Accept Refuse

EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document 32014R0134

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 134/2014 of 16 December 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof Text with EEA relevance

OJ L 53, 21.2.2014, p. 1–10 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

In force

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2014/134/oj

21.2.2014   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 53/1


COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 134/2014

of 16 December 2013

supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (1), and in particular Article 18(3), Article 23(12), Article 24(3) and Article 74 thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

The term ‘L-category vehicles’ covers a wide range of light vehicle types with two, three or four wheels, e.g. powered cycles, two- and three-wheel mopeds, two- and three-wheel motorcycles, motorcycles with side-cars and light four-wheel vehicles (quadricycles) such as on-road quads, all-terrain quads and quadrimobiles.

(2)

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 provides for the possibility of applying regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) for the purpose of EU whole vehicle type-approval. Under that Regulation, type-approval in accordance with UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis is regarded as EU type-approval.

(3)

The compulsory application of UNECE regulations helps avoiding duplication not only of technical requirements but also of certification and administrative procedures. In addition, type-approval that is directly based on internationally agreed standards could improve market access in third countries, in particular those which are contracting parties to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (‘Revised 1958 Agreement’), acceded by the Union by Council Decision 97/836/EC (2), and thus enhance the Union industry’s competitiveness. However, to date the available UNECE regulations are either outdated or not existing and therefore these are revisited and upgraded for technical progress.

(4)

Therefore, Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 provides for the repeal of several directives concerning the approval of L-category vehicles, their systems, components and separate technical units intended for those vehicles in the areas of environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements. For the purposes of EU type-approval those directives should be replaced first with the provisions of this Regulation. On the long term, when the revisiting process at the level of the UN is finished, equivalent UNECE regulations will be available, which then will allow to replace the text of this Regulation with making reference to those UNECE regulations.

(5)

In particular UNECE regulation No 41 on noise emissions of categories L3e and L4e motorcycles was updated in 2011 for technical progress. UNECE regulation No 41 should therefore be made obligatory in EU type-approval legislation and replace Annex III to Chapter 9 of Directive 97/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (3) in order for motorcycles to comply with only one set of motorcycle sound requirements, which are world-wide accepted by the contracting parties to the Revised 1958 Agreement. UNECE regulation No 85 on measurement of net power of electric motors should also be made obligatory with the same objective of mutual recognition between the contracting parties to the Revised 1958 Agreement in the area of propulsion unit performance requirements for electric motors.

(6)

The Euro 4 and 5 environmental steps are such measures designed to reduce emissions of particulate matter and ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. A considerable reduction in hydrocarbon emissions from L-category vehicles is necessary to improve air quality and comply The exhaust system which is granted system type-approval with limit values for pollution, not only directly to significantly reduce the disproportionately high hydrocarbon tailpipe and evaporative emissions from these vehicles, but also to help reduce volatile particle levels in urban areas and possibly also smog.

(7)

One of the measures against excessive hydrocarbon emissions from L-category vehicles is to limit the evaporative emissions to the hydrocarbon mass limits laid down in Annex VI(C) to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. For this purpose, a type IV test has to be conducted at type-approval in order to measure the evaporative emissions of a vehicle. One of the requirements of the type IV Sealed House evaporative Emission Determination (SHED) test is to fit either a rapidly aged carbon canister or alternatively to apply an additive deterioration factor when fitting a degreened carbon canister. It will be investigated in the environmental effect study referred to in Article 23(4) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 whether or not it is cost effective to maintain this deterioration factor as alternative to fitting a representative and rapidly aged carbon canister. If the result of the study demonstrates that this method is not cost-effective a proposal will follow in due course to delete this alternative and should become applicable beyond the Euro 5 step.

(8)

A standardised method for measuring vehicles’ energy efficiency (fuel or energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions as well as electric range) is necessary to ensure that no technical barriers to trade arise between Member States and also to ensure that customers and users are supplied with objective and precise information.

(9)

The methods for measuring propulsion unit performance including the maximum design vehicle speed, maximum torque and maximum continuous total power of L-category vehicles may differ from one Member State to the next, this might constitute barriers to trade within the Union. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up harmonised requirements for methods for measuring the propulsion unit performance of L-category vehicles in order to enable the approval of vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units to be applied for each type of such vehicle.

(10)

Functional safety or environmental requirements call for restrictions on tampering with certain types of L-category vehicles. In order to avoid obstacles to servicing and maintenance by vehicle owners, such restrictions should be strictly limited to tampering which significantly modifies the environmental and propulsion unit performance of the vehicle and functional safety in a harmful way. As harmful tampering of the vehicle’s powertrain affects both the environmental and functional safety performance, the detailed requirements regarding propulsion unit performance and noise abatement set out in this Regulation should also be used as reference for enforcement of powertrain tampering prevention.

(11)

Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 makes reference to the 8 test types that allow assessment of the environmental performance of the L-category vehicle to be approved. It is appropriate to set out detailed test requirements in this delegated act as well as to amend Annex V (A) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 by linking the test limits agreed by Council and the European Parliament with detailed test procedures and technical requirements set out in this Regulation. A reference to the detailed test procedures and requirements set out in this Regulation should be inserted into Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 by means of the amendments set out in Annex XII of this Regulation.

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

CHAPTER I

SUBJECT MATTER AND DEFINITIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation establishes the detailed technical requirements and test procedures regarding environmental and propulsion unit performance for the approval of L-category vehicles and the systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and sets out a list of UNECE regulations and amendments thereto.

Article 2

Definitions

The definitions of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 shall apply. In addition, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)

‘WMTC stage 1’ refers to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (4) used as alternative type I emission test cycle to the European Driving Cycle as of 2006 for category L3e motorcycle types;

(2)

‘WMTC stage 2’ refers to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in the amended UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (5) which is used as compulsory type I emission test cycle in the approval of Euro 4 compliant (sub-)categories L3e, L4e, L5e-A and L7e-A vehicles;

(3)

‘WMTC stage 3’ refers to the revised WMTC referred to in Annex VI(A) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and is equal to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in the amended UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (6) and adapted for vehicles with a low maximum design vehicle speed, which is used as the compulsory type I emission test cycle in the approval of Euro 5 compliant L-category vehicles;

(4)

‘maximum design vehicle speed’ means the maximum speed of the vehicle determined in accordance with Article 15 of this Regulation;

(5)

‘exhaust emissions’ means tailpipe emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter;

(6)

‘particulate filter’ means a filtering device fitted in the exhaust system of a vehicle to reduce particulate matter from the exhaust flow;

(7)

‘properly maintained and used’ means that when selecting a test vehicle it satisfies the criteria with regard to a good level of maintenance and normal use according to the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer for acceptance of such a test vehicle;

(8)

‘fuel requirement’ by the engine means the type of fuel normally used by the engine:

(a)

petrol (E5);

(b)

liquefied petroleum gas (LPG);

(c)

NG/biomethane (natural gas);

(d)

either petrol (E5) or LPG;

(e)

either petrol (E5) or NG/biomethane;

(f)

diesel fuel (B5);

(g)

mixture of ethanol (E85) and petrol (E5) (flex fuel);

(h)

mixture of biodiesel and diesel (B5) (flex fuel);

(i)

hydrogen (H2) or a mixture (H2NG) of NG/biomethane and hydrogen;

(j)

either petrol (E5) or hydrogen (bi-fuel);

(9)

‘environmental performance type-approval’ of a vehicle means the approval of a vehicle type, variant or version with regard to the following conditions:

(a)

complying with Parts A and B of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013;

(b)

falling into one propulsion family according to the criteria set out in Annex XI;

(10)

‘vehicle type with regard to environmental performance’ means a set of L-category vehicles which do not differ in the following:

(a)

the equivalent inertia determined in relation to the reference mass, in accordance with Appendices 5, 7 or 8 to Annex II;

(b)

the propulsion characteristics set out in Annex XI regarding propulsion family;

(11)

‘periodically regenerating system’ means a pollution control device such as a catalytic converter, particulate filter or any other pollution control device that requires a periodical regeneration process in less than 4 000 km of normal vehicle operation;

(12)

‘alternative fuel vehicle’ means a vehicle designed to run on at least one type of fuel that is either gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure, or substantially non-mineral oil derived;

(13)

‘flex fuel H2NG vehicle’ means a flex fuel vehicle designed to run on different mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas or biomethane;

(14)

‘parent vehicle’ means a vehicle that is representative of a propulsion family set out in Annex XI;

(15)

‘pollution-control device type’ means a category of pollution-control devices that are used to control pollutant emissions and that do not differ in their essential environmental performance and design characteristics;

(16)

‘catalytic converter’ means an emission pollution-control device which converts toxic by-products of combustion in the ehaust of an engine to less toxic substances by means of catalysed chemical reactions;

(17)

‘catalytic converter type’ means a category of catalytic converters that do not differ as regards the following:

(a)

number of coated substrates, structure and material;

(b)

type of catalytic activity (oxidising, three-way, or of another type of catalytic activity);

(c)

volume, ratio of frontal area and substrate length;

(d)

catalytic converter material content;

(e)

catalytic converter material ratio;

(f)

cell density;

(g)

dimensions and shape;

(h)

thermal protection;

(i)

an inseparable exhaust manifold, catalytic converter and muffler integrated in the exhaust system of a vehicle or separable exhaust system units that can be replaced;

(18)

‘reference mass’ means the mass in running order of the L-category vehicle determined in accordance with Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 increased with the mass of the driver (75 kg) and if applicable plus the mass of the propulsion battery;

(19)

‘drive train’ means the part of the powertrain downstream of the output of the propulsion unit(s) that consists if applicable of the torque converter clutches, the transmission and its control, either a drive shaft or belt drive or chain drive, the differentials, the final drive, and the driven wheel tyre (radius);

(20)

‘stop-start system’ means automatic stop and start of the propulsion unit to reduce the amount of idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption, pollutant and CO2 emissions of the vehicle;

(21)

‘powertrain software’ means a set of algorithms concerned with the operation of data processing in powertrain control units, propulsion control units or drive-train control units, containing an ordered sequence of instructions that change the state of the control units;

(22)

‘powertrain calibration’ means the application of a specific set of data maps and parameters used by the control unit’s software to tune the vehicle’s powertrain, propulsion or drive train unit(s)’s control;

(23)

‘powertrain control unit’ means a combined control unit of combustion engine(s), electric traction motors or drive train unit systems including the transmission or the clutch;

(24)

‘engine control unit’ means the on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the engine or engines of the vehicle;

(25)

‘drive train control unit’ means the on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the drive train of the vehicle;

(26)

‘sensor’ means a converter that measures a physical quantity or state and converts it into an electric signal that is used as input to a control unit;

(27)

‘actuator’ means a converter of an output signal from a control unit into motion, heat or other physical state in order to control the powertrain, engine(s) or drive train;

(28)

‘carburettor’ means a device that blends fuel and air into a mixture that can be combusted in a combustion engine;

(29)

‘scavenging port’ means a connector between crankcase and combustion chamber of a two-stroke engine through which the fresh charge of air, fuel and lubrication oil mixture enters the combustion chamber;

(30)

‘air intake system’ means a system composed of components allowing the fresh-air charge or air-fuel mixture to enter the engine and includes, if fitted, the air filter, intake pipes, resonator(s), the throttle body and the intake manifold of an engine;

(31)

‘turbocharger’ means an exhaust gas turbine-powered centrifugal compressor boosting the amount of air charge into the combustion engine, thereby increasing propulsion unit performance;

(32)

‘super-charger’ means an intake air compressor used for forced induction of a combustion engine, thereby increasing propulsion unit performance;

(33)

‘fuel cell’ means a converter of chemical energy from hydrogen into electric energy for propulsion of the vehicle;

(34)

‘crankcase’ means the spaces in or external to an engine which are connected to the oil sump by internal or external ducts through which gases and vapour can escape;

(35)

‘permeability test’ means testing of the losses through the walls of the non-metallic fuel storage and preconditioning the non-metallic fuel storage material prior to fuel storage testing in accordance with Number C8 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013;

(36)

‘permeation’ means the losses through the walls of the fuel storage and delivery systems, which is generally tested by determination of the weight losses;

(37)

‘evaporation’ means the breathing losses from the fuel storage, fuel delivery system or other sources through which hydrocarbons breathe into the atmosphere;

(38)

‘mileage accumulation’ means a representative test vehicle or a fleet of representative test vehicles driving a predefined distance as set out in points (a) or (b) of Article 23(3) to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 in accordance with the test requirements of Annex VI to this Regulation;

(39)

‘electric powertrain’ means a system consisting of one or more electric energy storage devices such as batteries, electromechanical flywheels, super capacitors or other, one or more electric power conditioning devices and one or more electric machines that convert stored electric energy to mechanical energy delivered at the wheels for propulsion of the vehicle;

(40)

‘electric range’, means the distance that vehicles powered by an electric powertrain only or by a hybrid electric powertrain with off-vehicle charging can drive electrically on one fully charged battery or other electric energy storage device as measured in accordance with the procedure set out in Appendix 3.3. to Annex VII;

(41)

‘OVC range’ means the total distance covered during complete combined cycles run until the energy imparted by external charging of the battery (or other electric energy storage device) is depleted, as measured in accordance with the procedure described in Appendix 3.3. to Annex VII;

(42)

‘maximum thirty minutes speed’ of a vehicle means the maximum achievable vehicle speed measured during 30 minutes as a result of the 30 minute power set out in UNECE regulation No 85;

(43)

‘propulsion unit performance type-approval’ of a vehicle means the approval of a vehicle type, variant or version with regard to the performance of the propulsion units as regards the following conditions:

(a)

the maximum design vehicle speed(s);

(b)

the maximum continuous rated torque or maximum net torque;

(c)

the maximum continuous rated power or the maximum net power;

(d)

the maximum total torque and power in the case of a hybrid application.

(44)

‘propulsion type’ means the propulsion units whose characteristics do not differ in any fundamental respect as regards maximum design vehicle speed, maximum net power, maximum continuous rated power and maximum torque;

(45)

‘net power’ means the power available on the test bench at the end of the crankshaft or equivalent component of the propulsion unit at the rotation speeds measured by the manufacturer at type-approval, together with the accessories listed in Tables Ap2.1-1 or Ap2.2-1 of Appendix 2 of Annex X, and taking into account the efficiency of the gearbox where the net power can only be measured with the gearbox fitted to the propulsion;

(46)

‘maximum net power’ means the maximum net power output from propulsion units that include one or more combustion engines, under full engine load operation;

(47)

‘maximum torque’ means the maximum torque value measured under full engine load operation;

(48)

‘accessories’ means all apparatus and devices listed in Table Ap2.1-1 or Ap2.2-1 of Annex X.

CHAPTER II

OBLIGATIONS OF THE MANUFACTURER REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF VEHICLES

Article 3

Fitting and demonstration requirements related to the environmental performance of L-category vehicles

1.   The manufacturer shall equip L-category vehicles with systems, components and separate technical units affecting the environmental performance of a vehicle that are designed, constructed and assembled so as to enable the vehicle in normal use and maintained according to the prescriptions of the manufacturer to comply with the detailed technical requirements and testing procedures of this Regulation.

2.   The manufacturer shall demonstrate by means of physical demonstration testing to the approval authority that the L-category vehicles made available on the market, registered or entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures concerning the environmental performance of these vehicles laid down in Articles 5 to 15.

3.   Where the manufacturer modifies the characteristics of the emission abatement system or performance of any of the emission-relevant components after the approved vehicle type with regard to environmental performance is placed on the market, the manufacturer shall report this to the approval authority without delay. The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the approval authority that the changed emission abatement system or component characteristics do not result in a worse environmental performance than that demonstrated at type-approval.

4.   The manufacturer shall ensure that spare parts and equipment that are made available on the market or are entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures with respect to the environmental performance of the vehicles referred to in this Regulation. An approved L-category vehicle equipped with such a spare part or equipment shall meet the same test requirements and performance limit values as a vehicle equipped with an original part or equipment satisfying endurance requirements up to and including those set out in Article 22(2), Article 23 and Article 24 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

5.   The manufacturer shall ensure that type-approval procedures for verifying conformity of production are followed as regards the detailed environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements laid down in Article 33 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and its Number C3 of Annex II.

6.   The manufacturer shall submit to the approval authority a description of the measures taken to prevent tampering with the powertrain management system including the computers controlling the environmental and propulsion unit performance in accordance with Number C1 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

7.   For hybrid applications or applications equipped with a stop-start system, the manufacturer shall install on the vehicle a ‘service mode’ that makes it possible, subject to environmental and propulsion unit performance testing or inspection, for the vehicle to continuously run the fuel-consuming engine. Where that inspection or test execution requires a special procedure, this shall be detailed in the service manual (or equivalent media). That special procedure shall not require the use of special equipment other than that provided with the vehicle.

Article 4

Application of UNECE regulations

1.   The UNECE regulations and amendments thereto set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply to environmental and propulsion unit performance type approval.

2.   Vehicles with a maximum design vehicle speed ≤ 25 km/h shall meet all the relevant requirements of UNECE regulations applying to vehicles with a maximum vehicle design speed of > 25 km/h.

3.   References to vehicle categories L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7 in the UNECE regulations shall be understood as references to vehicle categories L1e, L2e, L3e, L4e, L5e, L6e and L7e respectively under this Regulation, including any sub-categories.

Article 5

Technical specifications, requirements and test procedures with respect to the environmental performance of L-category vehicles

1.   The environmental and propulsion unit performance test procedures shall be performed in accordance with the test requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   The test procedures shall be carried out or witnessed by the approval authority or, if authorised by the approval authority, by the technical service. The manufacturer shall select a representative parent vehicle to demonstrate compliance of the environmental performance of the L-category vehicles to the satisfaction of the approval authority complying with the requirements of Annex XI.

3.   The measurement methods and test results shall be reported to the approval authority in the test report format pursuant to Article 32(1) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

4.   The environmental performance type-approval regarding test types I, II, III, IV, V, VII and VIII shall extend to different vehicle variants, versions and propulsion types and families, provided that the vehicle version, propulsion or pollution-control system parameters specified in Annex XI are identical or remain within the prescribed and declared tolerances in that Annex.

5.   Hybrid applications or applications equipped with a stop-start system shall be tested with the fuel-consuming engine running where specified in the test procedure.

Article 6

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type I on tailpipe emissions after cold start referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex II to this Regulation.

Article 7

Test type II requirements: tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and at free acceleration

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type II on tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and at free acceleration referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex III to this Regulation.

Article 8

Test type III requirements: emissions of crankcase gases

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type III on emissions of crankcase gases referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex IV to this Regulation.

Article 9

Test type IV requirements: evaporative emissions

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type IV on evaporative emissions referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex V to this Regulation.

Article 10

Test type V requirements: durability of pollution-control devices

The type V durability of pollution-control devices test procedures and requirements referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VI to this Regulation.

Article 11

Test type VII requirements: CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption or electric range

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type VII on energy efficiency with respect to CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption or electric range referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VII to this Regulation.

Article 12

Test type VIII requirements: OBD environmental tests

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type VIII on the environmental part of on-board diagnostics (OBD) referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VIII to this Regulation.

Article 13

Test type IX requirements: sound level

The type test procedures and requirements applying to test type IX on sound level referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex IX to this Regulation.

