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Document 52020IP0005

European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal (2019/2956(RSP))

OJ C 270, 7.7.2021, p. 2–20 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)



Official Journal of the European Union

C 270/2


The European Green Deal

European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal (2019/2956(RSP))

(2021/C 270/01)

The European Parliament,

having regard to the Commission communication of 11 December 2019 on ‘The European Green Deal’ (COM(2019)0640),

having regard to the Commission communication of 28 November 2018 entitled ‘A Clean Planet for all — A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy’ (COM(2018)0773) and to the in-depth analysis in support of that communication,

having regard to the EU’s Environment Action Programme to 2020 and its vision for 2050,

having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to the Kyoto Protocol thereto and to the Paris Agreement,

having regard to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),

having regard to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),

having regard to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report of 4 December 2019 entitled ‘The European environment — state and outlook 2020’,

having regard to the special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) entitled ‘Global Warming of 1,5 oC’, its fifth assessment report (AR5) and the synthesis report thereon, its special report on climate change and land, and its special report on the ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate,

having regard to the UN Environment Programme’s Emissions Gap Report 2019, published on 26 November 2019, and to its first synthesis report on fossil fuel production of December 2019 (Production Gap Report 2019),

having regard to the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) of 31 May 2019,

having regard to the Global Resources Outlook 2019 by the International Resource Panel of the UN Environment Programme,

having regard to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

having regard to the conventions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation (ILO),

having regard to the revised European Social Charter of the Council of Europe,

having regard to the European Pillar of Social Rights,

having regard to the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC to be held in November 2020 and the fact that all Parties to the UNFCCC need to increase their nationally determined contributions in line with the objectives of the Paris Agreement,

having regard to the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15), to be held in Kunming, China, in October 2020, when Parties need to decide on the post-2020 global framework to halt biodiversity loss,

having regard to its resolution of 14 March 2019 entitled ‘Climate change — a European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate-neutral economy in accordance with the Paris Agreement’ (1),

having regard to its resolution of 28 November 2019 on the climate and environment emergency (2),

having regard to its resolution of 28 November 2019 on the 2019 UN Climate Change Conference in Madrid, Spain (COP25) (3),

having regard to the European Council conclusions of 12 December 2019,

having regard to Rule 132(2) and (4) of its Rules of Procedure,


whereas this resolution constitutes Parliament’s initial general reaction to the Commission communication on the European Green Deal; whereas Parliament will, as work on the Green Deal progresses, return with more detailed positions on specific measures and policy actions and will use its full legislative powers to review and amend any proposals from the Commission to ensure that they support all the objectives of the Green Deal;


Underlines the urgent need for ambitious action to tackle climate change and environmental challenges, to limit global warming to 1,5 C, and to avoid massive loss of biodiversity; therefore welcomes the Commission’s communication on ‘The European Green Deal’; shares the Commission’s commitment to transforming the EU into a healthier, sustainable, fair, just and prosperous society with net-zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); calls for the necessary transition to a climate-neutral society by 2050 at the latest and for this to be made into a European success story;


Stresses that all people living in Europe should be granted the fundamental right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment and to a stable climate, without discrimination, and that this right must be delivered through ambitious policies and must be fully enforceable through the justice system at national and EU level;


Strongly believes that the European Green Deal should foster an integrated and science-based approach and bring all sectors together in order to put them on the same track towards the same goal; considers that the integration of different policies towards a holistic vision is the real added value of the European Green Deal and should therefore be strengthened; sees the Green Deal as a catalyst for an inclusive and non-discriminatory societal transition with climate neutrality, protection of the environment, sustainable resource use and the health and quality of life of citizens within planetary boundaries as key objectives;


Underlines that the Green Deal should be at the heart of Europe’s strategy for new sustainable growth, while respecting the earth’s planetary boundaries, and for creating economic opportunities, driving investment and providing quality jobs; believes that this will benefit European citizens and companies and will bring about a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy where economic growth is decoupled from the EU’s global GHG emissions, resource use and waste generation; emphasises that the Green Deal must lead to social progress, by improving the well-being of all and reducing social inequalities, economic imbalances between Member States, and disparities between gender and generations; believes that a just transition should leave no person and no place behind and address social and economic inequalities;


Believes that the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should be at the centre of the EU’s process of drafting and implementing policies so that the EU promotes a model for human development compatible with a healthy planet; underlines, in this regard, the fact that the European Green Deal must combine social rights, environmental integrity, regional cohesion, sustainability and future-proof industries that are globally competitive, to the benefit of all;


Underlines that the Green Deal must aim for a prosperous, fair, sustainable and competitive economy that works for all, across all regions in Europe; believes that the Green Deal should create economic opportunities and fairness between generations; stresses the importance of respecting and strengthening social dialogue at all levels and sectors in order to ensure a just transition; emphasises the need for a gender perspective on actions and goals in the Green Deal, including gender mainstreaming and gender-responsive actions; reiterates that the transition to a climate-neutral economy and a sustainable society must be carried out in conjunction with the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights and insists that all initiatives taken under the European Green Deal must be fully compatible with the European Pillar of Social Rights;


Underlines that in order for the Union to reach the goals of the Green Deal, substantial public and private investments will need to be mobilised, and sees this as a precondition for the success of the Green Deal; believes that the EU must provide long-term investor certainty and regulatory predictability as well as an adequate financial framework, resources, and market and fiscal incentives for a successful green transition for positive and sustainable social, industrial and economic change; reiterates that the Green Deal should put Europe on the path of long-term sustainable growth, prosperity and wellbeing, ensuring that our environmental, economic and social policies are developed to ensure a just transition;


Underlines that the global challenges of climate change and environmental degradation require a global response; stresses the need for the EU to show ambition and the need to mobilise other regions of the world to work in the same direction; underlines the EU’s role as a global leader on environment and climate action;


Proposes that all actions under the Green Deal should have a science-based approach and be based on holistic impact assessments;


Recognises its institutional responsibility to reduce its carbon footprint; proposes to adopt its own measures to reduce emissions, including replacing its fleet vehicles with zero-emission vehicles, and urgently calls on all the Member States to agree to a single seat for the European Parliament;

Increasing the EU’s climate ambition for 2030 and 2050


Believes that a legally binding EU commitment to climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest will be a powerful tool to mobilise the necessary societal, political, economic and technological forces for the transition; strongly underlines that the transition is a shared effort of all Member States, and that every Member State must contribute to implementing climate neutrality in the EU by 2050 at the latest; calls on the Commission to present a proposal for a European Climate Law by March 2020;


Calls for an ambitious Climate Law with a legally binding domestic and economy-wide target for reaching net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 at the latest, and intermediate EU targets for 2030 and 2040 to be finalised as part of that law by, at the latest, the time of its adoption by the co-legislators, based on impact assessments as well as a strong governance framework; underlines that the Climate Law must reflect the best available science, with the aim of limiting global warming to 1,5 C, and that it should be kept up to date, reflecting developments in the EU legal framework and the review cycle of the Paris Agreement; believes that the Climate Law must also include specific adaptation components, namely by requiring all Member States to adopt adaptation action plans;


Calls for an increase of the EU’s domestic GHG emissions reduction target for 2030 to 55 % compared to 1990 levels; urges the Commission to bring forward a proposal to this end as soon as possible in order to allow the EU to adopt this target as its updated nationally determined contribution (NDC) well in advance of COP26; calls, furthermore, for this target to be subsequently integrated into the European Climate Law;


