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Document 32023R1114

Regulation (EU) 2023/1114 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 May 2023 on markets in crypto-assets, and amending Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010 and (EU) No 1095/2010 and Directives 2013/36/EU and (EU) 2019/1937 (Text with EEA relevance)

PE/54/2022/REV/1

OJ L 150, 9.6.2023, p. 40–205 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, GA, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

Legal status of the document In force: This act has been changed. Current consolidated version: 09/01/2024

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2023/1114/oj

9.6.2023   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 150/40


REGULATION (EU) 2023/1114 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

of 31 May 2023

on markets in crypto-assets, and amending Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010 and (EU) No 1095/2010 and Directives 2013/36/EU and (EU) 2019/1937

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 114 thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,

After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Central Bank (1),

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (2),

Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure (3),

Whereas:

(1)

It is important to ensure that Union legislative acts on financial services are fit for the digital age, and contribute to a future-proof economy that works for people, including by enabling the use of innovative technologies. The Union has a policy interest in developing and promoting the uptake of transformative technologies in the financial sector, including the uptake of distributed ledger technology (DLT). It is expected that many applications of distributed ledger technology, including blockchain technology, that have not yet been fully studied will continue to result in new types of business activity and business models that, together with the crypto-asset sector itself, will lead to economic growth and new employment opportunities for Union citizens.

(2)

Crypto-assets are one of the main applications of distributed ledger technology. Crypto-assets are digital representations of value or of rights that have the potential to bring significant benefits to market participants, including retail holders of crypto-assets. Representations of value include external, non-intrinsic value attributed to a crypto-asset by the parties concerned or by market participants, meaning the value is subjective and based only on the interest of the purchaser of the crypto-asset. By streamlining capital-raising processes and enhancing competition, offers of crypto-assets could allow for an innovative and inclusive way of financing, including for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). When used as a means of payment, crypto-assets can present opportunities in terms of cheaper, faster and more efficient payments, in particular on a cross-border basis, by limiting the number of intermediaries.

(3)

Some crypto-assets, in particular those that qualify as financial instruments as defined in Directive 2014/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (4), fall within the scope of existing Union legislative acts on financial services. Therefore, a full set of Union rules already applies to issuers of such crypto-assets and to firms conducting activities related to such crypto-assets.

(4)

Other crypto-assets, however, fall outside of the scope of Union legislative acts on financial services. At present, there are no rules, other than those in respect of anti-money laundering, for the provision of services related to such unregulated crypto-assets, including for the operation of trading platforms for crypto-assets, the exchange of crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, and providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients. The absence of such rules leaves holders of those crypto-assets exposed to risks, in particular in fields not covered by consumer protection rules. The absence of such rules can also result in substantial risks to market integrity, including in terms of market abuse as well as in terms of financial crime. To address those risks, some Member States have put in place specific rules for all, or a subset of, crypto-assets that fall outside the scope of Union legislative acts on financial services, and other Member States are considering whether to legislate in the field of crypto-assets.

(5)

The absence of an overall Union framework for markets in crypto-assets can lead to a lack of user confidence in those assets, which could significantly hinder the development of a market in those assets and lead to missed opportunities in terms of innovative digital services, alternative payment instruments or new funding sources for Union companies. In addition, companies using crypto-assets would have no legal certainty on how their crypto-assets would be treated in the various Member States, which would undermine their efforts to use crypto-assets for digital innovation. The lack of an overall Union framework for markets in crypto-assets could also lead to regulatory fragmentation, which would distort competition in the internal market, make it more difficult for crypto-asset service providers to scale up their activities on a cross-border basis and would give rise to regulatory arbitrage. Markets in crypto-assets are still modest in size and do not at present pose a threat to financial stability. It is, however, possible that types of crypto-assets that aim to stabilise their price in relation to a specific asset or a basket of assets could in the future be widely adopted by retail holders, and such a development could raise additional challenges in terms of financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty.

(6)

A dedicated and harmonised framework for markets in crypto-assets is therefore necessary at Union level in order to provide specific rules for crypto-assets and related services and activities that are not yet covered by Union legislative acts on financial services. Such a framework should support innovation and fair competition, while ensuring a high level of protection of retail holders and the integrity of markets in crypto-assets. A clear framework should enable crypto-asset service providers to scale up their businesses on a cross-border basis and facilitate their access to banking services to enable them to run their activities smoothly. A Union framework for markets in crypto-assets should provide for the proportionate treatment of issuers of crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers, thereby giving rise to equal opportunities in respect of market entry and the ongoing and future development of markets in crypto-assets. It should also promote financial stability and the smooth operation of payment systems, and address monetary policy risks that could arise from crypto-assets that aim to stabilise their price in relation to a specific asset or basket of assets. Proper regulation maintains the competitiveness of the Member States on international financial and technological markets and provides clients with significant benefits in terms of access to cheaper, faster and safer financial services and asset management. The Union framework for markets in crypto-assets should not regulate the underlying technology. Union legislative acts should avoid imposing an unnecessary and disproportionate regulatory burden on the use of technology, since the Union and the Member States seek to maintain competitiveness on a global market.

(7)

The consensus mechanisms used for the validation of transactions in crypto-assets might have principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts. Such consensus mechanisms should therefore deploy more environmentally-friendly solutions and ensure that any principal adverse impact that they might have on the climate, and any other environment-related adverse impact, are adequately identified and disclosed by issuers of crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers. When determining whether adverse impacts are principal, account should be taken of the principle of proportionality and the size and volume of the crypto-asset issued. The European Supervisory Authority (European Securities and Markets Authority) (ESMA) established by Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (5), in cooperation with the European Supervisory Authority (European Banking Authority) (EBA) established by Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (6), should therefore be mandated to develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the content, methodologies and presentation of information in relation to sustainability indicators with regard to adverse impacts on climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts, and to outline key energy indicators. The draft regulatory technical standards should also ensure coherence of disclosures by issuers of crypto-assets and by crypto-asset service providers. When developing the draft regulatory technical standards, ESMA should take into account the various types of consensus mechanisms used for the validation of transactions in crypto-assets, their characteristics and the differences between them. ESMA should also take into account existing disclosure requirements, ensure complementarity and consistency, and avoid increasing the burden on companies.

(8)

Markets in crypto-assets are global and thus inherently cross-border. Therefore, the Union should continue to support international efforts to promote convergence in the treatment of crypto-assets and crypto-asset services through international organisations or bodies such as the Financial Stability Board, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the Financial Action Task Force.

(9)

Union legislative acts on financial services should be guided by the principles of ‘same activities, same risks, same rules’ and of technology neutrality. Therefore, crypto-assets that fall under existing Union legislative acts on financial services should remain regulated under the existing regulatory framework, regardless of the technology used for their issuance or their transfer, rather than this Regulation. Accordingly, this Regulation expressly excludes from its scope crypto-assets that qualify as financial instruments as defined in Directive 2014/65/EU, those that qualify as deposits as defined in Directive 2014/49/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (7), including structured deposits as defined in Directive 2014/65/EU, those that qualify as funds as defined in Directive (EU) 2015/2366 of the European Parliament and of the Council (8), except if they qualify as electronic money tokens (‘e-money tokens’), those that qualify as securitisation positions as defined in Regulation (EU) 2017/2402 of the European Parliament and of the Council (9), and those that qualify as non-life or life insurance contracts, pension products or schemes and social security schemes. Having regard to the fact that electronic money and funds received in exchange for electronic money should not be treated as deposits in accordance with Directive 2009/110/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (10), e-money tokens cannot be treated as deposits that are excluded from the scope of this Regulation.

(10)

This Regulation should not apply to crypto-assets that are unique and not fungible with other crypto-assets, including digital art and collectibles. The value of such unique and non-fungible crypto-assets is attributable to each crypto-asset’s unique characteristics and the utility it gives to the holder of the token. Nor should this Regulation apply to crypto-assets representing services or physical assets that are unique and non-fungible, such as product guarantees or real estate. While unique and non-fungible crypto-assets might be traded on the marketplace and be accumulated speculatively, they are not readily interchangeable and the relative value of one such crypto-asset in relation to another, each being unique, cannot be ascertained by means of comparison to an existing market or equivalent asset. Such features limit the extent to which those crypto-assets can have a financial use, thus limiting risks to holders and the financial system and justifying their exclusion from the scope of this Regulation.