CHAPTER III

OBLIGATIONS OF MANUFACTURERS REGARDING THE PROPULSION PERFORMANCE OF VEHICLES

Article 14

General obligations

1.   Before making an L-category vehicle available on the market, the manufacturer shall demonstrate the propulsion unit performance of the L-category vehicle type to the approval authority in accordance with the requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   When making an L-category vehicle available on the market or registering it or before its entry into service, the manufacturer shall ensure that the propulsion unit performance of the L-category vehicle type does not exceed that reported to the approval authority in the information folder provided for in Article 27 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

3.   The propulsion unit performance of a vehicle equipped with a replacement system, component or separate technical unit shall not exceed that of a vehicle equipped with the original systems, components or separate technical units.

Article 15

Propulsion performance requirements

The test procedures and requirements on propulsion unit performance referred to in Number A2 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex X to this Regulation.

CHAPTER IV

OBLIGATIONS OF THE MEMBER STATES

Article 16

Type-approval of L-category vehicles, their systems, components or separate technical units

1.   Where a manufacturer so requests, the national authorities shall not, on grounds relating to the environmental performance of vehicle, refuse to grant an environmental and propulsion unit performance type-approval or national approval for a new type of vehicle, or prohibit the making available on the market, registration, or entry into service of a vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit, where the vehicle concerned complies with Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and the detailed test requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   With effect from the dates laid down in Annex IV to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, national authorities shall, in the case of new vehicles that do not comply with the Euro 4 environmental step set out in Parts A1, B1, C1 and D of Annex VI and Annex VII to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 or the Euro 5 environmental step set out in Parts A2, B2, C2 and D of Annex VI and Annex VII to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 consider certificates of conformity containing previous environmental limit values to be no longer valid for the purposes of Article 43(1) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and shall, on grounds relating to emissions, fuel or energy consumption, or the applicable functional safety or vehicle construction requirements, prohibit the making available on the market, registration or entry into service of such vehicles.

3.   When applying Article 77(5) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, national authorities shall classify the approved vehicle type in accordance with Annex I to that Regulation.

Article 17

Type-approval of replacement pollution-control devices

1.   National authorities shall prohibit the making available on the market or installation on a vehicle of new replacement pollution-control devices intended to be fitted on vehicles approved under this Regulation where they are not of a type in respect of which an environmental and propulsion unit performance type-approval has been granted in compliance with Article 23(10) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and with this Regulation.

2.   National authorities may continue to grant extensions to EU type-approvals referred to in Article 35 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 for replacement pollution-control devices which are of a type in the scope of Directive 2002/24/EC under the terms which originally applied. National authorities shall prohibit the making available on the market or installation on a vehicle of such replacement pollution-control device type unless they are of a type in respect of which a relevant type-approval has been granted.

3.   A replacement pollution-control device type intended to be fitted to a vehicle type-approved in compliance with this Regulation shall be tested in accordance with Appendix 10 to Annex II and with Annex VI.

4.   Original equipment replacement pollution-control devices which are of a type covered by this Regulation and which are intended to be fitted to a vehicle which the relevant whole vehicle type-approval document refers to, do not need to comply with the test requirements of Appendix 10 to Annex II, provided they fulfil the requirements of point 4 of that Appendix.

CHAPTER V

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 18

Amendment of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013

Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 is amended in accordance with Annex XII.

Article 19

Entry into force

1.   This Regulation shall enter into force on the day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

2.   It shall apply from 1 January 2016.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 16 December 2013.

For the Commission

The President

José Manuel BARROSO


(1)  OJ L 60, 2.3.2013, p. 52.

(2)  Council Decision 97/836/EC of 27 November 1997 with a view to accession by the European Community to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (‘Revised 1958 Agreement’) (OJ L 346, 17.12.1997, p. 78).

(3)  OJ L 226, 18.8.1997, p. 1.

(4)  ‘Measurement procedure for two-wheel motorcycles equipped with a positive or compression ignition engine with regard to the emissions of gaseous pollutants, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption (UN document reference ECE/TRANS/180/Add2e of 30 August 2005)’ including amendment 1 (UNECE document reference ECE/TRANS/180a2a1e of 29 January 2008).

(5)  The WMTC stage 2 is equal to the WMTC stage 1 amended by corrigendum 2 of addendum 2 (ECE/TRANS/180a2c2e of 9 September 2009) and corrigendum 1 of amendment 1 (ECE/TRANS/180a2a1c1e of 9 September 2009).

(6)  In addition, the corrigenda and amendments identified in the environmental effect study referred to in Article 23 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 will be taken into account, as well as corrigenda and amendments proposed and adopted by UNECE WP29 as continuous improvement of the world-harmonised test cycle for L-category vehicles.


LIST OF ANNEXES

Annex Number

Annex title

Page

I

List of UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis

11

II

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

12

III

Test type II requirements: tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and free acceleration

159

IV

Test type III requirements: emissions of crankcase gases

163

V

Test type IV requirements: evaporative emissions

167

VI

Test type V requirements: durability of pollution-control devices

188

VII

Test type VII requirements; CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption and electric range

207

VIII

Test type VIII requirements: OBD environmental tests

240

IX

Test type IX requirements: sound level

245

X

Testing procedures and technical requirements as regards propulsion unit performance

288

XI

Vehicle propulsion family with regard to environmental performance demonstration testing

320

XII

Amendment of Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013

326

ANNEX I

List of UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis

UNECE regulation No

Subject

Series of amendments

OJ Reference

Applicability

41

Noise emissions of motorcycles

04

OJ L 317, 14.11.2012, p. 1

L3e, L4e

Explanatory note:

The fact that a system or component is included in this list does not make its installation mandatory. For certain components, however, mandatory installation requirements are laid down in other annexes to this Regulation.

ANNEX II

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

Appendix Number

Appendix title

Page

1

Symbols used in Annex II

74

2

Reference fuels

78

3

Chassis dynamometer system

85

4

Exhaust dilution system

91

5

Classification of equivalent inertia mass and running resistance

103

6

Driving cycles for type I tests

106

7

Road tests of L-category vehicles equipped with one wheel on the driven axle or with twinned wheels for the determination of test bench settings

153

8

Road tests of L-category vehicles equipped with two or more wheels on the powered axle for the determination of test bench settings

160

9

Explanatory note on the gearshift procedure for a type I test

168

10

Type-approval tests of a replacement pollution-control device type for L-category vehicles as a separate technical unit

174

11

Type I test procedure for hybrid L-category vehicles

178

12

Type I test procedure for L-category vehicles fuelled with LPG, NG/biomethane, flex fuel H2NG or hydrogen

189

13

Type I test procedure for L-category vehicles equipped with a periodically regenerating system

193

1.   Introduction

1.1.

This Annex sets out the procedure for type I testing, as referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

1.2.

This Annex provides a harmonised method for the determination of the levels of gaseous pollutant emissions and particulate matter, the emissions of carbon dioxide and is referred to in Annex VII to determine the fuel consumption, energy consumption and electric range of the L-category vehicle within the scope of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 that are representative for real world vehicle operation.

1.1.1.

The ‘WMTC stage 1’ was introduced in EU type-approval legislation in 2006, which allowed manufacturers from then on to demonstrate the emission performance of the L3e motorcycle type by using the world harmonised motorcycle test cycle (WMTC) set out in UN GTR No 2 as alternative type I test to the use of the conventional European Driving Cycle (EDC) set out in Chapter 5 of Directive 97/24/EC.

1.1.2.

The ‘WMTC stage 2’ is equal to ‘WMTC stage 1’ with additional enhancements in the area of gear shift prescriptions and shall be used as compulsory type I test to approve Euro 4 compliant (sub-)categories L3e, L4e, L5e-A and L7e-A vehicles.

1.1.3.

The ‘revised WMTC’ or ‘WMTC stage 3’ is equal to ‘WMTC stage 2’ for L3e motorcycles, but contains also custom-tailored driving cycles for all other (sub-) category vehicles, used as type I test to approve Euro 5 compliant L-category vehicles.

1.2.

The results may form the basis for limiting gaseous pollutants, carbon dioxide and for the fuel consumption, energy consumption and electric range indicated by the manufacturer within the environmental performance type-approval procedures.

2.   General requirements

2.1.

The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous pollutants, carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Annex.

Note 1: The symbols used in Annex II are summarised in Appendix 1.

2.2.

Any hidden strategy that ‘optimises’ the powertrain of the vehicle running the relevant emission laboratory test cycle in an advantageous way, reducing tailpipe emissions and running significantly differently under real-world conditions, is considered a defeat strategy and is prohibited, unless the manufacturer has documented and declared it to the satisfaction of the approval authority.

3.   Performance requirements

The applicable performance requirements for EU type-approval are referred to in Parts A, B and C of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

4.   Test conditions

4.1.   Test room and soak area

4.1.1.   Test room

The test room with the chassis dynamometer and the gas sample collection device shall have a temperature of 298,2 ± 5 K (25 ± 5 °C). The room temperature shall be measured in the vicinity of the vehicle cooling blower (fan) before and after the type I test.

4.1.2.   Soak area

The soak area shall have a temperature of 298,2 ± 5 K (25 ± 5 °C) and be such that the test vehicle to be preconditioned can be parked in accordance with point 5.2.4. of this Annex.

4.2.   Test vehicle

4.2.1.   General

All components of the test vehicle shall conform to those of the production series or, if the vehicle is different from the production series, a full description shall be given in the test report. In selecting the test vehicle, the manufacturer and the technical service shall agree to the satisfaction of the approval authority which tested parent vehicle is representative of the related vehicle propulsion family as laid down in Annex XI.

4.2.2.   Run-in

The vehicle shall be presented in good mechanical condition, properly maintained and used. It shall have been run in and driven at least 1 000 km before the test. The engine, drive train and vehicle shall be properly run in, in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.

4.2.3.   Adjustments

The test vehicle shall be adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements, e.g. as regards the viscosity of the oils, or, if it differs from the production series, a full description shall be given in the test report. In case of a four by four drive, the axle to which the lowest torque is delivered may be deactivated in order to allow testing on a standard chassis dynamometer.

4.2.4.   Test mass and load distribution

The test mass, including the masses of the rider and the instruments, shall be measured before the beginning of the tests. The load shall be distributed across the wheels in conformity with the manufacturer’s instructions.

4.2.5.   Tyres

The tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer. The tyre pressures shall be adjusted to the specifications of the manufacturer or to those where the speed of the vehicle during the road test and the vehicle speed obtained on the chassis dynamometer are equalised. The tyre pressure shall be indicated in the test report.

4.3.   L-category vehicle sub-classification

Figure 1-1 provides a graphical overview of the L-category vehicle sub-classification in terms of engine capacity and maximum vehicle speed if subject to environmental test types I, VII and VIII, indicated by the (sub-)class numbers in the graph areas. The numerical values of the engine capacity and maximum vehicle speed shall not be rounded up or down.

Figure 1-1

L-category vehicle sub-classification for environmental testing, test types I, VII and VIII

Image

4.3.1.   Class 1

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 1:

Table 1-1

sub-classification criteria for class 1 L-category vehicles

engine capacity < 150 cm3 and vmax< 100 km/h

class 1

4.3.2.   Class 2

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 2 and shall be sub-classified in:

Table 1-2

sub-classification criteria for class 2 L-category vehicles

Engine capacity < 150 cm3 and 100 km/h ≤ vmax< 115 km/h or engine capacity ≥150 cm3 and vmax< 115 km/h

sub-class 2-1

115 km/h ≤ vmax< 130 km/h

sub-class 2-2

4.3.3.   Class 3

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 3 and shall be sub-classified in:

Table 1-3

sub-classification criteria for class 3 L-category vehicles

130 ≤ vmax< 140 km/h

subclass 3-1

vmax ≥ 140 km/h or engine capacity > 1 500 cm3

subclass 3-2

4.3.4.   WMTC, test cycle parts

The WMTC test cycle (vehicle speed patterns) for type I, VII and VIII environmental tests consist of up to three parts as set out in Appendix 6. Depending on the L-vehicle category subject to the WMTC laid down in point 4.5.4.1. and its classification in terms of engine displacement and maximum design vehicle speed in accordance with point 4.3, the following WMTC test cycle parts must be run:

Table 1-4

WMTC test cycle parts for class 1.2 and 3 L-category vehicles

L-category vehicle (sub-)class

Applicable parts of the WMTC as specified in Appendix 6

Class 1:

part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed by part 1, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Class 2 subdivided in:

Sub-class 2-1:

part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed by part 2, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Sub-class 2-2:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition.

Class 3 subdivided in:

Sub-class 3-1:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition, followed by part 3, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Sub-class 3-2:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition, followed by part 3, in warm condition.

4.4.   Specification of the reference fuel

The appropriate reference fuels as specified in Appendix 2 shall be used for testing. For the purpose of the calculation referred to in point 1.4 of Appendix 1 of Annex VII, for liquid fuels, the density measured at 288,2 K (15 °C) shall be used.

4.5.   Type I test

4.5.1.   Driver

The test driver shall have a mass of 75 kg ± 5 kg.

4.5.2.   Test bench specifications and settings

4.5.2.1.   The dynamometer shall have a single roller for two-wheel L-category vehicles with a diameter of at least 400 mm. A chassis dynamometer equipped with dual rollers is permitted when testing tricycles with two front wheels or quadricycles.

4.5.2.2.   The dynamometer shall be equipped with a roller revolution counter for measuring actual distance travelled.

4.5.2.3.   Dynamometer flywheels or other means shall be used to simulate the inertia specified in point 5.2.2.

4.5.2.4.   The dynamometer rollers shall be clean, dry and free from anything which might cause the tyre to slip.

4.5.2.5.   Cooling fan specifications as follows:

4.5.2.5.1.

Throughout the test, a variable-speed cooling blower (fan) shall be positioned in front of the vehicle so as to direct the cooling air onto it in a manner that simulates actual operating conditions. The blower speed shall be such that, within the operating range of 10 to 50 km/h, the linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet is within ±5 km/h of the corresponding roller speed. At the range of over 50 km/h, the linear velocity of the air shall be within ± 10 percent. At roller speeds of less than 10 km/h, air velocity may be zero.

4.5.2.5.2.

The air velocity referred to in point 4.5.2.5.1. shall be determined as an averaged value of nine measuring points which are located at the centre of each rectangle dividing the whole of the blower outlet into nine areas (dividing both horizontal and vertical sides of the blower outlet into three equal parts). The value at each of the nine points shall be within 10 percent of the average of the nine values.

4.5.2.5.3.

The blower outlet shall have a cross-section area of at least 0.4 m2 and the bottom of the blower outlet shall be between 5 and 20 cm above floor level. The blower outlet shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, between 30 and 45 cm in front of its front wheel. The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located at between 0 and 20 cm from the air outlet.

4.5.2.6.   The detailed requirements regarding test bench specifications are listed in Appendix 3.

4.5.3.   Exhaust gas measurement system

4.5.3.1.   The gas-collection device shall be a closed-type device that can collect all exhaust gases at the vehicle exhaust outlets on condition that it satisfies the backpressure condition of ± 125 mm H2O. An open system may be used if it is confirmed that all the exhaust gases are collected. The gas collection shall be such that there is no condensation which could appreciably modify the nature of exhaust gases at the test temperature. An example of a gas-collection device is illustrated in Figure 1-2:

Figure 1-2

Equipment for sampling the gases and measuring their volume

Image

4.5.3.2.   A connecting tube shall be placed between the device and the exhaust gas sampling system. This tube and the device shall be made of stainless steel, or of some other material which does not affect the composition of the gases collected and which withstands the temperature of these gases.

4.5.3.3.   A heat exchanger capable of limiting the temperature variation of the diluted gases in the pump intake to ± 5 K shall be in operation throughout the test. This exchanger shall be equipped with a preheating system capable of bringing the exchanger to its operating temperature (with the tolerance of ± 5 K) before the test begins.

4.5.3.4.   A positive displacement pump shall be used to draw in the diluted exhaust mixture. This pump shall be equipped with a motor with several strictly controlled uniform speeds. The pump capacity shall be large enough to ensure the intake of the exhaust gases. A device using a critical-flow venturi (CFV) may also be used.

4.5.3.5.   A device (T) shall be used for the continuous recording of the temperature of the diluted exhaust mixture entering the pump.

4.5.3.6.   Two gauges shall be used, the first to ensure the pressure depression of the dilute exhaust mixture entering the pump relative to atmospheric pressure, and the second to measure the dynamic pressure variation of the positive displacement pump.

4.5.3.7.   A probe shall be located near to, but outside, the gas-collecting device, to collect samples of the dilution air stream through a pump, a filter and a flow meter at constant flow rates throughout the test.

4.5.3.8.   A sample probe pointed upstream into the dilute exhaust mixture flow, upstream of the positive displacement pump, shall be used to collect samples of the dilute exhaust mixture through a pump, a filter and a flow meter at constant flow rates throughout the test. The minimum sample flow rate in the sampling devices shown in Figure 1-2 and in point 4.5.3.7. shall be at least 150 litre/hour.

4.5.3.9.   Three-way valves shall be used on the sampling system described in points 4.5.3.7. and 4.5.3.8. to direct the samples either to their respective bags or to the outside throughout the test.

4.5.3.10.   Gas-tight collection bags

4.5.3.10.1.   For dilution air and dilute exhaust mixture the collection bags shall be of sufficient capacity not to impede normal sample flow and shall not change the nature of the pollutants concerned.

4.5.3.10.2.   The bags shall have an automatic self-locking device and shall be easily and tightly fastened either to the sampling system or the analysing system at the end of the test.

4.5.3.11.   A revolution counter shall be used to count the revolutions of the positive displacement pump throughout the test.

Note 2: Attention shall be paid to the connecting method and the material or configuration of the connecting parts, because each section (e.g. the adapter and the coupler) of the sampling system can become very hot. If the measurement cannot be performed normally due to heat damage to the sampling system, an auxiliary cooling device may be used as long as the exhaust gases are not affected.

Note 3: With open type devices, there is a risk of incomplete gas collection and gas leakage into the test cell. There shall be no leakage throughout the sampling period.

Note 4: If a constant volume sampler (CVS) flow rate is used throughout the test cycle that includes low and high speeds all in one (i.e. part 1, 2 and 3 cycles), special attention shall be paid to the higher risk of water condensation in the high speed range.

4.5.3.12.   Particulate mass emissions measurement equipment

4.5.3.12.1   Specification

4.5.3.12.1.1.   System overview

4.5.3.12.1.1.1.   The particulate sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe located in the dilution tunnel, a particle transfer tube, a filter holder, a partial-flow pump, and flow rate regulators and measuring units.

4.5.3.12.1.1.2.   It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone or impactor) be employed upstream of the filter holder. However, a sampling probe, used as an appropriate size-classification device such as that shown in Figure 1-6, is acceptable.

4.5.3.12.1.2.   General requirements

4.5.3.12.1.2.1.   The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulates shall be so arranged within the dilution tract that a representative sample gas flow can be taken from the homogeneous air/exhaust mixture.

4.5.3.12.1.2.2.   The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total flow of diluted exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ±5 percent of the particulate sample flow rate.

4.5.3.12.1.2.3.   The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature below 325,2 K (52 °C) within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the particulate filter face, except in the case of a regeneration test, where the temperature shall be below 465,2 K (192 °C).

4.5.3.12.1.2.4.   The particulate sample shall be collected on a single filter mounted in a holder in the sampled diluted exhaust gas flow

4.5.3.12.1.2.5.   All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter holder which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas shall be designed to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.

4.5.3.12.1.2.6.   If it is not possible to compensate for variations in the flow rate, provision shall be made for a heat exchanger and a temperature control device as specified in Appendix 4 so as to ensure that the flow rate in the system is constant and the sampling rate accordingly proportional.