Believes that the EU must play an active role and show strong leadership in the preparations for COP26, where Parties should raise the collective climate commitments, reflecting the highest possible level of ambition; with this in mind, believes that the EU should adopt an enhanced NDC as early as possible in 2020 in order to encourage other non-EU countries, in particular major emitters, to do the same; underlines, in this context, the need to agree on an enhanced NDC well ahead of the planned EU-China summit in September, as well as the EU-Africa summit;


Recognises that Member States may have different trajectories to reach climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest in a fair and cost-effective way, recognising that countries have different starting points and resources, and that some are moving faster than others, but that the green transition should be turned into an economic and social opportunity for all regions of Europe;


Emphasises that net emissions will have to be reduced to close to zero in all sectors of the economy in order to jointly contribute to the objective of reaching climate neutrality; calls on the Commission to present, where necessary, proposals based on impact assessments, with a view to revising EU legislative measures in the field of climate and energy by June 2021 in order to deliver on the increased medium- and long-term climate ambition; calls on the Commission to also use the additional potential of other existing EU legislation to contribute to climate action, such as the Ecodesign Directive, EU waste legislation, circular economy-related measures and the F-Gas Regulation; underlines, furthermore, that nature-based solutions can help the Member States to reach their GHG emission reductions and biodiversity objectives, but insists that they should be additional to GHG emission reductions at source;


Believes that new and increased GHG targets require the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) to be fit for purpose; calls on the Commission to rapidly review the ETS Directive, including by addressing the linear reduction factor, the rules for the allocation of free allowances and the potential need for a carbon floor price;


Given the persisting global differences in climate ambition, supports the Commission’s intention to work on a WTO-compatible carbon border adjustment mechanism; sees the development of such a mechanism as part of a broader strategy for a competitive decarbonised EU economy that upholds the EU’s climate ambition while securing a level playing field; notes the Commission’s view that the mechanism would be an alternative to existing measures on carbon leakage under the EU ETS; stresses that current measures to address carbon leakage should not be repealed until a new system is in place and asks the Commission, before making any proposals, to undertake an in-depth analysis of the different forms that the carbon border adjustment mechanism might take before the review of climate legislation that is expected to take place in June 2021; believes that a future carbon border adjustment mechanism should maintain economic incentives for a successful green transition, as well as for climate frontrunners, support a market for low-carbon goods within the EU, and ensure an effective price on carbon in the EU while promoting carbon pricing in other parts of the world; believes that it must take into account the specificities of each sector, and that it could be introduced gradually in selected sectors, while avoiding any undue additional administrative costs, especially for European SMEs;


Welcomes the planned proposal to revise the Energy Taxation Directive with respect to environmental issues in order to apply the polluter pays principle, while taking into account national fiscal policies and avoiding any widening of inequalities;


Calls for a new and more ambitious EU strategy on adaptation to climate change; recalls that more effort on climate-proofing, resilience-building, prevention and preparedness is needed in the EU and its Member States; highlights the need to mobilise public and private investments in adaptation and calls for genuine policy coherence in EU spending so that adaptation and climate resilience are assessed as key criteria in all relevant EU funding; at the same time believes that disaster prevention, preparedness and response need to form a strong solidarity instrument with sufficient resources; calls for a consistent and sufficient allocation of funds in the EU budget and pooled resources for the EU civil protection mechanism;


Welcomes the announcement that the Commission will launch a European Climate Pact; underlines that the European Climate Pact must bring together citizens, regions, local communities, civil society, businesses (including SMEs) and trade unions as active participants in the transition to climate neutrality, based on genuine dialogue and transparent and participatory processes, including in the design, implementation and evaluation of policies; considers it important to cooperate with stakeholders from energy-intensive sectors and the relevant social partners, especially employers, workers, NGOs and academia, in order to contribute to finding sustainable solutions in the transition to carbon-neutral economies;

Supplying clean, affordable and secure energy


Highlights the central role of energy in the transition to a net-zero GHG emissions economy and welcomes the Commission’s aim to continue decarbonising the energy system so that the EU can reach net-zero emissions by 2050 at the latest; calls for the Renewable Energy Directive to be revised in line with this ambition, with designated binding national targets for each Member State; welcomes, furthermore, the priority given to energy efficiency; in this context, calls on the Commission and the Member States to implement the ‘energy efficiency first’ principle in all sectors and policies, which is fundamental to reducing the EU’s energy dependency and emissions from energy production, while also providing local jobs in renovations and reducing citizens’ energy bills; calls for the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and Energy Efficiency of Buildings Directive (EEBD) to be revised in line with the EU’s increased climate ambition, and for their implementation to be reinforced, through binding national targets, paying special attention to vulnerable citizens while also taking into account the need for economic predictability for the sectors concerned;


Stresses that in order to reach the Paris Agreement objectives, enforcement at national and EU level is crucial; calls on the Member States and the Commission to ensure that the national energy and climate plans are fully in line with the EU’s targets; recalls the competence of the Member States to decide on their energy mix within the EU climate and energy framework;


Underlines the fact that in order to meet the EU’s climate and sustainability goals, all sectors must increase their use of renewable energy and phase out fossil fuels; calls for a revision of the trans-European energy (TEN-E) guidelines before the adoption of the next list of projects of common interest (PCI) in order to align the legislative framework with the priority of smart grid deployment and to prevent the lock-in of carbon-intensive investments; underlines the need to pursue a strategic approach towards EU energy clusters with the aim of utilising the most effective investments in renewable sources of energy; welcomes, therefore, the announcement on an offshore wind strategy; considers that the EU’s policies should specifically enhance innovation and the deployment of sustainable energy storage and green hydrogen; stresses the need to ensure that the use of energy sources such as natural gas is only of a transitional nature, considering the objective of achieving climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest;


Underlines that it is crucial to ensure a well-functioning, fully integrated, consumer-centred and competitive energy market in Europe; underlines the importance of cross-border interconnections for a fully integrated energy market; welcomes the announcement that the Commission will propose measures on smart integration by mid-2020, and underlines that further integration of the EU energy market will play an important part in enhancing security of energy supply and achieving a net-zero GHG economy; highlights that an adequately funded Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators is needed to strengthen and increase regional cooperation between the Member States;


Insists on a rapid phase-out of direct and indirect fossil fuel subsidies by 2020 in the EU and in each Member State;


Welcomes the announced renovation wave of public and private buildings and encourages a focus on the renovation of schools and hospitals as well as social housing and rented housing in order to help low-income households; underlines the need for the existing building stock to be renovated into nearly-zero-energy buildings in order to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 at the latest: underlines that the buildings sector has a high energy-saving potential and potential for on-site production of renewable energy, which can boost employment and help SMEs expand; considers that a smart and forward-looking legislative framework is essential; welcomes, therefore, the proposals to reduce national regulatory obstacles for renovation and the revision of the Construction Products Regulation; calls for rigorous enforcement of the Member States’ obligations to renovate public buildings in line with the EED; encourages the promotion of timber construction and ecological building materials;


Highlights that the energy transition must be socially sustainable and not exacerbate energy poverty and welcomes the Commission’s commitment in this regard; believes that communities fighting energy poverty must be equipped with the necessary tools to participate in the green transition through education and advisory services and by stimulating long-term investments; calls for targeted actions in close cooperation with Member States and the exchange of best practices with the aim of reducing energy poverty while supporting equal access to financing tools for energy efficiency renovations; believes that the costs of energy efficiency renovations should not be borne by low-income households; highlights, furthermore, the role of district heating in providing affordable energy;


Supports in general the idea of market-based measures as one of the tools to achieve climate objectives; expresses reservations, however, about the potential inclusion of building emissions in the EU ETS, as it could take the responsibility away from public action and lead to higher energy bills for tenants and homeowners; considers that any such measure would require further analysis;