(11)

The fractional parts of a unique and non-fungible crypto-asset should not be considered unique and non-fungible. The issuance of crypto-assets as non-fungible tokens in a large series or collection should be considered an indicator of their fungibility. The mere attribution of a unique identifier to a crypto-asset is not, in and of itself, sufficient to classify it as unique and non-fungible. The assets or rights represented should also be unique and non-fungible in order for the crypto-asset to be considered unique and non-fungible. The exclusion of crypto-assets that are unique and non-fungible from the scope of this Regulation is without prejudice to the qualification of such crypto-assets as financial instruments. This Regulation should also apply to crypto-assets that appear to be unique and non-fungible, but whose de facto features or whose features that are linked to their de facto uses, would make them either fungible or not unique. In that regard, when assessing and classifying crypto-assets, competent authorities should adopt a substance over form approach whereby the features of the crypto-asset in question determine the classification and not its designation by the issuer.

(12)

It is appropriate to exclude certain intragroup transactions and some public entities from the scope of this Regulation as they do not pose risks to investor protection, market integrity, financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty. Public international organisations that are exempt include the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International Settlements.

(13)

Digital assets issued by central banks acting in their monetary authority capacity, including central bank money in digital form, or crypto-assets issued by other public authorities, including central, regional and local administrations, should not be subject to the Union framework for markets in crypto-assets. Nor should related services provided by such central banks when acting in their monetary authority capacity or other public authorities be subject to that Union framework.

(14)

For the purposes of ensuring a clear delineation between, on the one hand, crypto-assets covered by this Regulation and, on the other hand, financial instruments, ESMA should be mandated to issue guidelines on the criteria and conditions for the qualification of crypto-assets as financial instruments. Those guidelines should also allow for a better understanding of the cases where crypto-assets that are otherwise considered unique and not fungible with other crypto-assets might qualify as financial instruments. In order to promote a common approach towards the classification of crypto-assets, EBA, ESMA and the European Supervisory Authority (European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority) (EIOPA), established by Regulation (EU) No 1094/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (11) (the ‘European Supervisory Authorities’ or ‘ESAs’) should promote discussions on such classification. Competent authorities should be able to request opinions from the ESAs on the classification of crypto-assets, including classifications proposed by offerors or persons seeking admission to trading. Offerors or persons seeking admission to trading are primarily responsible for the correct classification of crypto-assets, which might be challenged by the competent authorities, both before the date of publication of the offer and at any time thereafter. Where the classification of a crypto-asset appears to be inconsistent with this Regulation or other relevant Union legislative acts on financial services, the ESAs should make use of their powers under Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010, (EU) No 1094/2010 and (EU) No 1095/2010 in order to ensure a consistent and coherent approach to such classification.

(15)

Pursuant to Article 127(2), fourth indent, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), one of the basic tasks to be carried out through the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is to promote the smooth operation of payment systems. The European Central Bank (ECB) may, pursuant to Article 22 of Protocol No 4 on the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank attached to the Treaties, make regulations to ensure efficient and sound clearing and payment systems within the Union and with other countries. To that end, the ECB has adopted regulations concerning requirements for systemically important payment systems. This Regulation is without prejudice to the responsibilities of the ECB and the national central banks in the ESCB to ensure efficient and sound clearing and payment systems within the Union and with third countries. Consequently, and in order to prevent the possible creation of parallel sets of rules, EBA, ESMA and the ECB should cooperate closely when preparing the relevant draft technical standards under this Regulation. Furthermore, it is crucial for the ECB and the national central banks to have access to information when fulfilling their tasks relating to the oversight of payment systems, including clearing of payments. In addition, this Regulation should be without prejudice to Council Regulation (EU) No 1024/2013 (12) and should be interpreted in such a way that it is not in conflict with that Regulation.

(16)

Any legislative act adopted in the field of crypto-assets should be specific and future-proof, be able to keep pace with innovation and technological developments and be founded on an incentive-based approach. The terms ‘crypto-assets’ and ‘distributed ledger technology’ should therefore be defined as widely as possible to capture all types of crypto-assets that currently fall outside the scope of Union legislative acts on financial services. Any legislative act adopted in the field of crypto-assets should also contribute to the objective of combating money laundering and terrorist financing. For that reason, entities offering services falling within the scope of this Regulation should also comply with applicable anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing rules of the Union, which integrate international standards.

(17)

Digital assets that cannot be transferred to other holders do not fall within the definition of crypto-assets. Therefore, digital assets that are accepted only by the issuer or the offeror and that are technically impossible to transfer directly to other holders should be excluded from the scope of this Regulation. An example of such digital assets includes loyalty schemes where the loyalty points can be exchanged for benefits only with the issuer or offeror of those points.

(18)

This Regulation classifies crypto-assets into three types, which should be distinguished from one another and subject to different requirements depending on the risks they entail. The classification is based on whether the crypto-assets seek to stabilise their value by reference to other assets. The first type consists of crypto-assets that aim to stabilise their value by referencing only one official currency. The function of such crypto-assets is very similar to the function of electronic money as defined in Directive 2009/110/EC. Like electronic money, such crypto-assets are electronic surrogates for coins and banknotes and are likely to be used for making payments. Those crypto-assets should be defined in this Regulation as ‘e-money tokens’. The second type of crypto-assets concerns ‘asset-referenced tokens’, which aim to stabilise their value by referencing another value or right, or combination thereof, including one or several official currencies. That second type covers all other crypto-assets, other than e-money tokens, whose value is backed by assets, so as to avoid circumvention and to make this Regulation future-proof. Finally, the third type consists of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens, and covers a wide variety of crypto-assets, including utility tokens.

(19)

At present, despite their similarities, electronic money and crypto-assets referencing an official currency differ in some important aspects. Holders of electronic money as defined in Directive 2009/110/EC are always provided with a claim against the electronic money issuer and have a contractual right to redeem, at any moment and at par value, the monetary value of the electronic money held. By contrast, some crypto-assets referencing an official currency do not provide their holders with such a claim against the issuers of such crypto-assets and could fall outside the scope of Directive 2009/110/EC. Other crypto-assets referencing an official currency do not provide a claim at par value with the currency they are referencing or they limit the redemption period. The fact that holders of such crypto-assets do not have a claim against the issuers of such crypto-assets, or that such claim is not at par value with the currency those crypto-assets are referencing, could undermine the confidence of holders of those crypto-assets. Accordingly, to avoid circumvention of the rules laid down in Directive 2009/110/EC, any definition of e-money tokens should be as wide as possible to capture all types of crypto-assets referencing a single official currency. In addition, strict conditions on the issuance of e-money tokens should be laid down, including an obligation for e-money tokens to be issued either by a credit institution authorised under Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (13), or by an electronic money institution authorised under Directive 2009/110/EC. For the same reason, issuers of e-money tokens should ensure that holders of such tokens can exercise their right to redeem their tokens at any time and at par value against the currency referencing those tokens. Because e-money tokens are crypto-assets and can raise new challenges in terms of protection of retail holders and market integrity that are specific to crypto-assets, they should also be subject to the rules laid down in this Regulation to address those challenges.

(20)

Given the different risks and opportunities raised by crypto-assets, it is necessary to lay down rules for offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens, as well as for issuers of asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens. Issuers of crypto-assets are entities that have control over the creation of crypto-assets.

(21)

It is necessary to lay down specific rules for entities that provide services related to crypto-assets. A first category of such services consists of ensuring the operation of a trading platform for crypto-assets, exchanging crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, and providing transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients. A second category of such services consists of the placing of crypto-assets, the reception or transmission of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, the execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, providing advice on crypto-assets and providing portfolio management of crypto-assets. Any person that provides crypto-asset services on a professional basis in accordance with this Regulation should be deemed to be a ‘crypto-asset service provider’.

