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Document 52013DC0483R(01)

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL Progress by Member States towards Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings

/* COM/2013/0483 final/2 */

52013DC0483R(01)

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL Progress by Member States towards Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings /* COM/2013/0483 final/2 */


REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL

Progress by Member States towards Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1........... Introduction.................................................................................................................... 4

2........... Application of the NZEB definition in practice................................................................. 5

3........... Intermediate targets........................................................................................................ 6

4........... Policies and measures for the promotion of NZEBs......................................................... 6

4.1........ Reporting on Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC........................................................ 7

4.2........ Policies and measures for stimulating refurbishments into NZEB....................................... 8

5........... Conclusions and next steps............................................................................................. 8

5.1........ Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 8

5.2........ Next steps...................................................................................................................... 9

Annex 1: Overview of the national definitions of NZEBs............................................................... 10

1.           Introduction

Buildings are central to the EU's energy efficiency policy, as nearly 40%[1] of final energy consumption and 36% of greenhouse gas emissions is in houses, offices, shops and other buildings. Improving the energy performance of Europe's building stock is crucial, not only to achieve the EU's 2020 targets but also to meet the longer term objectives of our climate strategy as laid down in the low carbon economy roadmap 2050[2].

Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings[3] (hereafter called the 'EPBD') is the main legislative instrument at EU level for improving the energy efficiency of European buildings. A key element of the EPBD, especially for achieving these longer term objectives, is its requirements regarding Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (hereafter called 'NZEBs').

Article 9(1) of the EPBD requires Member States to "ensure that:

(a) by 31 December 2020, all new buildings are nearly zero-energy buildings; and

(b) after 31 December 2018, new buildings occupied and owned by public authorities are nearly zero-energy buildings."

Moreover, Member States must draw up national plans for increasing the number of NZEBs, which may include targets differentiated according to the category of building.

Article 9(2) furthermore provides that Member States must develop policies and take measures such as the setting of targets in order to stimulate the transformation of buildings that are refurbished into NZEBs, and inform the Commission thereof in their national plans.

Article 9(3) states that "The national plans shall include, inter alia, the following elements:

(a) the Member State's detailed application in practice of the definition of nearly zero-energy buildings, reflecting their national, regional or local conditions, and including a numerical indicator of primary energy use expressed in kWh/m2per year….

(b) intermediate targets for improving the energy performance of new buildings, by 2015…;

(c) information on the policies and financial or other measures (…..) including details of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and existing buildings undergoing major renovation in the context of Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC and Articles 6 and 7 of this Directive."

On the basis of these national plans, the Commission is required to publish a report on the progress of Member States, by December 2012 and every three years thereafter (Article 9(5)).

This first report is largely based on the information contained in the national plans for NZEBs submitted by 8 Member States (BE, DK, CY, FI, LT, NL, SE and UK) as of the end of November 2012. In the meantime, six other Member States (BG, DE, FR, HU, IE and SK) have sent in their plans but these have not been taken into account in the analysis. In addition, for the Member States that did not provide an official national plan, information on their progress was drawn from their second National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs), where such information was available. Thirteen of the second NEEAPs (BG, EE, FI, FR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MT, PL, ES, NL and UK) refer to the NZEB objectives. This report also draws on information contained in National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs)[4] and a specific study on NZEBs[5].

As a general observation it has to be noted that the national plans vary substantially as regards presentation and content. This reflects different levels of development of national policies for NZEBs, as well as the lack of a template for the plans. Nevertheless, the national plans all contain considerably more information than what was included in the second NEEAPs.

2.           Application of the NZEB definition in practice

According to Article 2(2) of the EPBD an NZEB “means a building that has a very high energy performance, as determined in accordance with Annex I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby;”

So while the EPBD sets the framework for the definition of NZEBs, the final detailed application in practice of that definition (e.g. what is a "very high energy performance") is the responsibility of the Member States.

An analysis of the available information (see annex 1 for a more detailed overview) shows that, although most Member States report progress in defining NZEBs, only 4 Member States (BE, CY, DK and LT) provided a definition that comprises both a numerical target and a share of renewable energy sources. In other Member States the work on the definition has reached different stages of development (see graph below).

