EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Back to EUR-Lex homepage

This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website

Document 32014R0134

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 134/2014 of 16 December 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof Text with EEA relevance

OJ L 53, 21.2.2014, p. 1–10 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

Legal status of the document In force: This act has been changed. Current consolidated version: 26/12/2023

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2014/134/oj

21.2.2014   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 53/1


COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 134/2014

of 16 December 2013

supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (1), and in particular Article 18(3), Article 23(12), Article 24(3) and Article 74 thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

The term ‘L-category vehicles’ covers a wide range of light vehicle types with two, three or four wheels, e.g. powered cycles, two- and three-wheel mopeds, two- and three-wheel motorcycles, motorcycles with side-cars and light four-wheel vehicles (quadricycles) such as on-road quads, all-terrain quads and quadrimobiles.

(2)

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 provides for the possibility of applying regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) for the purpose of EU whole vehicle type-approval. Under that Regulation, type-approval in accordance with UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis is regarded as EU type-approval.

(3)

The compulsory application of UNECE regulations helps avoiding duplication not only of technical requirements but also of certification and administrative procedures. In addition, type-approval that is directly based on internationally agreed standards could improve market access in third countries, in particular those which are contracting parties to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (‘Revised 1958 Agreement’), acceded by the Union by Council Decision 97/836/EC (2), and thus enhance the Union industry’s competitiveness. However, to date the available UNECE regulations are either outdated or not existing and therefore these are revisited and upgraded for technical progress.

(4)

Therefore, Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 provides for the repeal of several directives concerning the approval of L-category vehicles, their systems, components and separate technical units intended for those vehicles in the areas of environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements. For the purposes of EU type-approval those directives should be replaced first with the provisions of this Regulation. On the long term, when the revisiting process at the level of the UN is finished, equivalent UNECE regulations will be available, which then will allow to replace the text of this Regulation with making reference to those UNECE regulations.

(5)

In particular UNECE regulation No 41 on noise emissions of categories L3e and L4e motorcycles was updated in 2011 for technical progress. UNECE regulation No 41 should therefore be made obligatory in EU type-approval legislation and replace Annex III to Chapter 9 of Directive 97/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (3) in order for motorcycles to comply with only one set of motorcycle sound requirements, which are world-wide accepted by the contracting parties to the Revised 1958 Agreement. UNECE regulation No 85 on measurement of net power of electric motors should also be made obligatory with the same objective of mutual recognition between the contracting parties to the Revised 1958 Agreement in the area of propulsion unit performance requirements for electric motors.

(6)

The Euro 4 and 5 environmental steps are such measures designed to reduce emissions of particulate matter and ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. A considerable reduction in hydrocarbon emissions from L-category vehicles is necessary to improve air quality and comply The exhaust system which is granted system type-approval with limit values for pollution, not only directly to significantly reduce the disproportionately high hydrocarbon tailpipe and evaporative emissions from these vehicles, but also to help reduce volatile particle levels in urban areas and possibly also smog.

(7)

One of the measures against excessive hydrocarbon emissions from L-category vehicles is to limit the evaporative emissions to the hydrocarbon mass limits laid down in Annex VI(C) to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. For this purpose, a type IV test has to be conducted at type-approval in order to measure the evaporative emissions of a vehicle. One of the requirements of the type IV Sealed House evaporative Emission Determination (SHED) test is to fit either a rapidly aged carbon canister or alternatively to apply an additive deterioration factor when fitting a degreened carbon canister. It will be investigated in the environmental effect study referred to in Article 23(4) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 whether or not it is cost effective to maintain this deterioration factor as alternative to fitting a representative and rapidly aged carbon canister. If the result of the study demonstrates that this method is not cost-effective a proposal will follow in due course to delete this alternative and should become applicable beyond the Euro 5 step.

(8)

A standardised method for measuring vehicles’ energy efficiency (fuel or energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions as well as electric range) is necessary to ensure that no technical barriers to trade arise between Member States and also to ensure that customers and users are supplied with objective and precise information.

(9)

The methods for measuring propulsion unit performance including the maximum design vehicle speed, maximum torque and maximum continuous total power of L-category vehicles may differ from one Member State to the next, this might constitute barriers to trade within the Union. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up harmonised requirements for methods for measuring the propulsion unit performance of L-category vehicles in order to enable the approval of vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units to be applied for each type of such vehicle.

(10)

Functional safety or environmental requirements call for restrictions on tampering with certain types of L-category vehicles. In order to avoid obstacles to servicing and maintenance by vehicle owners, such restrictions should be strictly limited to tampering which significantly modifies the environmental and propulsion unit performance of the vehicle and functional safety in a harmful way. As harmful tampering of the vehicle’s powertrain affects both the environmental and functional safety performance, the detailed requirements regarding propulsion unit performance and noise abatement set out in this Regulation should also be used as reference for enforcement of powertrain tampering prevention.

(11)

Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 makes reference to the 8 test types that allow assessment of the environmental performance of the L-category vehicle to be approved. It is appropriate to set out detailed test requirements in this delegated act as well as to amend Annex V (A) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 by linking the test limits agreed by Council and the European Parliament with detailed test procedures and technical requirements set out in this Regulation. A reference to the detailed test procedures and requirements set out in this Regulation should be inserted into Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 by means of the amendments set out in Annex XII of this Regulation.

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

CHAPTER I

SUBJECT MATTER AND DEFINITIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation establishes the detailed technical requirements and test procedures regarding environmental and propulsion unit performance for the approval of L-category vehicles and the systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and sets out a list of UNECE regulations and amendments thereto.

Article 2

Definitions

The definitions of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 shall apply. In addition, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)

‘WMTC stage 1’ refers to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (4) used as alternative type I emission test cycle to the European Driving Cycle as of 2006 for category L3e motorcycle types;

(2)

‘WMTC stage 2’ refers to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in the amended UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (5) which is used as compulsory type I emission test cycle in the approval of Euro 4 compliant (sub-)categories L3e, L4e, L5e-A and L7e-A vehicles;

(3)

‘WMTC stage 3’ refers to the revised WMTC referred to in Annex VI(A) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and is equal to the World harmonised Motorcycle Test Cycle laid down in the amended UNECE Global Technical Regulation No 2 (6) and adapted for vehicles with a low maximum design vehicle speed, which is used as the compulsory type I emission test cycle in the approval of Euro 5 compliant L-category vehicles;

(4)

‘maximum design vehicle speed’ means the maximum speed of the vehicle determined in accordance with Article 15 of this Regulation;

(5)

‘exhaust emissions’ means tailpipe emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter;

(6)

‘particulate filter’ means a filtering device fitted in the exhaust system of a vehicle to reduce particulate matter from the exhaust flow;

(7)

‘properly maintained and used’ means that when selecting a test vehicle it satisfies the criteria with regard to a good level of maintenance and normal use according to the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer for acceptance of such a test vehicle;

(8)

‘fuel requirement’ by the engine means the type of fuel normally used by the engine:

(a)

petrol (E5);

(b)

liquefied petroleum gas (LPG);

(c)

NG/biomethane (natural gas);

(d)

either petrol (E5) or LPG;

(e)

either petrol (E5) or NG/biomethane;

(f)

diesel fuel (B5);

(g)

mixture of ethanol (E85) and petrol (E5) (flex fuel);

(h)

mixture of biodiesel and diesel (B5) (flex fuel);

(i)

hydrogen (H2) or a mixture (H2NG) of NG/biomethane and hydrogen;

(j)

either petrol (E5) or hydrogen (bi-fuel);

(9)