(22)

This Regulation should apply to natural and legal persons and certain other undertakings and to the crypto-asset services and activities performed, provided or controlled, directly or indirectly, by them, including when part of such activities or services is performed in a decentralised manner. Where crypto-asset services are provided in a fully decentralised manner without any intermediary, they should not fall within the scope of this Regulation. This Regulation covers the rights and obligations of issuers of crypto-assets, offerors, persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers. Where crypto-assets have no identifiable issuer, they should not fall within the scope of Title II, III or IV of this Regulation. Crypto-asset service providers providing services in respect of such crypto-assets should, however, be covered by this Regulation.

(23)

To ensure that all offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens, which can potentially have a financial use, or all admissions of crypto-assets to trading on a trading platform for crypto-assets (‘admission to trading’), in the Union, are properly monitored and supervised by competent authorities, all offerors or persons seeking admission to trading should be legal persons.

(24)

In order to ensure their protection, prospective retail holders of crypto-assets should be informed of the characteristics, functions and risks of the crypto-assets that they intend to purchase. When making an offer to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens or when seeking admission to trading of such crypto-assets in the Union, offerors or persons seeking admission to trading should draw up, notify to their competent authority and publish an information document containing mandatory disclosures (‘a crypto-asset white paper’). A crypto-asset white paper should contain general information on the issuer, offeror or person seeking admission to trading, on the project to be carried out with the capital raised, on the offer to the public of crypto-assets or on their admission to trading, on the rights and obligations attached to the crypto-assets, on the underlying technology used for such crypto-assets and on the related risks. However, the crypto-asset white paper should not contain a description of risks that are unforeseeable and very unlikely to materialise. The information contained in the crypto-asset white paper as well as in the relevant marketing communications, such as advertising messages and marketing material, and including through new channels such as social media platforms, should be fair, clear and not misleading. Advertising messages and marketing material should be consistent with the information provided in the crypto-asset white paper.

(25)

Crypto-asset white papers, including their summaries, and the operating rules of trading platforms for crypto-assets should be drawn up in at least one of the official languages of the home Member State and of any host Member State or, alternatively, in a language customary in the sphere of international finance. At the time of adoption of this Regulation, the English language is the language customary in the sphere of international finance but that could evolve in the future.

(26)

In order to ensure a proportionate approach, no requirements of this Regulation should apply to offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that are offered for free or that are automatically created as a reward for the maintenance of a distributed ledger or the validation of transactions in the context of a consensus mechanism. In addition, no requirements should apply to offers of utility tokens providing access to an existing good or service, enabling the holder to collect the good or use the service, or when the holder of the crypto-assets has the right to use them only in exchange for goods and services in a limited network of merchants with contractual arrangements with the offeror. Such exemptions should not include crypto-assets representing stored goods that are not intended to be collected by the purchaser following the purchase. Neither should the limited network exemption apply to crypto-assets that are typically designed for a continuously growing network of service providers. The limited network exemption should be evaluated by the competent authority each time that an offer, or the aggregate value of more than one offer, exceeds a certain threshold, meaning that a new offer should not automatically benefit from an exemption of a previous offer. Those exemptions should cease to apply when the offeror, or another person acting on the offeror’s behalf, communicates the offeror’s intention of seeking admission to trading or the exempted crypto-assets are admitted to trading.

(27)

In order to ensure a proportionate approach, the requirements of this Regulation to draw up and publish a crypto-asset white paper should not apply to offers of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that are made to fewer than 150 persons per Member State, or that are addressed solely to qualified investors where the crypto-assets can only be held by such qualified investors. SMEs and start-ups should not be subject to excessive and disproportionate administrative burden. Accordingly, offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens in the Union whose total consideration does not exceed EUR 1 000 000 over a period of 12 months should also be exempt from the obligation to draw up a crypto-asset white paper.

(28)

The mere admission to trading or the publication of bid and offer prices should not, in and of itself, be regarded as an offer to the public of crypto-assets. Such admission or publication should only constitute an offer to the public of crypto-assets where it includes a communication constituting an offer to the public under this Regulation.

(29)

Even though some offers of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens are exempt from various obligations of this Regulation, Union legislative acts that ensure consumer protection, such as Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (14) or Council Directive 93/13/EEC (15), including any information obligations contained therein, remain applicable to offers to the public of crypto-assets where they concern business-to-consumer relationships.

(30)

Where an offer to the public concerns utility tokens for goods that do not yet exist or services that are not yet in operation, the duration of the offer to the public as described in the crypto-asset white paper should not exceed 12 months. That limitation on the duration of the offer to the public is unrelated to the moment when the goods or services come into existence or become operational and can be used by the holder of a utility token after the expiry of the offer to the public.

(31)

In order to enable supervision, offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens should, before making any offer to the public of crypto-assets in the Union or before those crypto-assets are admitted to trading, notify their crypto-asset white paper and, upon request of the competent authority, their marketing communications, to the competent authority of the Member State where they have their registered office or, where they have no registered office in the Union, of the Member State where they have a branch. Offerors that are established in a third country should notify their crypto-asset white paper and, upon request of the competent authority, their marketing communications, to the competent authority of the Member State where they intend to offer the crypto-assets.

(32)

The operator of a trading platform should be responsible for complying with the requirements of Title II of this Regulation where crypto-assets are admitted to trading on its own initiative and the crypto-asset white paper has not already been published in the cases required by this Regulation. The operator of a trading platform should also be responsible for complying with those requirements where it has concluded a written agreement to that end with the person seeking admission to trading. The person seeking admission to trading should remain responsible when it provides misleading information to the operator of the trading platform. The person seeking admission to trading should also remain responsible for matters not delegated to the operator of the trading platform.

(33)

In order to avoid undue administrative burden, competent authorities should not be required to approve a crypto-asset white paper before its publication. Competent authorities should, however, have the power to request amendments to the crypto-asset white paper and to any marketing communications and, where necessary, to request the inclusion of additional information in the crypto-asset white paper.

(34)

Competent authorities should be able to suspend or prohibit an offer to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens, or the admission of such crypto-assets to trading, where such an offer to the public or admission to trading does not comply with the applicable requirements of this Regulation, including where the crypto-asset white paper or the marketing communications are not fair, not clear or are misleading. Competent authorities should also have the power to publish a warning that the offeror or person seeking admission to trading has failed to meet those requirements, either on its website or through a press release.

(35)

Crypto-asset white papers that have been duly notified to a competent authority and marketing communications should be published. After such publication, offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens should be allowed to offer those crypto-assets throughout the Union and to seek admission to trading of such crypto-assets in the Union.

(36)

Offerors of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens should have effective arrangements in place to monitor and safeguard the funds or other crypto-assets raised during their offer to the public. Those arrangements should also ensure that any funds or other crypto-assets collected from holders or prospective holders are duly returned as soon as possible where an offer to the public is cancelled for any reason. The offeror should ensure that the funds or other crypto-assets collected during the offer to the public are safeguarded by a third party.

(37)

In order to further ensure protection of retail holders of crypto-assets, retail holders that acquire crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens directly from the offeror, or from a crypto-asset service provider placing the crypto-assets on behalf of the offeror, should be provided with a right of withdrawal during a period of 14 days after their acquisition. In order to ensure the smooth completion of a time-limited offer to the public of crypto-assets, the right of withdrawal should not be exercised by retail holders after the end of the subscription period. Furthermore, the right of withdrawal should not apply where crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens are admitted to trading prior to the purchase by the retail holder because, in such a case, the price of such crypto-assets depends on the fluctuations of the markets in crypto-assets. Where the retail holder has a right of withdrawal under this Regulation, the right of withdrawal under Directive 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (16) should not apply.

(38)

Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens should act honestly, fairly and professionally, should communicate with holders and prospective holders of crypto-assets in a manner that is fair, clear and not misleading, should identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest, and should have effective administrative arrangements to ensure that their systems and security protocols meet Union standards. In order to assist competent authorities in their supervisory tasks, ESMA, in close cooperation with EBA, should be mandated to issue guidelines on those systems and security protocols in order to further specify those Union standards.

(39)

To further protect holders of crypto-assets, civil liability rules should apply to offerors and persons seeking admission to trading and to the members of their management body for the information provided to the public in the crypto-asset white paper.