Figure 1: Status of development of the NZEB definition in Member States

A few Member States mentioned objectives that go beyond NZEB requirements, including zero energy buildings in the Netherlands, positive energy buildings in Denmark and France, climate neutral new buildings in Germany and the zero carbon standards in the UK.

Where a numerical indicator is set, the requirements range rather widely from 0 kWh/m2/y to 220 kWh/m2/y. It may be questioned whether the higher levels of energy consumption are compatible with the definition of NZEBs as given by the EPBD.

As regards the share of renewable energy the reporting is equally diverse, with only a few countries defining a specific minimum percentage (BE, CY, DK and LT). Other Member States make only qualitative statements (BE, DE, EL, IE, LT, NL, SE and UK). Finally, a few Member States (EE, NL) state that the renewable energy share will be defined once the national definition on NZEBs has been further developed (see also section 4.1).

No Member State has yet reported any legislative regime for not applying the NZEB requirements in specific and justifiable cases where the cost benefit analysis over the economic life cycle of the building in question is negative, as permitted under Article 9(6) of the EPBD.

3.           Intermediate targets

Article 9(3) (b) states that the national plans are to include, inter alia, "intermediate targets for improving the energy performance of new buildings, by 2015".

Fifteen of the 27 Member States (BE, CZ, DK, EE, FI, DE, EL, HU, IE, LV, LT, SI, SE, NL and the UK) have indeed set such intermediate targets. However, as the Directive does not define the type of targets to be set, Member States have taken different approaches to setting intermediate targets (see Annex 1 for more details). A majority of countries define these targets as minimum energy performance requirements (e.g. 50 kWh/m2/y in 2015) or as a required Energy Performance Certificate level by a certain year (e.g. level B by 2015). Other Member States define the intermediate targets by stating that "all new buildings" or "all new public buildings" will be NZEBs by 2015.

A few Member States (CZ, EE and NL) have set actual numbers for new buildings or new public buildings to be constructed by the year 2015.

The exemplary role of the public sector has been emphasised by several Member States (BE, CZ, DE, DK, EE, IE, NL and UK) through the establishment of specific intermediate targets for public buildings.

Intermediate targets for refurbishment of existing buildings into NZEBs have been set by only a few Member States (BE, DK and IE).

4.           Policies and measures for the promotion of NZEBs

Article 9(3c) of the EPBD requires the national plans to include: "information on policies and financial or other measures adopted in the context of paragraphs 1 and 2 for the promotion of nearly zero-energy buildings, including details of national requirements and measures concerning the use of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and existing buildings undergoing major renovations in the context of Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC and Articles 6 and 7 of this Directive."

Member States reported a wide range of policies and measures in support of the NZEB objectives in their national plans and NEEAPs (see table below), although it is often not clear to what extent these measures specifically target NZEBs.

Financial instruments and support measures, including tax credits for notary fees, subsidised mortgage interest rates for energy efficient homes and low-interest loans for retrofitting into low-energy homes, were most often mentioned, followed by the strengthening of building regulations, awareness raising, education and training activities, and pilot or demonstration projects for very efficient buildings.

Only a few Member States reported on specific measures for public buildings. The scope of measures for public buildings varies substantially between Member States ranging from central government buildings only to all publicly-owned buildings or all buildings used for public purposes.

Figure 2: Main policies and measures in support of NZEBs in Member States

4.1.        Reporting on Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC[6]

Article 9(3c) of the EPBD requires Member States to also inform the Commission in their national plans about the "….details of national requirements and measures concerning the use of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and existing buildings undergoing major renovations in the context of Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC…."

Article 13(4) of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (hereafter called RES Directive) states that:

"Member States shall introduce in their building regulations and codes appropriate measures in order to increase the share of all kinds of energy form renewable sources in the building.

In establishing such measures or in their regional support schemes, Member States may take into account national measures relating to substantial increases in energy efficiency and relating to cogeneration and to passive, low or zero-energy buildings.

By December 2014, Member States shall, in their building regulations and codes … require the use of minimum levels of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and in existing building that are subject to major renovation."

Only a few Member States reported on this requirement in their national plans or NEEAPs (see Annex 1, final column). However, some Member States reported on the share of renewable energy in buildings in the context of their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs), albeit not in much detail. This is probably due to the reporting deadline for the NREAP of 30 June 2010 at which time few Member States had elaborated detailed NZEB policies.