Mobilising industry for a clean and circular economy


Sees the transition to a modern, climate-neutral, highly resource-efficient and competitive industrial base in the EU by 2050 at the latest as a key challenge and opportunity, and welcomes the announcement that the Commission will come forward with a new industrial strategy, as well as an SME strategy, in March 2020; stresses that industrial competitiveness and climate policy are mutually reinforcing and that innovative and climate-neutral reindustrialisation will create local jobs and ensure the competitiveness of the European economy;


Stresses that the industrial strategy should focus on incentivising value chains for economically viable and sustainable products, processes and business models aimed at achieving climate neutrality, resource efficiency, circularity and a non-toxic environment, while maintaining and developing international competitiveness and avoiding the delocalisation of European industries; agrees with the Commission that energy-intensive industries such as steel, chemical and cement are crucial for the European economy, and that the modernisation and decarbonisation of these industries is crucial;


Calls on the Commission to ensure the economic, social and territorial cohesion of the transitions, paying particular attention to the most disadvantaged regions, areas affected by industrial transition (principally coal-mining regions and areas dependent on carbon-intensive industries such as steel manufacturing), sparsely populated areas and environmentally vulnerable territories;


Underlines that the industrial and SME strategies must set out clear roadmaps for providing a comprehensive set of incentives and funding opportunities for innovation, for the deployment of breakthrough technologies and for new sustainable business models, as well as the removal of unnecessary regulatory hurdles; calls for EU support for climate and resource frontrunners, by means of a technologically neutral approach that is consistent with the best available science and the EU’s long term climate and environment objectives; underlines the role of environmentally safe carbon capture and storage in making heavy industry climate neutral where no direct emission reduction options are available;


Recalls the fundamental role of digital technologies in supporting the green transition, for instance by improving resource and energy efficiency and through improved environmental monitoring, and through the climate benefits of a full digitalisation of transmission and distribution and of smart applications; considers that the industrial strategy should integrate, as proposed, the green and digital transformations and should identify the key objectives and hurdles impeding the full exploitation of the potential of digital technologies; calls on the Commission to develop strategies and funding for the deployment of innovative digital technologies; at the same time, stresses the importance of improving the energy efficiency and circular economy performance of the digital sector itself and welcomes the Commission’s commitments in this regard; asks the Commission to establish a methodology for monitoring and quantifying the increasing environmental impact of digital technologies, without creating unnecessary administrative burdens;


Underlines that the industrial strategy must include due consideration for the impacts on the workforce, as well as training, re-skilling and up-skilling of workers; calls on the Commission to closely look at the regional dimension of this strategy, ensuring that no one and no region is left behind; insists that the strategy must include a social dialogue in which workers are fully involved;


Calls for an ambitious new circular economy action plan, which must aim to reduce the total environmental and resource footprint of EU production and consumption while providing strong incentives for innovation, sustainable businesses and markets for climate-neutral and non-toxic circular products, with resource efficiency, zero pollution and waste prevention as key priorities; highlights the strong synergies between climate action and the circular economy, in particular in energy- and carbon-intensive industries; calls for the establishment of an EU-level target for resource efficiency;


Calls on the Commission to propose targets for separate collection, waste reduction, reuse and recycling, as well as other specific actions such as extended producer responsibility, in priority sectors such as commercial waste, textiles, plastics, electronics, construction and food; urges the Commission to develop measures to support the market for recycled materials in Europe, including common quality standards, as well as mandatory targets for the use of recovered materials in priority sectors where feasible; underlines the importance of developing non-toxic material cycles, stepping up the substitution of substances of very high concern, and promoting research and innovation to develop non-toxic products; calls on the Commission to consider measures to address imported products containing substances or components that are banned within the EU, and considers that these should not be reintroduced on the EU market in consumer products through recycling activities;


Supports policy measures for sustainable products, including an expansion of the scope of ecodesign with legislation making products more durable, repairable, reusable and recyclable, and a strong ecodesign and eco-labelling work programme from 2020 onwards that also includes smartphones and other new IT equipment; calls for legislative proposals on the right to repair, the elimination of planned obsolescence, and common chargers for mobile IT equipment; endorses the Commission’s plans for legislative proposals to ensure a safe, circular and sustainable battery value chain for all batteries, and expects this proposal to include at the very least measures on ecodesign, targets for reuse and recycling, and sustainable, as well as socially responsible, sourcing; underlines the need to create a strong and sustainable battery and storage cluster in Europe; stresses the need to promote local consumption and production based on the principles of refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle and repair, to stop planned obsolescence business strategies where products are designed to have a short life span and need to be replaced, and to adapt consumption to the limits of the planet; believes that the right to repair and continued support for IT services are imperative to achieve sustainable consumption; calls for these rights to be enshrined in EU law;


Urges the Commission to further step up EU measures against plastic pollution, in particular in the marine environment, and calls for wider restrictions on and the substitution of single-use plastic items; supports the development of legislation to address over-packaging and to ensure that all packaging that is not reusable or recyclable in an economically viable manner is not allowed on the EU market by 2030 at the latest, while ensuring food safety; calls for measures for cross-border coordination of deposit return systems; urges the Commission to tackle microplastics in a comprehensive way, including by adopting a comprehensive phase-out of intentionally added microplastics and through new measures, including regulatory measures, against the unintentional release of plastics for example from textiles, tyres and plastic pellets; notes that the Commission intends to develop a regulatory framework for biodegradable and bio-based plastics; highlights the need for a fully circular plastics economy;


Calls for a green EU single market to boost the demand for sustainable products with specific provisions such as the expansion of the use of green public procurement; welcomes, in this respect, the commitments of the Commission to propose further legislation and guidance on green public procurement; calls for procurement by EU institutions to lead by example; underlines the need, moreover, to review and revise EU public procurement rules in order to ensure a truly level playing field for EU companies, especially those producing sustainable products or services, such as in the field of public transport;


Stresses the importance of empowered and well-informed consumers; calls for measures to ensure that consumers are provided with transparent, comparable and harmonised product information, including the labelling of products, based on solid data and consumer research, to help them make healthier and more sustainable choices, and to be informed about the durability and reparability of products and their environmental footprint; underlines the necessity of equipping consumers with effective, easily understandable and enforceable remedies which take sustainability aspects into account and which prioritise reuse or repair over the discarding of products that do not perform correctly;


Believes that sustainably-sourced renewable materials will play an important role in the transition to a climate-neutral economy, and highlights the need to stimulate investments in the development of a sustainable bioeconomy where fossil-intensive materials are replaced with renewable and bio-based materials in, for example, buildings, textiles, chemical products, packaging, shipbuilding and, where sustainability can be assured, energy production; stresses that this will have to be done in a way that is sustainable and respects ecological limits; highlights the potential of the bioeconomy to create new green jobs, including in rural parts of the EU, and to stimulate innovation; calls for support for research and innovation in sustainable bioeconomy solutions that should take into account the need to protect unique biodiversity and ecosystems; calls for the efficient implementation of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy as part of the European Green Deal;

Accelerating the shift to sustainable and smart mobility


Welcomes the upcoming strategy for sustainable and smart mobility and agrees with the Commission that all modes of transport (road, rail, aviation and waterborne transport) will have to contribute to the decarbonisation of the transport sector in line with the objective of reaching a climate-neutral economy, while recognising that this will be both a challenge and an opportunity; supports the application of the polluter pays principle; calls for a long-term holistic strategy for a just transition which also takes into account the contribution of the transport sector to the EU economy and the need to ensure a high level of affordable and accessible transport connectivity, as well as social aspects and the protection of workers’ rights;