‘environmental performance type-approval’ of a vehicle means the approval of a vehicle type, variant or version with regard to the following conditions:

(a)

complying with Parts A and B of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013;

(b)

falling into one propulsion family according to the criteria set out in Annex XI;

(10)

‘vehicle type with regard to environmental performance’ means a set of L-category vehicles which do not differ in the following:

(a)

the equivalent inertia determined in relation to the reference mass, in accordance with Appendices 5, 7 or 8 to Annex II;

(b)

the propulsion characteristics set out in Annex XI regarding propulsion family;

(11)

‘periodically regenerating system’ means a pollution control device such as a catalytic converter, particulate filter or any other pollution control device that requires a periodical regeneration process in less than 4 000 km of normal vehicle operation;

(12)

‘alternative fuel vehicle’ means a vehicle designed to run on at least one type of fuel that is either gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure, or substantially non-mineral oil derived;

(13)

‘flex fuel H2NG vehicle’ means a flex fuel vehicle designed to run on different mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas or biomethane;

(14)

‘parent vehicle’ means a vehicle that is representative of a propulsion family set out in Annex XI;

(15)

‘pollution-control device type’ means a category of pollution-control devices that are used to control pollutant emissions and that do not differ in their essential environmental performance and design characteristics;

(16)

‘catalytic converter’ means an emission pollution-control device which converts toxic by-products of combustion in the ehaust of an engine to less toxic substances by means of catalysed chemical reactions;

(17)

‘catalytic converter type’ means a category of catalytic converters that do not differ as regards the following:

(a)

number of coated substrates, structure and material;

(b)

type of catalytic activity (oxidising, three-way, or of another type of catalytic activity);

(c)

volume, ratio of frontal area and substrate length;

(d)

catalytic converter material content;

(e)

catalytic converter material ratio;

(f)

cell density;

(g)

dimensions and shape;

(h)

thermal protection;

(i)

an inseparable exhaust manifold, catalytic converter and muffler integrated in the exhaust system of a vehicle or separable exhaust system units that can be replaced;

(18)

‘reference mass’ means the mass in running order of the L-category vehicle determined in accordance with Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 increased with the mass of the driver (75 kg) and if applicable plus the mass of the propulsion battery;

(19)

‘drive train’ means the part of the powertrain downstream of the output of the propulsion unit(s) that consists if applicable of the torque converter clutches, the transmission and its control, either a drive shaft or belt drive or chain drive, the differentials, the final drive, and the driven wheel tyre (radius);

(20)

‘stop-start system’ means automatic stop and start of the propulsion unit to reduce the amount of idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption, pollutant and CO2 emissions of the vehicle;

(21)

‘powertrain software’ means a set of algorithms concerned with the operation of data processing in powertrain control units, propulsion control units or drive-train control units, containing an ordered sequence of instructions that change the state of the control units;

(22)

‘powertrain calibration’ means the application of a specific set of data maps and parameters used by the control unit’s software to tune the vehicle’s powertrain, propulsion or drive train unit(s)’s control;

(23)

‘powertrain control unit’ means a combined control unit of combustion engine(s), electric traction motors or drive train unit systems including the transmission or the clutch;

(24)

‘engine control unit’ means the on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the engine or engines of the vehicle;

(25)

‘drive train control unit’ means the on-board computer that partly or entirely controls the drive train of the vehicle;

(26)

‘sensor’ means a converter that measures a physical quantity or state and converts it into an electric signal that is used as input to a control unit;

(27)

‘actuator’ means a converter of an output signal from a control unit into motion, heat or other physical state in order to control the powertrain, engine(s) or drive train;

(28)

‘carburettor’ means a device that blends fuel and air into a mixture that can be combusted in a combustion engine;

(29)

‘scavenging port’ means a connector between crankcase and combustion chamber of a two-stroke engine through which the fresh charge of air, fuel and lubrication oil mixture enters the combustion chamber;

(30)

‘air intake system’ means a system composed of components allowing the fresh-air charge or air-fuel mixture to enter the engine and includes, if fitted, the air filter, intake pipes, resonator(s), the throttle body and the intake manifold of an engine;

(31)

‘turbocharger’ means an exhaust gas turbine-powered centrifugal compressor boosting the amount of air charge into the combustion engine, thereby increasing propulsion unit performance;

(32)

‘super-charger’ means an intake air compressor used for forced induction of a combustion engine, thereby increasing propulsion unit performance;

(33)

‘fuel cell’ means a converter of chemical energy from hydrogen into electric energy for propulsion of the vehicle;

(34)

‘crankcase’ means the spaces in or external to an engine which are connected to the oil sump by internal or external ducts through which gases and vapour can escape;

(35)

‘permeability test’ means testing of the losses through the walls of the non-metallic fuel storage and preconditioning the non-metallic fuel storage material prior to fuel storage testing in accordance with Number C8 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013;

(36)

‘permeation’ means the losses through the walls of the fuel storage and delivery systems, which is generally tested by determination of the weight losses;

(37)

‘evaporation’ means the breathing losses from the fuel storage, fuel delivery system or other sources through which hydrocarbons breathe into the atmosphere;

(38)

‘mileage accumulation’ means a representative test vehicle or a fleet of representative test vehicles driving a predefined distance as set out in points (a) or (b) of Article 23(3) to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 in accordance with the test requirements of Annex VI to this Regulation;

(39)

‘electric powertrain’ means a system consisting of one or more electric energy storage devices such as batteries, electromechanical flywheels, super capacitors or other, one or more electric power conditioning devices and one or more electric machines that convert stored electric energy to mechanical energy delivered at the wheels for propulsion of the vehicle;

(40)

‘electric range’, means the distance that vehicles powered by an electric powertrain only or by a hybrid electric powertrain with off-vehicle charging can drive electrically on one fully charged battery or other electric energy storage device as measured in accordance with the procedure set out in Appendix 3.3. to Annex VII;

(41)

‘OVC range’ means the total distance covered during complete combined cycles run until the energy imparted by external charging of the battery (or other electric energy storage device) is depleted, as measured in accordance with the procedure described in Appendix 3.3. to Annex VII;

(42)

‘maximum thirty minutes speed’ of a vehicle means the maximum achievable vehicle speed measured during 30 minutes as a result of the 30 minute power set out in UNECE regulation No 85;

(43)

‘propulsion unit performance type-approval’ of a vehicle means the approval of a vehicle type, variant or version with regard to the performance of the propulsion units as regards the following conditions:

(a)

the maximum design vehicle speed(s);

(b)

the maximum continuous rated torque or maximum net torque;

(c)

the maximum continuous rated power or the maximum net power;

(d)

the maximum total torque and power in the case of a hybrid application.

(44)

‘propulsion type’ means the propulsion units whose characteristics do not differ in any fundamental respect as regards maximum design vehicle speed, maximum net power, maximum continuous rated power and maximum torque;

(45)

‘net power’ means the power available on the test bench at the end of the crankshaft or equivalent component of the propulsion unit at the rotation speeds measured by the manufacturer at type-approval, together with the accessories listed in Tables Ap2.1-1 or Ap2.2-1 of Appendix 2 of Annex X, and taking into account the efficiency of the gearbox where the net power can only be measured with the gearbox fitted to the propulsion;

(46)

‘maximum net power’ means the maximum net power output from propulsion units that include one or more combustion engines, under full engine load operation;

(47)

‘maximum torque’ means the maximum torque value measured under full engine load operation;

(48)

‘accessories’ means all apparatus and devices listed in Table Ap2.1-1 or Ap2.2-1 of Annex X.