Where Member States do report on buildings in their NREAP, this is mostly focused on minimum levels of thermal solar energy for the production of domestic hot water (CY, EL, IT, PT, ES).

The reporting on renewable energy in the national NZEB plans either refers to measures taken as a consequence of the RES directive and its implementation (BE Flemish region, DK and SE) or describes specific support measures for renewable energy (DK).

4.2.        Policies and measures for stimulating refurbishments into NZEB

Article 9(2) of the EPBD requires Member States to, "following the leading example of the public sector, develop policies and take measures such as the setting of targets in order to stimulate the transformation of buildings that are refurbished into NZEBs, and inform the Commission thereof in their national plans…".

Some Member States indeed reported on specific measures for refurbishing existing buildings into NZEBs (DK, FR, IE, MT, NL, SE, UK). While some Member States have established specific building regulations for refurbishment (DK, IE, SE), others focus on financial benefits such as rebates, tax credits and advantageous bank loans (MT, UK) or are planning studies (NL).

5.           Conclusions and next steps

5.1.        Conclusions

At the end of November 2012, only 9 Member States (BE, DK, CY, FI, LT, IE, NL, SE and UK) had reported their NZEB national plans to the Commission. As regards the practical definition of NZEBs, only 5 Member States (BE, CY, DK, IE and LT) presented a definition that contains both a numerical target and a share of renewable energy sources.

Fifteen Member States (BE, CZ, DK, EE, FI, DE, GR, HU, IE, LV, LT, SL, SE, NL and UK) presented intermediate targets for improving the energy performance of new buildings by 2015, with most focusing on strengthening the building regulations and/or the energy performance certificate level.

Although most Member States reported a variety of support measures to promote NZEBs, including financial incentives, strengthening their building regulations, awareness raising activities and demonstration/pilot projects, it is not always clear to what extent these measures specifically target NZEBs.

Therefore, the conclusion has to be that too little progress has been made by the Member States in their preparations towards NZEBs by 2020.

This lack of proper and timely preparation increases the risk that Member States will not meet the deadlines for new buildings to be NZEBs. Moreover, the absence of clear definitions, interim targets and dedicated support measures means that the building sector faces uncertainty over the regulatory and policy framework for NZEBs, thus delaying the necessary investments in technology, processes and training, and reducing its competitiveness.

Furthermore, the EU might lose part of the contribution that buildings should make towards meeting its long-term climate and energy objectives. Given the potential size of this contribution it is unlikely that this gap would be filled by savings in other sectors.

This lack of progress also implies that Member States are struggling to put in place a detailed practical definition of NZEBs within the scope of the EPBD, which further increases the uncertainty for the building sector.

Finally, since the Commission has received only limited information from the Member States, it is not possible to undertake a proper evaluation of the national plans, and in particular of the adequacy of the measures envisaged by the Member States in relation to the objectives of the EPBD.

5.2.        Next steps

The Member States that have not yet send their national plans to the Commission should do so without further delay. The Commission will follow up directly with those Member States for this purpose.

For those Member States that have sent in their national plans, the Commission will undertake a first assessment as regards their completeness. For incomplete plans, the Commission will request additional and more detailed information. To facilitate the provision of this information, a specifically developed non-obligatory template will be made available to the Member States. Member States are strongly recommended to make use of this template to facilitate the comparability and analysis of the plans.

Subsequently, the Commission will undertake a detailed evaluation of the national plans looking in particular at the detailed application in practice of the NZEB definition, the intermediate targets and the proposed support measures. If necessary the Commission will request further specific information regarding the NZEB requirements from the Member States as provided for in Article 9(4) of the EPBD. Based on this evaluation, the Commission will develop an action plan and, if necessary, propose measures to increase the number of NZEBs and encourage best practices as regards the cost-effective transformation of existing buildings into NZEBs.

To further assist the Member States with developing a detailed application in practice of the EPBD definition of NZEBs, the Commission intends to develop an interpretative guidance note. The Committee established by article 26 of the EPBD will be used to consult the Member States during the elaboration of this guidance. Where appropriate, reference will also be made to the on-going standardisation work by CEN under mandate M/480, the work of the Concerted Action EPBD in this area and the developments under the RES Directive. It has to be noted that the development of this guidance cannot be construed as a reason for Member States to further delay their national plans and the full implementation of the EPBD requirements as regards NZEBs.