Welcomes the proposal by the Commission to boost multimodal transport to increase efficiency and reduce emissions; believes, however, that multimodality can best be achieved only through concrete legislative proposals; welcomes the Commission’s intention to propose measures to increase interconnectivity between road, rail and inland waterways leading to a genuine modal shift; calls for investments in connectivity of the EU railway networks to be enhanced and supported in order to enable EU-wide equal access to public railway transport and to make passenger transport by rail more attractive; stresses that the Single European Railway Area is a prerequisite for the modal shift, and calls on the Commission to come forward with a strategy by the end of 2020, followed by concrete legislative proposals, to end fragmentation of the internal market;


Underlines that zero-emissions waterway transport is key to developing sustainable multimodal transport; urges the Commission to develop a coordinated European framework of rules for inland waterways; asks the Commission to actively support intermodality involving inland waterways, especially the cross-border networking of national waterway systems, which must be improved;


Reiterates that the Single European Sky (SES) is capable of reducing aviation emissions without major costs, but will not in itself bring about significant reductions in aviation emissions in line with the EU’s long-term goal; calls for a clear regulatory roadmap for the decarbonisation of aviation, based on technological solutions, infrastructure, requirements for sustainable alternative fuels and efficient operations, in combination with incentives for a modal shift;


Welcomes the Commission’s proposal to review the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive and the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) Regulation with a view to accelerating the deployment of zero- and low-emission vehicles and vessels; welcomes the focus on increasing charging infrastructure for electric vehicles; calls nevertheless for a more comprehensive urban mobility plan to reduce congestion and improve liveability in towns and cities, for instance through support for zero-emissions public transport and cycling and walking infrastructure, especially in urban areas;


Considers that it is crucial to ensure sufficient investments in developing appropriate infrastructure for zero-emissions mobility, and that all relevant EU funds (Connecting Europe Facility, InvestEU, etc.) as well as European Investment Bank (EIB) transport lending must be tailored to this; calls on the Member States to commit to proper funding and step up the pace for the deployment of innovative strategies, charging infrastructure and alternative fuels; considers that revenues from taxes or fees on transport should be earmarked to support the transition to make these costs more socially acceptable; welcomes the proposal by the Commission to develop smart systems for traffic management and ‘Mobility as a Service’ solutions, especially in urban areas; calls on the Commission to support the development of innovative applications, new technologies, new business models and new emerging and innovative mobility systems across Europe; urges the Commission to involve cities, with their practical experience and know-how, in the discussion on the implementation of future mobility policies at EU level;


Welcomes the Commission’s intention to include the maritime sector in the ETS; stresses that the EU should defend a high level of ambition for GHG reductions in the maritime sector both at international and EU level, while any new EU measures should not undermine the international competitiveness of EU-flagged ships; believes that EU and international measures should go hand in hand in order to avoid creating double regulations for the industry and that any action, or lack of action, taken at global level should not hinder the EU’s ability to take more ambitious action within the Union; furthermore, underlines the need for measures to move away from the use of heavy fuel oil and the need for urgent investments in research into new technologies to decarbonise the shipping sector, and in the development of zero-emission and green ships;


Supports the proposed measures to reduce emissions in the aviation sector and the strengthening of the ETS in line with the EU’s climate ambition, and the phase-out of the free allocation of allowances for intra-EU flights to airlines; at the same time, calls on the Commission and the Member States to do their utmost to strengthen the carbon offsetting and reduction scheme for international aviation (CORSIA) and to support the adoption by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) of a long-term goal to reduce in-sector emissions, while safeguarding the EU’s legislative autonomy in implementing the ETS Directive; underlines that, as co-legislators, the European Parliament and the Council are the only institutions that can decide on any future amendment to the ETS Directive; stresses that any amendment of the ETS Directive should only be undertaken if it is consistent with the EU’s economy-wide GHG emission reduction commitment;


Underlines the importance of ensuring a level playing field between different modes of transport; calls on the Commission therefore to make proposals for coordinated measures to close tax exemptions for aviation and maritime fuels in the Member States in the context of revising the Energy Taxation Directive, while avoiding unintended negative environmental, economic or social consequences;


Looks forward to the upcoming Commission proposals for more stringent air pollutant emissions standards for combustion engine vehicles (Euro 7), and for revised CO2 emissions performance standards for cars and vans, as well as for trucks, ensuring a pathway from 2025 onwards towards zero-emission mobility; calls on the Commission to develop life cycle assessment methodologies; recalls the result of the in-depth analysis accompanying the Commission communication entitled ‘A Clean Planet for all: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy’ that all new cars placed on the EU market will have to be zero-emission from 2040 onwards in the scenarios for reaching climate neutrality in 2050, and calls for a coherent policy framework and transition schemes to support this development; notes that a revision of the current rules will be needed to allow frontrunner countries to apply more stringent measures at national level when so decided by Member States;


Welcomes the Commission’s plans to address air pollution from maritime transport and aviation, including regulating access by the most polluting ships to EU ports, and regulatory action to tackle the pollution from docked ships in ports; emphasises the importance of fostering the development of zero-emission ports using renewable energy; underlines that the deployment of new emission control areas, as provided for under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), and the reduction of speed for shipping, are relevant solutions to reduce emissions, which can be easily implemented;


Takes note of the Commission’s plans to consider extending European emissions trading to emissions from road transport; rejects a direct inclusion in the EU ETS scheme and the setting up of any kind of parallel schemes; strongly underlines that no pricing system should replace or weaken existing or future CO2 standards for cars and lorries and place any extra burden directly on consumers;

From ‘Farm to Fork’: designing a fair, healthy and environmentally friendly food system


Welcomes the proposal from the Commission to present a Farm to Fork Strategy in 2020 to deliver a more sustainable food policy by bringing together efforts to tackle climate change, protect the environment and preserve and restore biodiversity with the ambition to ensure that Europeans get affordable, high-quality and sustainable food, while ensuring a decent living for farmers, fisherwomen and fishermen and the competiveness of the agriculture sector; considers that the common agricultural policy (CAP) should be fully in line with the EU’s increased climate and biodiversity ambition; welcomes the Commission’s commitment in ensuring that European food should become a global standard for sustainability; calls on the Commission to use the Farm to Fork Strategy to build a truly long-term vision for sustainable and competitive food systems while promoting the reciprocity of EU production standards in trade agreements;


Highlights that sustainable agriculture and farmers will play an important role in tackling the challenges of the European Green Deal; emphasises the importance of European agriculture and its potential to contribute to climate action, the circular economy and enhanced biodiversity and to promote the sustainable use of renewable raw materials; stresses that EU farmers must be given the necessary tools to fight and adapt to climate change, such as investing in the transition to more sustainable agricultural systems; stresses that the Farm to Fork Strategy should aim at an ambitious reduction in agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and land degradation;


Underlines that farmers’ position in the agri-food supply chain must be strengthened; highlights that the impact of EU competition law on the sustainability of the food supply chain should be addressed, for instance by combating unfair trading practices and rewarding producers supplying high-quality food for delivering public goods such as higher environmental and animal welfare standards, benefits which are not currently sufficiently reflected in off-farm prices;


Calls for a sustainable CAP which actively supports farmers and encourages them, through its measures, to deliver more environmental and climate benefits and to manage volatility and crises in a better way; asks the Commission to analyse the contribution of the current CAP reform proposal to the EU’s environmental, climate, and biodiversity protection commitments in order to fully align it to the goals set in the European Green Deal, taking into account the need to maintain a level playing field in Europe and to enable strong, resilient and sustainable agricultural production; stresses that CAP strategic plans must fully reflect the ambition of the European Green Deal, and calls on the Commission to be firm on this point in its assessment of the strategic plans, and especially to verify the ambition and effectiveness of the Member States’ eco-schemes and closely monitor the results of their implementation; stresses the importance within the New Delivery Model of a results-based and targeted approach with greater simplification and transparency about concrete deliverables and added value objectives; considers it necessary to help farmers make the transition towards more sustainable agriculture and, to that end, supports providing the CAP with a budget that allows it to achieve all its objectives, including fulfilling the environmental ambition of the EU;