CHAPTER II

OBLIGATIONS OF THE MANUFACTURER REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF VEHICLES

Article 3

Fitting and demonstration requirements related to the environmental performance of L-category vehicles

1.   The manufacturer shall equip L-category vehicles with systems, components and separate technical units affecting the environmental performance of a vehicle that are designed, constructed and assembled so as to enable the vehicle in normal use and maintained according to the prescriptions of the manufacturer to comply with the detailed technical requirements and testing procedures of this Regulation.

2.   The manufacturer shall demonstrate by means of physical demonstration testing to the approval authority that the L-category vehicles made available on the market, registered or entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures concerning the environmental performance of these vehicles laid down in Articles 5 to 15.

3.   Where the manufacturer modifies the characteristics of the emission abatement system or performance of any of the emission-relevant components after the approved vehicle type with regard to environmental performance is placed on the market, the manufacturer shall report this to the approval authority without delay. The manufacturer shall provide evidence to the approval authority that the changed emission abatement system or component characteristics do not result in a worse environmental performance than that demonstrated at type-approval.

4.   The manufacturer shall ensure that spare parts and equipment that are made available on the market or are entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures with respect to the environmental performance of the vehicles referred to in this Regulation. An approved L-category vehicle equipped with such a spare part or equipment shall meet the same test requirements and performance limit values as a vehicle equipped with an original part or equipment satisfying endurance requirements up to and including those set out in Article 22(2), Article 23 and Article 24 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

5.   The manufacturer shall ensure that type-approval procedures for verifying conformity of production are followed as regards the detailed environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements laid down in Article 33 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and its Number C3 of Annex II.

6.   The manufacturer shall submit to the approval authority a description of the measures taken to prevent tampering with the powertrain management system including the computers controlling the environmental and propulsion unit performance in accordance with Number C1 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

7.   For hybrid applications or applications equipped with a stop-start system, the manufacturer shall install on the vehicle a ‘service mode’ that makes it possible, subject to environmental and propulsion unit performance testing or inspection, for the vehicle to continuously run the fuel-consuming engine. Where that inspection or test execution requires a special procedure, this shall be detailed in the service manual (or equivalent media). That special procedure shall not require the use of special equipment other than that provided with the vehicle.

Article 4

Application of UNECE regulations

1.   The UNECE regulations and amendments thereto set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply to environmental and propulsion unit performance type approval.

2.   Vehicles with a maximum design vehicle speed ≤ 25 km/h shall meet all the relevant requirements of UNECE regulations applying to vehicles with a maximum vehicle design speed of > 25 km/h.

3.   References to vehicle categories L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7 in the UNECE regulations shall be understood as references to vehicle categories L1e, L2e, L3e, L4e, L5e, L6e and L7e respectively under this Regulation, including any sub-categories.

Article 5

Technical specifications, requirements and test procedures with respect to the environmental performance of L-category vehicles

1.   The environmental and propulsion unit performance test procedures shall be performed in accordance with the test requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   The test procedures shall be carried out or witnessed by the approval authority or, if authorised by the approval authority, by the technical service. The manufacturer shall select a representative parent vehicle to demonstrate compliance of the environmental performance of the L-category vehicles to the satisfaction of the approval authority complying with the requirements of Annex XI.

3.   The measurement methods and test results shall be reported to the approval authority in the test report format pursuant to Article 32(1) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

4.   The environmental performance type-approval regarding test types I, II, III, IV, V, VII and VIII shall extend to different vehicle variants, versions and propulsion types and families, provided that the vehicle version, propulsion or pollution-control system parameters specified in Annex XI are identical or remain within the prescribed and declared tolerances in that Annex.

5.   Hybrid applications or applications equipped with a stop-start system shall be tested with the fuel-consuming engine running where specified in the test procedure.

Article 6

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type I on tailpipe emissions after cold start referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex II to this Regulation.

Article 7

Test type II requirements: tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and at free acceleration

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type II on tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and at free acceleration referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex III to this Regulation.

Article 8

Test type III requirements: emissions of crankcase gases

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type III on emissions of crankcase gases referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex IV to this Regulation.

Article 9

Test type IV requirements: evaporative emissions

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type IV on evaporative emissions referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex V to this Regulation.

Article 10

Test type V requirements: durability of pollution-control devices

The type V durability of pollution-control devices test procedures and requirements referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VI to this Regulation.

Article 11

Test type VII requirements: CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption or electric range

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type VII on energy efficiency with respect to CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption or electric range referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VII to this Regulation.

Article 12

Test type VIII requirements: OBD environmental tests

The test procedures and requirements applying to test type VIII on the environmental part of on-board diagnostics (OBD) referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VIII to this Regulation.

Article 13

Test type IX requirements: sound level

The type test procedures and requirements applying to test type IX on sound level referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex IX to this Regulation.

CHAPTER III

OBLIGATIONS OF MANUFACTURERS REGARDING THE PROPULSION PERFORMANCE OF VEHICLES

Article 14

General obligations

1.   Before making an L-category vehicle available on the market, the manufacturer shall demonstrate the propulsion unit performance of the L-category vehicle type to the approval authority in accordance with the requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   When making an L-category vehicle available on the market or registering it or before its entry into service, the manufacturer shall ensure that the propulsion unit performance of the L-category vehicle type does not exceed that reported to the approval authority in the information folder provided for in Article 27 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

3.   The propulsion unit performance of a vehicle equipped with a replacement system, component or separate technical unit shall not exceed that of a vehicle equipped with the original systems, components or separate technical units.

Article 15

Propulsion performance requirements

The test procedures and requirements on propulsion unit performance referred to in Number A2 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex X to this Regulation.

CHAPTER IV

OBLIGATIONS OF THE MEMBER STATES

Article 16

Type-approval of L-category vehicles, their systems, components or separate technical units

1.   Where a manufacturer so requests, the national authorities shall not, on grounds relating to the environmental performance of vehicle, refuse to grant an environmental and propulsion unit performance type-approval or national approval for a new type of vehicle, or prohibit the making available on the market, registration, or entry into service of a vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit, where the vehicle concerned complies with Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and the detailed test requirements laid down in this Regulation.

2.   With effect from the dates laid down in Annex IV to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, national authorities shall, in the case of new vehicles that do not comply with the Euro 4 environmental step set out in Parts A1, B1, C1 and D of Annex VI and Annex VII to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 or the Euro 5 environmental step set out in Parts A2, B2, C2 and D of Annex VI and Annex VII to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 consider certificates of conformity containing previous environmental limit values to be no longer valid for the purposes of Article 43(1) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and shall, on grounds relating to emissions, fuel or energy consumption, or the applicable functional safety or vehicle construction requirements, prohibit the making available on the market, registration or entry into service of such vehicles.

3.   When applying Article 77(5) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, national authorities shall classify the approved vehicle type in accordance with Annex I to that Regulation.

Article 17

Type-approval of replacement pollution-control devices

1.   National authorities shall prohibit the making available on the market or installation on a vehicle of new replacement pollution-control devices intended to be fitted on vehicles approved under this Regulation where they are not of a type in respect of which an environmental and propulsion unit performance type-approval has been granted in compliance with Article 23(10) of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and with this Regulation.

2.   National authorities may continue to grant extensions to EU type-approvals referred to in Article 35 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 for replacement pollution-control devices which are of a type in the scope of Directive 2002/24/EC under the terms which originally applied. National authorities shall prohibit the making available on the market or installation on a vehicle of such replacement pollution-control device type unless they are of a type in respect of which a relevant type-approval has been granted.