4.5.3.12.1.3.   Specific requirements

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.   Particulate matter (PM) sampling probe

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.1.   The sample probe shall deliver the particle-size classification performance described in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4. It is recommended that this performance be achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe facing directly in the direction of flow, plus a pre-classifier (cyclone impactor, etc.). An appropriate sampling probe, such as that indicated in Figure 1-1, may alternatively be used provided it achieves the pre-classification performance described in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.2.   The sample probe shall be installed near the tunnel centreline between ten and 20 tunnel diameters downstream of the exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 12 mm.

If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling artefacts.

If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced at least 5 cm apart around the central longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.3.   The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe diameters, but shall not exceed 1 020 mm.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4.   The pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) shall be located upstream of the filter holder assembly. The pre-classifier 50 percent cut point particle diameter shall be between 2.5 μm and 10 μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. The pre-classifier shall allow at least 99 percent of the mass concentration of 1 μm particles entering the pre-classifier to pass through the exit of the pre-classifier at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. However, a sampling probe, used as an appropriate size-classification device, such as that shown in Figure 1-6, is acceptable as an alternative to a separate pre-classifier.

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.   Sample pump and flow meter

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.1.   The sample gas flow measurement unit shall consist of pumps, gas flow regulators and flow measuring units.

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.2.   The temperature of the gas flow in the flow meter may not fluctuate by more than ±3 K, except during regeneration tests on vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating after-treatment devices. In addition, the sample mass flow rate shall remain proportional to the total flow of diluted exhaust gas to within a tolerance of ± 5 percent of the particulate sample mass flow rate. Should the volume of flow change unacceptably as a result of excessive filter loading, the test shall be stopped. When the test is repeated, the rate of flow shall be decreased.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.   Filter and filter holder

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.1.   A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of flow. The valve shall be responsive enough to open and close within one second of the start and end of the test.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.2.   It is recommended that the mass collected on the 47 mm diameter filter (Pe) is ≥ 20 μg and that the filter loading is maximised in line with the requirements of points 4.5.3.12.1.2.3. and 4.5.3.12.1.3.3.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.3.   For a given test, the gas filter face velocity shall be set to a single value within the range 20 cm/s to 80 cm/s, unless the dilution system is being operated with sampling flow proportional to CVS flow rate.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.4.   Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane filters are required. All filter types shall have a 0,3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) or PAO (poly-alpha-olefin) CS 68649-12-7 or CS 68037-01-4 collection efficiency of at least 99 percent at a gas filter face velocity of 5,33 cm/s.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.5.   The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an even flow distribution across the filter stain area. The filter stain area shall be at least 1 075 mm2.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.   Filter weighing chamber and balance

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.1.   The microgram balance used to determine the weight of a filter shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 2 μg and resolution of 1 μg or better.

It is recommended that the microbalance be checked at the start of each weighing session by weighing one reference weight of 50 mg. This weight shall be weighed three times and the average result recorded. The weighing session and balance are considered valid if the average result of the weighing is within ± 5 μg of the result from the previous weighing session.

The weighing chamber (or room) shall meet the following conditions during all filter conditioning and weighing operations:

Temperature maintained at 295,2 ± 3 K (22 ± 3 °C);

Relative humidity maintained at 45 ± 8 percent;

Dew point maintained at 282,7 ± 3 K (9,5 ± 3 °C).

It is recommended that temperature and humidity conditions be recorded along with sample and reference filter weights.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.2.   Buoyancy correction

All filter weights shall be corrected for filter buoyancy in air.

The buoyancy correction depends on the density of the sample filter medium, the density of air, and the density of the calibration weight used to calibrate the balance. The density of the air is dependent on the pressure, temperature and humidity.

It is recommended that the temperature and dew point of the weighing environment be controlled to 295,2 K ± 1 K (22 °C ± 1 °C) and 282,7 ± 1 K (9,5 ± 1 °C) respectively. However, the minimum requirements stated in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.4.1. will also result in an acceptable correction for buoyancy effects. The correction for buoyancy shall be applied as follows:

Equation 2-1:

Formula

where:

mcorr

=

PM mass corrected for buoyancy

muncorr

=

PM mass uncorrected for buoyancy

ρair

=

density of air in balance environment

ρweight

=

density of calibration weight used to span balance

ρmedia

=

density of PM sample medium (filter) with filter medium Teflon coated glass fibre (e.g. TX40): ρmedia = 2,300 kg/m3

ρair can be calculated as follows:

Equation 2-2:

Formula

where:

Pabs

=

absolute pressure in balance environment

Mmix

=

molar mass of air in balance environment (28,836 gmol-1)

R

=

molar gas constant (8,314 Jmol-1K-1)

Tamb

=

absolute ambient temperature of balance environment

The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilisation.

Limited deviations from weighing room temperature and humidity specifications shall be allowed provided their total duration does not exceed 30 minutes in any one filter conditioning period. The weighing room shall meet the required specifications prior to personal entrance into the weighing room. No deviations from the specified conditions are permitted during the weighing operation.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.3.   The effects of static electricity shall be nullified. This may be achieved by grounding the balance through placement on an antistatic mat and neutralisation of the particulate filters prior to weighing using a Polonium neutraliser or a device of similar effect. Alternatively, nullification of static effects may be achieved through equalisation of the static charge.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.4.   A test filter shall be removed from the chamber no earlier than an hour before the test begins.

4.5.3.12.1.4.   Recommended system description

Figure 1-3 is a schematic drawing of the recommended particulate sampling system. Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformity with this figure is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of component systems. Further components that are not needed to maintain accuracy with other system configurations may be excluded if their exclusion is based on good engineering judgment.

Figure 1-3

Particulate sampling system

Image

A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the full flow dilution tunnel (DT) through the particulate sampling probe (PSP) and the particulate transfer tube (PTT) by means of the pump (P). The sample is passed through the particle size pre-classifier (PCF) and the filter holders (FH) that contain the particulate sampling filters. The flow rate for sampling is set by the flow controller (FC).

4.5.4.   Driving schedules

4.5.4.1.   Test cycles

Test cycles (vehicle speed patterns) for the type I test consist of up to three parts, as laid down in Appendix 6. Depending on the vehicle (sub-)category, the following test cycle parts must be run:

Table 1-5

Applicable test type I cycle for Euro 4 compliant vehicles

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle Euro 4

L1e-A

Powered cycle

ECE R47

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

WMTC, stage 2

L4e

L5e-A

Tricycle

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

ECE R40

L7e-B

Heavy all terrain quad

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile


Table 1-6

Applicable test type I cycle for Euro 5 compliant vehicles

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle Euro 5

L1e-A

Powered cycle

Revised WMTC

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

L4e

L5e-A

Tricycle

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

L7e-B

Heavy all terrain quad

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile

4.5.4.2.   Vehicle speed tolerances

4.5.4.2.1.   The vehicle speed tolerance at any given time on the test cycles prescribed in point 4.5.4.1. is defined by upper and lower limits. The upper limit is 3,2 km/h higher than the highest point on the trace within one second of the given time. The lower limit is 3,2 km/h lower than the lowest point on the trace within one second of the given time. Vehicle speed variations greater than the tolerances (such as may occur during gear changes) are acceptable provided they occur for less than two seconds on any occasion. Vehicle speeds lower than those prescribed are acceptable provided the vehicle is operated at maximum available power during such occurrences. Figure 1-4 shows the range of acceptable vehicle speed tolerances for typical points.

Figure 1-4

Drivers trace, allowable range

Image

Image

4.5.4.2.2.   If the acceleration capability of the vehicle is not sufficient to carry out the acceleration phases or if the maximum design speed of the vehicle is lower than the prescribed cruising speed within the prescribed limits of tolerances, the vehicle shall be driven with the throttle fully open until the set speed is reached or at the maximum design speed achievable with fully opened throttle during the time that the set speed exceeds the maximum design speed. In both cases, point 4.5.4.2.1. is not applicable. The test cycle shall be carried on normally when the set speed is again lower than the maximum design speed of the vehicle.

4.5.4.2.3.   If the period of deceleration is shorter than that prescribed for the corresponding phase, the set speed shall be restored by a constant vehicle speed or idling period merging into succeeding constant speed or idling operation. In such cases, point 4.5.4.2.1. is not applicable.

4.5.4.2.4.   Apart from these exceptions, the deviations of the roller speed from the set speed of the cycles shall meet the requirements described in point 4.5.4.2.1. If not, the test results shall not be used for further analysis and the run must be repeated.

4.5.5.   Gearshift prescriptions for the WMTC prescribed in Appendix 6

4.5.5.1.   Test vehicles with automatic transmission

4.5.5.1.1.   Vehicles equipped with transfer cases, multiple sprockets, etc., shall be tested in the configuration recommended by the manufacturer for street or highway use.

4.5.5.1.2.   All tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in ‘Drive’ (highest gear). Automatic clutch-torque converter transmissions may be shifted as manual transmissions at the request of the manufacturer.

4.5.5.1.3.   Idle modes shall be run with automatic transmissions in ‘Drive’ and the wheels braked.

4.5.5.1.4.   Automatic transmissions shall shift automatically through the normal sequence of gears. The torque converter clutch, if applicable, shall operate as under real-world conditions.

4.5.5.1.5.   The deceleration modes shall be run in gear using brakes or throttle as necessary to maintain the desired speed.

4.5.5.2.   Test vehicles with manual transmission

4.5.5.2.1   Mandatory requirements

4.5.5.2.1.1.   Step 1 — Calculation of shift speeds

Upshift speeds (v1→2 and vi→i+1) in km/h during acceleration phases shall be calculated using the following formulae:

Equation 2-3:

Formula

Equation 2-4:

Formula, i = 2 to ng -1

where:

 

‘i’ is the gear number (≥ 2)

 

‘ng’ is the total number of forward gears

 

‘Pn’ is the rated power in kW

 

‘mk’ is the reference mass in kg

 

‘nidle’ is the idling speed in min-1

 

‘s’ is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

‘ndvi’ is the ratio between engine speed in min-1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear ‘i’

4.5.5.2.1.2.   Downshift speeds (vi→i-1) in km/h during cruise or deceleration phases in gears 4 (4th gear) to ng shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-5:

Formula, i = 4 to ng

where:

 

i is the gear number (≥ 4)

 

ng is the total number of forward gears

 

Pn is the rated power in kW

 

mk is the reference mass in kg

 

nidle is the idling speed in min-1

 

s is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

ndvi-2 is the ratio between engine speed in min-1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear i-2

The downshift speed from gear 3 to gear 2 (v3→2) shall be calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-6:

Formula

where:

 

Pn is the rated power in kW

 

mk is the reference mass in kg

 

nidle is the idling speed in min-1

 

s is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

ndv1 is the ratio between engine speed in min–1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear 1

The downshift speed from gear 2 to gear 1 (v2→1) shall be calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-7:

Formula

where:

ndv2 is the ratio between engine speed in min–1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear 2

Since the cruise phases are defined by the phase indicator, slight speed increases could occur and it may be appropriate to apply an upshift. The upshift speeds (v1→2, v2→3 and vi→i+1) in km/h during cruise phases shall be calculated using the following equations:

Equation 2-7:

Formula

Equation 2-8:

Formula

Equation 2-9:

Formula, i = 3 to ng

4.5.5.2.1.3.   Step 2 — Gear choice for each cycle sample

In order to avoid different interpretations of acceleration, deceleration, cruise and stop phases, corresponding indicators are added to the vehicle speed pattern as integral parts of the cycles (see tables in Appendix 6).

The appropriate gear for each sample shall then be calculated according to the vehicle speed ranges resulting from the shift speed equations of point 4.5.5.2.1.1. and the phase indicators for the cycle parts appropriate for the test vehicle, as follows:

 

Gear choice for stop phases:

For the last five seconds of a stop phase, the gear lever shall be set to gear 1 and the clutch shall be disengaged. For the previous part of a stop phase, the gear lever shall be set to neutral or the clutch shall be disengaged.

 

Gear choice for acceleration phases:

 

gear 1, if v ≤ v1→2

 

gear 2, if v1→2 < v ≤ v2→3

 

gear 3, if v2→3 < v ≤ v3→4

 

gear 4, if v3→4 < v ≤ v4→5

 

gear 5, if v4→5 < v ≤ v5→6

 

gear 6, if v > v5→6

 

Gear choice for deceleration or cruise phases:

 

gear 1, if v < v2→1

 

gear 2, if v < v3→2

 

gear 3, if v3→2 ≤ v < v4→3

 

gear 4, if v4→3 ≤ v < v5→4

 

gear 5, if v5→4 ≤ v < v6→5

 

gear 6, if v ≥ v4→5

The clutch shall be disengaged, if:

(a)

the vehicle speed drops below 10 km/h, or

(b)

the engine speed drops below

Formula

;

(c)

there is a risk of engine stalling during cold-start phase.

4.5.5.2.3.   Step 3 — Corrections according to additional requirements

4.5.5.2.3.1.   The gear choice shall be modified according to the following requirements:

(a)

no gearshift at a transition from an acceleration phase to a deceleration phase. The gear that was used for the last second of the acceleration phase shall be kept for the following deceleration phase unless the speed drops below a downshift speed;

(b)

no upshifts or downshifts by more than one gear, except from gear 2 to neutral during decelerations down to stop;

(c)

upshifts or downshifts for up to four seconds are replaced by the gear before, if the gears before and after are identical, e.g. 2 3 3 3 2 shall be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2, and 4 3 3 3 3 4 shall be replaced by 4 4 4 4 4 4. In the cases of consecutive circumstances, the gear used longer takes over, e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3. If used for the same time, a series of succeeding gears shall take precedence over a series of preceding gears, e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3;

(d)

no downshift during an acceleration phase.

4.5.5.2.2.   Optional provisions

The gear choice may be modified according to the following provisions:

The use of gears lower than those determined by the requirements described in point 4.5.5.2.1. is permitted in any cycle phase. Manufacturers’ recommendations for gear use shall be followed if they do not result in gears higher than determined by the requirements of point 4.5.5.2.1.

4.5.5.2.3.   Optional provisions

Note 5: The calculation programme to be found on the UN website at the following URL may be used as an aid for the gear selection:

http://live.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/wmtc.html

Explanations of the approach and the gearshift strategy and a calculation example are given in Appendix 9.

4.5.6.   Dynamometer settings

A full description of the chassis dynamometer and instruments shall be provided in accordance with Appendix 6. Measurements shall be taken to the accuracies specified in point 4.5.7. The running resistance force for the chassis dynamometer settings can be derived either from on-road coast-down measurements or from a running resistance table, with reference to Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and to Appendix 8 for a vehicle with two or more wheels on the powered axles.

4.5.6.1.   Chassis dynamometer setting derived from on-road coast-down measurements

To use this alternative, on-road coast-down measurements shall be carried out as specified in Appendix 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and Appendix 8 for a vehicle equipped with two or more wheels on the powered axles.

4.5.6.1.1.   Requirements for the equipment

The instrumentation for the speed and time measurement shall have the accuracies specified in point 4.5.7.

4.5.6.1.2.   Inertia mass setting

4.5.6.1.2.1.   The equivalent inertia mass mi for the chassis dynamometer shall be the flywheel equivalent inertia mass, mfi, closest to the sum of the mass in running order of the vehicle and the mass of the driver (75 kg). Alternatively, the equivalent inertia mass mi can be derived from Appendix 5.

4.5.6.1.2.2.   If the reference mass mref cannot be equalised to the flywheel equivalent inertia mass mi, to make the target running resistance force F* equal to the running resistance force FE (which is to be set to the chassis dynamometer), the corrected coast-down time ΔTE may be adjusted in accordance with the total mass ratio of the target coast-down time ΔTroad in the following sequence:

Equation 2-10:

Formula

Equation 2-11:

Formula

Equation 2-12:

Formula

Equation 2-13:

Formula

with Formula

where:

mr1 may be measured or calculated, in kilograms, as appropriate. As an alternative, mr1 may be estimated as f percent of m.

4.5.6.2.   Running resistance force derived from a running resistance table

4.5.6.2.1.   The chassis dynamometer may be set by the use of the running resistance table instead of the running resistance force obtained by the coast-down method. In this table method, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by the mass in running order regardless of particular L-category vehicle characteristics.

Note 6: Care shall be taken when applying this method to L-category vehicles with extraordinary characteristics.

4.5.6.2.2.   The flywheel equivalent inertia mass mfi shall be the equivalent inertia mass mi specified in Appendix 5, 7 or 8 where applicable. The chassis dynamometer shall be set by the rolling resistance of the non-driven wheels (a) and the aero drag coefficient (b) specified in Appendix 5 or determined in accordance with the procedures set out in Appendix 7 or 8 respectively.

4.5.6.2.3   The running resistance force on the chassis dynamometer FE shall be determined using the following equation:

Equation 2-14:

Formula

4.5.6.2.4.   The target running resistance force F* shall be equal to the running resistance force obtained from the running resistance table FT, because the correction for the standard ambient conditions is not necessary.

4.5.7.   Measurement accuracies

Measurements shall be taken using equipment that fulfils the accuracy requirements in Table 1-7:

Table 1-7

Required accuracy of measurements

Measurement items

At measured value

Resolution

(a)

Running resistance force, F

+ 2 percent

(b)

Vehicle speed (v1, v2)

± 1 percent

0,2 km/h

(c)

Coast-down speed interval (

Formula

)

± 1 percent

0,1 km/h

(d)

Coast-down time (Δt)

± 0,5 percent

0,01 s

(e)

Total vehicle mass (mk + mrid)

± 0,5 percent

1,0 kg

(f)

Wind speed

± 10 percent

0,1 m/s

(g)

Wind direction

5 deg.

(h)

Temperatures

± 1 K

1 K

(i)

Barometric pressure

0,2 kPa

(j)

Distance

± 0,1 percent

1 m

(k)

Time

± 0,1 s

0,1 s

5.   Test procedures

5.1.   Description of the type I test

The test vehicle shall be subjected, according to its category, to test type I requirements as specified in this point 5.

5.1.1.   Type I test (verifying the average emission of gaseous pollutants, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption in a characteristic driving cycle)

5.1.1.1.   The test shall be carried out by the method described in point 5.2. The gases shall be collected and analysed by the prescribed methods.

5.1.1.2.   Number of tests

5.1.1.2.1.   The number of tests shall be determined as shown in figure 1-5. Ri1 to Ri3 describe the final measurement results for the first (No 1) test to the third (No 3) test and the gaseous pollutant, carbon dioxide emission, fuel / energy consumption or electric range as laid down in Annex VII. ‘Lx’ represents the limit values L1 to L5 as defined in Parts A, B and C of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

5.1.1.2.2.   In each test, the masses of the carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and the fuel consumed during the test shall be determined. The mass of particulate matter shall be determined only for those (sub-)categories referred to in Parts A and B of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 (see explanatory notes 8 and 9 at the end of Annex VIII to that Regulation).

Figure 1-5

Flowchart for the number of type I tests

Image

5.2.   Type I tests

5.2.1.   Overview

5.2.1.1.   The type I test consists of prescribed sequences of dynamometer preparation, fuelling, parking, and operating conditions.

5.2.1.2.   The test is designed to determine hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, particulate matter mass emissions if applicable and fuel / energy consumption as well as electric range while simulating real-world operation. The test consists of engine start-ups and L-category vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer, through a specified driving cycle. A proportional part of the diluted exhaust emissions is collected continuously for subsequent analysis, using a constant volume (variable dilution) sampler (CVS).