(40)

Asset-referenced tokens could be widely adopted by holders to transfer value or as a means of exchange and thus pose increased risks in terms of protection of holders of crypto-assets, in particular retail holders, and in terms of market integrity, as compared to other crypto-assets. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should therefore be subject to more stringent requirements than issuers of other crypto-assets.

(41)

Where a crypto-asset falls within the definition of an asset-referenced token or e-money token, Title III or IV of this Regulation should apply, irrespective of how the issuer intends to design the crypto-asset, including the mechanism for maintaining a stable value of the crypto-asset. The same applies to so-called algorithmic ‘stablecoins’ that aim to maintain a stable value in relation to an official currency, or in relation to one or several assets, via protocols, that provide for the increase or decrease in the supply of such crypto-assets in response to changes in demand. Offerors or persons seeking admission to trading of algorithmic crypto-assets that do not aim to stabilise the value of the crypto-assets by referencing one or several assets should in any event comply with Title II of this Regulation.

(42)

To ensure the proper supervision and monitoring of offers to the public of asset-referenced tokens, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should have a registered office in the Union.

(43)

Offers to the public of asset-referenced tokens in the Union or seeking admission to trading of such crypto-assets should be permitted only where the competent authority has authorised the issuer of such crypto-assets to do so and has approved the relevant crypto-asset white paper. The authorisation requirement should however not apply where the asset-referenced tokens are addressed solely to qualified investors or where the offer to the public of the asset-referenced tokens is below EUR 5 000 000. In those cases, the issuer of the asset-referenced tokens should still be required to draw up a crypto-asset white paper to inform buyers about the characteristics and risks of the asset-referenced tokens and should also be required to notify the crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority before its publication.

(44)

Credit institutions authorised under Directive 2013/36/EU should not need another authorisation under this Regulation in order to offer or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens. National procedures established under that Directive should apply but should be complemented by a requirement to notify the competent authority of the home Member State designated under this Regulation of the elements that enable that authority to verify the issuer’s ability to offer or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens. Credit institutions that offer or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens should be subject to all requirements that apply to issuers of asset-referenced tokens with the exception of authorisation requirements, own funds requirements and the approval procedure with respect to qualifying shareholders, as those matters are covered by Directive 2013/36/EU and by Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (17). A crypto-asset white paper drawn up by such credit institution should be approved by the competent authority of the home Member State before publication. Credit institutions authorised under the provisions of national law transposing Directive 2013/36/EU and which offer or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens should be subject to the administrative powers set out under that Directive and also those under this Regulation, including a restriction or limitation of a credit institution’s business and a suspension or prohibition of an offer to the public of asset-referenced tokens. Where the obligations applying to such credit institutions under this Regulation overlap with those of Directive 2013/36/EU, the credit institutions should comply with the more specific or stricter requirements, thereby ensuring compliance with both sets of rules. The notification procedure for credit institutions intending to offer or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens under this Regulation should be without prejudice to the provisions of national law transposing Directive 2013/36/EU that set out procedures for the authorisation of credit institutions to provide the services listed in Annex I to that Directive.

(45)

A competent authority should refuse authorisation on objective and demonstrable grounds, including where the business model of the applicant issuer of asset-referenced tokens might pose a serious threat to market integrity, financial stability or the smooth operation of payment systems. The competent authority should consult EBA, ESMA, the ECB and, where the issuer is established in a Member State whose official currency is not the euro or where an official currency of a Member State that is not the euro is referenced by the asset-referenced token, the central bank of that Member State before granting or refusing an authorisation. Non-binding opinions of EBA and ESMA should address the classification of the crypto-asset, while the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned should provide the competent authority with an opinion on the risks to financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty. The competent authorities should refuse authorisation in cases where the ECB or the central bank of a Member State gives a negative opinion on the grounds of a risk posed to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission, or monetary sovereignty. Where authorisation is granted to an applicant issuer of asset-referenced tokens, the crypto-asset white paper drawn up by that issuer should also be deemed approved. The authorisation by the competent authority should be valid throughout the Union and should allow the issuer of asset-referenced tokens to offer those crypto-assets on the internal market and to seek an admission to trading. In the same way, the crypto-asset white paper should also be valid for the entire Union, without any possibility for Member States to impose additional requirements.

(46)

In several cases where the ECB is consulted under this Regulation, its opinion should be binding insofar as it obliges a competent authority to refuse, withdraw or limit an authorisation of the issuer of asset-referenced tokens or to impose specific measures on the issuer of asset-referenced tokens. Article 263, first paragraph, TFEU provides that the Court of Justice of the European Union (the ‘Court of Justice’) should review the legality of acts of the ECB other than recommendations or opinions. It should be recalled, however, that it is for the Court of Justice to interpret that provision in light of the substance and effects of an opinion of the ECB.

(47)

To ensure protection of retail holders, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should always provide holders of such tokens with information that is complete, fair, clear and not misleading. Crypto-asset white papers for asset-referenced tokens should include information on the stabilisation mechanism, on the investment policy of the reserve assets, on the custody arrangements for the reserve assets and on the rights provided to holders.

(48)

In addition to the information provided in the crypto-asset white paper, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should also provide holders of such tokens with information on an ongoing basis. In particular, they should disclose on their website the amount of asset-referenced tokens in circulation and the value and composition of the reserve assets. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should also disclose any event that has or is likely to have a significant impact on the value of the asset-referenced tokens or on the reserve assets, irrespective of whether such crypto-assets are admitted to trading.

(49)

To ensure protection of retail holders, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should always act honestly, fairly and professionally and in the best interests of the holders of asset-referenced tokens. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should also put in place a clear procedure for handling complaints received from holders of asset-referenced tokens.

(50)

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should put in place a policy to identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest that can arise from their relationships with their shareholders or members, or with any shareholder or member, whether direct or indirect, that has a qualifying holding in the issuers, or with the members of their management body, their employees, holders of asset-referenced tokens or third-party service providers.

(51)

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should have robust governance arrangements, including a clear organisational structure with well-defined, transparent and consistent lines of responsibility and effective processes to identify, manage, monitor and report the risks to which they are or to which they might be exposed. The members of the management body of such issuers should be fit and proper and should, in particular, not have been convicted of any offence in the field of money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offence that would affect their good repute. The shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, natural or legal persons, that have qualifying holdings in such issuers, should be of sufficiently good repute and should, in particular, not have been convicted of any offence in the field of money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offence that would affect their good repute. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should also employ resources proportionate to the scale of their activities and should always ensure continuity and regularity in the performance of their activities. For that purpose, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should establish a business continuity policy that aims to ensure, in the case of an interruption to their systems and procedures, the performance of their core activities related to the asset-referenced tokens. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should also have strong internal control mechanisms and effective procedures for risk management, as well as a system that guarantees the integrity and confidentiality of information received. Those obligations aim to ensure the protection of holders of asset-referenced tokens, in particular retail holders, while not creating unnecessary barriers.

(52)

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens are usually at the centre of a network of entities that ensure the issuance of such crypto-assets, their transfer and their distribution to holders. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should therefore be required to establish and maintain appropriate contractual arrangements with third-party entities for ensuring the stabilisation mechanism and the investment of the reserve assets backing the value of the tokens, the custody of such reserve assets and, where applicable, the distribution of the asset-referenced tokens to the public.

(53)

To address the risks to the financial stability of the wider financial system, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should be subject to own funds requirements. Those requirements should be proportionate to the issuance size of the asset-referenced tokens and therefore calculated as a percentage of the reserve of assets that back the value of the asset-referenced tokens. Competent authorities should however be able to increase the amount of own funds required based on, inter alia, the evaluation of the risk-management process and internal control mechanisms of the issuer, the quality and volatility of the reserve assets backing the asset-referenced tokens, or the aggregate value and number of transactions settled in asset-referenced tokens.