3.   A replacement pollution-control device type intended to be fitted to a vehicle type-approved in compliance with this Regulation shall be tested in accordance with Appendix 10 to Annex II and with Annex VI.

4.   Original equipment replacement pollution-control devices which are of a type covered by this Regulation and which are intended to be fitted to a vehicle which the relevant whole vehicle type-approval document refers to, do not need to comply with the test requirements of Appendix 10 to Annex II, provided they fulfil the requirements of point 4 of that Appendix.

CHAPTER V

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 18

Amendment of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013

Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 is amended in accordance with Annex XII.

Article 19

Entry into force

1.   This Regulation shall enter into force on the day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

2.   It shall apply from 1 January 2016.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 16 December 2013.

For the Commission

The President

José Manuel BARROSO


(1)   OJ L 60, 2.3.2013, p. 52.

(2)  Council Decision 97/836/EC of 27 November 1997 with a view to accession by the European Community to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (‘Revised 1958 Agreement’) (OJ L 346, 17.12.1997, p. 78).

(3)   OJ L 226, 18.8.1997, p. 1.

(4)   ‘Measurement procedure for two-wheel motorcycles equipped with a positive or compression ignition engine with regard to the emissions of gaseous pollutants, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption (UN document reference ECE/TRANS/180/Add2e of 30 August 2005)’ including amendment 1 (UNECE document reference ECE/TRANS/180a2a1e of 29 January 2008).

(5)  The WMTC stage 2 is equal to the WMTC stage 1 amended by corrigendum 2 of addendum 2 (ECE/TRANS/180a2c2e of 9 September 2009) and corrigendum 1 of amendment 1 (ECE/TRANS/180a2a1c1e of 9 September 2009).

(6)  In addition, the corrigenda and amendments identified in the environmental effect study referred to in Article 23 of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 will be taken into account, as well as corrigenda and amendments proposed and adopted by UNECE WP29 as continuous improvement of the world-harmonised test cycle for L-category vehicles.


LIST OF ANNEXES

Annex Number

Annex title

Page

I

List of UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis

11

II

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

12

III

Test type II requirements: tailpipe emissions at (increased) idle and free acceleration

159

IV

Test type III requirements: emissions of crankcase gases

163

V

Test type IV requirements: evaporative emissions

167

VI

Test type V requirements: durability of pollution-control devices

188

VII

Test type VII requirements; CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption and electric range

207

VIII

Test type VIII requirements: OBD environmental tests

240

IX

Test type IX requirements: sound level

245

X

Testing procedures and technical requirements as regards propulsion unit performance

288

XI

Vehicle propulsion family with regard to environmental performance demonstration testing

320

XII

Amendment of Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013

326

ANNEX I

List of UNECE regulations which apply on a compulsory basis

UNECE regulation No

Subject

Series of amendments

OJ Reference

Applicability

41

Noise emissions of motorcycles

04

OJ L 317, 14.11.2012, p. 1

L3e, L4e

Explanatory note:

The fact that a system or component is included in this list does not make its installation mandatory. For certain components, however, mandatory installation requirements are laid down in other annexes to this Regulation.

ANNEX II

Test type I requirements: tailpipe emissions after cold start

Appendix Number

Appendix title

Page

1

Symbols used in Annex II

74

2

Reference fuels

78

3

Chassis dynamometer system

85

4

Exhaust dilution system

91

5

Classification of equivalent inertia mass and running resistance

103

6

Driving cycles for type I tests

106

7

Road tests of L-category vehicles equipped with one wheel on the driven axle or with twinned wheels for the determination of test bench settings

153

8

Road tests of L-category vehicles equipped with two or more wheels on the powered axle for the determination of test bench settings

160

9

Explanatory note on the gearshift procedure for a type I test

168

10

Type-approval tests of a replacement pollution-control device type for L-category vehicles as a separate technical unit

174

11

Type I test procedure for hybrid L-category vehicles

178

12

Type I test procedure for L-category vehicles fuelled with LPG, NG/biomethane, flex fuel H2NG or hydrogen

189

13

Type I test procedure for L-category vehicles equipped with a periodically regenerating system

193

1.   Introduction

1.1.

This Annex sets out the procedure for type I testing, as referred to in Part A of Annex V to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

1.2.

This Annex provides a harmonised method for the determination of the levels of gaseous pollutant emissions and particulate matter, the emissions of carbon dioxide and is referred to in Annex VII to determine the fuel consumption, energy consumption and electric range of the L-category vehicle within the scope of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 that are representative for real world vehicle operation.

1.1.1.

The ‘WMTC stage 1’ was introduced in EU type-approval legislation in 2006, which allowed manufacturers from then on to demonstrate the emission performance of the L3e motorcycle type by using the world harmonised motorcycle test cycle (WMTC) set out in UN GTR No 2 as alternative type I test to the use of the conventional European Driving Cycle (EDC) set out in Chapter 5 of Directive 97/24/EC.

1.1.2.

The ‘WMTC stage 2’ is equal to ‘WMTC stage 1’ with additional enhancements in the area of gear shift prescriptions and shall be used as compulsory type I test to approve Euro 4 compliant (sub-)categories L3e, L4e, L5e-A and L7e-A vehicles.

1.1.3.

The ‘revised WMTC’ or ‘WMTC stage 3’ is equal to ‘WMTC stage 2’ for L3e motorcycles, but contains also custom-tailored driving cycles for all other (sub-) category vehicles, used as type I test to approve Euro 5 compliant L-category vehicles.

1.2.

The results may form the basis for limiting gaseous pollutants, carbon dioxide and for the fuel consumption, energy consumption and electric range indicated by the manufacturer within the environmental performance type-approval procedures.

2.   General requirements

2.1.

The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous pollutants, carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the vehicle in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Annex.

Note 1: The symbols used in Annex II are summarised in Appendix 1.

2.2.

Any hidden strategy that ‘optimises’ the powertrain of the vehicle running the relevant emission laboratory test cycle in an advantageous way, reducing tailpipe emissions and running significantly differently under real-world conditions, is considered a defeat strategy and is prohibited, unless the manufacturer has documented and declared it to the satisfaction of the approval authority.

3.   Performance requirements

The applicable performance requirements for EU type-approval are referred to in Parts A, B and C of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

4.   Test conditions

4.1.   Test room and soak area

4.1.1.   Test room

The test room with the chassis dynamometer and the gas sample collection device shall have a temperature of 298,2 ± 5 K (25 ± 5 °C). The room temperature shall be measured in the vicinity of the vehicle cooling blower (fan) before and after the type I test.

4.1.2.   Soak area

The soak area shall have a temperature of 298,2 ± 5 K (25 ± 5 °C) and be such that the test vehicle to be preconditioned can be parked in accordance with point 5.2.4. of this Annex.

4.2.   Test vehicle

4.2.1.   General

All components of the test vehicle shall conform to those of the production series or, if the vehicle is different from the production series, a full description shall be given in the test report. In selecting the test vehicle, the manufacturer and the technical service shall agree to the satisfaction of the approval authority which tested parent vehicle is representative of the related vehicle propulsion family as laid down in Annex XI.

4.2.2.   Run-in

The vehicle shall be presented in good mechanical condition, properly maintained and used. It shall have been run in and driven at least 1 000 km before the test. The engine, drive train and vehicle shall be properly run in, in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.

4.2.3.   Adjustments

The test vehicle shall be adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements, e.g. as regards the viscosity of the oils, or, if it differs from the production series, a full description shall be given in the test report. In case of a four by four drive, the axle to which the lowest torque is delivered may be deactivated in order to allow testing on a standard chassis dynamometer.