5.2.1.3.   Except in cases of component malfunction or failure, all emission-control systems installed on or incorporated in a tested L-category vehicle shall be functioning during all procedures.

5.2.1.4.   Background concentrations are measured for all emission constituents for which emissions measurements are taken. For exhaust testing, this requires sampling and analysis of the dilution air.

5.2.1.5.   Background particulate mass measurement

The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing filtered dilution air through the particulate filter. This shall be drawn from the same point as the particulate matter sample, if a particulate mass measurement is applicable according to Annex VI(A) to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. One measurement may be performed prior to or after the test. Particulate mass measurements may be corrected by subtracting the background contribution from the dilution system. The permissible background contribution shall be ≤ 1 mg/km (or equivalent mass on the filter). If the background contribution exceeds this level, the default figure of 1 mg/km (or equivalent mass on the filter) shall be used. Where subtraction of the background contribution gives a negative result, the particulate mass result shall be considered to be zero.

5.2.2.   Dynamometer settings and verification

5.2.2.1.   Test vehicle preparation

5.2.2.1.1.   The manufacturer shall provide additional fittings and adapters, as required to accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tanks as installed on the vehicle, and to provide for exhaust sample collection.

5.2.2.1.2.   The tyre pressures shall be adjusted to the manufacturer’s specifications to the satisfaction of the technical service or so that the speed of the vehicle during the road test and the vehicle speed obtained on the chassis dynamometer are equal.

5.2.2.1.3.   The test vehicle shall be warmed up on the chassis dynamometer to the same condition as it was during the road test.

5.2.2.2.   Dynamometer preparation, if settings are derived from on-road coast-down measurements

Before the test, the chassis dynamometer shall be appropriately warmed up to the stabilised frictional force Ff. The load on the chassis dynamometer FE is, in view of its construction, composed of the total friction loss Ff, which is the sum of the chassis dynamometer rotating frictional resistance, the tyre rolling resistance, the frictional resistance of the rotating parts in the powertrain of the vehicle and the braking force of the power absorbing unit (pau) Fpau, as in the following equation:

Equation 2-15:

Formula

The target running resistance force F* derived from Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and Appendix 8 for a vehicle with two or more wheels on the powered axles, shall be reproduced on the chassis dynamometer in accordance with the vehicle speed, i.e.:

Equation 2-16:

Formula

The total friction loss Ff on the chassis dynamometer shall be measured by the method in point 5.2.2.2.1. or 5.2.2.2.2.

5.2.2.2.1.   Motoring by chassis dynamometer

This method applies only to chassis dynamometers capable of driving an L-category vehicle. The test vehicle shall be driven steadily by the chassis dynamometer at the reference speed v0 with the drive train engaged and the clutch disengaged. The total friction loss Ff (v0) at the reference speed v0 is given by the chassis dynamometer force.

5.2.2.2.2.   Coast-down without absorption

The method for measuring the coast-down time is the coast-down method for the measurement of the total friction loss Ff. The vehicle coast-down shall be performed on the chassis dynamometer by the procedure described in Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and Appendix 8 for a vehicle equipped with two or more wheels on the powered axles, with zero chassis dynamometer absorption. The coast-down time Δti corresponding to the reference speed v0 shall be measured. The measurement shall be carried out at least three times, and the mean coast-down time Formula shall be calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-17:

Formula

5.2.2.2.3.   Total friction loss

The total friction loss Ff(v0) at the reference speed v0 is calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-18:

Formula

5.2.2.2.4.   Calculation of power-absorption unit force

The force Fpau(v0) to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer at the reference speed v0 is calculated by subtracting Ff(v0) from the target running resistance force F*(v0) as shown in the following equation:

Equation 2-19:

Formula

5.2.2.2.5.   Chassis dynamometer setting

Depending on its type, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by one of the methods described in points 5.2.2.2.5.1. to 5.2.2.2.5.4. The chosen setting shall be applied to the pollutant and CO2 emission measurements as well as for the energy efficiency measurements (fuel /energy consumption and electric range) laid down in Annex VII.

5.2.2.2.5.1.   Chassis dynamometer with polygonal function

In the case of a chassis dynamometer with polygonal function, in which the absorption characteristics are determined by load values at several speed points, at least three specified speeds, including the reference speed, shall be chosen as the setting points. At each setting point, the chassis dynamometer shall be set to the value Fpau (vj) obtained in point 5.2.2.2.4.

5.2.2.2.5.2.   Chassis dynamometer with coefficient control

In the case of a chassis dynamometer with coefficient control, in which the absorption characteristics are determined by given coefficients of a polynomial function, the value of Fpau (vj) at each specified speed shall be calculated by the procedure in point 5.2.2.2.

Assuming the load characteristics to be:

Equation 2-20:

Formula

where:

the coefficients a, b and c shall be determined by the polynomial regression method.

The chassis dynamometer shall be set to the coefficients a, b and c obtained by the polynomial regression method.

5.2.2.2.5.3.   Chassis dynamometer with F* polygonal digital setter

In the case of a chassis dynamometer with a polygonal digital setter, where a central processor unit is incorporated in the system, F*is input directly, and Δti, Ff and Fpau are automatically measured and calculated to set the chassis dynamometer to the target running resistance force:

Equation 2-21:

Formula

In this case, several points in succession are directly input digitally from the data set of F* j and vj, the coast-down is performed and the coast-down time Δtj is measured. After the coast-down test has been repeated several times, Fpau is automatically calculated and set at L-category vehicle speed intervals of 0,1 km/h, in the following sequence:

Equation 2-22:

Formula

Equation 2-23:

Formula

Equation 2-24:

Formula

5.2.2.2.5.4.   Chassis dynamometer with f* 0, f* 2 coefficient digital setter

In the case of a chassis dynamometer with a coefficient digital setter, where a central processor unit is incorporated in the system, the target running resistance force Formula is automatically set on the chassis dynamometer.

In this case, the coefficients f* 0 and f* 2 are directly input digitally; the coast-down is performed and the coast-down time Δti is measured. Fpau is automatically calculated and set at vehicle speed intervals of 0,06 km/h, in the following sequence:

Equation 2-25:

Formula

Equation 2-26:

Formula

Equation 2-27:

Formula

5.2.2.2.6.   Dynamometer settings verification

5.2.2.2.6.1.   Verification test

Immediately after the initial setting, the coast-down time ΔtE on the chassis dynamometer corresponding to the reference speed (v0) shall be measured by the procedure set out in Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and in Appendix 8 for a vehicle with two or more wheels on the powered axles. The measurement shall be carried out at least three times, and the mean coast-down time ΔtE shall be calculated from the results. The set running resistance force at the reference speed, FE (v0) on the chassis dynamometer is calculated by the following equation:

Equation 2-28:

Formula

5.2.2.2.6.2.   Calculation of setting error

The setting error ε is calculated by the following equation:

Equation 2-29:

Formula

The chassis dynamometer shall be readjusted if the setting error does not satisfy the following criteria:

 

ε ≤ 2 percent for v0≥ 50 km/h

 

ε ≤ 3 percent for 30 km/h ≤ v0< 50 km/h

 

ε ≤ 10 percent for v0< 30 km/h

The procedure in points 5.2.2.2.6.1. to 5.2.2.2.6.2. shall be repeated until the setting error satisfies the criteria. The chassis dynamometer setting and the observed errors shall be recorded. Specimen record forms are provided in the template of the test report laid down in accordance with Article 32(1) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

5.2.2.3.   Dynamometer preparation, if settings are derived from a running resistance table

5.2.2.3.1.   The specified vehicle speed for the chassis dynamometer

The running resistance on the chassis dynamometer shall be verified at the specified vehicle speed v. At least four specified speeds shall be verified. The range of specified vehicle speed points (the interval between the maximum and minimum points) shall extend either side of the reference speed or the reference speed range, if there is more than one reference speed, by at least Δv, as defined in Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and in Appendix 8 for a vehicle with two or more wheels on the powered axles. The specified speed points, including the reference speed points, shall be at regular intervals of no more than 20 km/h apart.

5.2.2.3.2.   Verification of chassis dynamometer

5.2.2.3.2.1.   Immediately after the initial setting, the coast-down time on the chassis dynamometer corresponding to the specified speed shall be measured. The vehicle shall not be set up on the chassis dynamometer during the coast-down time measurement. The coast-down time measurement shall start when the chassis dynamometer speed exceeds the maximum speed of the test cycle.

5.2.2.3.2.2.   The measurement shall be carried out at least three times, and the mean coast-down time ΔtE shall be calculated from the results.

5.2.2.3.2.3.   The set running resistance force FE(vj) at the specified speed on the chassis dynamometer is calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-30:

Formula

5.2.2.3.2.4.   The setting error ε at the specified speed is calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-31:

Formula

5.2.2.3.2.5.   The chassis dynamometer shall be readjusted if the setting error does not satisfy the following criteria:

 

ε ≤ 2 percent for v ≥ 50 km/h

 

ε ≤ 3 percent for 30 km/h ≤ v < 50 km/h

 

ε ≤ 10 percent for v < 30 km/h

5.2.2.3.2.6.   The procedure described in points 5.2.2.3.2.1. to 5.2.2.3.2.5. shall be repeated until the setting error satisfies the criteria. The chassis dynamometer setting and the observed errors shall be recorded.

5.2.2.4.   The chassis dynamometer system shall comply with the calibration and verification methods laid down in Appendix 3.

5.2.3.   Calibration of analysers

5.2.3.1.   The quantity of gas at the indicated pressure compatible with the correct functioning of the equipment shall be injected into the analyser with the aid of the flow metre and the pressure-reducing valve mounted on each gas cylinder. The apparatus shall be adjusted to indicate as a stabilised value the value inserted on the standard gas cylinder. Starting from the setting obtained with the gas cylinder of greatest capacity, a curve shall be drawn of the deviations of the apparatus according to the content of the various standard cylinders used. The flame ionisation analyser shall be recalibrated periodically, at intervals of not more than one month, using air/propane or air/hexane mixtures with nominal hydrocarbon concentrations equal to 50 percent and 90 percent of full scale.

5.2.3.2.   Non-dispersive infrared absorption analysers shall be checked at the same intervals using nitrogen/ CO and nitrogen/ CO2 mixtures in nominal concentrations equal to 10, 40, 60, 85 and 90 percent of full scale.

5.2.3.3.   To calibrate the NOX chemiluminescence analyser, nitrogen/nitrogen oxide (NO) mixtures with nominal concentrations equal to 50 percent and 90 percent of full scale shall be used. The calibration of all three types of analysers shall be checked before each series of tests, using mixtures of the gases, which are measured in a concentration equal to 80 percent of full scale. A dilution device can be applied for diluting a 100 percent calibration gas to required concentration.

5.2.3.4.   Heated flame ionisation detector (FID) (analyser) hydrocarbon response check procedure

5.2.3.4.1.   Detector response optimisation

The FID shall be adjusted according to the manufacturer’s specifications. To optimise the response, propane in air shall be used on the most common operating range.

5.2.3.4.2.   Calibration of the hydrocarbon analyser

The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air (see point 5.2.3.6.).

A calibration curve shall be established as described in point 5.2.3.1 to 5.2.3.3.

5.2.3.4.3.   Response factors of different hydrocarbons and recommended limits

The response factor (Rf) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas cylinder concentration, expressed as ppm C1.

The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of approximately 80 percent of full-scale deflection for the operating range. The concentration shall be known to an accuracy of 2 percent in reference to a gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall be pre-conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature of between 293,2 K and 303,2 K (20 °C and 30 °C).

Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and thereafter at major service intervals. The test gases to be used and the recommended response factors are:

 

Methane and purified air: 1,00 < Rf < 1,15

or 1,00 < Rf < 1,05 for NG/biomethane-fuelled vehicles

 

Propylene and purified air: 0,90 < Rf < 1,00

 

Toluene and purified air: 0,90 < Rf < 1,00

These are relative to a response factor (Rf) of 1,00 for propane and purified air.

5.2.3.5.   Calibration and verification procedures of the particulate mass emissions measurement equipment

5.2.3.5.1.   Flow meter calibration

The technical service shall check that a calibration certificate has been issued for the flow meter demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 12-month period prior to the test, or since any repair or change which could influence calibration.

5.2.3.5.2.   Microbalance calibration

The technical service shall check that a calibration certificate has been issued for the microbalance demonstrating compliance with a traceable standard within a 12-month period prior to the test.

5.2.3.5.3.   Reference filter weighing

To determine the specific reference filter weights, at least two unused reference filters shall be weighed within eight hours of, but preferably at the same time as, the sample filter weighing. Reference filters shall be of the same size and material as the sample filter.

If the specific weight of any reference filter changes by more than ± 5 μg between sample filter weighings, the sample filter and reference filters shall be reconditioned in the weighing room and then reweighed.

This shall be based on a comparison of the specific weight of the reference filter and the rolling average of that filter’s specific weights.

The rolling average shall be calculated from the specific weights collected in the period since the reference filters were placed in the weighing room. The averaging period shall be between one day and 30 days.

Multiple reconditioning and reweighings of the sample and reference filters are permitted up to 80 hours after the measurement of gases from the emissions test.

If, within this period, more than half the reference filters meet the ± 5 μg criterion, the sample filter weighing can be considered valid.

If, at the end of this period, two reference filters are used and one filter fails to meet the ± 5 μg criterion, the sample filter weighing may be considered valid provided that the sum of the absolute differences between specific and rolling averages from the two reference filters is no more than 10 μg.

If fewer than half of the reference filters meet the ± 5 μg criterion, the sample filter shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated. All reference filters shall be discarded and replaced within 48 hours.

In all other cases, reference filters shall be replaced at least every 30 days and in such a manner that no sample filter is weighed without comparison with a reference filter that has been in the weighing room for at least one day.

If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.4. are not met but the reference filter weighings meet the criteria listed in point 5.2.3.5.3, the vehicle manufacturer has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing the weighing room control system and re-running the test.

Figure 1-6

Particulate sampling probe configuration

Image

Image

5.2.3.6.   Reference gases

5.2.3.6.1.   Pure gases

The following pure gases shall be available, if necessary, for calibration and operation:

 

Purified nitrogen: (purity: ≤ 1 ppm C1, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO2, ≤ 0,1 ppm NO);

 

Purified synthetic air: (purity: ≤ 1 ppm C1, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO2, ≤ 0,1 ppm NO); oxygen content between 18 and 21 percent by volume;

 

Purified oxygen: (purity > 99,5 percent vol. O2);

 

Purified hydrogen (and mixture containing helium): (purity ≤ 1 ppm C1, ≤400 ppm CO2);

 

Carbon monoxide: (minimum purity 99,5 percent);

 

Propane: (minimum purity 99,5 percent).

5.2.3.6.2.   Calibration and span gases

Mixtures of gases with the following chemical compositions shall be available:

(a)

C3H8 and purified synthetic air (see point 5.2.3.5.1.);

(b)

CO and purified nitrogen;

(c)

CO2 and purified nitrogen;

(d)

NO and purified nitrogen (the amount of NO2 contained in this calibration gas shall not exceed 5 percent of the NO content).

The true concentration of a calibration gas shall be within ± 2 percent of the stated figure.

5.2.3.6.   Calibration and verification of the dilution system

The dilution system shall be calibrated and verified and shall comply with the requirements of Appendix 4.

5.2.4.   Test vehicle preconditioning

5.2.4.1.   The test vehicle shall be moved to the test area and the following operations performed:

The fuel tanks shall be drained through the drains of the fuel tanks provided and charged with the test fuel requirement as specified in Appendix 2 to half the capacity of the tanks.

The test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and operated through the applicable test cycle as specified for the vehicle (sub-)category in Appendix 6. The vehicle need not be cold, and may be used to set dynamometer power.

5.2.4.2.   Practice runs over the prescribed driving schedule may be performed at test points, provided an emission sample is not taken, for the purpose of finding the minimum throttle action to maintain the proper speed-time relationship, or to permit sampling system adjustments.

5.2.4.3.   Within five minutes of completion of preconditioning, the test vehicle shall be removed from the dynamometer and may be driven or pushed to the soak area to be parked. The vehicle shall be stored for between six and 36 hours prior to the cold start type I test or until the engine oil temperature TO or the coolant temperature TC or the sparkplug seat/gasket temperature TP (only for air-cooled engine) equals the air temperature of the soak area within 2 K.

5.2.4.4.   For the purpose of measuring particulates, between six and 36 hours before testing, the applicable test cycle from Part A of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 shall be conducted on the basis of Annex IV to that Regulation. The technical details of the applicable test cycle are laid down in Appendix 6 and the applicable test cycle shall also be used for vehicle pre-conditioning. Three consecutive cycles shall be driven. The dynamometer setting shall be indicated as in point 4.5.6.

5.2.4.5.   At the request of the manufacturer, vehicles fitted with indirect injection positive-ignition engines may be preconditioned with one Part One, one Part Two and two Part Three driving cycles, if applicable, from the WMTC.

In a test facility where a test on a low particulate emitting vehicle could be contaminated by residue from a previous test on a high particulate emitting vehicle, it is recommended that, in order to pre-condition the sampling equipment, the low particulate emitting vehicle undergo a 20 minute 120 km/h steady state drive cycle or at 70% of the maximum design speed for vehicles not capable of attaining 120 km/h followed by three consecutive Part Two or Part Three WMTC cycles, if feasible.

After this preconditioning, and before testing, vehicles shall be kept in a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293,2 K and 303,2 K (20 °C and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least six hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are within ±2 K of the temperature of the room.

If the manufacturer so requests, the test shall be carried out not later than 30 hours after the vehicle has been run at its normal temperature.

5.2.4.6.   Vehicles equipped with a positive-ignition engine, fuelled with LPG, NG/biomethane, H2NG, hydrogen or so equipped that they can be fuelled with either petrol, LPG, NG/biomethane, H2NG or hydrogen between the tests on the first gaseous reference fuel and the second gaseous reference fuel, shall be preconditioned before the test on the second reference fuel. This preconditioning on the second reference fuel shall involve a preconditioning cycle consisting of one Part One, Part Two and two Part Three WMTC cycles, as described in Appendix 6. At the manufacturer’s request and with the agreement of the technical service, this preconditioning may be extended. The dynamometer setting shall be as indicated in point 4.5.6 of this Annex.

5.2.5.   Emissions tests

5.2.5.1.   Engine starting and restarting

5.2.5.1.1.   The engine shall be started according to the manufacturer’s recommended starting procedures. The test cycle run shall begin when the engine starts.

5.2.5.1.2.   Test vehicles equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the instructions in the manufacturer’s operating instructions or owner’s manual covering choke-setting and ‘kick-down’ from cold fast idle. In the case of the WMTC set out in Appendix 6, the transmission shall be put in gear 15 seconds after the engine is started. If necessary, braking may be employed to keep the drive wheels from turning. In the case of the ECE R40 or 47 cycles, the transmission shall be put in gear five seconds before the first acceleration.

5.2.5.1.3.   Test vehicles equipped with manual chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer’s operating instructions or owner’s manual. Where times are provided in the instructions, the point for operation may be specified, within 15 seconds of the recommended time.

5.2.5.1.4.   The operator may use the choke, throttle, etc. where necessary to keep the engine running.

5.2.5.1.5.   If the manufacturer’s operating instructions or owner’s manual do not specify a warm engine starting procedure, the engine (automatic and manual choke engines) shall be started by opening the throttle about half way and cranking the engine until it starts.

