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Document 52013PC0109

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the WIPO Treaty on Audiovisual Performances

/* COM/2013/0109 final - 2013/0065 (NLE) */

52013PC0109

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the WIPO Treaty on Audiovisual Performances /* COM/2013/0109 final - 2013/0065 (NLE) */


EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM

1.           CONTEXT OF THE PROPOSAL

With this proposal for a Council Decision the Commission seeks authorisation from the Council to sign, on behalf of the European Union, the WIPO Treaty on Audiovisual Performances adopted in Beijing on 24 June 2012 (hereinafter the "Beijing Treaty").

The Beijing Treaty establishes a set of new international rules which aim at ensuring the adequate protection and remuneration of audiovisual performers, i.e. performers such as actors, musicians or dancers, whose performances are incorporated in an audiovisual work (e.g. a film or a TV programme).

The Treaty is a significant step forward in the international protection of neighbouring rights and the first multilateral instrument adopted in this area since 1996. It delivers a long awaited update of the protection of audiovisual performers at international level and modernizes this protection by recognising performers' rights in the digital environment. In doing so it fills a gap in the protection of performers' rights that had been left open since 1996 when the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (hereinafter WPPT) was adopted.

The WPPT, which the European Union acceded to in 2000, provided for an international protection of the rights of authors and certain holders of related rights that, for the first time, took into account the economic and technological developments of the digital environment. However, no agreement could be reached at that time to include in the scope of these instruments the protection of performers with regard to their performances fixed in audiovisual works (the WPPT only covers the rights of performers in relation to their performances in phonograms).

A Diplomatic Conference was held in Geneva from 7 to 20 December 2000 but WIPO Members could not agree on the text of a new Treaty. The failure of the 2000 Diplomatic Conference suspended the works for more than ten years. In June 2011 the WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights (22nd session) reached a provisional agreement on the main issue remained unsolved in 2000, the provision on transfer of performers' rights to producers of audiovisual works. Further to that the General Assembly of WIPO decided, at its 40th session in October 2011, to reconvene the Diplomatic Conference that had been suspended in 2000. The reconvened Diplomatic Conference took place in Beijing from 20 to 26 June 2012 and led to the adoption of the Treaty on 24 June 2012.

The Commission was authorised by the Council to conduct negotiations in view of adoption of an instrument for the protection of performers' rights in their audio-visual performances by a Decision of 7 November 2000. On 18 June 2012 the Council updated the negotiations directives attached to the Decision to take into account the changes in the EU copyright acquis after 2000 (the adoption of the 2001/29 Directive on Copyright in the Information Society) and to acknowledge the reconvention of the Diplomatic Conference in Beijing from 20 to 26 June 2012.

The Beijing Diplomatic Conference adopted the Treaty on 24 June 2012.

The European Union signed the final act of the Diplomatic Conference at the closing of the Diplomatic Conference. The European Parliament was informed of the outcome of the Diplomatic Conference at the meeting of the Committee on Legal Affairs on 9 July 2012.

2.           LEGAL ELEMENTS OF THE PROPOSAL

The European Union has played a very active role in shaping the provisions of the Beijing Treaty, so as to ensure that audiovisual performers enjoy a level of protection consistent with the EU acquis, and that European audiovisual performers can benefit at international level from the same level of protection they enjoy under EU legislation. Indeed, the majority of issues covered by the Treaty are already harmonised at EU level.

Many of the provisions of the Beijing Treaty are modelled upon the 1996 WPPT and by and large the two treaties follow the same structure. The beneficiaries of the protection under the Beijing Treaty are performers who are nationals of the signatories of the Treaty, or who have their habitual residence in one of signatory countries.

The protection is granted on the basis of national treatment which means that every country treats performers (nationals of another country), with regard to the exclusive rights and the right to equitable remuneration granted in the Treaty, in the same way as it treats its own nationals. The scope of national treatment can be limited as regards certain rights on the basis of the specific provisions of the Treaty.