Reiterates that reducing pesticide dependency is one of the priority targets for sustainable agriculture; welcomes in this regard the Commission’s commitment to tackle the pressure from pesticides on the environment and health, and to significantly reduce the use and risk of chemical pesticides, as well as the use of fertilisers and antibiotics, including through legislative measures; stresses that the Farm to Fork Strategy should include binding reduction targets for hazardous pesticides; calls for an EU strategy for facilitating market access for scientifically substantiated sustainable alternatives; calls on the Commission to act on the calls made in Parliament’s resolution of 16 January 2019 on the Union’s authorisation procedure for pesticides (4);


Notes with concern that agriculture, fishery and food production are still the biggest driver of terrestrial and marine biodiversity loss; believes that the loss of pollinators, including bees, is of particular concern from a food security point of view as pollinator-dependent crops play an important role in our diets; calls on the Commission and Member States to ensure the full adoption of the 2013 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) bee guidance as a matter of urgency, and urges Member States to align their assessments of pesticides accordingly;


Stresses that smart agriculture techniques and production methods are needed in order to ensure sufficient nutritious food for a growing population and to reduce food loss and waste; urges the Commission and the Member States to step up action to reduce food waste and fight food fraud; calls for an enforceable EU-wide food waste reduction target of 50 % by 2030, based on a common methodology; underlines the positive effects that short food supply chains can have for reducing food waste;


Stresses that legislation on food contact materials and maximum residue levels of pesticides should be revised and be based on the latest scientific findings; urges the Commission to ban food additives that are harmful to human health; recalls the crucial role of healthy food in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancers; stresses the importance of setting up a legal framework, including enforcement mechanisms, for imported food products to comply with European environmental standards;


Notes that EU citizens consider that ‘providing safe, healthy and good quality food’ for all consumers should be the top priority for the CAP and common fisheries policy (CFP); believes that digital means of providing information can supplement but not replace on-label information; therefore welcomes the Commission’s intention to explore new ways to give consumers better information; calls on the Commission to consider improved food labelling for instance in terms of nutrition labelling, country-of-origin labelling of certain foods and environment and animal welfare labelling, with the objective of avoiding fragmentation of the single market and providing objective, transparent and consumer-friendly information;


Highlights that agriculture has the potential to help the EU reduce its emissions through sustainable practices, such as precision agriculture, organic farming, agro-ecology, agro-forestry, increased animal welfare and prevention of human and animal diseases, including sustainable forest management, carbon capture, and improved nutrient management to help deliver the objectives of the European Green Deal; stresses the importance of incentivising farmers to transition towards methods which will bring increased climate, environmental and biodiversity benefits in a fair, timely and economically viable manner; welcomes the fact that the Farm to Fork Strategy will also address the benefits of new technologies, including digitalisation, and improve efficiency, resource use and environmental sustainability while bringing economic benefits to the sector; reiterates its call for the implementation of a major strategic European vegetable protein production and supply plan based on the sustainable development of all crops grown throughout the EU;


Calls on the Commission to integrate fisheries and aquaculture products in its Farm to Fork Strategy with a view to reinforcing the sustainable value chain in the fisheries sector (from fishing to consumption); recognises the potential of the fisheries sector in contributing to the objectives of the European Green Deal; strongly underlines the need for the sector to be in line with the EU’s environmental, climate and sustainability objectives and with science; emphasises the importance of ensuring adequate support for European fishermen and fisherwomen in their transition to sustainable fishing activities; calls on the Commission to put forward a proposal to improve the traceability of all seafood products, including origin labelling for canned fish products and the rejection of products that harm or deplete the marine environment;


Considers it important to raise existing animal welfare standards, and to develop new ones where relevant, based on new scientific findings, and to start infringement procedures against systemic non-compliance in Member States in the implementation and enforcement of existing animal welfare legislation; calls on the Commission to present, without undue delay, a new Animal Welfare Strategy that paves the way for an Animal Welfare Framework Law and to ensure that animal sentience is taken into consideration in all relevant policies;

Preserving and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity


Deeply regrets that Europe and the world continue to lose biodiversity at an alarming rate and that is failing to achieve its current targets, including the Aichi targets to halt biodiversity loss; stresses the need to preserve and restore biodiversity, and welcomes the Commission’s commitment to present a Biodiversity Strategy by March 2020, ahead of the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity; stresses that the EU should push for an ambitious and binding global agreement on the post-2020 framework on biodiversity with clear goals and binding targets on protected areas both in the EU overall and globally; considers it crucial to halt and reverse the loss of biodiversity by 2030 both within the EU and globally, including specific actions for European overseas entities;


Underlines that the 2030 Biodiversity Strategy must include both ambitious and enforceable legal measures and binding targets to step up the protection and restoration of vulnerable ecosystems, as well as comprehensive measures to address the drivers of biodiversity loss; emphasises the importance of increasing the effectiveness and size of protected area networks in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and to allow biodiversity to recover; calls on the Commission to include in the Biodiversity Strategy a target to phase out hazardous chemicals and to link it with the Non-Toxic Environment Strategy; takes note of the Commission’s plans to identify measures to improve and restore damaged ecosystems and to propose a nature restoration plan; believes that biodiversity-rich areas of urban green infrastructure help to address air pollution, noise, climate change impacts, heat waves, floods and public health problems; welcomes the fact that the Commission will make proposals to green European cities and increase biodiversity in urban spaces;


Stresses that policy coherence both at EU and national level is key for a successful policy to protect nature and biodiversity; as regards implementation, considers it important to exchange best practices and experiences among Member States; calls on the Commission to launch infringement procedures against Member States who do not respect nature protection legislation; calls on the Commission to strengthen the Environmental Liability Directive in line with the recommendations of the European Parliament in its resolution adopted on 26 October 2017;


Considers that the drivers of biodiversity loss are global and are not confined to national borders; supports therefore the Commission’s proposal for a global binding target to protect and restore biodiversity to be set at the UN Biodiversity Conference in October 2020; calls on the Commission and the Member States to join efforts to agree on an ambitious global protected areas target for marine and terrestrial areas;


Recalls that forests are indispensable to our planet and biodiversity; welcomes the intention of the Commission to tackle global deforestation and asks it to step up its actions; calls on the Commission to present, without delay, a proposal for a European legal framework based on due diligence to ensure sustainable and deforestation-free supply chains for products placed on the EU market, with a particular focus on tackling the main drivers of imported deforestation and instead encouraging imports that do not create deforestation abroad;


Calls on the Commission to present a new, ambitious EU Forest Strategy to give appropriate recognition to the important, multifunctional and cross-cutting role that European forests, the sector and sustainable forest management have in the fight against climate change and biodiversity loss, also taking social, economic and environmental aspects into account; recalls the need for action to combat illegal logging in Europe; stresses that afforestation, reforestation and restoration efforts should aim at enhancing biodiversity as well as carbon storage;


Stresses that wildlife trafficking and illegal wildlife trade are major drivers of biodiversity loss; underlines that the 2016 action plan against wildlife trafficking ends in 2020; urges the Commission to renew and strengthen its provisions, to fully integrate these into the 2030 Biodiversity Strategy and to ensure adequate funding; calls on the Commission to make cooperation with partner countries a key element of the fight against wildlife crime and biodiversity decline;