5.2.5.1.6.   If, during the cold start, the test vehicle does not start after ten seconds of cranking or ten cycles of the manual starting mechanism, cranking shall cease and the reason for failure to start determined. The revolution counter on the constant volume sampler shall be turned off and the sample solenoid valves placed in the ‘standby’ position during this diagnostic period. In addition, either the CVS blower shall be turned off or the exhaust tube disconnected from the tailpipe during the diagnostic period.

5.2.5.1.7.   If failure to start is an operational error, the test vehicle shall be rescheduled for testing from a cold start. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction, corrective action (following the unscheduled maintenance provisions) lasting less than 30 minutes may be taken and the test continued. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same time cranking is started. The driving schedule timing sequence shall begin when the engine starts. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction and the vehicle cannot be started, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken (following the unscheduled maintenance provisions) and the vehicle rescheduled for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be reported.

5.2.5.1.8.   If the test vehicle does not start during the hot start after ten seconds of cranking or ten cycles of the manual starting mechanism, cranking shall cease, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken and the vehicle rescheduled for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be reported.

5.2.5.1.9.   If the engine ‘false starts’, the operator shall repeat the recommended starting procedure (such as resetting the choke, etc.)

5.2.5.2.   Stalling

5.2.5.2.1.   If the engine stalls during an idle period, it shall be restarted immediately and the test continued. If it cannot be started soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow the next acceleration as prescribed, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped. When the vehicle restarts, the driving schedule indicator shall be reactivated.

5.2.5.2.2.   If the engine stalls during some operating mode other than idle, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped, the test vehicle restarted and accelerated to the speed required at that point in the driving schedule, and the test continued. During acceleration to this point, gearshifts shall be performed in accordance with point 4.5.5.

5.2.5.2.3.   If the test vehicle will not restart within one minute, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken and the vehicle rescheduled for test. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be reported.

5.2.6.   Drive instructions

5.2.6.1.   The test vehicle shall be driven with minimum throttle movement to maintain the desired speed. No simultaneous use of brake and throttle shall be permitted.

5.2.6.2.   If the test vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified rate, it shall be operated with the throttle fully opened until the roller speed reaches the value prescribed for that time in the driving schedule.

5.2.7.   Dynamometer test runs

5.2.7.1.   The complete dynamometer test consists of consecutive parts as described in point 4.5.4.

5.2.7.2.   The following steps shall be taken for each test:

(a)

place drive wheel of vehicle on dynamometer without starting engine;

(b)

activate vehicle cooling fan;

(c)

for all test vehicles, with the sample selector valves in the ‘standby’ position, connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample collection systems;

(d)

start the CVS (if not already on), the sample pumps and the temperature recorder. (The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler, if used, and sample lines shall be preheated to their respective operating temperatures before the test begins);

(e)

adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rate and set the gas flow measuring devices to zero;

For gaseous bag (except hydrocarbon) samples, the minimum flow rate is 0.08 litre/second;

For hydrocarbon samples, the minimum flame ionisation detection (FID) (or heated flame ionisation detection (HFID) in the case of methanol-fuelled vehicles) flow rate is 0.031 litre/second;

(f)

attach the flexible exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipes;

(g)

start the gas flow measuring device, position the sample selector valves to direct the sample flow into the ‘transient’ exhaust sample bag, the ‘transient’ dilution air sample bag, turn the key on and start cranking the engine;

(h)

put the transmission in gear;

(i)

begin the initial vehicle acceleration of the driving schedule;

(j)

operate the vehicle according to the driving cycles specified in point 4.5.4.;

(k)

at the end of part 1 or part 1 in cold condition, simultaneously switch the sample flows from the first bags and samples to the second bags and samples, switch off gas flow measuring device No 1 and start gas flow measuring device No 2;

(l)

in case of vehicles capable of running Part 3 of the WMTC, at the end of Part 2 simultaneously switch the sample flows from the second bags and samples to the third bags and samples, switch off gas flow measuring device No 2 and, start gas flow measuring device No 3;

(m)

before starting a new part, record the measured roll or shaft revolutions and reset the counter or switch to a second counter. As soon as possible, transfer the exhaust and dilution air samples to the analytical system and process the samples according to point 6., obtaining a stabilised reading of the exhaust bag sample on all analysers within 20 minutes of the end of the sample collection phase of the test;

(n)

turn the engine off two seconds after the end of the last part of the test;

(o)

immediately after the end of the sample period, turn off the cooling fan;

(p)

turn off the constant volume sampler (CVS) or critical-flow venturi (CFV) or disconnect the exhaust tube from the tailpipes of the vehicle;

(q)

disconnect the exhaust tube from the vehicle tailpipes and remove the vehicle from the dynamometer;

(r)

for comparison and analysis reasons, second-by-second emissions (diluted gas) data shall be monitored as well as the bag results.

6.   Analysis of results

6.1.   Type I tests

6.1.1.   Exhaust emission and fuel consumption analysis

6.1.1.1.   Analysis of the samples contained in the bags

The analysis shall begin as soon as possible, and in any event not later than 20 minutes after the end of the tests, in order to determine:

the concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the sample of dilution air contained in bag(s) B;

the concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the sample of diluted exhaust gases contained in bag(s) A.

6.1.1.2.   Calibration of analysers and concentration results

The analysis of the results has to be carried out in the following steps:

(a)

prior to each sample analysis, the analyser range to be used for each pollutant shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas;

(b)

the analysers are set to the calibration curves by means of span gases of nominal concentrations of 70 to 100 percent of the range;

(c)

the analysers’ zeros are rechecked. If the reading differs by more than 2 percent of range from that set in (b), the procedure is repeated;

(d)

the samples are analysed;

(e)

after the analysis, zero and span points are rechecked using the same gases. If the readings are within 2 percent of those in point (c), the analysis is considered acceptable;

(f)

at all points in this section the flow-rates and pressures of the various gases shall be the same as those used during calibration of the analysers;

(g)

the figure adopted for the concentration of each pollutant measured in the gases is that read off after stabilisation on the measuring device.

6.1.1.3.   Measuring the distance covered

The distance (S) actually covered for a test part shall be calculated by multiplying the number of revolutions read from the cumulative counter (see point 5.2.7.) by the circumference of the roller. This distance shall be expressed in km.

6.1.1.4.   Determination of the quantity of gas emitted

The reported test results shall be computed for each test and each cycle part by use of the following formulae. The results of all emission tests shall be rounded, using the ‘rounding-off method’ in ASTM E 29-67, to the number of decimal places indicated by expressing the applicable standard to three significant figures.

6.1.1.4.1.   Total volume of diluted gas

The total volume of diluted gas, expressed in m3/cycle part, adjusted to the reference conditions of 273,2 K (0 °C ) and 101,3 kPa, is calculated by

Equation 2-32:

Formula

where:

 

V0 is the volume of gas displaced by pump P during one revolution, expressed in m3/revolution. This volume is a function of the differences between the intake and output sections of the pump;

 

N is the number of revolutions made by pump P during each part of the test;

 

Pa is the ambient pressure in kPa;

 

Pi is the average under-pressure during the test part in the intake section of pump P, expressed in kPa;

 

TP is the temperature (expressed in K) of the diluted gases during the test part, measured in the intake section of pump P.

6.1.1.4.2.   Hydrocarbons (HC)

The mass of unburned hydrocarbons emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-33:

Formula

where:

 

HCm is the mass of hydrocarbons emitted during the test part, in mg/km;

 

S is the distance defined in point 6.1.1.3.;

 

V is the total volume, defined in point 6.1.1.4.1.;

 

dHC is the density of the hydrocarbons at reference temperature and pressure (273,2 K and 101,3 kPa);

dHC

= 631·103 mg/m3 for petrol (E5) (C1H1,89O0,016);

= 932·103 mg/m3 for ethanol (E85) (C1H2,74O0,385);

= 622·103 mg/m3 for diesel (B5)(C1Hl,86O0,005);

= 649·103 mg/m3 for LPG (C1H2,525);

= 714·103 mg/m3 for NG/biogas (C1H4);

= Formula mg/m3 for H2NG (with Formula in (volume %)).

 

HCc is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm) of carbon equivalent (e.g. the concentration in propane multiplied by three), corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:

Equation 2-34:

Formula

where:

 

HCe is the concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in parts per million (ppm) of carbon equivalent, in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;

 

HCd is the concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in parts per million (ppm) of carbon equivalent, in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;

 

DF is the coefficient defined in point 6.1.1.4.7.

The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) concentration is calculated as follows:

Equation 2-35:

Formula

where:

CNMHC

=

corrected concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent;

CTHC

=

concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent and corrected by the amount of THC contained in the dilution air;

CCH4

=

concentration of methane (CH4) in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent and corrected by the amount of CH4 contained in the dilution air;

Rf CH4 is the FID response factor to methane as defined in point 5.2.3.4.1.

6.1.1.4.3.   Carbon monoxide (CO)

The mass of carbon monoxide emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-36:

Formula

where:

 

COm is the mass of carbon monoxide emitted during the test part, in mg/km;

 

S is the distance defined in point 6.1.1.3.;

 

V is the total volume defined in point 6.1.1.4.1.;

 

dCO is the density of the carbon monoxide, Formula mg/m3 at reference temperature and pressure (273,2 K and 101,3 kPa);

 

COc is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm) of carbon monoxide, corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:

Equation 2-37:

Formula

where:

 

COe is the concentration of carbon monoxide expressed in parts per million (ppm), in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;

 

COd is the concentration of carbon monoxide expressed in parts per million (ppm), in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;

 

DF is the coefficient defined in point 6.1.1.4.7.

6.1.1.4.4.   Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

The mass of nitrogen oxides emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-38:

Formula

where:

 

NOxm is the mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part, in mg/km;

 

S is the distance defined in point 6.1.1.3.;

 

V is the total volume defined in point 6.1.1.4.1.;

 

dNO2 is the density of the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases, assuming that they will be in the form of nitric oxide, Formula mg/m3 at reference temperature and pressure (273,2 K and 101,3 kPa);

 

NOxc is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed in parts per million (ppm), corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:

Equation 2-39:

Formula

where:

 

NOxe is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of nitrogen oxides, in the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;

 

NOxd is the concentration of nitrogen oxides expressed in parts per million (ppm) of nitrogen oxides, in the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;

 

DF is the coefficient defined in point 6.1.1.4.7.;

 

Kh is the humidity correction factor, calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-40:

Formula

where:

H is the absolute humidity in g of water per kg of dry air:

Equation 2-41:

Formula

where:

 

U is the humidity as a percentage;

 

Pd is the saturated pressure of water at the test temperature, in kPa;

 

Pa is the atmospheric pressure in kPa.

6.1.1.4.5.   Particulate matter mass

Particulate emission Mp (mg/km) is calculated by means of the following equation:

Equation 2-42:

Formula

where exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;

Equation 2-43:

Formula

where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;

where:

Vmix

=

volume V of diluted exhaust gases under standard conditions;

Vep

=

volume of exhaust gas flowing through particulate filter under standard conditions;

Pe

=

particulate mass collected by filter(s);

S

=

is the distance defined in point 6.1.1.3.;

Mp

=

particulate emission in mg/km.

Where correction for the particulate background level from the dilution system has been used, this shall be determined in accordance with point 5.2.1.5. In this case, the particulate mass (mg/km) shall be calculated as follows:

Equation 2-44:

Formula

where exhaust gases are vented outside the tunnel;

Equation 2-45:

Formula

where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;

where:

Vap

=

volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter under standard conditions;

Pa

=

particulate mass collected by background filter;

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in point 6.1.1.4.7.

Where application of a background correction results in a negative particulate mass (in mg/km), the result shall be considered to be zero mg/km particulate mass.

6.1.1.4.6.   Carbon dioxide (CO2)

The mass of carbon dioxide emitted by the exhaust of the vehicle during the test shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-46:

Formula

where:

 

CO2m is the mass of carbon dioxide emitted during the test part, in g/km;

 

S is the distance defined in point 6.1.1.3.;

 

V is the total volume defined in point 6.1.1.4.1.;

 

dCO2 is the density of the carbon monoxide, Formula g/m3 at reference temperature and pressure (273,2 K and 101,3 kPa);

 

CO2c is the concentration of diluted gases, expressed as a percentage of carbon dioxide equivalent, corrected to take account of the dilution air by the following equation:

Equation 2-47:

Formula

where:

 

CO2e is the concentration of carbon dioxide expressed as a percentage of the sample of diluted gases collected in bag(s) A;

 

CO2d is the concentration of carbon dioxide expressed as a percentage of the sample of dilution air collected in bag(s) B;

 

DF is the coefficient defined in point 6.1.1.4.7.

6.1.1.4.7.   Dilution factor (DF)

The dilution factor is calculated as follows:

 

For each reference fuel, except hydrogen:

Equation 2-48:

Formula

 

For a fuel of composition CxHyOz, the general formula is:

Equation 2-49:

Formula

 

For H2NG, the formula is:

Equation 2-50:

Formula

 

For hydrogen, the dilution factor is calculated as follows:

Equation 2-51:

Formula

 

For the reference fuels contained in Appendix x, the values of ‘X’ are as follows:

Table 1-8

Factor ‘X’ in formulae to calculate DF

Fuel

X

Petrol (E5)

13,4

Diesel (B5)

13,5

LPG

11,9

NG/biomethane

9,5

Ethanol (E85)

12,5

Hydrogen

35,03

In these equations:

CCO2

=

concentration of CO2 in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag, expressed in percent by volume,

CHC

=

concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent,

CCO

=

concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag, expressed in ppm,

CH2O

=

concentration of H2O in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag, expressed in percent by volume,

CH2O-DA

=

concentration of H2O in the air used for dilution, expressed in percent by volume,

CH2

=

concentration of hydrogen in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling bag, expressed in ppm,

A

=

quantity of NG/biomethane in the H2NG mixture, expressed in percent by volume.

6.1.1.5.   Weighting of type I test results

6.1.1.5.1.   With repeated measurements (see point 5.1.1.2.), the pollutant (mg/km), and CO2 emission results obtained by the calculation method described in point 6.1.1. and fuel / energy consumption and electric range determined according to Annex VII are averaged for each cycle part.

6.1.1.5.1.1   Weighting of results from UNECE regulation No 40 and regulation No 47 test cycles

The (average) result of the cold phase of UNECE regulation No 40 and of regulation No 47 test cycle is called R1; the (average) result of the warm phase of UNECE regulation No 40 and of regulation No 47 test cycle is called R2. Using these pollutant (mg/km) and CO2 (g/km) emission results, the final result R, depending on the vehicle class as defined in point 6.3., shall be calculated using the following equations:

Equation 2-52:

Formula

where:

w1

=

weighting factor cold phase

w2

=

weighting factor warm phase

6.1.1.5.1.2   Weighting of WMTC results

The (average) result of Part 1 or Part 1 reduced vehicle speed is called R1, the (average) result of Part 2 or Part 2 reduced vehicle speed is called R2 and the (average) result of Part 3 or part 3 reduced vehicle speed is called R3. Using these emission (mg/km) and fuel consumption (litres/100 km) results, the final result R, depending on the vehicle category as defined in point 6.1.1.6.2., shall be calculated using the following equations:

Equation 2-53:

Formula

where:

w1

=

weighting factor cold phase

w2

=

weighting factor warm phase

Equation 2-54:

Formula

where:

wn

=

weighting factor phase n (n=1, 2 or 3)

6.1.1.6.2.   For each pollutant emission constituent, the carbon dioxide emission weightings shown in Tables 1-9 (Euro 4) and 1-10 (Euro 5) shall be used.

Table 1-9

Type I test cycles (also applicable for test types VII and VIII) for Euro 4 compliant L-category vehicles, applicable weighting equations and weighting factors

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle

Equation number

Weighting factors

L1e-A

Powered cycle

ECE R47

2-52

w1 = 0,30

w2 = 0,70

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

L4e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

vmax < 130 km/h

WMTC, stage 2

2-53

w1 = 0,30

w2 = 0,70

L5e-A

Tricycle

vmax < 130 km/h

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

vmax < 130 km/h

L3e

L4e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

WMTC, stage 2

2-54

w1 = 0,25

w2 = 0,50

w3 = 0,25

L5e-A

Tricycle

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

ECE R40

2-52

w1 = 0,30

w2 = 0,70

L7e-B

All-terrain vehicles

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile

Table 1-10

Type I test cycles (also applicable for test types VII and VIII) for Euro 5 compliant L-category vehicles, applicable weighting equations and weighting factors

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle

Equation #

Weighting factors

L1e-A

Powered cycle

WMTC stage 3

2-53

w1 = 0,50

w2 = 0,50

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

L4e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

vmax < 130 km/h

2-53

w1 = 0,50

w2 = 0,50

L5e-A

Tricycle

vmax < 130 km/h

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

vmax < 130 km/h

L3e

L4e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

2-54

w1 = 0,25

w2 = 0,50

w3 = 0,25

L5e-A

Tricycle

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

vmax ≥ 130 km/h

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

2-53

w1 = 0,30

w2 = 0,70

L7e-B

All-terrain vehicles

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile

7.   Records required

The following information shall be recorded with respect to each test:

(a)

test number;

(b)

vehicle, system or component identification;

(c)

date and time of day for each part of the test schedule;

(d)

instrument operator;

(e)

driver or operator;

(f)

test vehicle: make, vehicle identification number, model year, drivetrain / transmission type, odometer reading at initiation of preconditioning, engine displacement, engine family, emission-control system, recommended engine speed at idle, nominal fuel tank capacity, inertial loading, reference mass recorded at 0 kilometre, and drive-wheel tyre pressure;

(g)

dynamometer serial number: as an alternative to recording the dynamometer serial number, a reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administration, provided the test cell records show the relevant instrument information;

(h)

all relevant instrument information, such as tuning, gain, serial number, detector number, range. As an alternative, a reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administration, provided test cell calibration records show the relevant instrument information;

(i)

recorder charts: identify zero point, span check, exhaust gas, and dilution air sample traces;

(j)

test cell barometric pressure, ambient temperature and humidity;

Note 7: A central laboratory barometer may be used; provided that individual test cell barometric pressures are shown to be within ± 0,1 percent of the barometric pressure at the central barometer location.

(k)

pressure of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air entering the CVS metering device, the pressure increase across the device, and the temperature at the inlet. The temperature shall be recorded continuously or digitally to determine temperature variations;

(l)

the number of revolutions of the positive displacement pump accumulated during each test phase while exhaust samples are being collected. The number of standard cubic meters metered by a critical-flow venturi (CFV) during each test phase would be the equivalent record for a CFV-CVS;

(m)

the humidity of the dilution air.

Note 8: If conditioning columns are not used, this measurement can be deleted. If the conditioning columns are used and the dilution air is taken from the test cell, the ambient humidity can be used for this measurement;

(n)

the driving distance for each part of the test, calculated from the measured roll or shaft revolutions;

(o)

the actual roller speed pattern for the test;

(p)

the gear use schedule for the test;

(q)

the emissions results of the type I test for each part of the test and the total weighted test results;

(r)

the second-by-second emission values of the type I tests, if deemed necessary;

(s)

the emissions results of the type II test (see Annex III).

Appendix 1

Symbols used in Annex II

Table Ap 1-1

Symbols used in Annex II

Symbol

Definition

Unit

a

Coefficient of polygonal function

aT

Rolling resistance force of front wheel

N

b

Coefficient of polygonal function

bT

Coefficient of aerodynamic function

Formula

c

Coefficient of polygonal function

CCO

Concentration of carbon monoxide

percent vol.