4.2.4.   Test mass and load distribution

The test mass, including the masses of the rider and the instruments, shall be measured before the beginning of the tests. The load shall be distributed across the wheels in conformity with the manufacturer’s instructions.

4.2.5.   Tyres

The tyres shall be of a type specified as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer. The tyre pressures shall be adjusted to the specifications of the manufacturer or to those where the speed of the vehicle during the road test and the vehicle speed obtained on the chassis dynamometer are equalised. The tyre pressure shall be indicated in the test report.

4.3.   L-category vehicle sub-classification

Figure 1-1 provides a graphical overview of the L-category vehicle sub-classification in terms of engine capacity and maximum vehicle speed if subject to environmental test types I, VII and VIII, indicated by the (sub-)class numbers in the graph areas. The numerical values of the engine capacity and maximum vehicle speed shall not be rounded up or down.

Figure 1-1

L-category vehicle sub-classification for environmental testing, test types I, VII and VIII

Image 1

4.3.1.   Class 1

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 1:

Table 1-1

sub-classification criteria for class 1 L-category vehicles

engine capacity < 150 cm3 and vmax< 100 km/h

class 1

4.3.2.   Class 2

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 2 and shall be sub-classified in:

Table 1-2

sub-classification criteria for class 2 L-category vehicles

Engine capacity < 150 cm3 and 100 km/h ≤ vmax< 115 km/h or engine capacity ≥150 cm3 and vmax< 115 km/h

sub-class 2-1

115 km/h ≤ vmax< 130 km/h

sub-class 2-2

4.3.3.   Class 3

L-category vehicles that fulfil the following specifications belong to class 3 and shall be sub-classified in:

Table 1-3

sub-classification criteria for class 3 L-category vehicles

130 ≤ vmax< 140 km/h

subclass 3-1

vmax ≥ 140 km/h or engine capacity > 1 500  cm3

subclass 3-2

4.3.4.   WMTC, test cycle parts

The WMTC test cycle (vehicle speed patterns) for type I, VII and VIII environmental tests consist of up to three parts as set out in Appendix 6. Depending on the L-vehicle category subject to the WMTC laid down in point 4.5.4.1. and its classification in terms of engine displacement and maximum design vehicle speed in accordance with point 4.3, the following WMTC test cycle parts must be run:

Table 1-4

WMTC test cycle parts for class 1.2 and 3 L-category vehicles

L-category vehicle (sub-)class

Applicable parts of the WMTC as specified in Appendix 6

Class 1:

part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed by part 1, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Class 2 subdivided in:

Sub-class 2-1:

part 1, reduced vehicle speed in cold condition, followed by part 2, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Sub-class 2-2:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition.

Class 3 subdivided in:

Sub-class 3-1:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition, followed by part 3, reduced vehicle speed in warm condition.

Sub-class 3-2:

part 1, in cold condition, followed by part 2, in warm condition, followed by part 3, in warm condition.

4.4.   Specification of the reference fuel

The appropriate reference fuels as specified in Appendix 2 shall be used for testing. For the purpose of the calculation referred to in point 1.4 of Appendix 1 of Annex VII, for liquid fuels, the density measured at 288,2 K (15 °C) shall be used.

4.5.   Type I test

4.5.1.   Driver

The test driver shall have a mass of 75 kg ± 5 kg.

4.5.2.   Test bench specifications and settings

4.5.2.1.   The dynamometer shall have a single roller for two-wheel L-category vehicles with a diameter of at least 400 mm. A chassis dynamometer equipped with dual rollers is permitted when testing tricycles with two front wheels or quadricycles.

4.5.2.2.   The dynamometer shall be equipped with a roller revolution counter for measuring actual distance travelled.

4.5.2.3.   Dynamometer flywheels or other means shall be used to simulate the inertia specified in point 5.2.2.

4.5.2.4.   The dynamometer rollers shall be clean, dry and free from anything which might cause the tyre to slip.

4.5.2.5.   Cooling fan specifications as follows:

4.5.2.5.1.

Throughout the test, a variable-speed cooling blower (fan) shall be positioned in front of the vehicle so as to direct the cooling air onto it in a manner that simulates actual operating conditions. The blower speed shall be such that, within the operating range of 10 to 50 km/h, the linear velocity of the air at the blower outlet is within ±5 km/h of the corresponding roller speed. At the range of over 50 km/h, the linear velocity of the air shall be within ± 10 percent. At roller speeds of less than 10 km/h, air velocity may be zero.

4.5.2.5.2.

The air velocity referred to in point 4.5.2.5.1. shall be determined as an averaged value of nine measuring points which are located at the centre of each rectangle dividing the whole of the blower outlet into nine areas (dividing both horizontal and vertical sides of the blower outlet into three equal parts). The value at each of the nine points shall be within 10 percent of the average of the nine values.

4.5.2.5.3.

The blower outlet shall have a cross-section area of at least 0.4 m2 and the bottom of the blower outlet shall be between 5 and 20 cm above floor level. The blower outlet shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, between 30 and 45 cm in front of its front wheel. The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located at between 0 and 20 cm from the air outlet.

4.5.2.6.   The detailed requirements regarding test bench specifications are listed in Appendix 3.

4.5.3.   Exhaust gas measurement system

4.5.3.1.   The gas-collection device shall be a closed-type device that can collect all exhaust gases at the vehicle exhaust outlets on condition that it satisfies the backpressure condition of ± 125 mm H2O. An open system may be used if it is confirmed that all the exhaust gases are collected. The gas collection shall be such that there is no condensation which could appreciably modify the nature of exhaust gases at the test temperature. An example of a gas-collection device is illustrated in Figure 1-2:

Figure 1-2

Equipment for sampling the gases and measuring their volume

Image 2

4.5.3.2.   A connecting tube shall be placed between the device and the exhaust gas sampling system. This tube and the device shall be made of stainless steel, or of some other material which does not affect the composition of the gases collected and which withstands the temperature of these gases.

4.5.3.3.   A heat exchanger capable of limiting the temperature variation of the diluted gases in the pump intake to ± 5 K shall be in operation throughout the test. This exchanger shall be equipped with a preheating system capable of bringing the exchanger to its operating temperature (with the tolerance of ± 5 K) before the test begins.

4.5.3.4.   A positive displacement pump shall be used to draw in the diluted exhaust mixture. This pump shall be equipped with a motor with several strictly controlled uniform speeds. The pump capacity shall be large enough to ensure the intake of the exhaust gases. A device using a critical-flow venturi (CFV) may also be used.

4.5.3.5.   A device (T) shall be used for the continuous recording of the temperature of the diluted exhaust mixture entering the pump.

4.5.3.6.   Two gauges shall be used, the first to ensure the pressure depression of the dilute exhaust mixture entering the pump relative to atmospheric pressure, and the second to measure the dynamic pressure variation of the positive displacement pump.

4.5.3.7.   A probe shall be located near to, but outside, the gas-collecting device, to collect samples of the dilution air stream through a pump, a filter and a flow meter at constant flow rates throughout the test.

4.5.3.8.   A sample probe pointed upstream into the dilute exhaust mixture flow, upstream of the positive displacement pump, shall be used to collect samples of the dilute exhaust mixture through a pump, a filter and a flow meter at constant flow rates throughout the test. The minimum sample flow rate in the sampling devices shown in Figure 1-2 and in point 4.5.3.7. shall be at least 150 litre/hour.

4.5.3.9.   Three-way valves shall be used on the sampling system described in points 4.5.3.7. and 4.5.3.8. to direct the samples either to their respective bags or to the outside throughout the test.