Recognises the role of the blue economy in tackling climate change; underlines that the blue economy, including renewable energy, tourism and industry, must be truly sustainable as the use of marine resources directly or indirectly depends on the long-term quality and resilience of the oceans; believes that oceans should be put high on the agenda of the European Green Deal; urges the Commission to give the Green Deal a ‘blue’ dimension and to fully include the ocean dimension as a key element of the Green Deal, fully recognising the ecosystem services oceans provide by developing an ‘Oceans and Aquaculture Action Plan’, including concrete actions bringing together an integrated strategic vision towards maritime policy issues such as transport, innovation and knowledge, biodiversity, the blue economy, emissions, waste and governance;


Believes that the CFP should aim at ending overfishing and rebuilding stocks beyond maximum sustainable yields, at developing sustainable sea and fresh water aquaculture systems, and at establishing an effective and integrated ecosystem-based management system that takes into account all the factors impacting fish stocks and the marine ecosystem, including climate change and pollution; calls on the Commission to put forward a proposal for a revision of the CFP in this regard;


Stresses the need for ocean and coastal conservation efforts, both mitigating and adapting to climate change, to protect and restore marine and coastal ecosystems, and calls for a proposal for setting a binding target to expand the network of marine protected areas to at least 30 % at EU level in the biodiversity strategy for 2030, in order to enhance the protection of the ocean; highlights the need for an enhancement of financial and capacity resources to improve marine knowledge in relation to biodiversity, climate and pollution, in order to better understand the impacts of activities on marine ecosystems and the state of fish stocks, and to set up appropriate adaptation and mitigation action plans;


Highlights the importance of fostering the role of the EU as a global leader in ocean governance, including the trade dimension, by promoting the adoption of an international mechanism under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to protect biodiversity and marine ecosystems beyond areas of national jurisdiction and a zero-tolerance policy against illegal fishing, including a common strategy with neighbouring countries for preventing and reducing pollution; points out the need to strengthen the role of the EU in the contribution to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development in order to better engage in ocean science and contribute to achieving the SDGs;

A zero-pollution ambition for a toxic-free environment


Welcomes the Commission’s plans to present a zero-pollution action plan for air, water and soil, which should also address pollution from land to water, should include enhanced monitoring and should focus its actions on pollution prevention; considers it regrettable that the presentation of the Non-toxic Environment Strategy has been delayed, and calls on the Commission to put forward an ambitious cross-sectoral Non-toxic Environment Strategy as soon as possible in 2020 to ensure that all Europeans are properly protected against harmful substances, including consumers, workers and vulnerable populations;


Considers that the Non-toxic Environment Strategy should close all regulatory gaps in EU chemicals legislation and effectively contribute to the rapid substitution of substances of very high concern and other hazardous chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, very persistent chemicals, neurotoxicants and immuno-toxicants, as well as tackling the combination effects of chemicals, nano-forms of substances and exposure to hazardous chemicals from products; reiterates that any ban of these chemicals should take all aspects of sustainability into account; underlines the need for a clear commitment to securing funds for improved research into safer alternatives and to promoting substitution of harmful chemicals, clean production and sustainable innovation; underlines the need to reduce animal testing in risk assessments and calls for increased efforts and funds to this end;


Calls for an ambitious legislative proposal by June 2020 to tackle endocrine disruptors, especially in cosmetics, toys and food contact materials, and an action plan that provides a comprehensive framework with targets and deadlines to minimise citizens’ exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); points out that the new comprehensive framework on EDCs must ensure that the mixture effects and combined exposures are taken into account;


Calls on the Commission to take clear legislative action on tackling pharmaceuticals in the environment, both as a result of the manufacturing process and of the use and disposal of pharmaceuticals; notes with concern the role that pharmaceuticals play in contributing to antimicrobial resistance when released into the environment via the discharge of animal manure;


Points out that the Zero-Pollution Action Plan for air, water and soil must be a comprehensive and cross-cutting strategy to protect citizens’ health from environmental degradation and pollution; calls on the Commission to raise the level of protection of the quality of our air, in line with latest scientific findings and the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines; urges better monitoring of air pollution in Member States through the implementation of robust and harmonised measurement methods, and easy access to the information for European citizens; calls for comprehensive action against all relevant pollutants to restore the natural functions of ground and surface water; underlines that the revision of the Industrial Emissions Directive should put emphasis on preventing pollution, coherence with policies on the circular economy and decarbonisation; furthermore, calls for a review of the Seveso Directive;

Financing the European Green Deal and ensuring a just transition


Welcomes the recognition of the considerable financing needs to achieve the goals set out in the European Green Deal; further welcomes the recognition in the communication that sustainability should be further embedded into all sectors; considers that the Commission should come forward with a comprehensive financing plan based on a coherent set of proposals that should aim to boost public and private investments at every level; believes that such a plan is necessary in order to meet the considerable financing needs and additional investment required for the implementation of the objectives of the European Green Deal, which well exceed the conservative figure of EUR 260 billion stated by the Commission, which does not consider for instance the investment needs for climate adaptation and for other environmental challenges such as biodiversity, or the public investment needed to address social costs; stresses that the costs of deep decarbonisation are now far lower than the costs incurred from the effects of climate change;


Supports the plans for a Sustainable Investment Plan to help close the investment gap, help finance the transition to a carbon-neutral economy and ensure a just transition across all EU regions; underlines that the plan should take account of the experiences of previous programmes (the ‘Juncker Plan’) and place a special emphasis on truly additional investments of European added value; calls for coordinated actions to tackle the investment gap across the EU, including through the EU budget, financing from the EIB and other financial institutions and EU programmes, for example through InvestEU;


Welcomes the new energy lending policy and the new strategy for climate action and environmental sustainability adopted by the EIB on 14 November 2019 as a positive contribution towards the achievement of the European Green Deal; welcomes the fact that the EIB is to be transformed into the EU’s new Climate Bank, with 50 % of its operations to be dedicated to climate action and environmental sustainability by 2025, with an end to its support for fossil fuel projects by 2021, and with all its financing activities aligned with the principles and goals of the Paris Agreement by 2020; encourages the EIB to play an active role in supporting projects that support a just transition, such as research, innovation and digitalisation, SMEs’ access to finance, and social investment and skills; calls for the EIB investment policy to provide targeted financing for European Green Deal initiatives as a matter of priority, while taking into account the additionality that EIB financing can provide in combination with other sources; stresses that coordination with other financing instruments is crucial given that the EIB alone cannot finance all of the European Green Deal initiatives; welcomes the recent statements by the newly appointed President of the European Central Bank (ECB) that the institution, in both its monetary and its banking supervisory roles, should contribute to the fight against climate change; urges the Commission to work with the ECB in this regard to ensure the coherent action promised in the European Green Deal communication, without prejudice to the mandate of the ECB under the Treaties;


Highlights that the current market imbalance between low supply and high demand of sustainable financial products must be addressed; reiterates the role of sustainable finance and considers it essential that the major international financial institutions swiftly adopt and develop sustainable finance in order to ensure full transparency of the degree of sustainability of the EU financial system and bring about a successful decarbonisation of the global economy; insists on the need to build on the successes of the sustainable finance strategy and underlines the need to rapidly implement the EU’s Action Plan on Sustainable Finance, including a green label for financial products, the green bond standard and the integration of environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors in the prudential framework for banks, and welcomes the establishment of the International Platform on Sustainable Finance;