The Treaty provides that independently of economic rights, and even after the transfer of those rights, the performers shall have certain moral rights as regards live performances or performances fixed in audiovisual fixations.

As concerns economic rights, the Treaty grants performers exclusive rights with respect to their unfixed and fixed performances.

With regard to unfixed performances, performers enjoy the right to authorise the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances as well as to authorise the fixation of their unfixed performances.

With regard to performances fixed in audiovisual fixations, performers enjoy the right to authorise their direct or indirect reproduction, their distribution, and the commercial rental to the public of the original and copies of the performances (even after authorising their distribution).

Performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their performances (e.g. the on-line downloading of a film incorporating their performance). Finally the Treaty grants performers the right to authorise the broadcasting and communication to the public of their performances. Contracting Parties are entitled to replace this right by a right to equitable remuneration or to derogate from this right entirely.

As regards the transfer or rights, Contracting Parties are given full flexibility to organise it. They may decide for instance that, once a performer has consented to the fixation of a performance, his exclusive rights are transferred to the producers, unless a contract between a performer and a producer states differently. In any event, the provision does not impose on Contracting Parties any obligation to provide for an automatic transfer.

In line with the WPPT, the Beijing Treaty specifies that national legislation may provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions with regard to the protection of performers as it provides for in connection with the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works, in compliance with the so called "three step test". Similarly to the WPPT, the new Treaty also requires Contracting Parties to provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of technological protection measures used by performers in connection with the exercise of their rights and adequate and effective legal remedies against the removal or alteration of electronic rights management information attached to a performance fixed in an audio-visual fixation. Finally, the term of protection is at least 50 years after the fixation of the audiovisual performance.

The last part of the Treaty consists of the usual administrative and procedural provisions, also in this case largely inspired by the corresponding provisions of the WPPT.

The Treaty also includes a number of agreed statements, some of which (relationship of the Treaty with WPPT and TRIPS, definition of performer, technological protection measures in relation to limitations and exceptions) were the subject of specific negotiations during the 2012 Diplomatic Conference.

Article 23 of the Beijing Treaty provides that the European Union may become party to the Treaty "having made the declaration", during the Diplomatic Conference, that it is competent in respect of, and has its own legislation binding on all its Member States on matters covered by this Treaty and that it has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to become party to the Treaty. As the Commission had been duly authorised by the Council to negotiate, and as reflection of this authorisation, the European Union made this declaration at the Beijing Diplomatic Conference. As a next step the Treaty should be signed by the European Union pursuant to a decision of the Council based on Article 218(5) TFEU.

The Commission has judged the results of the negotiations to be satisfactory and requests the Council to authorise the signature, on behalf of the European Union, of the WIPO Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances adopted in Beijing on 24 June 2012.

2013/0065 (NLE)

Proposal for a

COUNCIL DECISION

on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the WIPO Treaty on Audiovisual Performances

THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 114 in conjunction with 218(5) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,

Whereas:

(1)       On 7 November 2000 the Council authorised the Commission to negotiate in the context of the World Intellectual Property Organisation to ensure participation of the European Community in the Diplomatic Conference held in Geneva from 7 to 20 December 2000 with the aim to draw up an instrument to protect performers' rights in their audiovisual performances.

(2)       The negotiations were successfully concluded at a reconvened Diplomatic Conference held in Beijing from 20 to 26 June 2012 and the WIPO Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances was adopted on 24 June 2012.

(3)       The Treaty establishes a set of new international rules in the area of neighbouring rights which aim at ensuring the adequate protection and remuneration of audiovisual performers.

(4)       The Treaty shall be open for signature by any eligible party for one year after its adoption. Therefore, it should be signed on behalf of the European Union, subject to its conclusion at a later date.

HAS ADOPTED THIS DECISION:

Article 1

The signing of the WIPO Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances on behalf of the Union is hereby approved, subject to the conclusion of the said Treaty at a later date.