CCOcorr

Corrected concentration of carbon monoxide

percent vol.

CO2c

Carbon dioxide concentration of diluted gas, corrected to take account of diluent air

percent

CO2d

Carbon dioxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in bag B

percent

CO2e

Carbon dioxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in bag A

percent

CO2m

Mass of carbon dioxide emitted during the test part

g/km

COc

Carbon monoxide concentration of diluted gas, corrected to take account of diluent air

ppm

COd

Carbon monoxide concentration in the sample of diluent air, collected in bag B

ppm

COe

Carbon monoxide concentration in the sample of diluent air, collected in bag A

ppm

COm

Mass of carbon monoxide emitted during the test part

mg/km

d0

Standard ambient relative air density

dCO

Density of carbon monoxide

mg/m3

dCO2

Density of carbon dioxide

mg/m3

DF

Dilution factor

dHC

Density of hydrocarbon

mg/m3

S / d

Distance driven in a cycle part

km

dNOX

Density of nitrogen oxide

mg/m3

dT

Relative air density under test condition

Δt

Coast-down time

s

Δtai

Coast-down time measured in the first road test

s

Δtbi

Coast-down time measured in the second road test

s

ΔTE

Coast-down time corrected for the inertia mass

s

ΔtE

Mean coast-down time on the chassis dynamometer at the reference speed

s

ΔTi

Average coast-down time at specified speed

s

Δti

Coast-down time at corresponding speed

s

ΔTj

Average coast-down time at specified speed

s

ΔTroad

Target coast-down time

s

Formula

Mean coast-down time on the chassis dynamometer without absorption

s

Δv

Coast-down speed interval (

Formula

)

km/h

ε

Chassis dynamometer setting error

percent

F

Running resistance force

N

F*

Target running resistance force

N

F*(v0)

Target running resistance force at reference speed on chassis dynamometer

N

F*(vi)

Target running resistance force at specified speed on chassis dynamometer

N

f*0

Corrected rolling resistance in the standard ambient condition

N

f*2

Corrected coefficient of aerodynamic drag in the standard ambient condition

Formula

F*j

Target running resistance force at specified speed

N

f0

Rolling resistance

N

f2

Coefficient of aerodynamic drag

Formula

FE

Set running resistance force on the chassis dynamometer

N

FE(v0)

Set running resistance force at the reference speed on the chassis dynamometer

N

FE(v2)

Set running resistance force at the specified speed on the chassis dynamometer

N

Ff

Total friction loss

N

Ff(v0)

Total friction loss at the reference speed

N

Fj

Running resistance force

N

Fj(v0)

Running resistance force at the reference speed

N

Fpau

Braking force of the power absorbing unit

N

Fpau(v0)

Braking force of the power absorbing unit at the reference speed

N

Fpau(vj)

Braking force of the power absorbing unit at the specified speed

N

FT

Running resistance force obtained from the running resistance table

N

H

Absolute humidity

mg/km

HCc

Concentration of diluted gases expressed in the carbon equivalent, corrected to take account of diluent air

ppm

HCd

Concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in the carbon equivalent, in the sample of diluent air collected in bag B

ppm

HCe

Concentration of hydrocarbons expressed in the carbon equivalent, in the sample of diluent air collected in bag A

ppm

HCm

Mass of hydrocarbon emitted during the test part

mg/km

K0

Temperature correction factor for rolling resistance

Kh

Humidity correction factor

L

Limit values of gaseous emission

mg/km

m

Test L-category vehicle mass

kg

ma

Actual mass of the test L-category vehicle

kg

mfi

Flywheel equivalent inertia mass

kg

mi

Equivalent inertia mass

kg

mk

Kerb mass (L-category vehicle)

kg

mr

Equivalent inertia mass of all the wheels

kg

mri

Equivalent inertia mass of all the rear wheel and L-category vehicle parts rotating with wheel

kg

mref

Mass in running order of the L-category vehicle plus mass of driver (75 kg)

kg

mrf

Rotating mass of the front wheel

kg

mrid

Rider mass

kg

n

Engine speed

min–1

n

Number of data regarding the emission or the test

N

Number of revolution made by pump P

ng

Number of forward gears

nidle

Idling speed

min–1

n_max_acc (1)

Upshift speed from gear 1 to gear 2 during acceleration phases

min–1

n_max_acc (i)

Up shift speed from gear i to gear i+1 during acceleration phases, i > 1

min–1

n_min_acc (i)

Minimum engine speed for cruising or deceleration in gear 1

min–1

NOxc

Nitrogen oxide concentration of diluted gases, corrected to take account of diluent air

ppm

NOxd

Nitrogen oxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in bag B

ppm

NOxe

Nitrogen oxide concentration in the sample of diluent air collected in bag A

ppm

NOxm

Mass of nitrogen oxides emitted during the test part

mg/km

P0

Standard ambient pressure

kPa

Pa

Ambient/atmospheric pressure

kPa

Pd

Saturated pressure of water at the test temperature

kPa

Pi

Average under-pressure during the test part in the section of pump P

kPa

Pn

Rated engine power

kW

PT

Mean ambient pressure during the test

kPa

ρ0

Standard relative ambient air volumetric mass

kg/m3

r(i)

Gear ratio in gear i

R

Final test result of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel consumption

mg/km,

g/km, 1/100 km

R1

Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel consumption for cycle part 1 with cold start

mg/km,

g/km, 1/100 km

R2

Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel consumption for cycle part 2 with warm condition

mg/km,

g/km, 1/100 km

R3

Test results of pollutant emissions, carbon dioxide emission or fuel consumption for cycle part 1 with warm condition

mg/km,

g/km, 1/100 km

Ri1

First type I test results of pollutant emissions

mg/km

Ri2

Second type I test results of pollutant emissions

mg/km

Ri3

Third type I test results of pollutant emissions

mg/km

s

Rated engine speed

min–1

TC

Temperature of the coolant

K

TO

Temperature of the engine oil

K

TP

Temperature of the spark-plug seat/gasket

K

T0

Standard ambient temperature

K

Tp

Temperature of the diluted gases during the test part, measured in the intake section of pump P

K

TT

Mean ambient temperature during the test

K

U

humidity

percent

v

Specified speed

 

V

Total volume of diluted gas

m3

vmax

Maximum design speed of test vehicle (L-category vehicle)

km/h

v0

Reference vehicle speed

km/h

V0

Volume of gas displaced by pump P during one revolution

m3/rev.

v1

Vehicle speed at which the measurement of the coast-down time begins

km/h

v2

Vehicle speed at which the measurement of the coast-down time ends

km/h

vi

Specified vehicle speed selected for the coast-down time measurement

km/h

w1

Weighting factor of cycle part 1 with cold start

w1hot

Weighting factor of cycle part 1 with warm condition

w2

Weighting factor of cycle part 2 with warm condition

w3

Weighting factor of cycle part 3 with warm condition

Appendix 2

Reference fuels

1.   Specifications of reference fuels for testing vehicles in environmental tests, in particular for tailpipe and evaporative emissions testing

1.1.

The following tables list the technical data on liquid reference fuels to be used for environmental performance testing. The fuel specifications in this Appendix are consistent with the reference fuel specifications in Annex 10 to UNECE regulation No 83 Revision 4.

Type: Petrol (E5)

Parameter

Unit

Limits (1)

Test method

Minimum

Maximum

Research octane number, RON

 

95,0

EN 25164 / prEN ISO 5164

Motor octane number, MON

 

85,0

EN 25163 / prEN ISO 5163

Density at 15 °C

kg/m3

743

756

EN ISO 3675 / EN ISO 12185

Vapour pressure

kPa

56,0

60,0

EN ISO 13016-1 (DVPE)

Water content

% v/v

 

0,015

ASTM E 1064

Distillation:

 

 

 

 

Evaporated at 70 °C

% v/v

24,0

44,0

EN ISO 3405

Evaporated at 100 °C

% v/v

48,0

60,0

EN ISO 3405

Evaporated at 150 °C

% v/v

82,0

90,0

EN ISO 3405

Final boiling point

°C

190

210

EN ISO 3405

Residue

% v/v

2,0

EN ISO 3405

Hydrocarbon analysis:

 

 

 

 

Olefins

% v/v

3,0

13,0

ASTM D 1319

Aromatics

% v/v

29,0

35,0

ASTM D 1319

Benzene

% v/v

1,0

EN 12177

Saturates

% v/v

Report

ASTM 1319

Carbon/hydrogen ratio

 

Report

 

Carbon/oxygen ratio

 

Report

 

Induction period (2)

minutes

480

EN ISO 7536

Oxygen content (4)

% m/m

Report

EN 1601

Existent gum

mg/ml

0,04

EN ISO 6246

Sulphur content (3)

mg/kg

10

EN ISO 20846 / EN ISO 20884

Copper corrosion

 

Class 1

EN ISO 2160

Lead content

mg/l

5

EN 237

Phosphorus content

mg/l

1,3

ASTM D 3231

Ethanol (5)

% v/v

4,7

5,3

EN 1601 / EN 13132

Type: Ethanol (E85)

Parameter

Unit

Limits (6)

Test method (7)

Minimum

Maximum

Research octane number, RON

 

95,0

EN ISO 5164

Motor octane number, MON

 

85,0

EN ISO 5163

Density at 15 °C

kg/m3

Report

ISO 3675

Vapour pressure

kPa

40,0

60,0

EN ISO 13016-1 (DVPE)

Sulphur content (8)  (9)

mg/kg

10

EN ISO 20846

EN ISO 20884

Oxidation stability

minutes

360

 

EN ISO 7536

Existent gum content (solvent washed)

mg/(100 ml)

5

EN ISO 6246

Appearance

This shall be determined at ambient temperature or 15 °C, whichever is higher.

 

Clear and bright, visibly free of suspended or precipitated contaminants

Visual inspection

Ethanol and higher alcohols (12)

% V/V

83

85

EN 1601

EN 13132

EN 14517

Higher alcohols (C3-C8)

% V/V

2,0

 

Methanol

% V/V

 

0,5

 

Petrol (10)

% V/V

Balance

EN 228

Phosphorus

mg/l

0,3 (11)

ASTM D 3231

Water content

% V/V

 

0,3

ASTM E 1064

Inorganic chloride content

mg/l

 

1

ISO 6227

pHe

 

6,5

9,0

ASTM D 6423

Copper strip corrosion (3h at 50 °C)

Rating

Class 1

 

EN ISO 2160

Acidity (as acetic acid CH3COOH)

% m/m (mg/l)

0,005

(40)

ASTM D 1613

Carbon/hydrogen ratio

 

report

 

Carbon/oxygen ration

 

report

 

Type: Diesel fuel (B5)

Parameter

Unit

Limits (13)

Test method

Minimum

Maximum

Cetane number (14)

 

52,0

54,0

EN ISO 5165

Density at 15 °C

kg/m3

833

837

EN ISO 3675

Distillation:

 

 

 

 

50 % point

°C

245

EN ISO 3405

95 % point

°C

345

350

EN ISO 3405

Final boiling point

°C

370

EN ISO 3405

Flash point

°C

55

EN 22719

CFPP

°C

–5

EN 116

Viscosity at 40 °C

mm2/s

2,3

3,3

EN ISO 3104

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

% m/m

2,0

6,0

EN 12916

Sulphur content (15)

mg/kg

10

EN ISO 20846 / EN ISO 20884

Copper corrosion

 

Class 1

EN ISO 2160

Conradson carbon residue (10 % DR)

% m/m

0,2

EN ISO 10370

Ash content

% m/m

0,01

EN ISO 6245

Water content

% m/m

0,02

EN ISO 12937

Neutralisation (strong acid) number

mg KOH/g

0,02

ASTM D 974

Oxidation stability (16)

mg/ml

0,025

EN ISO 12205

Lubricity (HFRR wear scan diameter at 60 °C)

μm

400

EN ISO 12156

Oxidation stability at 110 °C (16)  (18)

h

20,0

 

EN 14112

FAME (17)

% v/v

4,5

5,5

EN 14078

Type: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Parameter

Unit

Fuel A

Fuel B

Test method

Composition:

 

 

 

ISO 7941

C3-content

percent vol

30 ± 2

85 ± 2

 

C4-content

percent vol

Balance (19)

Balance (20)

 

< C3, > C4

percent vol

max. 2

max. 2

 

Olefins

percent vol

max. 12

max. 15

 

Evaporation residue

mg/kg

max. 50

max. 50

ISO 13757 or EN 15470

Water at 0 °C

 

free

free

EN 15469

Total sulphur content

mg/kg

max. 50

max. 50

EN 24260 or

ASTM 6667

Hydrogen sulphide

 

none

none

ISO 8819

Copper strip corrosion

rating

Class 1

class 1

ISO 6251 (20)

Odour

 

characteristic

characteristic

 

Motor octane number

 

min. 89

min. 89

EN 589 Annex B

Type: Natural gas (NG)/biomethane  (21)

Parameter

Unit

Limits (23)

Test method

Minimum

Maximum

Reference fuel G20

Methane

percent mole

100

99

100

Balance (22)

percent mole

1

N2

percent mole

 

 

 

Sulphur content (22)

mg/m3

10

Wobbe Index (24) (net)

MJ/m3

48,2

47,2

49,2

Reference fuel G25

Methane

percent mole

86

84

88

Balance (22)

percent mole

1

N2

percent mole

14

12

16

Sulphur content (23)

mg/m3

10

Wobbe Index (net) (24)

MJ/m3

39,4

38,2

40,6

Type: Hydrogen for internal combustion engines

Parameter

Unit

Limits

Test method

Minimum

Maximum

Hydrogen purity

% mole

98

100

ISO 14687

Total hydrocarbon

μmol/mol

0

100

ISO 14687

Water (25)

μmol/mol

0

 (26)

ISO 14687

Oxygen

μmol/mol

0

 (26)

ISO 14687

Argon

μmol/mol

0

 (26)

ISO 14687

Nitrogen

μmol/mol

0

 (26)

ISO 14687

CO

μmol/mol

0

1

ISO 14687

Sulphur

μmol/mol

0

2

ISO 14687

Permanent particulates (27)

 

 

 

ISO 14687

Type: Hydrogen for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

Parameter

Unit

Limits

Test method

Minimum

Maximum

Hydrogen fuel (28)

% mole

99,99

100

ISO 14687-2

Total gases (29)

μmol/mol

0

100

 

Total hydrocarbon

μmol/mol

0

2

ISO 14687-2

Water

μmol/mol

0

5

ISO 14687-2

Oxygen

μmol/mol

0

5

ISO 14687-2

Helium (He), Nitrogen (N2), Argon (Ar)

μmol/mol

0

100

ISO 14687-2

CO2

μmol/mol

0

2

ISO 14687-2

CO

μmol/mol

0

0,2

ISO 14687-2

Total sulphur compounds

μmol/mol

0

0,004

ISO 14687-2

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

μmol/mol

0

0,01

ISO 14687-2

Formic acid (HCOOH)

μmol/mol

0

0,2

ISO 14687-2

Ammonia (NH3)

μmol/mol

0

0,1

ISO 14687-2

Total halogenated compounds

μmol/mol

0

0,05

ISO 14687-2

Particulates size

μm

0

10

ISO 14687-2

Particulates concentration

μg/l

0

1

ISO 14687-2


(1)  The values quoted in the specifications are ‘true values’. For establishing the limit values, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 (Petroleum products — Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test) have been applied and for fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R above zero has been taken into account; for fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum difference is 4R (R = reproducibility).

Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical reasons, the fuel manufacturer shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated maximum value is 2R and at the mean value when quoting maximum and minimum limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 shall be applied.

(2)  The fuel may contain oxidation inhibitors and metal deactivators normally used to stabilise refinery petrol streams, but detergent/dispersive additives and solvent oils shall not be added.

(3)  The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the type I test shall be reported.

(4)  Ethanol meeting the specification of prEN 15376 is the only oxygenate that shall be intentionally added to the reference fuel.

(5)  There shall be no intentional addition to this reference fuel of compounds containing phosphorus, iron, manganese or lead.

(6)  The values quoted in the specifications are ‘true values’. For establishing the limit values, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 (Petroleum products — Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test) have been applied and for fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R above zero has been taken into account; for fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum difference is 4R (R = reproducibility).

Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical reasons, the fuel manufacturer shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated maximum value is 2R and at the mean value when quoting maximum and minimum limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 shall be applied.

(7)  In cases of dispute, the procedures for resolving the dispute and interpreting the results based on test method precision, as described in EN ISO 4259:2006, shall be used.

(8)  In cases of national dispute concerning sulphur content, either EN ISO 20846:2011 or EN ISO 20884:2011 shall be referred to in the same way as in the national annex of EN 228.

(9)  The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the type I test shall be reported.

(10)  The unleaded petrol content can be determined as 100 minus the sum of the percentage content of water and alcohols.

(11)  There shall be no intentional addition to this reference fuel of compounds containing phosphorus, iron, manganese or lead.

(12)  Ethanol meeting the specification of EN 15376 is the only oxygenate that shall be intentionally added to this reference fuel.

(13)  The values quoted in the specifications are ‘true values’. For establishing the limit values, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 (Petroleum products — Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test) have been applied and for fixing a minimum value, a minimum difference of 2R above zero has been taken into account; for fixing a maximum and minimum value, the minimum difference is 4R (R = reproducibility).

Notwithstanding this measure, which is necessary for technical reasons, the fuel manufacturer shall nevertheless aim at a zero value where the stipulated maximum value is 2R and at the mean value when quoting maximum and minimum limits. Should it be necessary to clarify whether a fuel meets the requirements of the specifications, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 shall be applied.

(14)  The range for Cetane number is not in accordance with the requirements of a minimum range of 4R. However, the terms of ISO 4259:2006 may be used to resolve disputes between fuel supplier and fuel user, provided replicate measurements, of sufficient number to archive the necessary precision, are taken in preference to single determinations.

(15)  The actual sulphur content of the fuel used for the type I test shall be reported.

(16)  Even though oxidation stability is controlled, it is likely that shelf life will be limited. Advice shall be sought from the supplier as to storage conditions and shelf life.

(17)  FAME content to meet the specification of EN 14214.

(18)  Oxidation stability can be demonstrated by EN ISO 12205:1995 or EN 14112:1996. This requirement shall be reviewed based on CEN/TC19 evaluations of oxidative stability performance and test limits.

(19)  Balance has to be read as follows: Formula.

(20)  This method may not accurately determine the presence of corrosive materials if the sample contains corrosion inhibitors or other chemicals which diminish the corrosivity of the sample to the copper strip. Therefore, the addition of such compounds for the sole purpose of biasing the test method is prohibited.

(21)  Biofuel’ means liquid or gaseous fuel for transport, produced from biomass.

(22)  Inerts (different from N2) + C2 + C2+.

(23)  Value to be determined at 293,2 K (20 °C) and 101,3 kPa.

(24)  Value to be determined at 273,2 K (0 °C) and 101,3 kPa.

(25)  Not to be condensed.

(26)  Combined water, oxygen, nitrogen and argon: 1 900 μmol/mol.

(27)  The hydrogen shall not contain dust, sand, dirt, gums, oils or other substances in an amount sufficient to damage the fuelling station equipment of the vehicle (engine) being fuelled.

(28)  The hydrogen fuel index is determined by subtracting the total content of non-hydrogen gaseous constituents listed in the table (total gases), expressed in mole percent, from 100 mole percent. It is less than the sum of the maximum allowable limits of all non-hydrogen constituents shown in the table.

(29)  The value of total gases is the sum of the values of the non-hydrogen constituents listed in the table, except the particulates.