4.5.3.10.   Gas-tight collection bags

4.5.3.10.1.   For dilution air and dilute exhaust mixture the collection bags shall be of sufficient capacity not to impede normal sample flow and shall not change the nature of the pollutants concerned.

4.5.3.10.2.   The bags shall have an automatic self-locking device and shall be easily and tightly fastened either to the sampling system or the analysing system at the end of the test.

4.5.3.11.   A revolution counter shall be used to count the revolutions of the positive displacement pump throughout the test.

Note 2: Attention shall be paid to the connecting method and the material or configuration of the connecting parts, because each section (e.g. the adapter and the coupler) of the sampling system can become very hot. If the measurement cannot be performed normally due to heat damage to the sampling system, an auxiliary cooling device may be used as long as the exhaust gases are not affected.

Note 3: With open type devices, there is a risk of incomplete gas collection and gas leakage into the test cell. There shall be no leakage throughout the sampling period.

Note 4: If a constant volume sampler (CVS) flow rate is used throughout the test cycle that includes low and high speeds all in one (i.e. part 1, 2 and 3 cycles), special attention shall be paid to the higher risk of water condensation in the high speed range.

4.5.3.12.   Particulate mass emissions measurement equipment

4.5.3.12.1   Specification

4.5.3.12.1.1.   System overview

4.5.3.12.1.1.1.   The particulate sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe located in the dilution tunnel, a particle transfer tube, a filter holder, a partial-flow pump, and flow rate regulators and measuring units.

4.5.3.12.1.1.2.   It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone or impactor) be employed upstream of the filter holder. However, a sampling probe, used as an appropriate size-classification device such as that shown in Figure 1-6, is acceptable.

4.5.3.12.1.2.   General requirements

4.5.3.12.1.2.1.   The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulates shall be so arranged within the dilution tract that a representative sample gas flow can be taken from the homogeneous air/exhaust mixture.

4.5.3.12.1.2.2.   The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total flow of diluted exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ±5 percent of the particulate sample flow rate.

4.5.3.12.1.2.3.   The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature below 325,2 K (52 °C) within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the particulate filter face, except in the case of a regeneration test, where the temperature shall be below 465,2 K (192 °C).

4.5.3.12.1.2.4.   The particulate sample shall be collected on a single filter mounted in a holder in the sampled diluted exhaust gas flow

4.5.3.12.1.2.5.   All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter holder which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas shall be designed to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and shall be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.

4.5.3.12.1.2.6.   If it is not possible to compensate for variations in the flow rate, provision shall be made for a heat exchanger and a temperature control device as specified in Appendix 4 so as to ensure that the flow rate in the system is constant and the sampling rate accordingly proportional.

4.5.3.12.1.3.   Specific requirements

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.   Particulate matter (PM) sampling probe

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.1.   The sample probe shall deliver the particle-size classification performance described in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4. It is recommended that this performance be achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe facing directly in the direction of flow, plus a pre-classifier (cyclone impactor, etc.). An appropriate sampling probe, such as that indicated in Figure 1-1, may alternatively be used provided it achieves the pre-classification performance described in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.2.   The sample probe shall be installed near the tunnel centreline between ten and 20 tunnel diameters downstream of the exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least 12 mm.

If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sample probe, the flow drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flows to avoid sampling artefacts.

If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and facing directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced at least 5 cm apart around the central longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.3.   The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at least five probe diameters, but shall not exceed 1 020 mm.

4.5.3.12.1.3.1.4.   The pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) shall be located upstream of the filter holder assembly. The pre-classifier 50 percent cut point particle diameter shall be between 2.5 μm and 10 μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. The pre-classifier shall allow at least 99 percent of the mass concentration of 1 μm particles entering the pre-classifier to pass through the exit of the pre-classifier at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. However, a sampling probe, used as an appropriate size-classification device, such as that shown in Figure 1-6, is acceptable as an alternative to a separate pre-classifier.

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.   Sample pump and flow meter

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.1.   The sample gas flow measurement unit shall consist of pumps, gas flow regulators and flow measuring units.

4.5.3.12.1.3.2.2.   The temperature of the gas flow in the flow meter may not fluctuate by more than ±3 K, except during regeneration tests on vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating after-treatment devices. In addition, the sample mass flow rate shall remain proportional to the total flow of diluted exhaust gas to within a tolerance of ± 5 percent of the particulate sample mass flow rate. Should the volume of flow change unacceptably as a result of excessive filter loading, the test shall be stopped. When the test is repeated, the rate of flow shall be decreased.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.   Filter and filter holder

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.1.   A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of flow. The valve shall be responsive enough to open and close within one second of the start and end of the test.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.2.   It is recommended that the mass collected on the 47 mm diameter filter (Pe) is ≥ 20 μg and that the filter loading is maximised in line with the requirements of points 4.5.3.12.1.2.3. and 4.5.3.12.1.3.3.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.3.   For a given test, the gas filter face velocity shall be set to a single value within the range 20 cm/s to 80 cm/s, unless the dilution system is being operated with sampling flow proportional to CVS flow rate.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.4.   Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane filters are required. All filter types shall have a 0,3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) or PAO (poly-alpha-olefin) CS 68649-12-7 or CS 68037-01-4 collection efficiency of at least 99 percent at a gas filter face velocity of 5,33 cm/s.

4.5.3.12.1.3.3.5.   The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an even flow distribution across the filter stain area. The filter stain area shall be at least 1 075 mm2.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.   Filter weighing chamber and balance

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.1.   The microgram balance used to determine the weight of a filter shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 2 μg and resolution of 1 μg or better.

It is recommended that the microbalance be checked at the start of each weighing session by weighing one reference weight of 50 mg. This weight shall be weighed three times and the average result recorded. The weighing session and balance are considered valid if the average result of the weighing is within ± 5 μg of the result from the previous weighing session.

The weighing chamber (or room) shall meet the following conditions during all filter conditioning and weighing operations:

Temperature maintained at 295,2 ± 3 K (22 ± 3 °C);

Relative humidity maintained at 45 ± 8 percent;

Dew point maintained at 282,7 ± 3 K (9,5 ± 3 °C).

It is recommended that temperature and humidity conditions be recorded along with sample and reference filter weights.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.2.   Buoyancy correction

All filter weights shall be corrected for filter buoyancy in air.

The buoyancy correction depends on the density of the sample filter medium, the density of air, and the density of the calibration weight used to calibrate the balance. The density of the air is dependent on the pressure, temperature and humidity.

It is recommended that the temperature and dew point of the weighing environment be controlled to 295,2 K ± 1 K (22 °C ± 1 °C) and 282,7 ± 1 K (9,5 ± 1 °C) respectively. However, the minimum requirements stated in point 4.5.3.12.1.3.4.1. will also result in an acceptable correction for buoyancy effects. The correction for buoyancy shall be applied as follows:

Equation 2-1:

Formula

where:

mcorr

=

PM mass corrected for buoyancy

muncorr

=

PM mass uncorrected for buoyancy

ρair

=

density of air in balance environment

ρweight

=

density of calibration weight used to span balance

ρmedia

=

density of PM sample medium (filter) with filter medium Teflon coated glass fibre (e.g. TX40): ρmedia = 2,300 kg/m3

ρair can be calculated as follows:

Equation 2-2:

Formula

where:

Pabs

=

absolute pressure in balance environment

Mmix

=

molar mass of air in balance environment (28,836 gmol-1)

R

=

molar gas constant (8,314 Jmol-1K-1)

Tamb

=

absolute ambient temperature of balance environment

The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilisation.