The text of the Treaty to be signed is attached to this Decision.

Article 2

The Council Secretariat General shall establish the instrument of full powers to sign the Treaty, subject to its conclusion, for the person(s) indicated by the European Commission.

Article 3

This Decision shall enter into force on the day of its adoption.

Done at Brussels,

                                                                       For the Council

                                                                       The President

ANNEX

to the

proposal for a Council Decision

on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the WIPO Treaty on Audiovisual Performances

Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances

(adopted by the Diplomatic Conference on the Protection of Audiovisual Performances in Beijing, on June 24, 2012)

CONTENTS

Preamble

Article 1: Relation to Other Conventions and Treaties

Article 2: Definitions

Article 3: Beneficiaries of Protection

Article 4: National Treatment

Article 5: Moral Rights

Article 6: Economic Rights of Performers in their Unfixed Performances

Article 7: Right of Reproduction

Article 8: Right of Distribution

Article 9: Right of Rental

Article 10: Right of Making Available of Fixed Performances

Article 11: Right of Broadcasting and Communication to the Public

Article 12: Transfer of Rights

Article 13: Limitations and Exceptions

Article 14: Term of Protection

Article 15: Obligations concerning Technological Measures

Article 16: Obligations concerning Rights Management Information

Article 17: Formalities

Article 18: Reservations and Notifications

Article 19: Application in Time

Article 20: Provisions on Enforcement of Rights

Article 21: Assembly

Article 22: International Bureau

Article 23: Eligibility for Becoming Party to the Treaty

Article 24: Rights and Obligations under the Treaty

Article 25: Signature of the Treaty

Article 26: Entry into Force of the Treaty

Article 27: Effective Date of Becoming Party to the Treaty

Article 28: Denunciation of the Treaty

Article 29: Languages of the Treaty

Article 30: Depositary

Preamble

The Contracting Parties,

Desiring to develop and maintain the protection of the rights of performers in their audiovisual performances in a manner as effective and uniform as possible,

Recalling the importance of the Development Agenda recommendations, adopted in 2007 by the General Assembly of the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which aim to ensure that development considerations form an integral part of the Organization’s work,

Recognizing the need to introduce new international rules in order to provide adequate solutions to the questions raised by economic, social, cultural and technological developments,

Recognizing the profound impact of the development and convergence of information and communication technologies on the production and use of audiovisual performances,

Recognizing the need to maintain a balance between the rights of performers in their audiovisual performances and the larger public interest, particularly education, research and access to information,

Recognizing that the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) done in Geneva on December 20, 1996, does not extend protection to performers in respect of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations,

Referring to the Resolution concerning Audiovisual Performances adopted by the Diplomatic Conference on Certain Copyright and Neighboring Rights Questions on December 20, 1996,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1 Relation to Other Conventions and Treaties

(1) Nothing in this Treaty shall derogate from existing obligations that Contracting Parties have to each other under the WPPT or the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations done in Rome on October 26, 1961.

(2) Protection granted under this Treaty shall leave intact and shall in no way affect the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works. Consequently, no provision of this Treaty may be interpreted as prejudicing such protection.

(3) This Treaty shall not have any connection with treaties other than the WPPT, nor shall it prejudice any rights and obligations under any other treaties[1],[2].

Article 2 Definitions

For the purposes of this Treaty:

(a) "performers" are actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret, or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore [3];

(b) "audiovisual fixation" means the embodiment of moving images, whether or not accompanied by sounds or by the representations thereof, from which they can be perceived, reproduced or communicated through a device[4];

(c) "broadcasting" means the transmission by wireless means for public reception of sounds or of images or of images and sounds or of the representations thereof; such transmission by satellite is also "broadcasting"; transmission of encrypted signals is "broadcasting" where the means for decrypting are provided to the public by the broadcasting organization or with its consent;

(d) "communication to the public" of a performance means the transmission to the public by any medium, otherwise than by broadcasting, of an unfixed performance, or of a performance fixed in an audiovisual fixation. For the purposes of Article 11, "communication to the public" includes making a performance fixed in an audiovisual fixation audible or visible or audible and visible to the public.