Appendix 3

Chassis dynamometer system

1.   Specification

1.1.   General requirements

1.1.1.

The dynamometer shall be capable of simulating road load within one of the following classifications:

(a)

dynamometer with fixed load curve, i.e. a dynamometer whose physical characteristics provide a fixed load curve shape;

(b)

dynamometer with adjustable load curve, i.e. a dynamometer with at least two road load parameters that can be adjusted to shape the load curve.

1.1.2.

Dynamometers with electric inertia simulation shall be demonstrated to be equivalent to mechanical inertia systems. The means by which equivalence is established are described in point 4.

1.1.3.

Where the total resistance to progress on the road cannot be reproduced on the chassis dynamometer between speeds of 10 km/h and 120 km/h, it is recommended that a chassis dynamometer with the characteristics defined in point 1.2. should be used.

1.1.3.1.

The load absorbed by the brake and the chassis dynamometer (internal frictional effects) between the speeds of 0 and 120 km/h is as follows:

Equation Ap3-1:

Formula (without being negative)

where:

F

=

total load absorbed by the chassis dynamometer (N);

a

=

value equivalent to rolling resistance (N);

b

=

value equivalent to coefficient of air resistance (N/(km/h)2);

v

=

vehicle speed (km/h);

F80

=

load at 80 km/h (N). Alternatively for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h the load at the reference vehicle speeds vj in table Ap8-1 in Appendix 8 shall be determined.

1.2.   Specific requirements

1.2.1.

The setting of the dynamometer shall not be affected by the lapse of time. It shall not produce any vibrations perceptible to the vehicle and likely to impair the vehicle’s normal operations.

1.2.2.

The chassis dynamometer may have one roller or two rollers in the cases of three-wheel vehicles with two front wheels and quadricycles. In such cases, the front roller shall drive, directly or indirectly, the inertial masses and the power-absorption device.

1.2.3.

It shall be possible to measure and read the indicated load to an accuracy of ± 5 percent.

1.2.4.

In the case of a dynamometer with a fixed load curve, the accuracy of the load setting at 80 km/h or of the load setting at the reference vehicle speeds (30 km/h, respectively 15 km/h) referred to in point 1.1.3.1. for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h, shall be ± 5 percent. In the case of a dynamometer with adjustable load curve, the accuracy of matching dynamometer load to road load shall be ± 5 percent for vehicle speeds > 20 km/h and ± 10 percent for vehicle speeds ≤ 20 km/h. Below this vehicle speed, dynamometer absorption shall be positive.

1.2.5.

The total inertia of the rotating parts (including the simulated inertia where applicable) shall be known and shall be within ± 10 kg of the inertia class for the test.

1.2.6.

The speed of the vehicle shall be measured by the speed of rotation of the roller (the front roller in the case of a two-roller dynamometer). It shall be measured with an accuracy of ± 1 km/h at vehicle speeds over 10 km/h. The distance actually driven by the vehicle shall be measured by the movement of rotation of the roller (the front roller in the case of a two-roller dynamometer).

2.   Dynamometer calibration procedure

2.1.   Introduction

This section describes the method to be used to determine the load absorbed by a dynamometer brake. The load absorbed comprises the load absorbed by frictional effects and the load absorbed by the power-absorption device. The dynamometer is brought into operation beyond the range of test speeds. The device used for starting up the dynamometer is then disconnected; the rotational speed of the driven roller decreases. The kinetic energy of the rollers is dissipated by the power-absorption unit and by the frictional effects. This method disregards variations in the roller’s internal frictional effects caused by rollers with or without the vehicle. The frictional effects of the rear roller shall be disregarded when the roller is free.

2.2.   Calibration of the load indicator at 80 km/h or of the load indicator referred to in point 1.1.3.1. for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h.

The following procedure shall be used for calibration of the load indicator to 80 km/h or the applicable load indicator referred to in point 1.1.3.1. for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h, as a function of the load absorbed (see also Figure Ap3-1):

2.2.1.   Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been done. A fifth wheel, a revolution counter or some other method may be used.

2.2.2.   Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method for starting up the dynamometer.

2.2.3.   Use the flywheel or any other system of inertia simulation for the particular inertia class to be used.

Figure Ap3-1

Power absorbed by the chassis dynamometer

Image

Legend:

Formula

Formula

Formula

2.2.4.   Bring the dynamometer to a vehicle speed of 80 km/h or to the reference vehicle speed referred to in point 1.1.3.1. for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h.

2.2.5.   Note the load indicated Fi (N).

2.2.6.   Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 90 km/h or to the respective reference vehicle speed referred to in to in point 1.1.3.1. plus 5 km/h for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h

2.2.7.   Disconnect the device used to start up the dynamometer.

2.2.8.   Note the time taken by the dynamometer to pass from a vehicle speed of 85 to 75 km/h, or for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h referred to in Table Ap8-1 of Appendix 8, note the time between vj + 5 km/h to vj– 5 km/h.

2.2.9.   Set the power-absorption device at a different level.

2.2.10.   The requirements of points 2.2.4. to 2.2.9. shall be repeated sufficiently often to cover the range of loads used.

2.2.11.   Calculate the load absorbed using the formula:

Equation Ap3-2:

Formula

where:

F

=

load absorbed (N);

mi

=

equivalent inertia in kg (excluding the inertial effects of the free rear roller);

Δ v

=

vehicle speed deviation in m/s (10 km/h = 2,775 m/s);

Δ t

=

time taken by the roller to pass from 85 km/h to 75 km/h, or for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h from 35 – 25 km/h, respectively from 20 – 10 km/h, referred to in Table Ap 7-1 of Appendix 7.

2.2.12.   Figure Ap3-2 shows the load indicated at 80 km/h in terms of load absorbed at 80 km/h.

Figure Ap3-2

Load indicated at 80 km/h in terms of load absorbed at 80 km/h

Image

2.2.13.   The requirements laid down in points 2.2.3. to 2.2.12. shall be repeated for all inertia classes to be used.

2.3.   Calibration of the load indicator at other speeds

The procedures described in point 2.2. shall be repeated as often as necessary for the chosen vehicle speeds.

2.4.   Calibration of force or torque

The same procedure shall be used for force or torque calibration.

3.   Verification of the load curve

3.1.   Procedure

The load-absorption curve of the dynamometer from a reference setting at a speed of 80 km/h or for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h at the respective reference vehicle speeds referred to in point 1.1.3.1., shall be verified as follows:

3.1.1.

Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method for starting up the dynamometer.

3.1.2.

Adjust the dynamometer to the absorbed load (F80) at 80 km/h, or for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h to the absorbed load Fvj at the respective target vehicle speed vj referred to in point 1.1.3.1.

3.1.3.

Note the load absorbed at 120, 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20 km/h or for vehicles that cannot attain 80 km/h absorbed at the target vehicles speeds vj referred to in point 1.1.3.1.

3.1.4.

Draw the curve F(v) and verify that it corresponds to the requirements of point 1.1.3.1.

3.1.5.

Repeat the procedure set out in points 3.1.1. to 3.1.4. for other values of F80 and for other values of inertia.

4   Verification of simulated inertia

4.1.   Object

The method described in this Appendix makes it possible to check that the simulated total inertia of the dynamometer is carried out satisfactorily in the running phase of the operating cycle. The manufacturer of the chassis dynamometer shall specify a method for verifying the specifications according to point 4.3.

4.2.   Principle

4.2.1.   Drawing-up working equations

Since the dynamometer is subjected to variations in the rotating speed of the roller(s), the force at the surface of the roller(s) can be expressed by:

Equation Ap3-3:

Formula

where:

 

F is the force at the surface of the roller(s) in N;

 

I is the total inertia of the dynamometer (equivalent inertia of the vehicle);

 

IM is the inertia of the mechanical masses of the dynamometer;

 

γ is the tangential acceleration at roller surface;

 

F1 is the inertia force.

Note: An explanation of this formula with reference to dynamometers with mechanically simulated inertia is appended.

Thus, total inertia is expressed as follows:

Equation Ap3-4:

Formula

where:

 

Im can be calculated or measured by traditional methods;

 

F1 can be measured on the dynamometer;

 

γ can be calculated from the peripheral speed of the rollers.

The total inertia (I) will be determined during an acceleration or deceleration test with values no lower than those obtained on an operating cycle.

4.2.2.   Specification for the calculation of total inertia

The test and calculation methods shall make it possible to determine the total inertia I with a relative error (ΔI/I) of less than ± 2 percent.

4.3.   Specification

4.3.1.   The mass of the simulated total inertia I shall remain the same as the theoretical value of the equivalent inertia (see Appendix 5) within the following limits:

4.3.1.1.

± 5 percent of the theoretical value for each instantaneous value;

4.3.1.2.

± 2 percent of the theoretical value for the average value calculated for each sequence of the cycle.

The limit specified in point 4.3.1.1. is brought to ± 50 percent for one second when starting and, for vehicles with manual transmission, for two seconds during gear changes.

4.4.   Verification procedure

4.4.1.   Verification is carried out during each test throughout the test cycles defined in Appendix 6 of Annex II.

4.4.2.   However, if the requirements laid down in point 4.3. are met, with instantaneous accelerations which are at least three times greater or smaller than the values obtained in the sequences of the theoretical cycle, the verification described in point 4.4.1. will not be necessary.

Appendix 4

Exhaust dilution system

1.   System specification

1.1.   System overview

A full-flow exhaust dilution system shall be used. This requires that the vehicle exhaust be continuously diluted with ambient air under controlled conditions. The total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air shall be measured and a continuously proportional sample of the volume shall be collected for analysis. The quantities of pollutants are determined from the sample concentrations, corrected for the pollutant content of the ambient air and the totalised flow over the test period. The exhaust dilution system shall consist of a transfer tube, a mixing chamber and dilution tunnel, a dilution air conditioning, a suction device and a flow measurement device. Sampling probes shall be fitted in the dilution tunnel as specified in Appendices 3, 4 and 5. The mixing chamber described in this point shall be a vessel, such as those illustrated in Figures Ap4-1 and Ap4-2, in which vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air are combined so as to produce a homogeneous mixture at the chamber outlet.

1.2.   General requirements

1.2.1.   The vehicle exhaust gases shall be diluted with a sufficient amount of ambient air to prevent any water condensation in the sampling and measuring system under any conditions which may occur during a test.

1.2.2.   The mixture of air and exhaust gases shall be homogeneous at the point where the sampling probe is located (see point 1.3.3.). The sampling probe shall extract a representative sample of the diluted exhaust gas.

1.2.3.   The system shall enable the total volume of the diluted exhaust gases to be measured.

1.2.4.   The sampling system shall be gas-tight. The design of the variable dilution sampling system and the materials that go to make it up shall be such that they do not affect the pollutant concentration in the diluted exhaust gases. Should any component in the system (heat exchanger, cyclone separator, blower, etc.) change the concentration of any of the pollutants in the diluted exhaust gases and the fault cannot be corrected, sampling for that pollutant shall be carried out upstream from that component.

1.2.5.   All parts of the dilution system that are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas shall be designed to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulates or particles. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components and shall be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.

1.2.6.   If the vehicle being tested is equipped with an exhaust pipe comprising several branches, the connecting tubes shall be connected as near as possible to the vehicle without adversely affecting its operation.

1.2.7.   The variable-dilution system shall be designed so as to enable the exhaust gases to be sampled without appreciably changing the back-pressure at the exhaust pipe outlet.

1.2.8.   The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall be so designed as to minimise heat loss.

1.3.   Specific requirements

1.3.1.   Connection to vehicle exhaust

The connecting tube between the vehicle exhaust outlets and the dilution system shall be as short as possible and satisfy the following requirements:

(a)

the tube shall be less than 3,6 m long, or less than 6,1 m long if heat insulated. Its internal diameter may not exceed 105 mm;

(b)

it shall not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the test vehicle to differ by more than ± 0,75 kPa at 50 km/h, or more than ± 1,25 kPa for the whole duration of the test, from the static pressures recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle exhaust outlets. The pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an extension having the same diameter, as near as possible to the end of the pipe. Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ± 0,25 kPa may be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the technical service substantiates the need for the closer tolerance;

(c)

it shall not change the nature of the exhaust gas;

(d)

any elastomeric connectors employed shall be as thermally stable as possible and have minimum exposure to the exhaust gases.

1.3.2.   Dilution air conditioning

The dilution air used for the primary dilution of the exhaust in the CVS tunnel shall be passed through a medium capable of reducing particles in the most penetrating particle size of the filter material by ≥ 99,95 percent, or through a filter of at least class H13 of EN 1822:1998. This represents the specification of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The dilution air may be charcoal scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal scrubber, if used. At the vehicle manufacturer’s request, the dilution air may be sampled according to good engineering practice to determine the tunnel contribution to background particulate mass levels, which can then be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust.

1.3.3.   Dilution tunnel

Provision shall be made for the vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air to be mixed. A mixing orifice may be used. In order to minimise the effects on the conditions at the exhaust outlet and to limit the drop in pressure inside the dilution-air conditioning device, if any, the pressure at the mixing point shall not differ by more than ± 0,25 kPa from atmospheric pressure. The homogeneity of the mixture in any cross-section at the location of the sampling probe shall not vary by more than ±2 percent from the average of the values obtained for at least five points located at equal intervals on the diameter of the gas stream. For particulate and particle emissions sampling, a dilution tunnel shall be used which:

(a)

shall consist of a straight tube of electrically-conductive material, which shall be earthed;

(b)

shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds number ≥ 4 000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;

(c)

shall be at least 200 mm in diameter;

(d)

may be insulated.

1.3.4.   Suction device

This device may have a range of fixed speeds to ensure sufficient flow to prevent any water condensation. This result is generally obtained if the flow is either:

(a)

twice the maximum flow of exhaust gas produced by accelerations of the driving cycle; or

(b)

sufficient to ensure that the CO2 concentration in the dilute exhaust sample bag is less than 3 percent by volume for petrol and diesel, less than 2,2 percent by volume for LPG and less than 1,5 percent by volume for NG/biomethane.

1.3.5.   Volume measurement in the primary dilution system

The method for measuring total dilute exhaust volume incorporated in the constant volume sampler shall be such that measurement is accurate to ± 2 percent under all operating conditions. If the device cannot compensate for variations in the temperature of the mixture of exhaust gases and dilution air at the measuring point, a heat exchanger shall be used to maintain the temperature to within ± 6 K of the specified operating temperature. If necessary, some form of protection for the volume measuring device may be used, e.g. a cyclone separator, bulk stream filter, etc. A temperature sensor shall be installed immediately before the volume measuring device. This sensor shall have an accuracy and a precision of ± 1 K and a response time of 0,1 s at 62 percent of a given temperature variation (value measured in silicone oil). The difference from atmospheric pressure shall be measured upstream and, if necessary, downstream from the volume measuring device. The pressure measurements shall have a precision and an accuracy of ± 0,4 kPa during the test.

1.4.   Recommended system descriptions

Figure Ap 4-1 and Figure Ap 4-2 are schematic drawings of two types of recommended exhaust dilution systems that meet the requirements of this Annex. Since various configurations can produce accurate results, exact conformity with these figures is not essential. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component system.

1.4.1.   Full-flow dilution system with positive displacement pump

Figure Ap4-1

Positive displacement pump dilution system

Image

The positive displacement pump (PDP) full-flow dilution system satisfies the requirements of this Annex by metering the flow of gas through the pump at constant temperature and pressure. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions of the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional sample is achieved by sampling with pump, flow meter and flow control valve at a constant flow rate. The collecting equipment consists of:

1.4.1.1.

A filter (refer to DAF in Figure Ap 4-1) for the dilution air shall be installed, which can be preheated if necessary. This filter shall consist of the following filters in sequence: an optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side) and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The purpose of the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilise the hydrocarbon concentrations of ambient emissions in the dilution air;

1.4.1.2.

A transfer tube (TT) by which vehicle exhaust is admitted into a dilution tunnel (DT) in which the exhaust gas and dilution air are mixed homogeneously;

1.4.1.3.

The positive displacement pump (PDP), producing a constant-volume flow of the air/exhaust-gas mixture. The PDP revolutions, together with associated temperature and pressure measurement, are used to determine the flow rate;

1.4.1.4.

A heat exchanger (HE) of a capacity sufficient to ensure that throughout the test the temperature of the air/exhaust-gas mixture measured at a point immediately upstream of the positive displacement pump is within 6 K of the average operating temperature during the test. This device shall not affect the pollutant concentrations of diluted gases taken off afterwards for analysis.

1.4.1.5.

A mixing chamber (MC) in which exhaust gas and air are mixed homogeneously and which may be located close to the vehicle so that the length of the transfer tube (TT) is minimised.

1.4.2.   Full-flow dilution system with critical-flow venturi

Figure Ap4-2

Critical-flow venturi dilution system

Image

The use of a critical-flow venturi (CFV) for the full-flow dilution system is based on the principles of flow mechanics for critical flow. The variable mixture flow rate of dilution and exhaust gas is maintained at sonic velocity which is directly proportional to the square root of the gas temperature. Flow is continually monitored, computed and integrated throughout the test. The use of an additional critical-flow sampling venturi ensures the proportionality of the gas samples taken from the dilution tunnel. As pressure and temperature are both equal at the two venturi inlets, the volume of the gas flow diverted for sampling is proportional to the total volume of diluted exhaust-gas mixture produced, and thus the requirements of this Annex are met. The collecting equipment consists of:

1.4.2.1.

A filter (DAF) for the dilution air which can be preheated if necessary. This filter shall consist of the following filters in sequence: an optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side) and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The purpose of the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilise the hydrocarbon concentrations of ambient emissions in the dilution air;

1.4.2.2.

A mixing chamber (MC) in which exhaust gas and air are mixed homogeneously and which may be located close to the vehicle so that the length of the transfer tube (TT) is minimised;

1.4.2.3.

A dilution tunnel (DT) from which particulates and particles are sampled;

1.4.2.4.

Some form of protection for the measurement system may be used, e.g. a cyclone separator, bulk stream filter, etc.;

1.4.2.5.

A measuring critical-flow venturi tube (CFV) to measure the flow volume of the diluted exhaust gas;

1.4.2.6.

A blower (BL) of sufficient capacity to handle the total volume of diluted exhaust gas.

2.   CVS calibration procedure

2.1.   General requirements

The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow-meter and a restricting device. The flow through the system shall be measured at various pressure readings and the control parameters of the system measured and related to the flows. The flow-meter shall be dynamic and suitable for the high flow-rate encountered in CVS testing. The device shall be of certified accuracy traceable to an approved national or international standard.

2.1.1.   Various types of flow-meter may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, laminar flow-meter, calibrated turbine-meter, provided that they are dynamic measurement systems and can meet the requirements of point 1.3.5. of this Appendix.

2.1.2.   The following points give details of methods of calibrating PDP and CFV units, using a laminar flow-meter which gives the required accuracy, together with a statistical check on the calibration validity.

2.2.   Calibration of the positive displacement pump (PDP)

2.2.1.   The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration and the various parameters that are measured to establish the flow-rate of the CVS pump. All the parameters relating to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters relating to the flow-meter which is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate (given in m3/min at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted against a correlation function that is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters. The linear equation that relates the pump flow and the correlation function is then determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration shall be performed for each range used.

2.2.2.   This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump and flow-meter parameters that relate to the flow rate at each point. Three conditions shall be maintained to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:

2.2.2.1.

