in this sector there are not many alternatives to traditional liquid fuels, including through the development of public-private partnerships;

122.

Calls on the Commission to look for new ways of supporting the deployment of renewable aviation fuels in order to reduce GHG emissions in aviation;

123.

Invites the Member States and the aeronautic industry to encourage the development of further measures to promote smart initiatives aiming at reducing emissions in the aviation sector, from, to and within airports;

Maritime transport

124.

Notes that efforts are being made at the level of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to limit international maritime emissions, and therefore encourages the IMO to adopt clear GHG emission reduction targets and measures without delay; stresses, however, that in the absence of a comparable system operating under the IMO, CO2 emissions emitted at Union ports and during voyages to and from Union ports should be subject to the EU ETS as of 2023; urges the Commission to establish the conditions for the promotion of the use of alternative fuels such as natural gas, LPG and hydrogen, and to promote the integration of renewable technologies (for example, sails, batteries, solar panels and wind generators) in the maritime sector; stresses in this connection that financial instruments must be considered at Member State and EU level in order to speed up investment in green fleets;

125.

Stresses that, in order to ensure an effective global reduction of GHG emissions from international shipping in line with meeting the target of ‘well below 2 degrees’ of the COP21 Paris Climate Agreement, as well as addressing current market barriers to ship design and operational efficiency, the EU Monitoring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) system should be consistently amended so as to align its system with the IMO’s recently adopted Data Collection System (DCS), while preserving transparency, verification and real transport work data collection;

126.

Underlines the importance of fully transposing and implementing the deployment of the alternative fuels infrastructure Directive (Directive 2014/94/EU), including the establishment of LNG refuelling points across the TEN-T corridors and at maritime ports; believes that the wider use of LNG in freight transport could contribute to low-emission mobility, having regard to the international long-term climate and energy targets;

127.

Considers it necessary to create a European Black Sea macro-region, in order to ensure that the opportunities resulting from cross-border cooperation in this region can be fulfilled;

128.

Underlines that innovative financing solutions and the use of the EU investment support facilities available from the European Investment Bank (EIB) should provide useful tools to help shipowners shoulder and/or cover the initial cost of actions to reduce GHG;

129.

Welcomes the recent adoption by the IMO of a 0,5 % global sulphur limit, which is expected to prevent 250 000 premature deaths globally;

130.

Supports the introduction of more sulphur emission and NOx emission control areas across Europe;

131.

Recalls that reducing black carbon emissions from maritime transport, especially in the Arctic region, is essential to reducing global warming;

132.

Underscores the important role that combined transport can play in reducing emissions; notes the Commission’s proposals for the modernisation of the Combined Transport Directive (COM(2017)0648), which should incentivise a shift towards transporting freight by rail and inland waterways;

Inland waterways

133.

Believes that additional measures are necessary to guarantee a climate-friendly and efficient inland waterway transport sector; reiterates the importance of financial support measures for innovation in the sector to increase the energy efficiency of ships and preserve the environment during infrastructure works;

134.

Asks the Commission to come forward in 2018 with a review of the Directive on River Information Services (RIS) (33), with a view to promoting the use of RIS for reducing inland waterways emissions, and to set an EU-wide legal basis for cross-border data exchange, enabling the comprehensive implementation of cross-border RIS and digital integration with other modes of transport;

135.

Stresses that inland waterway transport in Europe should be encouraged and exploited, and calls on the Commission to allocate funding for the cleaning of sunken vessels, given the high cost of such operations, along with the prospect of regional development and the expansion of inland waterway shipping and transport operations in the internal market;

136.

Encourages the Commission and the Member States to come forward with measures on the use of wind and solar energy as well as on greening the engines and fuel of inland vessels, through, inter alia, pointing to good practice on the part of front-runners and supporting the financing of clean inland waterways via the existing scrapping fund and EFSI/EIB tools;

137.

Stresses that, looking at the actual market needs, strong support is needed at EU, national and regional levels in order to ensure that a sufficient number of inland ports of the TEN-T core network are equipped with alternative energy infrastructure and publicly accessible refuelling and storage points for inland waterway transport within adequate distances;

o

o o

138.

Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1)  OJ C 316, 22.9.2017, p. 155.

(2)  OJ L 120, 15.5.2009, p. 5.

(3)  OJ L 348, 20.12.2013, p. 1.

(4)  OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 1.

(5)  OJ L 145, 31.5.2011, p. 1.

(6)  OJ L 12, 18.1.2000, p. 16.

(7)  OJ L 188, 18.7.2009, p. 1.

(8)  OJ L 123, 19.5.2015, p. 55.

(9)  OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32.

(10)  OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 16.

(11)  OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58.

(12)  OJ L 239, 15.9.2015, p. 1.

(13)  OJ L 142, 5.6.1999, p. 26.

(14)  OJ L 166, 30.4.2004, p. 124.

(15)  OJ L 268, 13.10.2009, p. 11.

(16)  OJ L 276, 20.10.2010, p. 22.

(17)  OJ L 368, 17.12.1992, p. 38.

(18)  OJ L 300, 14.11.2009, p. 88.

(19)  OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, p. 1.

(20)  OJ L 332, 28.12.2000, p. 81.

(21)  OJ L 255, 30.9.2005, p. 11.

(22)  OJ L 280, 27.10.2009, p. 52.

(23)  OJ C 399, 24.11.2017, p. 10.

(24)  Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0292.

(25)  OJ L 344, 17.12.2016, p. 1.

(26)  Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0100.

(27)  Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0097.

(28)  https://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-2015/europe/air

(29)  https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2015/download

(30)  European Parliament resolution of 25 October 2016 on EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage (Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0406).

(31)  OJ L 103, 5.4.2014, p. 15; OJ L 84, 20.3.2014, p. 38.

(32)  See Council documents 5584/14 and 6642/14.

(33)  Directive 2005/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on harmonised river information services (RIS) on inland waterways in the Community (OJ L 255, 30.9.2005, p. 152).


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