Highlights the need for support for a just transition and welcomes the Commission’s commitments in this regard; believes that a well-designed Just Transition Mechanism, including a Just Transition Fund, will be an important tool to facilitate the transition and reach ambitious climate targets while addressing social impacts; stresses that robust financing of this instrument, including additional budgetary resources, will be a key element for the successful implementation of the European Green Deal; believes that the just transition is about more than just a fund, but is a whole-policy approach underpinned by investment which must ensure that no one is left behind, and highlights the role of the social policies of the Member States in this context; believes that the Mechanism should not simply be a net transfer to national governments or companies, nor should it be used to pay for corporate liabilities, but that it should concretely help workers of all sectors and communities in the EU most affected by decarbonisation, such as coal mining and carbon-intensive regions, to make the transition to the clean economy of the future, while not having a discouraging effect on proactive projects and initiatives; believes that the fund should inter alia promote upskilling and reskilling in order to prepare and adapt workers to new employment perspectives, requirements and competences and support the creation of high-quality and sustainable jobs; strongly emphasises that just transition funding must be conditional on progress on concrete and binding decarbonisation plans in line with the Paris Agreement, especially the phase-out of coal and the transformation of carbon-intensive economic regions; deems it important to ensure an appropriate monitoring framework in order to follow up on how funds are used in the Member States; stresses, however, that funds alone cannot ensure the transition and that a comprehensive EU strategy based on a genuine dialogue and partnership with the people and communities concerned, including trade unions, is needed;


Stresses the instrumental role of the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the delivery of the European Green Deal and the urgent need for another quantum leap in political and financial efforts, including new budgetary appropriations, in order to achieve its objectives, as well as a just transition towards a carbon-neutral economy based on the highest social justice criteria so that no one and nowhere is left behind; expects the budgetary means over the next financial programming period to be commensurate with this ambition, while stressing that a reduced MFF would obviously represent a step backwards;


Calls for the establishment of a mechanism ensuring good coordination, coherence and consistency between all available EU policies, funding instruments and investments, including the EIB, with a view to avoiding overlaps and enhancing the synergies, complementarities and additionality of their funding, and to leverage sustainable private and public investment, thereby better optimising and mainstreaming financial support for the European Green Deal; highlights, in this regard, its support for the principle of mainstreaming targets in the MFF in order to achieve policy coherence; considers that the fight against tax fraud, tax evasion, aggressive tax planning and money laundering has an important role to play in reaching the objectives of the European Green Deal and shaping a fair society and a strong economy;


Calls for the establishment of ambitious and binding biodiversity spending and climate mainstreaming targets which go beyond the levels of targeted spending shares as set out in Parliament’s interim report on the MFF, including a stringent and comprehensive methodology for defining and tracking relevant climate and biodiversity expenditure; demands that the Commission ensure that no EU public funding, from any EU policies, goes against the goal of the Paris Agreement and the EU’s other environmental objectives and international commitments and obligations;


Supports the introduction of a basket of well-targeted new green own resources that correspond to the objectives of the European Green Deal and promote and facilitate a green and socially fair transition, including the fight against climate change and the protection of the environment; sees the Commission’s proposals as a starting point in this regard;


Believes that the planned revision of State aid guidelines should reflect the policy objectives of the European Green Deal and aim at reinforcing and simplifying investment in sustainable solutions, ensuring a rapid phase-out of direct and indirect subsidies for coal and fossil fuel in the EU and providing guidelines fully consistent with GHG reduction and environmental objectives for national, regional and local authorities, whose role will be instrumental in an effective and innovative implementation of the European Green Deal; considers that the revision should allow for national support for structural changes due to coal phase-out following the same conditionality as the Just Transition Fund; stresses that such a revision should not weaken the EU’s strong set of competition rules;


Highlights that a substantial amount of the financing required by the Green Deal will have to come from Member States’ budgets; welcomes the Commission’s intention to work with Member States on the greening of national budgets; is concerned that without sustainable fiscal policy and a credible financial situation in the Member States any future Green Deal financing model may be jeopardised; calls, therefore, for the introduction of an enabling framework for public sustainable investments to achieve the goals set out in the European Green Deal, but stresses that whatever financing model is chosen must not undermine the sustainability of public finance in the EU; underlines, however, that sustainable investments under the European Green Deal should be truly additional and should not result in a crowding-out of market financing; points out, in this regard, the possibilities of private and public investments to benefit from the prevailing low-interest environment;


Calls for the transformative agenda of the European Green Deal to be reflected in a greener European Semester; underlines that the European Semester as it currently functions should not be watered down; believes that the UN SDGs should be integrated, in order to make the process a driver of change towards a sustainable wellbeing for all in Europe; supports, therefore, a further integration of social and environmental indicators and targets into the semester whereby Member States are required to present national plans to attain them; calls further on the Commission to provide assessments of the consistency of Member States’ budgets with the EU’s updated climate objectives;

Mobilising research and fostering innovation


Highlights that world-leading research and innovation are fundamental to Europe’s future and essential for achieving our environmental and climate goals, ensuring a science-based strategy for achieving a carbon-neutral Europe by 2050 at the latest and the clean transition of society, while at the same time ensuring economic competitiveness and prosperity; welcomes the Commission’s emphasis on the need to work across sectors and disciplines; stresses the need for a systemic climate mainstreaming and climate proofing for all programmes in the EU’s research and innovation agenda; notes the role of new technologies in providing additional benefits in the transition to a sustainable economy; urges the Commission and Member States to promote research on adaptation technologies;


Underlines the importance of the 2021-2027 mission-oriented Horizon Europe programme, which provides an opportunity to engage a wide range of actors, including European citizens, in tackling the pressing global challenge of climate change and to move towards more collaborative research and innovation practices for delivering on the European Green Deal; stresses the need to maintain an ambitious budget for Horizon Europe of EUR 120 billion in current prices in order to address the significant innovation challenges for the transition to climate neutrality, taking into account that at least 35 % of the Horizon Europe budget should contribute to climate objectives; stresses that other EU funds should earmark a greater budget share for research and innovation in the field of clean technologies; requests that the Commission maximise opportunities arising from the broader innovation environment given that many new key enabling technologies will be crucial in achieving climate neutrality by 2050 at the latest;


Stresses that the EU must maintain and further develop its flagship civilian space programmes Copernicus and Galileo, and the EU Agency for the Space Programme, which provide valuable contributions to environmental monitoring and data collection; stresses that Copernicus’s climate change services should become fully operational as soon as possible, thereby providing the continuous flow of data necessary for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation actions;


Underlines the importance of strengthening technology transfer and the sharing of knowledge in the areas of climate change mitigation, adaptation, protection and restoration of biodiversity, resource efficiency and circularity, and low-carbon and zero-emission technologies, including in the collection of data to support the delivery of the objectives of the European Green Deal; insists on the importance of supporting market deployment, which is a key driver in transforming the EU’s substantial knowledge assets into innovations; takes the view that the European Green Deal is also an opportunity to establish links between the different sectors involved, which should have symbiotic benefits; believes, in this connection, that the bioeconomy provides the opportunity to create such symbiotic benefits across different sectors and complement the circular economy;


Reiterates that EU policies should support scientific excellence and participatory science, strengthen collaboration between academia and industry, and promote innovation and evidence-based policymaking while fostering international cooperation in the field, including the facilitation of exchanges of good practices in order to strengthen skills linked to the ecological transition in the new professions also associated with it, for workers, teachers and young people; welcomes the Commission’s intention to update the New Skills Agenda and the Youth Guarantee to enhance employability in the green economy and encourages Member States to invest in education and training systems, including activities related to vocational training; considers it a matter of coherence with the objectives of the communication to promote ‘green mobility’ in the Erasmus+ 2021-2027 programme;