The pump pressures shall be measured at tappings on the pump rather than at the external piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps that are mounted at the top centre and bottom centre of the pump drive head plate are exposed to the actual pump cavity pressures and therefore reflect the absolute pressure differentials;

2.2.2.2.

Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration. The laminar flow-meter is sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations which cause the data points to be scattered. Gradual changes of ± 1 K in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of several minutes;

2.2.2.3.

All connections between the flow-meter and the CVS pump shall be free of any leakage.

2.2.3.   During an exhaust emission test, the measurement of these same pump parameters enables the user to calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.

2.2.4.   Figure Ap 4-3 of this Appendix shows one possible test set-up. Variations are permissible, provided that the technical service approves them as being of comparable accuracy. If the set-up shown in Figure Ap 4-3 is used, the following data shall be found within the limits of precision given:

 

Barometric pressure (corrected) (Pb) ± 0,03 kPa

 

Ambient temperature (T) ± 0,2 K

 

Air temperature at LFE (ETI) ± 0,15 K

 

Pressure depression upstream of LFE (EPI) ± 0,01 kPa

 

Pressure drop across the LFE matrix (EDP) ± 0,0015 kPa

 

Air temperature at CVS pump inlet (PTI) ± 0,2 K

 

Air temperature at CVS pump outlet (PTO) ± 0,2 K

 

Pressure depression at CVS pump inlet (PPI) ± 0,22 kPa

 

Pressure head at CVS pump outlet (PPO) ± 0,22 kPa

 

Pump revolutions during test period (n) ± 1 min-1

 

Elapsed time for period (minimum 250 s) (t) ± 0,1 s

Figure Ap4-3

PDP calibration configuration

Image

2.2.5.   After the system has been connected as shown in Figure Ap 4-3, set the variable restrictor in the wide-open position and run the CVS pump for 20 minutes before starting the calibration.

2.2.6.   Reset the restrictor valve to a more restricted condition in an increment of pump inlet depression (about 1 kPa) that will yield a minimum of six data points for the total calibration. Allow the system to stabilise for three minutes and repeat the data acquisition.

2.2.7.   The air flow rate (Qs) at each test point is calculated in standard m3/min from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer’s prescribed method.

2.2.8.   The air flow-rate is then converted to pump flow (V0) in m3/rev at absolute pump inlet temperature and pressure.

Equation Ap 4-1:

Formula

where:

V0= pump flow rate at Tp and Pp (m3/rev);

Qs= air flow at 101,33 kPa and 273,2 K (m3/min);

Tp= pump inlet temperature (K);

Pp= absolute pump inlet pressure (kPa);

n= pump speed (min-1).

2.2.9.   To compensate for the interaction of pump speed pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the correlation function (x0) between the pump speed (n), the pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, and the absolute pump outlet pressure is calculated as follows:

Equation Ap 4-2:

Formula

where:

x0= correlation function;

ΔPp= pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa);

Pe= absolute outlet pressure (PPO + Pb) (kPa).

2.2.9.1.

A linear least-square fit is performed to generate the calibration equations which have the formula:

Equation Ap 4-3:

Formula

Formula

D0, M, A and B are the slope-intercept constants describing the lines.

2.2.10.   A CVS system that has multiple speeds shall be calibrated on each speed used. The calibration curves generated for the ranges shall be approximately parallel and the intercept values (D0) shall increase as the pump flow range decreases.

2.2.11   If the calibration has been performed carefully, the calculated values from the equation will be within 0.5 percent of the measured value of V0.Values of M will vary from one pump to another. Calibration is performed at pump start-up and after major maintenance.

2.3.   Calibration of the critical-flow venturi (CFV)

2.3.1.   Calibration of the CFV is based on the flow equation for a critical-flow venturi:

Equation Ap 4-4:

Formula

where:

Qs= flow;

Kv= calibration coefficient;

P= absolute pressure (kPa);

T= absolute temperature (K).

Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature. The calibration procedure described in points 2.3.2. to 2.3.7. shall establish the value of the calibration coefficient at measured values of pressure, temperature and air flow.

2.3.2.   The manufacturer’s recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating electronic portions of the CFV.

2.3.3.   Measurements for flow calibration of the critical-flow venturi are required and the following data shall be found within the limits of precision given:

 

Barometric pressure (corrected) (Pb) ± 0,03 kPa

 

LFE air temperature, flow-meter (ETI) ± 0,15 K

 

Pressure depression upstream of LFE (EPI) ± 0,01 kPa

 

Pressure drop across (EDP) LFE matrix ± 0,0015 kPa

 

Air flow (Qs) ± 0,5 percent

 

CFV inlet depression (PPI) ± 0,02 kPa

 

Temperature at venturi inlet (Tv) ± 0,2 K.

2.3.4.   The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure Ap 4-4 and checked for leaks. Any leaks between the flow-measuring device and the critical-flow venturi will seriously affect the accuracy of the calibration.

Figure Ap4-4

CFV calibration configuration

Image

2.3.5.   The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position, the blower shall be started and the system stabilised. Data from all instruments shall be recorded.

2.3.6.   The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least eight readings shall be taken across the critical flow range of the venturi.

2.3.7.   The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the following calculations. The air flow-rate (Qs) at each test point is calculated from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer’s prescribed method. Calculate values of the calibration coefficient (Kv) for each test point:

Equation Ap 4-5:

Formula

where:

Qs= flow-rate in m3/min at 273,2 K and 101,3 kPa;

Tv= temperature at the venturi inlet (K);

Pv= absolute pressure at the venturi inlet (kPa).

Plot Kv as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For sonic flow, Kv will have a relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and Kv decreases. The resultant Kv changes are not permissible. For a minimum of eight points in the critical region, calculate an average Kv and the standard deviation. If the standard deviation exceeds 0,3 percent of the average Kv, take corrective action.

3.   System verification procedure

3.1.   General requirements

The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated as if during a normal test and then analysing and calculating the pollutant mass according to the formula in point 4, except that the density of propane shall be taken as 1,967 grams per litre at standard conditions. The two techniques described in points 3.2. and 3.3. are known to give sufficient accuracy. The maximum permissible deviation between the quantity of gas introduced and the quantity of gas measured is 5 percent.

3.2.   CFO method

3.2.1.   Metering a constant flow of pure gas (CO or C3H8) using a critical-flow orifice device

3.2.2.   A known quantity of pure gas (CO or C3H8) is fed into the CVS system through the calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow-rate (q), which is adjusted by means of the critical-flow orifice, is independent of orifice outlet pressure (critical flow). If deviations exceeding 5 percent occur, the cause of the malfunction shall be determined and corrected. The CVS system is operated as in an exhaust emission test for about five to ten minutes. The gas collected in the sampling bag is analysed by the usual equipment and the results compared to the concentration of the gas samples which was known beforehand.

3.3.   Gravimetric method

3.3.1.   Metering a limited quantity of pure gas (CO or C3H8) by means of a gravimetric technique

3.3.2.   The following gravimetric procedure may be used to verify the CVS system. The weight of a small cylinder filled with either carbon monoxide or propane is determined with a precision of ± 0,01 g. For about five to ten minutes, the CVS system is operated as in a normal exhaust emission test, while CO or propane is injected into the system. The quantity of pure gas involved is determined by means of differential weighing. The gas accumulated in the bag is analysed using the equipment normally used for exhaust-gas analysis. The results are then compared to the concentration figures computed previously.

Appendix 5

Classification of equivalent inertia mass and running resistance

1.

The chassis dynamometer can be set using the running resistance table instead of the running resistance force obtained by the coast-down methods set out in Appendices 7 or 8. In this table method, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by the reference mass regardless of particular L-category vehicle characteristics.

2.

The flywheel equivalent inertia mass mref shall be the equivalent inertia mass mi specified in point 4.5.6.1.2. The chassis dynamometer shall be set by the rolling resistance of front wheel ‘a’ and the aerodynamic drag coefficient ‘b’ specified in the following table.

Table Ap5-1

Classification of equivalent inertia mass and running resistance used for L-category vehicles

Reference mass mref

(kg)

Equivalent inertia mass mi

(kg)

Rolling resistance of front wheel a

(N)

Aero drag coefficient b

Formula

Formula

20

1,8

0,0203

Formula

30

2,6

0,0205

Formula

40

3,5

0,0206

Formula

50

4,4

0,0208

Formula

60

5,3

0,0209

Formula

70

6,8

0,0211

Formula

80

7,0

0,0212

Formula

90

7,9

0,0214

Formula

100

8,8

0,0215

Formula

110

9,7

0,0217

Formula

120

10,6

0,0218

Formula

130

11,4

0,0220

Formula

140

12,3

0,0221

Formula

150

13,2

0,0223

Formula

160

14,1

0,0224

Formula

170

15,0

0,0226

Formula

180

15,8

0,0227

Formula

190

16,7

0,0229

Formula

200

17,6

0,0230

Formula

210

18,5

0,0232

Formula

220

19,4

0,0233

Formula

230

20,2

0,0235

Formula

240

21,1

0,0236

Formula

250

22,0

0,0238

Formula

260

22,9

0,0239

Formula

270

23,8

0,0241

Formula

280

24,6

0,0242

Formula

290

25,5

0,0244

Formula

300

26,4

0,0245

Formula

310

27,3

0,0247

Formula

320

28,2

0,0248

Formula

330

29,0

0,0250

Formula

340

29,9

0,0251

Formula

350

30,8

0,0253

Formula

360

31,7

0,0254

Formula

370

32,6

0,0256

Formula

380

33,4

0,0257

Formula

390

34,3

0,0259

Formula

400

35,2

0,0260

Formula

410

36,1

0,0262

Formula

420

37,0

0,0263

Formula

430

37,8

0,0265

Formula

440

38,7

0,0266

Formula

450

39,6

0,0268

Formula

460

40,5

0,0269

Formula

470

41,4

0,0271

Formula

480

42,2

0,0272

Formula

490

43,1

0,0274

Formula

500

44,0

0,0275

At every 10 kg

At every 10 kg

Formula

 (1)

Formula

 (2)

(1)  The value shall be rounded to one decimal place.

(2)  The value shall be rounded to four decimal places.

Appendix 6

Driving cycles for type I tests

(1)   UNECE Regulation No 47 (ECE R47)-based test cycle

1.   Description of the ECE R47 test cycle

The ECE R47 test cycle to be used on the chassis dynamometer shall be as depicted in the following graph:

Figure Ap6-1

ECE R47-based test cycle

Image

The ECE R47-based test cycle lasts 896 seconds and consists of eight elementary cycles to be carried out without interruption. Each cycle shall comprise of seven driving condition phases (idling, acceleration, steady speed, deceleration, etc.) as set out in points 2 and 3. The truncated vehicle speed trace restricted to maximum 25 km/h is applicable for L1e-A and L1e-B vehicles with a maximum design speed of 25 km/h.

2.   The following elementary cycle characteristic in the shape of the dynamometer-roller speed profile versus test time shall be repeated eight times in total. The cold phase means the first 448 s (four cycles) after cold start of the propulsion and warming-up of the engine. The warm or hot phase is the last 448 s (four cycles), when the propulsion is further warming up and finally running at operating temperature.

Table Ap6-1

ECE R47 single cycle characteristic vehicle speed profile versus test time

No. of operation

Operation

Acceleration

(m/s2)

Roller speed

(km/h)

Duration of operation

(s)

Total duration of one cycle

(s)

1

Idling

8

 

2

Acceleration

full throttle

0-max

 

8

3

Constant speed

full throttle

max

57

 

4

Deceleration

–0,56

max -20

 

65

5

Constant speed

20

36

101

6

Deceleration

–0,93

20-0

6

107

7

Idling

5

112

3.   ECE R47 test cycle tolerances

The test cycle tolerances indicated in Figure Ap 6-2 for one elementary cycle of the ECE R47 test cycle shall be respected in principle during the whole test cycle.

Figure Ap6-2

ECE R47 based test cycle tolerances

Image

(2)   UNECE Regulation No 40 (ECE R40)-based driving cycle

1.   Description of the test cycle

The ECE R40 test cycle to be used on the chassis dynamometer shall be as depicted in the following graph:

Figure Ap6-3

ECE R40-based test cycle

Image

The ECE R40-based test cycle lasts 1 170 seconds and consists of six elementary urban operating cycle cycles to be carried out without interruption. Each elementary urban cycle shall comprise fifteen driving condition phases (idling, acceleration, steady speed, deceleration, etc.) as set out in points 2 and 3.

2.   The following cycle characteristic dynamometer-roller speed profile versus test time shall be repeated 6 times in total. The cold phase means the first 195 s (one elementary urban cycle) after cold start of the propulsion and warming up. The warm phase is the last 975 s (five elementary urban cycles), when the propulsion is further warming up and finally running at operating temperature.

Table Ap6-2

ECE R40 elementary urban cycle characteristic, vehicle speed profile versus test time

No

Nature of operation

Phase

Acceleration

(m/s2)

Speed

(km/h)

Duration of each

Cumulative time

(s)

Gear to be used in the case of a manual-shift gearbox

Operation

(s)

Phase

(s)

1

Idling

1

0

0

11

11

11

6 s PM + 5 s K (1)

2

Acceleration

2

1,04

0-15

4

4

15

According to manufacturer’s instructions

3

Steady speed

3

0

15

8

8

23

4

Deceleration

4

–0,69

15-10

2

5

25

5

Deceleration, clutch disengaged

–0,92

10-0

3

28

K (1)

6

Idling

5

0

0

21

21

49

16 s PM + 5 s K (1)

7

Acceleration

6

0,74

0-32

12

12

61

According to manufacturer’s instructions

8

Steady speed

7

 

32

24

24

85

9

Deceleration

8

–0,75

32-10

8

11

93

10

Deceleration, clutch disengaged

–0,92

10-0

3

96

K (1)

11

Idling

9

0

0

21

21

117

16 s PM + 5 s K (1)

12

Acceleration

10

0,53

0-50

26

26

143

According to manufacturer’s instructions

13

Steady speed

11

0

50

12

12

155

14

Deceleration

12

–0,52

50-35

8

8

163

15

Steady speed

13

0

35

13

13

176

16

Deceleration

14

–0,68

35-10

9

 

185

17

Deceleration clutch disengaged

–0,92

10-0

3

188

K (1)

18

Idling

15

0

0

7

7

195

7 s PM (1)

3.   ECE R40 test cycle tolerances

The test cycle tolerances indicated in Figure Ap 6-4 for one elementary urban cycle of the ECE R40 test cycle shall be respected in principle during the whole test cycle.

Figure Ap6-4

ECE R40-based test cycle tolerances

Image

4.   Generic applicable ECE R40 and R47 test cycle tolerances

4.1.

A tolerance of 1 km/h over or under the theoretical speed shall be allowed during all phases of the test cycle. Speed tolerances greater than those prescribed shall be accepted during phase changes provided that the tolerances are not exceeded for more than 0,5 second on any occasion, without prejudice to the provisions of points 4.3. and 4.4. The time tolerance shall be + 0,5 sec.

4.2.

The distance driven during the cycle shall be measured to (0 / + 2) percent.

4.3.

If the acceleration capability of the L-category vehicle is not sufficient to carry out the acceleration phases within the prescribed limits of tolerances or the prescribed maximum vehicle speed in the individual cycles cannot be achieved owing to a lack of propulsion power, the vehicle shall be driven with the throttle fully open until the speed prescribed for the cycle is reached and the cycle shall be carried on normally.

4.4.

If the period of deceleration is shorter than that prescribed for the corresponding phase, the timing of the theoretical cycle shall be restored by a constant speed or idling period merging into the subsequent constant speed or idling operation. In such cases, point 4.1 shall not apply.

5.   Sampling of the exhaust flow of the vehicle in the ECE R40 and R47 test cycles

5.1.   Check of back-pressure from sampling device

During the preliminary tests, a check shall be made to ensure that the back-pressure set up by the sampling device is equal to the atmospheric pressure to within ± 1 230 Pa.

5.2.   Sampling shall start as of t=0 just before cranking and starting-up of the combustion engine if that engine makes part of the propulsion type.

5.3.   The combustion engine shall be started up by means of the devices provided for that purpose — the choke, the starter valve, etc. — in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

5.4.   The sampling bags shall be hermetically closed as soon as filling is completed.

5.5.   At the end of the test cycle, the system for collecting dilute exhaust mixture and dilution air shall be closed and the gases produced by the engine shall be released into the atmosphere.

6.   Gearshift procedures

6.1.

The ECE R47 test shall be conducted using the gearshift procedure set out in point 2.3 of UNECE regulation No 47.

6.2.

The ECE R40 test shall be conducted using the gearshift procedure set out in point 2.3 of UNECE regulation No 40.

(3)   World Harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), stage 2

1.   Description of the test cycle

The WMTC stage 2 to be used on the chassis dynamometer shall be as depicted in the following graph:

Figure Ap6-5

WMTC stage 2

Image

1.1.   The WMTC stage 2 includes the same vehicle speed trace as WMTC stage 1 with supplemental gear shift prescriptions. The WMTC stage 2 lasts 1 800 seconds and consists of three parts to be carried out without interruption. The characteristic driving conditions (idling, acceleration, steady speed, deceleration, etc.). are set out in the following points and tables.

2.   WMTC stage 2, cycle part 1

Figure Ap6-6

WMTC stage 2, part 1

Image

2.1   The WMTC stage 2 includes the same vehicle speed trace as WMTC stage 1 with supplemental gear shift prescriptions. The characteristic roller speed versus test time of WMTC stage 2, cycle part 1 is set out in the following tables.

2.2.1.

Table Ap6-3

WMTC stage 2, cycle part 1, reduced speed for vehicle classes 1 and 2-1, 0 to 180 s.

time in s

roller speed in km/h

phase indicators

stop

acc

cruise

dec

0

0,0

X

 

 

 

1

0,0

X

 

 

 

2

0,0

X

 

 

 

3

0,0

X

 

 

 

4

0,0

X

 

 

 

5

0,0

X

 

 

 

6

0,0

X

 

 

 

7

0,0

X

 

 

 

8

0,0

X

 

 

 

9

0,0

X

 

 

 

10

0,0

X

 

 

 

11

0,0

X

 

 

 

12

0,0

X

 

 

 

13

0,0

X

 

 

 

14

0,0

X

 

 

 

15

0,0

X

 

 

 

16

0,0

X

 

 

 

17

0,0

X

 

 

 

18

0,0

X

 

 

 

19

0,0

X

 

 

 

20

0,0

X

 

 

 

21

0,0

X

 

 

 

22

1,0

 

X

 

 

23

2,6

 

X

 

 

24

4,8

 

X

 

 

25

7,2

 

X

 

 

26

9,6

 

X

 

 

27

12,0

 

X

 

 

28

14,3

 

X

 

 

29

16,6

 

X

 

 

30

18,9

 

X

 

 

31

21,2

 

X

 

 

32

23,5

 

X

 

 

33

25,6

 

X

 

 

34

27,1

 

X

 

 

35

28,0

 

X

 

 

36

28,7

 

X

 

 

37

29,2

 

X

 

 

38

29,8

 

X

 

 

39

30,3

 

 

X

 

40

29,6

 

 

X

 

41

28,7

 

 

X

 

42

27,9

 

 

X

 

43

27,4

 

 

X

 

44

27,3

 

 

X

 

45

27,3

 

 

X

 

46

27,4

 

 

X

 

47

27,5

 

 

X

 

48

27,6

 

 

X

 

49

27,6

 

 

X

 

50

27,6

 

 

X

 

51

27,8

 

 

X

 

52

28,1

 

 

X

 

53

28,5

 

 

X

 

54