Article 3 Beneficiaries of Protection

(1) Contracting Parties shall accord the protection granted under this Treaty to performers who are nationals of other Contracting Parties.

(2) Performers who are not nationals of one of the Contracting Parties but who have their habitual residence in one of them shall, for the purposes of this Treaty, be assimilated to nationals of that Contracting Party.

Article 4 National Treatment

(1) Each Contracting Party shall accord to nationals of other Contracting Parties the treatment it accords to its own nationals with regard to the exclusive rights specifically granted in this Treaty and the right to equitable remuneration provided for in Article 11 of this Treaty.

(2) A Contracting Party shall be entitled to limit the extent and term of the protection accorded to nationals of another Contracting Party under paragraph (1), with respect to the rights granted in Article 11(1) and 11(2) of this Treaty, to those rights that its own nationals enjoy in that other Contracting Party.

(3) The obligation provided for in paragraph (1) does not apply to a Contracting Party to the extent that another Contracting Party makes use of the reservations permitted by Article 11(3) of this Treaty, nor does it apply to a Contracting Party, to the extent that it has made such reservation.

Article 5 Moral Rights

(1) Independently of a performer’s economic rights, and even after the transfer of those rights, the performer shall, as regards his live performances or performances fixed in audiovisual fixations, have the right:

(i) to claim to be identified as the performer of his performances, except where omission is dictated by the manner of the use of the performance; and

(ii) to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his performances that would be prejudicial to his reputation, taking due account of the nature of audiovisual fixations.

(2) The rights granted to a performer in accordance with paragraph (1) shall, after his death, be maintained, at least until the expiry of the economic rights, and shall be exercisable by the persons or institutions authorized by the legislation of the Contracting Party where protection is claimed. However, those Contracting Parties whose legislation, at the moment of their ratification of or accession to this Treaty, does not provide for protection after the death of the performer of all rights set out in the preceding paragraph may provide that some of these rights will, after his death, cease to be maintained.

(3) The means of redress for safeguarding the rights granted under this Article shall be governed by the legislation of the Contracting Party where protection is claimed[5].

Article 6 Economic Rights of Performers in their Unfixed Performances

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing, as regards their performances:

(i) the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance; and

(ii) the fixation of their unfixed performances.

Article 7 Right of Reproduction

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations, in any manner or form[6].

Article 8 Right of Distribution

(1) Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations through sale or other transfer of ownership.

(2) Nothing in this Treaty shall affect the freedom of Contracting Parties to determine the conditions, if any, under which the exhaustion of the right in paragraph (1) applies after the first sale or other transfer of ownership of the original or a copy of the fixed performance with the authorization of the performer[7].

Article 9 Right of Rental

(1) Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the commercial rental to the public of the original and copies of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations as determined in the national law of Contracting Parties, even after distribution of them by, or pursuant to, authorization by the performer.

(2) Contracting Parties are exempt from the obligation of paragraph (1) unless the commercial rental has led to widespread copying of such fixations materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction of performers[8].

Article 10 Right of Making Available of Fixed Performances

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.

Article 11 Right of Broadcasting and Communication to the Public

(1) Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations.

(2) Contracting Parties may in a notification deposited with the Director General of WIPO declare that, instead of the right of authorization provided for in paragraph (1), they will establish a right to equitable remuneration for the direct or indirect use of performances fixed in audiovisual fixations for broadcasting or for communication to the public. Contracting Parties may also declare that they will set conditions in their legislation for the exercise of the right to equitable remuneration.

(3) Any Contracting Party may declare that it will apply the provisions of paragraphs (1) or (2) only in respect of certain uses, or that it will limit their application in some other way, or that it will not apply the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) at all.