Finally, the Commission will fully use its powers under the Treaty to ensure that the EPBD, including the NZEB requirements, is correctly transposed and implemented across the EU.

To conclude, the Member States have to significantly step up their efforts to implement the requirements regarding NZEBs in the EPBD to ensure that the EU's longer-term climate objectives are not jeopardised and the building sector can take full advantage of the opportunities NZEBs present.

Annex 1: Overview of the national definitions of NZEBs[7]

Country || Description of the application in practice Article 9(3a) || Numerical indicator for energy demand Article 9(3a) || Intermediate targets Article 9(3b) || Share of renewable energy sources Article 9(3c)

AT || The process of reaching an agreement on the definition of the NZEB in Austria is on-going. Meanwhile the building code refers to a low energy standard (ÖNORM 8118) only referring to the quality of the building envelope. || || ||

BE Brussels-Capital Region || The definition in the Brussels Air, Climate and Energy Code uses the definition given by the EPBD recast. After the result of the on-going cost-optimal study the definition will be made more specific. || Primary energy consumption below 45 kWh/m2/y (including heating, hot water and appliances) For offices, services units and educational units, primary energy consumption below 95 – 2,5*C kWh/m2 /y with C defined as the compactness, i.e. the ratio between the volume enclosed and the loss area. || All new constructions are to meet requirements comparable to the passive standard as of 2015 || The calculation method of Primary energy includes the input of renewable energy sources like solar energy, biomass heating, geothermal heating and heat pump systems as well as passive cooling techniques.

BE Walloon region || A NZEB is characterised at the design stage by energy performance close to or equivalent to the passive house standards for the building envelope and by the renewable energy coverage for part of the consumption. The Passivhaus standard for central Europe requires that the building must be designed to have an annual heating demand of not more than 15 kWh/m² per year and 15 kWh/m² per year cooling OR to be designed with a peak heat load of 10W/m² Total primary energy consumption (primary energy for heating, hot water and electricity) must not be more than 120 kWh/m² per year The definition is expected to evolve over time. || || The energy standards required for residential buildings, offices, buildings for services and teaching will be 60 kWh/m2/y by2014. Construction will also comply with the passive standard or equivalent from 2017. From 2019 onwards, all new buildings – in addition to the passive standard – will be required to comply as a minimum with the ‘net zero’ standard and tend towards positive-energy buildings. || The share of renewable energy is illustrated in a figure in the national plan

BE Flemish region || Based on the comparative methodology framework for calculating cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements, the Flemish Energy Agency (VEA) is studying the cost-optimal levels for Flanders. The outcome of this study will be used as input for the detailed application in practice. || At the present moment the cost-optimal level is E55-E60, which is the calculated energy use. || E-level requirement for residential, office and school buildings to E70 in 2012 and E60 in 2014. A timeline for more strict requirements by 2019 (for public buildings) and 2021 is being developed for both new and existing buildings (residential and non-residential buildings separately) || Legislation is under development. For residential buildings with more than one housing unit (also for schools and offices) one of the following 6 options have to be used: 1. Thermal solar energy systems 2. Photovoltaic solar energy systems 3. Biomass (boiler, stove or qualitative CHP) 4. Heat pumps 5. Connection with district heating or cooling 6. Participation in a RE project with the additional possibility ≥10 kWh renewable energy per m2 total useful floor area (combination one or more systems). If not complying with the minimum RE requirements, the energy performance requirement (E-level) is set 10% stricter. The minimum RE share is integrated in the E-level calculations.

BG || Bulgaria has no official definition of a NZEB || || ||

CY || The NZEB is defined with a primary energy use indicator and a percentage of renewable energy. A reference building is used for the calculations. || 180 kWh/m2/y for residential buildings 210 kWh/m2/y for non-residential buildings (including heating, cooling, hot water and lighting) || || At least 25% of the primary energy must be covered by RES.