(54)

In order to cover their liability against holders of asset-referenced tokens, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should constitute and maintain a reserve of assets matching the risks reflected in such liability. The reserve of assets should be used for the benefit of the holders of the asset-referenced tokens when the issuer is not able to fulfil its obligations towards the holders, such as in insolvency. The reserve of assets should be composed and managed in such a way that market and currency risks are covered. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should ensure the prudent management of the reserve of assets and should, in particular, ensure that the value of the reserve amounts at least to the corresponding value of tokens in circulation and that changes in the reserve are adequately managed to avoid adverse impacts on the markets of the reserve assets. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should therefore have clear and detailed policies that describe, inter alia, the composition of the reserve of assets, the allocation of assets included therein, a comprehensive assessment of the risks raised by the reserve assets, the procedure for the issuance and redemption of the asset-referenced tokens, the procedure to increase and decrease the reserve assets and, where the reserve assets are invested, the investment policy that is followed by the issuers. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens that are marketed both in the Union and in third countries should ensure that their reserve of assets is available to cover the issuers’ liability towards Union holders. The requirement to hold the reserve of assets with firms subject to Union law should therefore apply in proportion to the share of asset-referenced tokens that is expected to be marketed in the Union.

(55)

To prevent the risk of loss for asset-referenced tokens and to preserve the value of those assets, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should have an adequate custody policy for their reserve assets. That policy should ensure that the reserve assets are fully segregated from the issuer’s own assets at all times, that the reserve assets are not encumbered or pledged as collateral, and that the issuer of asset-referenced tokens has prompt access to those reserve assets. The reserve assets should, depending on their nature, be held in custody by a crypto-asset service provider, by a credit institution authorised under Directive 2013/36/EU or by an investment firm authorised under Directive 2014/65/EU. That should not exclude the possibility of delegating the holding of the physical assets to another entity. Crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions or investment firms that act as custodians of reserve assets should be responsible for the loss of such reserve assets vis-à-vis the issuer or the holders of the asset-referenced tokens, unless they prove that such loss has arisen as a result of an external event beyond their reasonable control. Concentrations of the custodians of reserve assets should be avoided. However, in certain situations, that might not be possible due to a lack of suitable alternatives. In such cases, a temporary concentration should be deemed acceptable.

(56)

To protect holders of asset-referenced tokens against a decrease in value of the assets backing the value of the tokens, issuers of asset-referenced tokens should only invest the reserve assets in secure, low-risk assets with minimal market, concentration and credit risk. As the asset-referenced tokens could be used as a means of exchange, all profits or losses resulting from the investment of the reserve assets should be borne by the issuer of the asset-referenced tokens.

(57)

Holders of asset-referenced tokens should have a permanent right of redemption so that the issuer is required to redeem the asset-referenced tokens at any time, upon request by the holders of the asset-referenced tokens. The issuer of asset-referenced tokens should redeem either by paying an amount in funds, other than electronic money, equivalent to the market value of the assets referenced by the asset-referenced tokens, or by delivering the assets referenced by the tokens. The issuer of asset-referenced tokens should always provide the holder with the option of redeeming the asset-referenced tokens in funds other than electronic money denominated in the same official currency that the issuer accepted when selling the tokens. The issuer should provide sufficiently detailed and easily understandable information on the different forms of redemption available.

(58)

To reduce the risk that asset-referenced tokens are used as a store of value, issuers of asset-referenced tokens and crypto-asset service providers, when providing crypto-asset services related to asset-referenced tokens, should not grant interest to holders of asset-referenced tokens related to the length of time during which such holders are holding those asset-referenced tokens.

(59)

Asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens should be deemed significant when they meet, or are likely to meet, certain criteria, including a large customer base, a high market capitalisation, or a large number of transactions. As such, they could be used by a large number of holders and their use could raise specific challenges in terms of financial stability, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty. Those significant asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens should, therefore, be subject to more stringent requirements than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that are not deemed significant. In particular, issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens should be subject to higher capital requirements, to interoperability requirements and they should establish a liquidity management policy. The appropriateness of the thresholds to classify an asset-referenced token or e-money token as significant should be reviewed by the Commission as part of its review of the application of this Regulation. That review should, where appropriate, be accompanied by a legislative proposal.

(60)

A comprehensive monitoring of the entire ecosystem of issuers of asset-referenced tokens is important in order to determine the true size and impact of such tokens. To capture all transactions that are conducted in relation to any given asset-referenced token, the monitoring of such tokens therefore includes the monitoring of all transactions that are settled, whether they are settled on the distributed ledger (‘on-chain’) or outside the distributed ledger (‘off-chain’), and including transactions between clients of the same crypto-asset service provider.

(61)

It is particularly important to estimate transactions settled with asset-referenced tokens associated to uses as a means of exchange within a single currency area, namely, those associated to payments of debts including in the context of transactions with merchants. Those transactions should not include transactions associated with investment functions and services, such as a means of exchange for funds or other crypto-assets, unless there is evidence that the asset-referenced token is used for settlement of transactions in other crypto-assets. A use for settlement of transactions in other crypto-assets would be present in cases where a transaction involving two legs of crypto-assets, which are different from the asset-referenced tokens, is settled in the asset-referenced tokens. Moreover, where asset-referenced tokens are used widely as a means of exchange within a single currency area, issuers should be required to reduce the level of activity. An asset-referenced token should be considered to be used widely as a means of exchange when the average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day associated to uses as a means of exchange within a single currency area is higher than 1 million transactions and EUR 200 000 000 respectively.

(62)

Where asset-referenced tokens pose a serious threat to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty, central banks should be able to request the competent authority to withdraw the authorisation of the issuer of those asset-referenced tokens. Where asset-referenced tokens pose a threat to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty, central banks should be able to request the competent authority to limit the amount of those asset-referenced tokens to be issued, or to impose a minimum denomination amount.

(63)

This Regulation is without prejudice to national law regulating the use of domestic and foreign currencies in operations between residents, adopted by non-euro area Member States in exercising their prerogative of monetary sovereignty.

(64)

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should prepare a recovery plan providing for measures to be taken by the issuer to restore compliance with the requirements applicable to the reserve of assets, including in cases where the fulfilment of requests for redemption creates temporary unbalances in the reserve of assets. The competent authority should have the power to temporarily suspend the redemption of asset-referenced tokens in order to protect the interests of the holders of the asset-referenced tokens and financial stability.

(65)

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens should have a plan for the orderly redemption of the tokens to ensure that the rights of the holders of the asset-referenced tokens are protected where the issuers are not able to comply with their obligations, including in the event of discontinuation of issuing of the asset-referenced tokens. Where the issuer of asset-referenced tokens is a credit institution or an entity falling within the scope of Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (18), the competent authority should consult the responsible resolution authority. That resolution authority should be permitted to examine the redemption plan with a view to identifying any elements in it that might adversely affect the resolvability of the issuer, the resolution strategy of the issuer, or any actions foreseen in the resolution plan of the issuer, and make recommendations to the competent authority with regard to those matters. In doing so, the resolution authority should also be permitted to consider whether any changes are required to the resolution plan or the resolution strategy, in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2014/59/EU and Regulation (EU) No 806/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council (19), as applicable. Such examination by the resolution authority should not affect the powers of the prudential supervisory authority or of the resolution authority, as applicable, to take crisis prevention measures or crisis management measures.

(66)

Issuers of e-money tokens should be authorised either as a credit institution under Directive 2013/36/EU or as an electronic money institution under Directive 2009/110/EC. E-money tokens should be deemed to be ‘electronic money’ as that term is defined in Directive 2009/110/EC and their issuers should, unless specified otherwise in this Regulation, comply with the relevant requirements set out in Directive 2009/110/EC for the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions and the requirements on issuance and redeemability of e-money tokens. Issuers of e-money tokens should draw up a crypto-asset white paper and notify it to their competent authority. Exemptions regarding limited networks, regarding certain transactions by providers of electronic communications networks and regarding electronic money institutions issuing only a limited maximum amount of electronic money, based on the optional exemptions specified in Directive 2009/110/EC, should also apply to e-money tokens. However, issuers of e-money tokens should still be required to draw up a crypto-asset white paper in order to inform buyers about the characteristics and risks of the e-money tokens and should also be required to notify the crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority before its publication.