Article 12 Transfer of Rights

(1) A Contracting Party may provide in its national law that once a performer has consented to fixation of his or her performance in an audiovisual fixation, the exclusive rights of authorization provided for in Articles 7 to 11 of this Treaty shall be owned or exercised by or transferred to the producer of such audiovisual fixation subject to any contract to the contrary between the performer and the producer of the audiovisual fixation as determined by the national law.

(2) A Contracting Party may require with respect to audiovisual fixations produced under its national law that such consent or contract be in writing and signed by both parties to the contract or by their duly authorized representatives.

(3) Independent of the transfer of exclusive rights described above, national laws or individual, collective or other agreements may provide the performer with the right to receive royalties or equitable remuneration for any use of the performance, as provided for under this Treaty including as regards Articles 10 and 11.

Article 13 Limitations and Exceptions

(1) Contracting Parties may, in their national legislation, provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions with regard to the protection of performers as they provide for, in their national legislation, in connection with the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works.

(2) Contracting Parties shall confine any limitations of or exceptions to rights provided for in this Treaty to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the performance and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the performer[9].

Article 14 Term of Protection

The term of protection to be granted to performers under this Treaty shall last, at least, until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed.

Article 15 Obligations concerning Technological Measures

Contracting Parties shall provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by performers in connection with the exercise of their rights under this Treaty and that restrict acts, in respect of their performances, which are not authorized by the performers concerned or permitted by law[10],[11].

Article 16 Obligations concerning Rights Management Information

(1) Contracting Parties shall provide adequate and effective legal remedies against any person knowingly performing any of the following acts knowing, or with respect to civil remedies having reasonable grounds to know, that it will induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal an infringement of any right covered by this Treaty:

(i) to remove or alter any electronic rights management information without authority;

(ii) to distribute, import for distribution, broadcast, communicate or make available to the public, without authority, performances or copies of performances fixed in audiovisual fixations knowing that electronic rights management information has been removed or altered without authority.

(2) As used in this Article, "rights management information" means information which identifies the performer, the performance of the performer, or the owner of any right in the performance, or information about the terms and conditions of use of the performance, and any numbers or codes that represent such information, when any of these items of information is attached to a performance fixed in an audiovisual fixation[12].

Article 17 Formalities

The enjoyment and exercise of the rights provided for in this Treaty shall not be subject to any formality.

Article 18 Reservations and Notifications

(1) Subject to provisions of Article 11(3), no reservations to this Treaty shall be permitted.

(2) Any notification under Article 11(2) or 19(2) may be made in instruments of ratification or accession, and the effective date of the notification shall be the same as the date of entry into force of this Treaty with respect to the Contracting Party having made the notification. Any such notification may also be made later, in which case the notification shall have effect three months after its receipt by the Director General of WIPO or at any later date indicated in the notification.

Article 19 Application in Time

(1) Contracting Parties shall accord the protection granted under this Treaty to fixed performances that exist at the moment of the entry into force of this Treaty and to all performances that occur after the entry into force of this Treaty for each Contracting Party.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a Contracting Party may declare in a notification deposited with the Director General of WIPO that it will not apply the provisions of Articles 7 to 11 of this Treaty, or any one or more of those, to fixed performances that existed at the moment of the entry into force of this Treaty for each Contracting Party. In respect of such Contracting Party, other Contracting Parties may limit the application of the said Articles to performances that occurred after the entry into force of this Treaty for that Contracting Party.

(3) The protection provided for in this Treaty shall be without prejudice to any acts committed, agreements concluded or rights acquired before the entry into force of this Treaty for each Contracting Party.

(4) Contracting Parties may in their legislation establish transitional provisions under which any person who, prior to the entry into force of this Treaty, engaged in lawful acts with respect to a performance, may undertake with respect to the same performance acts within the scope of the rights provided for in Articles 5 and 7 to 11 after the entry into force of this Treaty for the respective Contracting Parties.