CZ || The definition of the NZEB is under approval The future Decree on energy performance of buildings will contain the definition with a fixed percentage of energy demand required to be covered by RES. || || In 2016 all public buildings larger than 1500 m2 will be NZEBs in and in 2017 all public buildings larger than 350 m2 will be NZEBs. All new buildings larger than 1500 m2 will be NZEBs in 2018. All new buildings larger than 350 m2 will be NZEBs in 2019. 14.000 to 22.000 new residential NZEBs per year from 2020. ||

DK || Requirements on NZEBs are contained in the building regulations as progressive performance classes; "class 2015" and "class 2020". A residential building (+hotels etc.) is classified as class 2015 when the collected need for energy for heating, ventilation, cooling and hot water per m2 heated area does not exceed 30 kWh/m2/y plus 1000kWh/y divided with the heated area. (30 + 1000/A) kWh/m2/y. A public building (offices, schools, institutions) is classified as a class 2015 when the collected need for energy for heating, ventilation, cooling and hot water per m2 heated area does not exceed 41 kWh/m2/y plus 1000kWh/y divided with the heated area. (41 + 1000/A) kWh/m2/y. A building is classified as a "Class 2020" building when the collective need for energy for heating, ventilation, cooling and hot water per m2 heated area does not exceed 20 kWh/m2/y. || 20 kWh/m2/y || Requirements for "class 2015" are expected to be mandatory in 2015. Requirements for "class 2020" - will apply for public buildings by the end of 2018 and for all other buildings by the end of 2020. || Expected shares of renewable energy sources in the building sector are presented for 2015 and 2020. between 44 and 51% in 2015 between 51 and 56% in 2020.

EE || An energy coefficient of 50-140 kWh/m2/y for NZEBs has been proposed but more public consultation is needed with respect to the definition of NZEBs. || An energy coefficient of 50-140 kWh/m2/y has been proposed. || Gradual introduction of stricter energy performance requirements from 2013 onwards. 10 publicly accessible NZEBs by 2015. ||

FI || Finland has not yet reached its final definition of NZEBs. The intention is to issue technical descriptions regarding NZEBs as recommendations in 2015. || || Requirements for "passive house" standard for buildings constructed, repaired or leased after 2015. New buildings in public administration built after 2015 will have "passive house" standard. ||

FR || France has no official definition of a NZEB. || || For collective housing, the consumption requirement will be lowered from 57.5 to 50 kWhepm2/y in 2015. For individual housing the requirement is already 50 kWhep/m2/year. All new buildings will be energy positive in 2020. A 38% reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020 for the existing building stock. ||

DE || An explicit governmental definition of NZEB performance standards is in preparation. || || There will be an update of the Energy Savings Regulations in 2012 or 2013 with further updates possible before 2020. Requirements for public NZEBs will be introduced in 2016 and for all new NZEBs in 2018. || In Germany it has been made compulsory to use renewable energies for heating in new buildings according to the Renewable Energy Heat Act. The minimum amount of renewable energy generation is regulated by Erneuerbare-Energien- Wärme-Gesetz (Renewable Energies Heat Act).

EL || No standard on NZEB is available. New regulations based on the EPBD recast are under preparation and will define the roadmap for NZEB. || || || New buildings should cover their entire primary energy consumption with energy supply systems based on renewable energy sources. (National target, NEEAP)

HU || The requirements for energy performance of NZEB will be defined in the Decree on the energy performance of buildings which is under development. || || Requirements will be strengthened in 2016 together with an expected fundamental revision of the requirement system. Direct requirements regarding active solar and PV systems will be brought into being in 2016. ||

IE || The definition is set with a numerical indicator for primary energy use and a Building Energy Rating (BER) Certificate level || By 2020 all new dwellings will have an energy load which will not exceed 45 kWh/m2/y (including heating, ventilation, hot water and lighting) In terms of Building Energy Rating (BER) Certificates all new dwellings will be rated as A3 or higher. The same principle applies for non-residential buildings and for existing buildings but the numerical target and BER rating have not yet been formally decided. || The aim is by 2013 to target a 40% aggregate improvement in emissions and by 2019 a 60% aggregate improvement subject to cost-optimal calculations. Amending Building Regulations Part L in 2015 and 2018, to require upgraded Energy Performance Standard for existing buildings undergoing extension, renovation/alteration or change of use. || A reasonable proportion of energy will be harnessed from renewable energy sources on site or nearby.