Limited deviations from weighing room temperature and humidity specifications shall be allowed provided their total duration does not exceed 30 minutes in any one filter conditioning period. The weighing room shall meet the required specifications prior to personal entrance into the weighing room. No deviations from the specified conditions are permitted during the weighing operation.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.3.   The effects of static electricity shall be nullified. This may be achieved by grounding the balance through placement on an antistatic mat and neutralisation of the particulate filters prior to weighing using a Polonium neutraliser or a device of similar effect. Alternatively, nullification of static effects may be achieved through equalisation of the static charge.

4.5.3.12.1.3.4.4.   A test filter shall be removed from the chamber no earlier than an hour before the test begins.

4.5.3.12.1.4.   Recommended system description

Figure 1-3 is a schematic drawing of the recommended particulate sampling system. Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformity with this figure is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of component systems. Further components that are not needed to maintain accuracy with other system configurations may be excluded if their exclusion is based on good engineering judgment.

Figure 1-3

Particulate sampling system

Image 3

A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the full flow dilution tunnel (DT) through the particulate sampling probe (PSP) and the particulate transfer tube (PTT) by means of the pump (P). The sample is passed through the particle size pre-classifier (PCF) and the filter holders (FH) that contain the particulate sampling filters. The flow rate for sampling is set by the flow controller (FC).

4.5.4.   Driving schedules

4.5.4.1.   Test cycles

Test cycles (vehicle speed patterns) for the type I test consist of up to three parts, as laid down in Appendix 6. Depending on the vehicle (sub-)category, the following test cycle parts must be run:

Table 1-5

Applicable test type I cycle for Euro 4 compliant vehicles

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle Euro 4

L1e-A

Powered cycle

ECE R47

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

WMTC, stage 2

L4e

L5e-A

Tricycle

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

ECE R40

L7e-B

Heavy all terrain quad

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile


Table 1-6

Applicable test type I cycle for Euro 5 compliant vehicles

Vehicle category

Vehicle category name

Test cycle Euro 5

L1e-A

Powered cycle

Revised WMTC

L1e-B

Two-wheel moped

L2e

Three-wheel moped

L6e-A

Light on-road quad

L6e-B

Light quadri-mobile

L3e

Two-wheel motorcycle with and without side-car

L4e

L5e-A

Tricycle

L7e-A

Heavy on-road quad

L5e-B

Commercial tricycle

L7e-B

Heavy all terrain quad

L7e-C

Heavy quadri-mobile

4.5.4.2.   Vehicle speed tolerances

4.5.4.2.1.   The vehicle speed tolerance at any given time on the test cycles prescribed in point 4.5.4.1. is defined by upper and lower limits. The upper limit is 3,2 km/h higher than the highest point on the trace within one second of the given time. The lower limit is 3,2 km/h lower than the lowest point on the trace within one second of the given time. Vehicle speed variations greater than the tolerances (such as may occur during gear changes) are acceptable provided they occur for less than two seconds on any occasion. Vehicle speeds lower than those prescribed are acceptable provided the vehicle is operated at maximum available power during such occurrences. Figure 1-4 shows the range of acceptable vehicle speed tolerances for typical points.

Figure 1-4

Drivers trace, allowable range

Image 4
Image 5

4.5.4.2.2.   If the acceleration capability of the vehicle is not sufficient to carry out the acceleration phases or if the maximum design speed of the vehicle is lower than the prescribed cruising speed within the prescribed limits of tolerances, the vehicle shall be driven with the throttle fully open until the set speed is reached or at the maximum design speed achievable with fully opened throttle during the time that the set speed exceeds the maximum design speed. In both cases, point 4.5.4.2.1. is not applicable. The test cycle shall be carried on normally when the set speed is again lower than the maximum design speed of the vehicle.

4.5.4.2.3.   If the period of deceleration is shorter than that prescribed for the corresponding phase, the set speed shall be restored by a constant vehicle speed or idling period merging into succeeding constant speed or idling operation. In such cases, point 4.5.4.2.1. is not applicable.

4.5.4.2.4.   Apart from these exceptions, the deviations of the roller speed from the set speed of the cycles shall meet the requirements described in point 4.5.4.2.1. If not, the test results shall not be used for further analysis and the run must be repeated.

4.5.5.   Gearshift prescriptions for the WMTC prescribed in Appendix 6

4.5.5.1.   Test vehicles with automatic transmission

4.5.5.1.1.   Vehicles equipped with transfer cases, multiple sprockets, etc., shall be tested in the configuration recommended by the manufacturer for street or highway use.

4.5.5.1.2.   All tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in ‘Drive’ (highest gear). Automatic clutch-torque converter transmissions may be shifted as manual transmissions at the request of the manufacturer.

4.5.5.1.3.   Idle modes shall be run with automatic transmissions in ‘Drive’ and the wheels braked.

4.5.5.1.4.   Automatic transmissions shall shift automatically through the normal sequence of gears. The torque converter clutch, if applicable, shall operate as under real-world conditions.

4.5.5.1.5.   The deceleration modes shall be run in gear using brakes or throttle as necessary to maintain the desired speed.

4.5.5.2.   Test vehicles with manual transmission

4.5.5.2.1   Mandatory requirements

4.5.5.2.1.1.   Step 1 — Calculation of shift speeds

Upshift speeds (v1→2 and vi→i+1) in km/h during acceleration phases shall be calculated using the following formulae:

Equation 2-3:

Formula

Equation 2-4:

Formula
, i = 2 to ng -1

where:

 

‘i’ is the gear number (≥ 2)

 

‘ng’ is the total number of forward gears

 

‘Pn ’ is the rated power in kW

 

‘mk ’ is the reference mass in kg

 

‘nidle ’ is the idling speed in min-1

 

‘s’ is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

‘ndvi ’ is the ratio between engine speed in min-1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear ‘i’

4.5.5.2.1.2.   Downshift speeds (vi→i-1) in km/h during cruise or deceleration phases in gears 4 (4th gear) to ng shall be calculated using the following formula:

Equation 2-5:

Formula
, i = 4 to ng

where:

 

i is the gear number (≥ 4)

 

ng is the total number of forward gears

 

Pn is the rated power in kW

 

mk is the reference mass in kg

 

nidle is the idling speed in min-1

 

s is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

ndvi-2 is the ratio between engine speed in min-1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear i-2

The downshift speed from gear 3 to gear 2 (v3→2) shall be calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-6:

Formula

where:

 

Pn is the rated power in kW

 

mk is the reference mass in kg

 

nidle is the idling speed in min-1

 

s is the rated engine speed in min-1

 

ndv1 is the ratio between engine speed in min–1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear 1

The downshift speed from gear 2 to gear 1 (v2→1) shall be calculated using the following equation:

Equation 2-7:

Formula

where:

ndv2 is the ratio between engine speed in min–1 and vehicle speed in km/h in gear 2

Since the cruise phases are defined by the phase indicator, slight speed increases could occur and it may be appropriate to apply an upshift. The upshift speeds (v1→2, v2→3 and vi→i+1) in km/h during cruise phases shall be calculated using the following equations:

Equation 2-7:

Formula

Equation 2-8:

Formula

Equation 2-9:

Formula
, i = 3 to ng

4.5.5.2.1.3.   Step 2 — Gear choice for each cycle sample

In order to avoid different interpretations of acceleration, deceleration, cruise and stop phases, corresponding indicators are added to the vehicle speed pattern as integral parts of the cycles (see tables in Appendix 6).