Article 20 Provisions on Enforcement of Rights

(1) Contracting Parties undertake to adopt, in accordance with their legal systems, the measures necessary to ensure the application of this Treaty.

(2) Contracting Parties shall ensure that enforcement procedures are available under their law so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of rights covered by this Treaty, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further infringements.

Article 21 Assembly

(1)

(a) The Contracting Parties shall have an Assembly.

(b) Each Contracting Party shall be represented in the Assembly by one delegate who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors and experts.

(c) The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Contracting Party that has appointed the delegation. The Assembly may ask WIPO to grant financial assistance to facilitate the participation of delegations of Contracting Parties that are regarded as developing countries in conformity with the established practice of the General Assembly of the United Nations or that are countries in transition to a market economy.

(2)

(a) The Assembly shall deal with matters concerning the maintenance and development of this Treaty and the application and operation of this Treaty.

(b) The Assembly shall perform the function allocated to it under Article 23(2) in respect of the admission of certain intergovernmental organizations to become party to this Treaty.

(c) The Assembly shall decide the convocation of any diplomatic conference for the revision of this Treaty and give the necessary instructions to the Director General of WIPO for the preparation of such diplomatic conference.

(3)

(a) Each Contracting Party that is a State shall have one vote and shall vote only in its own name.

(b) Any Contracting Party that is an intergovernmental organization may participate in the vote, in place of its Member States, with a number of votes equal to the number of its Member States which are party to this Treaty. No such intergovernmental organization shall participate in the vote if any one of its Member States exercises its right to vote and vice versa.

(4) The Assembly shall meet upon convocation by the Director General and, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, during the same period and at the same place as the General Assembly of WIPO.

(5) The Assembly shall endeavor to take its decisions by consensus and shall establish its own rules of procedure, including the convocation of extraordinary sessions, the requirements of a quorum and, subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the required majority for various kinds of decisions.

Article 22 International Bureau

The International Bureau of WIPO shall perform the administrative tasks concerning the Treaty.

Article 23 Eligibility for Becoming Party to the Treaty

(1) Any Member State of WIPO may become party to this Treaty.

(2) The Assembly may decide to admit any intergovernmental organization to become party to this Treaty which declares that it is competent in respect of, and has its own legislation binding on all its Member States on, matters covered by this Treaty and that it has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to become party to this Treaty.

(3) The European Union, having made the declaration referred to in the preceding paragraph in the Diplomatic Conference that has adopted this Treaty, may become party to this Treaty.

Article 24 Rights and Obligations under the Treaty

Subject to any specific provisions to the contrary in this Treaty, each Contracting Party shall enjoy all of the rights and assume all of the obligations under this Treaty.

Article 25 Signature of the Treaty

This Treaty shall be open for signature at the headquarters of WIPO by any eligible party for one year after its adoption.

Article 26 Entry into Force of the Treaty

This Treaty shall enter into force three months after 30 eligible parties referred to in Article 23 have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession.

Article 27 Effective Date of Becoming Party to the Treaty

This Treaty shall bind:

(i) the 30 eligible parties referred to in Article 26, from the date on which this Treaty has entered into force;

(ii) each other eligible party referred to in Article 23, from the expiration of three months from the date on which it has deposited its instrument of ratification or accession with the Director General of WIPO.

Article 28 Denunciation of the Treaty

This Treaty may be denounced by any Contracting Party by notification addressed to the Director General of WIPO. Any denunciation shall take effect one year from the date on which the Director General of WIPO received the notification.

Article 29 Languages of the Treaty

(1) This Treaty is signed in a single original in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish languages, the versions in all these languages being equally authentic.

(2) An official text in any language other than those referred to in paragraph (1) shall be established by the Director General of WIPO on the request of an interested party, after consultation with all the interested parties. For the purposes of this paragraph, "interested party" means any Member State of WIPO whose official language, or one of whose official languages, is involved and the European Union, and any other intergovernmental organization that may become party to this Treaty, if one of its official languages is involved.