IT || No official definition of NZEB performance standard. || || ||

LT || The energy performance is defined in a way that is unrelated to a particular value of energy consumption and is defined by the respective class of energy performance of the building. Each building is assessed individually. || A NZEB is one that complies with the requirements of the Construction Technical Regulations STR 2.01.09:2012 for building class A++. ||  Lithuania has set transitional requirements for newly constructed buildings in 2014, 2016, 2018 and 2021 under building energy performance classes: - prior to 2014 – new buildings or their parts shall comply with the requirements for class C buildings; - from 2014 – new buildings or their parts shall comply with the requirements for class B buildings; - from 2016 – new buildings or their parts shall comply with the requirements for class A buildings; - from 2018 – new buildings or their parts shall comply with the requirements for class A+ buildings; - from 2021 – new buildings or their parts shall comply with the requirements for class A++ buildings. || In buildings of class A++, energy from renewable resources must form the largest part of energy consumed (formula contained in national plan).

LV || Legislative provisions, including specific technical requirements for the use of RES should have been developed in 2012 || || ||

LU || No information found on a definition of NZEB || || ||

MT || No information found on a definition of NZEB || || ||

NL || The definition is based on the Energy Performance Coefficient (EPC), a non-dimensional number used as an indicator of the building's energy performance depending on how the building is used. Studies will be conducted to assess how feasible and cost-effective it would be to introduce a stricter EPC in the interim. || The assumption is that a completely zero-energy building has an EPC = 0 || The EPC will be lowered from 0.8 to 0.6 (introduced on 1 January 2011) and further lowered to 0.4 as per 1 January 2015, with the aim to set a requirement close to EPC = 0 for other buildings than public in 2020. A comparable lowering (compared to 2007) is in effect for non-residential buildings, increasing energy efficiency in new buildings by 50% in 2015. The aim is to set a requirement close to EPC= 0 for public buildings in 2018 and to built 60.000 new NZEB dwellings by 2015. || Under the EPC system, builders are free to choose measures to reduce the demand for energy, use energy from renewable sources, and make effective use of fossil fuels, to achieve the required EPC. This principle will be maintained for NZEBs. As the requirements for the EPC become stricter and stricter, the percentage of renewable energy will automatically become increasingly important to fulfil the requirements.

PL || No definition in place yet for NZEB. The Zero Emission Building Research Centre is working on a national definition || || ||

PT || No information found on a definition of NZEB || || ||

RO || No information found on a definition of NZEB || || ||

SK || No information found on a definition of NZEB || || ||

SL || A new Energy Act is under development and this should include provisions for NZEBs || || ||

ES || A definition of NZEBs has not yet been formulated. In 2018 a third revision of the technical building code is planned with NZEB concepts included and a final definition is planned to be adopted in 2019. || || ||

SE || The requirements on NZEB are, at present, equal to the requirements in the current building regulations. The building regulations and the definition of the NZEBs will be strengthened gradually according to the results from on-going studies and demo-projects. || Today the requirements for specific (final) energy use for dwellings are between 55-130 kWh/m2/y (55-120 kWh/m2/y for non-residential buildings). || Next strengthening of building regulations in 2015. || Sweden has a very high share of renewable energy in all sectors including the construction sector. The building regulations favour buildings heated with renewable sources.

UK || NZEB is defined as Zero carbon buildings || || All homes should be zero carbon from 2016. Public sector buildings should be zero carbon by 2019. ||

[1]                      In 2010. See "Energy, transport and environment indicators, 2012 edition", European Commission. For the purpose of this estimate the final energy consumption for the household and services sectors has been combined. It has to be noted that this includes, for example, electricity consumption for appliances but excludes energy consumption in industrial buildings.

[2]               COM (2011) 112

[3]               OJ L153 of 18.6.2010, p.13

[4]               The NREAPs are an obligation under Directive 2009/28/EC and can be found on http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/action_plan_en.htm

[5]               Towards nearly zero-energy buildings - Definition of common principles under the EPBD. Ecofys, January 2013

[6]               OJ L140 of 5.6.2009, p. 16

[7]               The energy performance levels in the table represent energy requirements as presented by the different Member States. Since building regulations and calculation methods differ between countries the numerical targets cannot be compared without taking this into account

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