(67)

Holders of e-money tokens should be provided with a claim against the issuer of the e-money tokens. Holders of e-money tokens should always be granted a right of redemption at par value for funds denominated in the official currency that the e-money token is referencing. The provisions of Directive 2009/110/EC on the possibility of charging a fee in relation to redemption are not relevant in the context of e-money tokens.

(68)

To reduce the risk that e-money tokens are used as store of value, issuers of e-money tokens and crypto-asset service providers when they provide crypto-asset services related to e-money tokens, should not grant interest to holders of e-money tokens, including interest not related to the length of time that such holders hold those e-money tokens.

(69)

The crypto-asset white paper drawn up by an issuer of e-money tokens should contain all information concerning that issuer and the offer of e-money tokens or their admission to trading that is necessary to enable prospective buyers to make an informed purchase decision and understand the risks relating to the offer of e-money tokens. The crypto-asset white paper should also expressly refer to the right of holders of e-money tokens to redeem their e-money tokens for funds denominated in the official currency that the e-money tokens reference at par value and at any time.

(70)

Where an issuer of e-money tokens invests the funds received in exchange for e-money tokens, such funds should be invested in assets denominated in the same official currency as the one that the e-money token is referencing in order to avoid cross-currency risks.

(71)

Significant e-money tokens could pose greater risks to financial stability than e-money tokens that are not significant and traditional electronic money. Issuers of significant e-money tokens that are electronic money institutions should therefore be subject to additional requirements. Such issuers of significant e-money tokens should in particular be subject to higher capital requirements than issuers of other e-money tokens, be subject to interoperability requirements and establish a liquidity management policy. They should also comply with some of the same requirements that apply to issuers of asset-referenced tokens with regard to reserve of assets, such as those on custody and investment of the reserve of assets. Those requirements for issuers of significant e-money tokens should apply instead of Articles 5 and 7 of Directive 2009/110/EC. As those provisions of Directive 2009/110/EC do not apply to credit institutions when issuing e-money, neither should the additional requirements for significant e-money tokens under this Regulation.

(72)

Issuers of e-money tokens should have in place recovery and redemption plans to ensure that the rights of the holders of the e-money tokens are protected when issuers are not able to comply with their obligations.

(73)

In most Member States, the provision of crypto-asset services is not yet regulated despite the potential risks that they pose to investor protection, market integrity and financial stability. To address such risks, this Regulation provides operational, organisational and prudential requirements at Union level applicable to crypto-asset service providers.

(74)

In order to enable effective supervision and to eliminate the possibility of evading or circumventing supervision, crypto-asset services should only be provided by legal persons that have a registered office in a Member State in which they carry out substantive business activities, including the provision of crypto-asset services. Undertakings that are not legal persons, such as commercial partnerships, should under certain conditions also be permitted to provide crypto-asset services. It is essential that providers of crypto-asset services maintain effective management of their activities in the Union in order to avoid undermining effective prudential supervision and to ensure the enforcement of requirements under this Regulation intended to ensure investor protection, market integrity and financial stability. Regular close direct contact between supervisors and the responsible management of crypto-asset service providers should be an essential element of such supervision. Crypto-asset service providers should therefore have their place of effective management in the Union, and at least one of the directors should be resident in the Union. The place of effective management means the place where the key management and commercial decisions that are necessary for the conduct of the business are taken.

(75)

This Regulation should not affect the possibility for persons established in the Union to receive crypto-asset services by a third-country firm on their own initiative. Where a third-country firm provides crypto-asset services on the own initiative of a person established in the Union, the crypto-asset services should not be deemed to be provided in the Union. Where a third-country firm solicits clients or prospective clients in the Union or promotes or advertises crypto-asset services or activities in the Union, its services should not be deemed to be crypto-asset services provided on the own initiative of the client. In such a case, the third-country firm should be authorised as a crypto-asset service provider.

(76)

Given the relatively small scale to date of crypto-asset service providers, the power to authorise and supervise such service providers should be conferred upon national competent authorities. Authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider should be granted, refused or withdrawn by the competent authority of the Member State where the entity has its registered office. Where an authorisation is granted, it should indicate the crypto-asset services for which the crypto-asset service provider is authorised and should be valid for the entire Union.

(77)

In order to ensure the continued protection of the financial system of the Union against the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing, it is necessary to ensure that crypto-asset service providers carry out increased checks on financial operations involving customers and financial institutions from third countries listed as high-risk third countries because they are jurisdictions which have strategic deficiencies in their national anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing regimes that pose significant threats to the financial system of the Union as referred to in Directive (EU) 2015/849 of the European Parliament and of the Council (20).

(78)

Certain firms subject to Union legislative acts on financial services should be allowed to provide all or some crypto-asset services without being required to obtain an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider under this Regulation if they notify their competent authorities with certain information before providing those services for the first time. In such cases, those firms should be deemed to be crypto-asset service providers and the relevant administrative powers provided in this Regulation, including the power to suspend or prohibit certain crypto-asset services, should apply with respect to them. Those firms should be subject to all requirements applicable to crypto-asset service providers under this Regulation with the exception of authorisation requirements, own funds requirements and the approval procedure regarding shareholders and members that have qualifying holdings, as those matters are covered by the respective Union legislative acts under which they were authorised. The notification procedure for credit institutions intending to provide crypto-asset services under this Regulation should be without prejudice to the provisions of national law transposing Directive 2013/36/EU that set out procedures for the authorisation of credit institutions to provide the services listed in Annex I to that Directive.

(79)

In order to ensure consumer protection, market integrity and financial stability, crypto-asset service providers should always act honestly, fairly and professionally and in the best interests of their clients. Crypto-asset services should be deemed ‘financial services’ as defined in Directive 2002/65/EC in cases where they meet the criteria of that Directive. Where marketed at distance, the contracts between crypto-asset service providers and consumers should be subject to Directive 2002/65/EC as well, unless expressly stated otherwise in this Regulation. Crypto-asset service providers should provide their clients with information that is complete, fair, clear and not misleading and warn them about the risks associated with crypto-assets. Crypto-asset service providers should make their pricing policies public, should establish complaints-handling procedures and should have a robust policy for the identification, prevention, management and disclosure of conflicts of interest.

(80)

To ensure consumer protection, crypto-asset service providers authorised under this Regulation should comply with certain prudential requirements. Those prudential requirements should be set as a fixed amount or in proportion to the fixed overheads of crypto-asset service providers of the preceding year, depending on the types of services they provide.

(81)

Crypto-asset service providers should be subject to strong organisational requirements. The members of the management body of crypto-asset service providers should be fit and proper and should, in particular, not have been convicted of any offence in the field of money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offence that would affect their good repute. The shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, natural or legal persons, that have qualifying holdings in crypto-asset service providers should be of sufficiently good repute and should, in particular, not have been convicted of any offence in the field of money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offence that would affect their good repute. In addition, where the influence exercised by shareholders and members that have qualifying holdings in crypto-asset service providers is likely to be prejudicial to the sound and prudent management of the crypto-asset service provider taking into account, amongst others, their previous activities, the risk of them engaging in illicit activities, or the influence or control by a government of a third country, competent authorities should have the power to address those risks. Crypto-asset service providers should employ management and staff with adequate knowledge, skills and expertise and should take all reasonable steps to perform their functions, including through the preparation of a business continuity plan. They should have sound internal control and risk assessment mechanisms as well as adequate systems and procedures to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the information received. Crypto-asset service providers should have appropriate arrangements to keep records of all transactions, orders and services related to the crypto-asset services that they provide. They should also have systems in place to detect potential market abuse committed by clients.

(82)

In order to ensure protection of their clients, crypto-asset service providers should have adequate arrangements to safeguard the clients’ ownership rights with respect to the crypto-assets they hold. Where their business model requires them to hold funds as defined in Directive (EU) 2015/2366 in the form of banknotes, coins, scriptural money or electronic money belonging to their clients, crypto-asset service providers should place such funds with a credit institution or a central bank, where an account with the central bank is available. Crypto-asset service providers should be authorised to make payment transactions in connection with the crypto-asset services they offer only where they are authorised as payment institutions in accordance with that Directive.