Article 30 Depositary

The Director General of WIPO is the depositary of this Treaty.

[1]               Agreed statement concerning Article 1: It is understood that nothing in this Treaty affects any rights or obligations under the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) or their interpretation and it is further understood that paragraph 3 does not create any obligations for a Contracting Party to this Treaty to ratify or accede to the WPPT or to comply with any of its provisions.

[2]               Agreed statement concerning Article 1(3): It is understood that Contracting Parties who are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) acknowledge all the principles and objectives of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and understand that nothing in this Treaty affects the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement, including, but not limited to, the provisions relating to anti-competitive practices.

[3]               Agreed statement concerning Article 2(a): It is understood that the definition of "performers" includes those who perform a literary or artistic work that is created or first fixed in the course of a performance.

[4]               Agreed statement concerning Article 2(b): It is hereby confirmed that the definition of "audiovisual fixation" contained in Article 2(b) is without prejudice to Article 2(c) of the WPPT.

[5]               Agreed statement concerning Article 5: For the purposes of this Treaty and without prejudice to any other treaty, it is understood that, considering the nature of audiovisual fixations and their production and distribution, modifications of a performance that are made in the normal course of exploitation of the performance, such as editing, compression, dubbing, or formatting, in existing or new media or formats, and that are made in the course of a use authorized by the performer, would not in themselves amount to modifications within the meaning of Article 5(1)(ii). Rights under Article 5(1)(ii) are concerned only with changes that are objectively prejudicial to the performer’s reputation in a substantial way. It is also understood that the mere use of new or changed technology or media, as such, does not amount to modification within the meaning of Article 5(1)(ii).

[6]               Agreed statement concerning Article 7: The reproduction right, as set out in Article 7, and the exceptions permitted thereunder through Article 13, fully apply in the digital environment, in particular to the use of performances in digital form. It is understood that the storage of a protected performance in digital form in an electronic medium constitutes a reproduction within the meaning of this Article.

[7]               Agreed statement concerning Articles 8 and 9: As used in these Articles, the expression "original and copies," being subject to the right of distribution and the right of rental under the said Articles, refers exclusively to fixed copies that can be put into circulation as tangible objects.

[8]               Agreed statement concerning Articles 8 and 9: As used in these Articles, the expression "original and copies," being subject to the right of distribution and the right of rental under the said Articles, refers exclusively to fixed copies that can be put into circulation as tangible objects.

[9]               Agreed statement concerning Article 13: The Agreed statement concerning Article 10 (on Limitations and Exceptions) of the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) is applicable mutatis mutandis also to Article 13 (on Limitations and Exceptions) of the Treaty.

[10]             Agreed statement concerning Article 15 as it relates to Article 13: It is understood that nothing in this Article prevents a Contracting Party from adopting effective and necessary measures to ensure that a beneficiary may enjoy limitations and exceptions provided in that Contracting Party’s national law, in accordance with Article 13, where technological measures have been applied to an audiovisual performance and the beneficiary has legal access to that performance, in circumstances such as where appropriate and effective measures have not been taken by rights holders in relation to that performance to enable the beneficiary to enjoy the limitations and exceptions under that Contracting Party’s national law. Without prejudice to the legal protection of an audiovisual work in which a performance is fixed, it is further understood that the obligations under Article 15 are not applicable to performances unprotected or no longer protected under the national law giving effect to this Treaty.

[11]             Agreed statement concerning Article 15: The expression "technological measures used by performers" should, as this is the case regarding the WPPT, be construed broadly, referring also to those acting on behalf of performers, including their representatives, licensees or assignees, including producers, service providers, and persons engaged in communication or broadcasting using performances on the basis of due authorization.

[12]             Agreed statement concerning Article 16: The Agreed statement concerning Article 12 (on Obligations concerning Rights Management Information) of the WCT is applicable mutatis mutandis also to Article 16 (on Obligations concerning Rights Management Information) of the Treaty.

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