‘Do no harm’ — mainstreaming sustainability in all EU policies


Welcomes the concept of the ‘do no harm’ principle and the commitment by the Commission to ensure that all EU actions should help the EU achieve a sustainable future and a just transition, including the use of green budgeting tools, and to update the better regulation guidelines accordingly; insists on a coherent approach to the implementation of the Paris Agreement, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, in both internal and external policies; urges the Commission to assist the Member States in the full and correct implementation of current and upcoming environmental and climate legislation in the Member States and to ensure that there are consequences in cases of non-compliance;


Underlines the essential role of the precautionary principle in guiding EU actions in all policy spheres, together with the ‘do no harm’ principle, with the utmost regard for the principle of policy coherence; believes that the precautionary principle should underpin all actions taken in the context of the European Green Deal in order to help safeguard health and the environment; insists that the EU must apply the polluter pays principle when presenting proposals for fair and coordinated measures for tackling climate and environmental challenges;


Stresses the need to base all future legislative proposals on comprehensive impact assessments identifying the socio-economic, environmental and health effects of different options, including the total climate and environmental impacts and the cost of non-action, as well as the effects on the international competiveness of EU businesses, including SMEs, and the need to avoid carbon leakage, the effects on different Member States, regions and sectors, the effects on employment, and the effects on long-term investment certainty; underlines the need to demonstrate to the public the benefits of each proposal while ensuring policy coherence with GHG reduction targets and with that of limiting global warming to 1,5 oC, and ensuring that they are not contributing to biodiversity loss; welcomes the fact that explanatory memorandums accompanying all legislative proposals and delegated acts will include a specific section explaining how each initiative upholds the principle of ‘do no harm’; calls for this to be extended to include implementing acts and regulatory procedure with scrutiny (RPS) measures;


Reiterates that it is essential to guarantee EU citizens the genuine access to justice and documents enshrined in the Aarhus Convention; calls on the Commission, therefore, to ensure that the EU is complying with the Convention and welcomes the Commission’s consideration of the revision of the Aarhus Regulation;


Asks the Commission to fulfil Scenario 1 of the Reflection Paper entitled ‘Towards a sustainable Europe by 2030’, as demanded by Parliament in its resolution of 14 March 2019 entitled ‘Annual strategic report on the implementation and delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)’ (5), requiring, inter alia, that a ‘sustainability first’ principle be integrated into the Better Regulation Agendas of the EU and its Member States;


Emphasises that the 8th Environmental Action Programme must reflect the ambition presented in the European Green Deal and be fully aligned with and drive forward the implementation of the SDGs;


Highlights the large climate and environmental footprint of EU consumption in countries outside the EU; calls on the Commission to develop a target to reduce the global footprint of EU consumption and production with respect for the Earth’s planetary boundaries; welcomes, in this regard, the Commission’s intention of promoting sustainable supply chains in order to increase the benefits of the circular economy domestically and globally;

The EU as a global leader


Underlines that as the world’s largest single market, the EU can set standards that apply across global value chains, and believes that the EU should strengthen its political outreach on the basis of ‘Green Deal diplomacy’ as well as ‘climate diplomacy’; believes that the EU should stimulate the debate in other countries in order to raise their climate ambitions, and should step up its ambition in setting new standards for sustainable growth and use its economic weight to shape international standards that are at a minimum in line with EU environmental and climate ambitions; stresses that the EU has a role to play in ensuring a just and orderly transition in all parts of the world, especially in regions that are heavily dependent on fossil fuel;


Welcomes the global climate movements, such as the Fridays for Future movement, which are bringing the climate crisis to the forefront of public debate and consciousness;


Sees the European Green Deal as an opportunity to reinvigorate European public debate; underlines the importance of involving citizens, national and regional parliaments, civil society and stakeholders such as NGOs, trade unions and businesses in the elaboration and implementation of the European Green Deal;


Highlights that trade can be an important tool to promote sustainable development and to help fight climate change; believes that the European Green Deal should ensure that all international trade and investment agreements include strong, binding and enforceable sustainable development chapters, including on the climate and the environment, that fully respect international commitments, in particular the Paris Agreement, and are compliant with WTO rules; welcomes the Commission’s intention to make the Paris Agreement an essential element of all future trade and investment agreements and to ensure that all chemicals, materials, food and other products placed on the European market fully comply with relevant EU regulations and standards;


Believes that the failure of COP25 in Madrid to reach a consensus on a greater global level of climate ambition, as well as the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, underlines the growing need for EU leadership on the world stage, and will require the EU to enhance its climate and environmental diplomacy and step up bilateral engagements with partner countries, especially ahead of COP26 in Glasgow and COP15 in Kunming, China; considers COP26 to be a crucial moment that will either undermine or reinforce the integrity of the Paris Agreement;


Welcomes the emphasis put on climate diplomacy and insists that in order to bring about results the EU must speak with one voice, ensuring consistency and coherence between all its policies and across the policy cycle, in accordance with the principle of policy coherence for development, and must approach EU climate and environmental diplomacy in a holistic manner by creating links between climate change, the protection of biodiversity, sustainable development, agriculture, conflict resolution and security, migration, human rights, and humanitarian and gender concerns; stresses that all of the EU’s external activities should undergo ‘green screening’;


Calls on the Commission in its efforts to promote the EU as leader of international climate and biodiversity negotiations to design a concrete action plan to deliver on the commitments of the renewed five-year Gender Action Plan agreed at COP25 (Enhanced Lima work programme), to promote gender equality in the UNFCCC process, and to appoint a permanent EU gender and climate change focal point, with sufficient budget resources, to implement and monitor gender-responsible climate action in the EU and globally;


Recalls that climate change undermines progress in development and poverty reduction and could force millions of people into extreme poverty by 2030; insists, therefore, that the European Green Deal and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda should be closely interrelated;


Reiterates the need to address the dramatic consequences climate change has on the long-term economic development of developing countries, in particular least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS); believes that states that emit large quantities of CO2, such as the Member States of the EU, have a moral duty to help developing countries to adapt to climate change; considers that the EU’s cooperation with developing countries should integrate climate strategies as an essential part, in a tailor-made and needs-based approach, should ensure the involvement of local and regional stakeholders, including governments, the private sector and civil society, and should align with partner countries’ national plans and climate strategies;


Stresses that the EU should provide additional financial and technical assistance to help developing countries with the green transition; calls, in particular, for the EU to step up its climate funding to developing countries, in particular LDCs, SIDS and fragile countries, and to prioritise investment in resilience-building, innovation, adaptation and low-carbon technologies and climate-friendly and resilient infrastructure, in order to respond to the intensification of natural disasters; believes that more efforts are needed in terms of knowledge-sharing, capacity-building and technology transfer to developing countries;


Stresses that the Comprehensive Strategy for Africa and the future ACP-EU partnership agreement provide unique opportunities to realise the external aspects of the European Green Deal, review the EU’s partnership with developing countries in terms of the climate and the environment, and align the EU’s policies with its most recent international commitments;


Supports the Commission’s ambition to end EU exports of waste resources and enhance the circular economy worldwide; calls for the introduction of a global ban on single-use plastic;


Calls on the Commission to take the initiative for an international agreement to combat the spread of antimicrobial resistance and the growing emergence of infectious diseases; calls on the Commission and the Member States to address the risk of medicine shortages appropriately;


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Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.

(1)  Texts adopted, P8_TA(2019)0217.

(2)  Texts adopted, P9_TA(2019)0078.

(3)  Texts adopted, P9_TA(2019)0079.

(4)  Texts adopted, P8_TA(2019)0023.

(5)  Texts adopted, P9_TA(2019)0220.