(83)

Depending on the services they provide and due to the specific risks raised by each type of services, crypto-asset service providers should be subject to requirements specific to those services. Crypto-asset service providers providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients should conclude an agreement with their clients with certain mandatory provisions and should establish and implement a custody policy, which should be made available to clients upon their request in an electronic format. Such agreement should specify, inter alia, the nature of the service provided, which could include the holding of crypto-assets belonging to clients or the means of access to such crypto-assets, in which case the client might keep control of the crypto-assets in custody. Alternatively, the crypto-assets or the means of access to them could be transferred to the full control of the crypto-asset service provider. Crypto-asset service providers that hold crypto-assets belonging to clients, or the means of access to such crypto-assets, should ensure that those crypto-assets are not used for their own account. The crypto-asset service providers should ensure that all crypto-assets held are always unencumbered. Those crypto-asset service providers should also be held liable for any losses resulting from an incident related to information and communication technology (‘ICT’), including an incident resulting from a cyber-attack, theft or any malfunctions. Hardware or software providers of non-custodial wallets should not fall within the scope of this Regulation.

(84)

To ensure the orderly functioning of markets in crypto-assets, crypto-asset service providers operating a trading platform for crypto-assets should have detailed operating rules, should ensure that their systems and procedures are sufficiently resilient, should be subject to pre-trade and post-trade transparency requirements adapted to the markets in crypto-assets, and should set transparent and non-discriminatory rules, based on objective criteria, governing access to their platforms. Crypto-asset service providers operating a trading platform for crypto-assets should also have a transparent fee structure for the services provided to avoid the placing of orders that could contribute to market abuse or disorderly trading conditions. Crypto-asset service providers operating a trading platform for crypto-assets should be able to settle transactions executed on trading platforms on-chain and off-chain, and should ensure a timely settlement. The settlement of transactions should be initiated within 24 hours of a transaction being executed on the trading platform. In the case of an off-chain settlement, the settlement should be initiated on the same business day whereas in the case of an on-chain settlement, the settlement might take longer as it is not controlled by the crypto-asset service provider operating the trading platform.

(85)

To ensure consumer protection, crypto-asset service providers that exchange crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets by using their own capital should draw up a non-discriminatory commercial policy. They should publish either firm quotes or the methodology they are using for determining the price of the crypto-assets they wish to exchange, and they should publish any limits they wish to establish on the amount to be exchanged. They should also be subject to post-trade transparency requirements.

(86)

Crypto-asset service providers that execute orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients should draw up an execution policy and should always aim to obtain the best possible result for their clients, including when they act as a client’s counterparty. They should take all necessary steps to avoid the misuse by their employees of information related to client orders. Crypto-asset service providers that receive orders and transmit those orders to other crypto-asset service providers should implement procedures for the prompt and proper sending of those orders. Crypto-asset service providers should not receive any monetary or non-monetary benefits for transmitting those orders to any particular trading platform for crypto-assets or any other crypto-asset service providers. They should monitor the effectiveness of their order execution arrangements and execution policy, assessing whether the execution venues included in the order execution policy provide for the best possible result for the client or whether they need to make changes to their execution arrangements, and should notify clients with whom they have an ongoing client relationship of any material changes to their order execution arrangements or execution policy.

(87)

When a crypto-asset service provider executing orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients is the client’s counterparty, there might be similarities with the services of exchanging crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets. However, in exchanging crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, the price for such exchanges is freely determined by the crypto-asset service provider as a currency exchange. Yet in the execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, the crypto-asset service provider should always ensure that it obtains the best possible result for its client, including when it acts as the client’s counterparty, in line with its best execution policy. The exchange of crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets when made by the issuer or offeror should not be a crypto-asset service.

(88)

Crypto-asset service providers that place crypto-assets for potential holders should, before the conclusion of a contract, communicate to those persons information on how they intend to perform their service. To ensure the protection of their clients, crypto-asset service providers that are authorised for the placing of crypto-assets should have in place specific and adequate procedures to prevent, monitor, manage and disclose any conflicts of interest arising from the placing of crypto-assets with their own clients and arising where the proposed price for the placing of crypto-assets has been overestimated or underestimated. The placing of crypto-assets on behalf of an offeror should not be deemed to be a separate offer.

(89)

To ensure consumer protection, crypto-asset service providers that provide advice on crypto-assets, either at the request of a client or on their own initiative, or that provide portfolio management of crypto-assets, should make an assessment whether those crypto-asset services or crypto-assets are suitable for the clients, having regard to their clients’ experience, knowledge, objectives and ability to bear losses. Where the clients do not provide information to the crypto-asset service providers on their experience, knowledge, objectives and ability to bear losses, or it is clear that the crypto-assets are not suitable for the clients, the crypto-asset service providers should not recommend such crypto-asset services or crypto-assets to those clients, nor begin providing portfolio management of crypto-assets. When providing advice on crypto-assets, crypto-asset service providers should provide clients with a report, which should include the suitability assessment specifying the advice given and how it meets the preferences and objectives of clients. When providing portfolio management of crypto-assets, crypto-asset service providers should provide periodic statements to their clients, which should include a review of their activities and of the performance of the portfolio as well as an updated statement on the suitability assessment.

(90)

Some crypto-asset services, in particular providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, the placing of crypto-assets, and transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, might overlap with payment services as defined in Directive (EU) 2015/2366.

(91)

The tools provided by issuers of electronic money to their clients to manage an e-money token might not be distinguishable from the activity of providing custody and administration services as regulated by this Regulation. Electronic money institutions should therefore be able to provide custody services, without prior authorisation under this Regulation to provide crypto-asset services, only in relation to the e-money tokens issued by them.

(92)

The activity of traditional electronic money distributors, namely, that of distributing electronic money on behalf of issuers, would amount to the activity of placing of crypto-assets for the purposes of this Regulation. However, natural or legal persons allowed to distribute electronic money under Directive 2009/110/EC should also be able to distribute e-money tokens on behalf of issuers of e-money tokens without being required to obtain prior authorisation under this Regulation to provide crypto-asset services. Such distributors should, therefore, be exempt from the requirement to seek authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider for the activity of the placing of crypto-assets.

(93)

A provider of transfer services for crypto-assets should be an entity that provides for the transfer, on behalf of a client, of crypto-assets from one distributed ledger address or account to another. Such transfer service should not include the validators, nodes or miners that might be part of confirming a transaction and updating the state of the underlying distributed ledger. Many crypto-asset service providers also offer some kind of transfer service for crypto-assets as part of, for example, the service of providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, exchange of crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, or execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients. Depending on the precise features of the services associated to the transfer of e-money tokens, such services could fall under the definition of payment services in Directive (EU) 2015/2366. In such cases, those transfers should be provided by an entity authorised to provide such payment services in accordance with that Directive.

(94)

This Regulation should not address the lending and borrowing of crypto-assets, including e-money tokens, and therefore should not prejudice applicable national law. The feasibility and necessity of regulating such activities should be further assessed.

(95)

It is important to ensure confidence in markets in crypto-assets and the integrity of those markets. It is therefore necessary to lay down rules to deter market abuse for crypto-assets that are admitted to trading. However, as issuers of crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers are very often SMEs, it would be disproportionate to apply all of the provisions of Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council (21) to them. It is therefore necessary to lay down specific rules prohibiting certain behaviours that are likely to undermine user confidence in markets in crypto-assets and the integrity of those markets, including insider dealing, unlawful disclosure of inside information and market manipulation related to crypto-assets. Those bespoke rules on market abuse committed in relation to crypto-assets should also be applied in cases where crypto-assets are admitted to trading.

(96)

Legal certainty for participants in markets in crypto-assets should be enhanced through a characterisation of two elements essential to the specification of inside information, namely, the precise nature of that information and the significance of its potential effect on the prices of crypto-assets. Those elements should also be considered for the prevention of market abuse in the context of markets in crypto-assets and their functioning, taking into account, for instance, the use of social media, the use of smart contracts for order executions and the concentration of mining pools.

(97)

Derivatives that qualify as financial instruments as defined in Directive 2014/65/EU, and whose underlying asset is a crypto-asset, are subject to Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 when traded on a regulated market, multilateral trading facility or organised trading facility. Crypto-assets falling within the scope of this Regulation, which are underlying assets of those derivatives, should be subject to the market abuse provisions of this Regulation.