The appropriate gear for each sample shall then be calculated according to the vehicle speed ranges resulting from the shift speed equations of point 4.5.5.2.1.1. and the phase indicators for the cycle parts appropriate for the test vehicle, as follows:

 

Gear choice for stop phases:

For the last five seconds of a stop phase, the gear lever shall be set to gear 1 and the clutch shall be disengaged. For the previous part of a stop phase, the gear lever shall be set to neutral or the clutch shall be disengaged.

 

Gear choice for acceleration phases:

 

gear 1, if v ≤ v1→2

 

gear 2, if v1→2 < v ≤ v2→3

 

gear 3, if v2→3 < v ≤ v3→4

 

gear 4, if v3→4 < v ≤ v4→5

 

gear 5, if v4→5 < v ≤ v5→6

 

gear 6, if v > v5→6

 

Gear choice for deceleration or cruise phases:

 

gear 1, if v < v2→1

 

gear 2, if v < v3→2

 

gear 3, if v3→2 ≤ v < v4→3

 

gear 4, if v4→3 ≤ v < v5→4

 

gear 5, if v5→4 ≤ v < v6→5

 

gear 6, if v ≥ v4→5

The clutch shall be disengaged, if:

(a)

the vehicle speed drops below 10 km/h, or

(b)

the engine speed drops below

Formula

;

(c)

there is a risk of engine stalling during cold-start phase.

4.5.5.2.3.   Step 3 — Corrections according to additional requirements

4.5.5.2.3.1.   The gear choice shall be modified according to the following requirements:

(a)

no gearshift at a transition from an acceleration phase to a deceleration phase. The gear that was used for the last second of the acceleration phase shall be kept for the following deceleration phase unless the speed drops below a downshift speed;

(b)

no upshifts or downshifts by more than one gear, except from gear 2 to neutral during decelerations down to stop;

(c)

upshifts or downshifts for up to four seconds are replaced by the gear before, if the gears before and after are identical, e.g. 2 3 3 3 2 shall be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2, and 4 3 3 3 3 4 shall be replaced by 4 4 4 4 4 4. In the cases of consecutive circumstances, the gear used longer takes over, e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3. If used for the same time, a series of succeeding gears shall take precedence over a series of preceding gears, e.g. 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 will be replaced by 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3;

(d)

no downshift during an acceleration phase.

4.5.5.2.2.   Optional provisions

The gear choice may be modified according to the following provisions:

The use of gears lower than those determined by the requirements described in point 4.5.5.2.1. is permitted in any cycle phase. Manufacturers’ recommendations for gear use shall be followed if they do not result in gears higher than determined by the requirements of point 4.5.5.2.1.

4.5.5.2.3.   Optional provisions

Note 5: The calculation programme to be found on the UN website at the following URL may be used as an aid for the gear selection:

http://live.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29grpe/wmtc.html

Explanations of the approach and the gearshift strategy and a calculation example are given in Appendix 9.

4.5.6.   Dynamometer settings

A full description of the chassis dynamometer and instruments shall be provided in accordance with Appendix 6. Measurements shall be taken to the accuracies specified in point 4.5.7. The running resistance force for the chassis dynamometer settings can be derived either from on-road coast-down measurements or from a running resistance table, with reference to Appendix 5 or 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and to Appendix 8 for a vehicle with two or more wheels on the powered axles.

4.5.6.1.   Chassis dynamometer setting derived from on-road coast-down measurements

To use this alternative, on-road coast-down measurements shall be carried out as specified in Appendix 7 for a vehicle equipped with one wheel on the powered axle and Appendix 8 for a vehicle equipped with two or more wheels on the powered axles.

4.5.6.1.1.   Requirements for the equipment

The instrumentation for the speed and time measurement shall have the accuracies specified in point 4.5.7.

4.5.6.1.2.   Inertia mass setting

4.5.6.1.2.1.   The equivalent inertia mass mi for the chassis dynamometer shall be the flywheel equivalent inertia mass, mfi, closest to the sum of the mass in running order of the vehicle and the mass of the driver (75 kg). Alternatively, the equivalent inertia mass mi can be derived from Appendix 5.

4.5.6.1.2.2.   If the reference mass mref cannot be equalised to the flywheel equivalent inertia mass mi, to make the target running resistance force F* equal to the running resistance force FE (which is to be set to the chassis dynamometer), the corrected coast-down time ΔTE may be adjusted in accordance with the total mass ratio of the target coast-down time ΔTroad in the following sequence:

Equation 2-10:

Formula

Equation 2-11:

Formula

Equation 2-12:

Formula

Equation 2-13:

Formula

with

Formula

where:

mr1 may be measured or calculated, in kilograms, as appropriate. As an alternative, mr1 may be estimated as f percent of m.

4.5.6.2.   Running resistance force derived from a running resistance table

4.5.6.2.1.   The chassis dynamometer may be set by the use of the running resistance table instead of the running resistance force obtained by the coast-down method. In this table method, the chassis dynamometer shall be set by the mass in running order regardless of particular L-category vehicle characteristics.

Note 6: Care shall be taken when applying this method to L-category vehicles with extraordinary characteristics.

4.5.6.2.2.   The flywheel equivalent inertia mass mfi shall be the equivalent inertia mass mi specified in Appendix 5, 7 or 8 where applicable. The chassis dynamometer shall be set by the rolling resistance of the non-driven wheels (a) and the aero drag coefficient (b) specified in Appendix 5 or determined in accordance with the procedures set out in Appendix 7 or 8 respectively.

4.5.6.2.3   The running resistance force on the chassis dynamometer FE shall be determined using the following equation:

Equation 2-14:

Formula

4.5.6.2.4.   The target running resistance force F* shall be equal to the running resistance force obtained from the running resistance table FT, because the correction for the standard ambient conditions is not necessary.

4.5.7.   Measurement accuracies

Measurements shall be taken using equipment that fulfils the accuracy requirements in Table 1-7:

Table 1-7

Required accuracy of measurements

Measurement items

At measured value

Resolution

(a)

Running resistance force, F

+ 2 percent

(b)

Vehicle speed (v1, v2)

± 1 percent

0,2  km/h

(c)

Coast-down speed interval (

Formula

)

± 1 percent

0,1  km/h

(d)

Coast-down time (Δt)

± 0,5 percent

0,01  s

(e)

Total vehicle mass (mk + mrid)

± 0,5 percent

1,0  kg

(f)

Wind speed

± 10 percent

0,1  m/s

(g)

Wind direction

5 deg.

(h)

Temperatures

± 1 K

1 K

(i)

Barometric pressure

0,2 kPa

(j)

Distance

± 0,1 percent

1  m

(k)

Time

± 0,1 s

0,1  s

5.   Test procedures

5.1.   Description of the type I test

The test vehicle shall be subjected, according to its category, to test type I requirements as specified in this point 5.

5.1.1.   Type I test (verifying the average emission of gaseous pollutants, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption in a characteristic driving cycle)

5.1.1.1.   The test shall be carried out by the method described in point 5.2. The gases shall be collected and analysed by the prescribed methods.

5.1.1.2.   Number of tests

5.1.1.2.1.   The number of tests shall be determined as shown in figure 1-5. Ri1 to Ri3 describe the final measurement results for the first (No 1) test to the third (No 3) test and the gaseous pollutant, carbon dioxide emission, fuel / energy consumption or electric range as laid down in Annex VII. ‘Lx ’ represents the limit values L1 to L5 as defined in Parts A, B and C of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013.

5.1.1.2.2.   In each test, the masses of the carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and the fuel consumed during the test shall be determined. The mass of particulate matter shall be determined only for those (sub-)categories referred to in Parts A and B of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 (see explanatory notes 8 and 9 at the end of Annex VIII to that Regulation).

Figure 1-5

Flowchart for the number of type I tests