(98)

Competent authorities should be conferred with sufficient powers to supervise the issuance, offer to the public and admission to trading of crypto-assets, including asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens, as well as to supervise crypto-asset service providers. Those powers should include the power to suspend or prohibit an offer to the public or an admission to trading of crypto-assets or the provision of a crypto-asset service, and to investigate infringements of the rules on market abuse. Issuers of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens should not be subject to supervision under this Regulation when the issuer is not an offeror or a person seeking admission to trading.

(99)

Competent authorities should also have the power to impose penalties on issuers, offerors or persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets, including asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens, and on crypto-asset service providers. When determining the type and level of an administrative penalty or other administrative measure, competent authorities should take into account all relevant circumstances, including the gravity and the duration of the infringement and whether it was committed intentionally.

(100)

Given the cross-border nature of markets in crypto-assets, competent authorities should cooperate with each other to detect and deter any infringements of this Regulation.

(101)

To facilitate transparency regarding crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers, ESMA should establish a register of crypto-asset white papers, issuers of asset-referenced tokens, issuers of e-money tokens and crypto-asset service providers.

(102)

Significant asset-referenced tokens can be used as a means of exchange and to make large volumes of payment transactions. Since such large volumes can pose specific risks to monetary transmission channels and monetary sovereignty, it is appropriate to assign to EBA the task of supervising the issuers of asset-referenced tokens, once such tokens have been classified as significant. Such assignment should address the very specific nature of the risks posed by asset-referenced tokens, and should not set a precedent for any other Union legislative acts on financial services.

(103)

Competent authorities in charge of supervision under Directive 2009/110/EC should supervise issuers of e-money tokens. However, given the potential widespread use of significant e-money tokens as a means of payment and the risks they can pose to financial stability, a dual supervision both by competent authorities and by EBA of issuers of significant e-money tokens is necessary. EBA should supervise the compliance by issuers of significant e-money tokens with the specific additional requirements set out in this Regulation for such tokens. Since the specific additional requirements should apply only to electronic money institutions issuing significant e-money tokens, credit institutions issuing significant e-money tokens, to which such requirements do not apply, should remain supervised by their respective competent authorities. The dual supervision should address the very specific nature of the risks posed by e-money tokens, and should not set a precedent for any other Union legislative acts on financial services.

(104)

Significant e-money tokens denominated in an official currency of a Member State other than the euro which are used as a means of exchange and in order to settle large volumes of payment transactions can, although unlikely to occur, pose specific risks to the monetary sovereignty of the Member State in whose official currency they are denominated. Where at least 80 % of the number of holders and of the volume of transactions of those significant e-money tokens are concentrated in the home Member State, the supervisory responsibilities should not be transferred to EBA.

(105)

EBA should establish a college of supervisors for each issuer of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens. Since issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens are usually at the centre of a network of entities that ensure the issuance, transfer and distribution of such crypto-assets, the members of the college of supervisors for each issuer should therefore include, amongst others, the competent authorities of the most relevant trading platforms for crypto-assets, in cases where the significant asset-referenced tokens or the significant e-money tokens are admitted to trading, and the competent authorities of the most relevant entities and crypto-asset service providers ensuring the custody and administration of the significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens on behalf of holders. The college of supervisors for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens should facilitate the cooperation and exchange of information among its members and should issue non-binding opinions on, amongst others, changes to the authorisation of, or supervisory measures concerning, such issuers.

(106)

To supervise issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens, EBA should have the powers, amongst others, to carry out on-site inspections, take supervisory measures and impose fines.

(107)

EBA should charge fees to issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens to cover its costs, including for overheads. For issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens, the fee should be proportionate to the size of their reserve of assets. For issuers of significant e-money tokens, the fee should be proportionate to the amount of funds received in exchange for the significant e-money tokens.

(108)

In order to ensure the effectiveness of this Regulation, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 TFEU should be delegated to the Commission in respect of further specifying technical elements of the definitions set out in this Regulation in order to adjust them to market and technological developments, further specifying certain criteria to determine whether an asset-referenced token or an e-money token should be classified as significant, determining when there is a significant investor protection concern or a threat to the proper functioning and integrity of markets in crypto-assets or to the stability of the whole or part of the financial system of the Union, further specifying the procedural rules for the exercise of the power of EBA to impose fines or periodic penalty payments, including provisions on the rights of the defence, temporal provisions, and the collection of fines or periodic penalty payments, and the limitation periods for the imposition and enforcement of fines and periodic penalty payments, and further specifying the type and amount of supervisory fees that EBA can charge to the issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens or significant e-money tokens. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level, and that those consultations be conducted in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 April 2016 on Better Law-Making (22). In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States’ experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts.

(109)

In order to promote the consistent application of this Regulation across the Union, including the adequate protection of holders of crypto-assets and clients of crypto-asset service providers, in particular when they are consumers, technical standards should be developed. It is efficient and appropriate to entrust EBA and ESMA, as bodies with highly specialised expertise, with the development of draft regulatory technical standards, which do not involve policy choices, for submission to the Commission.

(110)

The Commission should be empowered to adopt regulatory technical standards developed by EBA and ESMA with regard to: the content, methodologies and presentation of information in a crypto-asset white paper on principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue the crypto-asset; the procedure for approval of crypto-asset white papers submitted by credit institutions when issuing asset-referenced tokens; the information that an application for authorisation as an issuer of asset-referenced tokens should contain; the methodology to estimate the quarterly average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day associated to uses of asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens denominated in a currency which is not an official currency of a Member State as a means of exchange in each single currency area; the requirements, templates and procedures for handling complaints of holders of asset-referenced tokens and of clients of crypto-asset service providers; the requirements for the policies and procedures to identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest of issuers of asset-referenced tokens and the details and methodology for the content of that disclosure; the procedure and timeframe for an issuer of asset-referenced tokens and significant e-money tokens to adjust to higher own funds requirements, the criteria for requiring higher own funds, the minimum requirements for the design of stress testing programmes; the liquidity requirements for the reserve of assets; the financial instruments into which the reserve of assets can be invested; detailed content of information necessary to carry out the assessment of the proposed acquisition of the qualifying holding in an issuer of asset-referenced tokens; requirements for additional obligations for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens; the information that credit institutions, central securities depositories, investment firms, market operators, electronic money institutions, UCITS management companies and alternative investment fund managers who intend to provide crypto-asset services notify to competent authorities; the information that an application for the authorisation of crypto-asset service provider contains; the content, methodologies and presentation of information that the crypto-assets service provider makes publicly available and that is related to principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue each crypto-asset in relation to which they provide services; measures ensuring continuity and regularity in the performance of the crypto-asset services and the records to be kept of all crypto-asset services, orders and transactions that they undertake; the requirements for the policies to identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest of crypto-asset service providers and the details and methodology for the content of that disclosure; the manner in which transparency data of the operator of a trading platform is to be offered and the content and format of order book records regarding the trading platform; the detailed content of the information necessary to carry out the assessment of the proposed acquisition of the qualifying holding in a crypto-asset service provider; the appropriate arrangements, systems and procedures for monitoring and detecting market abuse; the notification template for reporting suspicions of market abuse and coordination procedures between the relevant competent authorities for the detection of market abuse; the information to be exchanged between the competent authorities; a template document for cooperation arrangements between the competent authorities of Member States and supervisory authorities of third countries; the data necessary for the classification of crypto-asset white papers in ESMA’s register and the practical arrangements to ensure that such data is machine-readable; the conditions under which certain members of college of supervisors for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and issuers of significant e-money tokens are to be considered most relevant in their category; and the conditions under which it is considered that asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens are used at a large scale for the purposes of qualifying certain members of that college and details of the practical arrangements for the functioning of that college. The Commission should adopt those regulatory technical standards by means of delegated acts pursuant to Article 290 TFEU and in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010 and of (EU) No 1095/2010, respectively.

(111)

The Commission should be empowered to adopt implementing technical standards developed by EBA and ESMA, with regard to: establishing standard forms, formats and templates for crypto-asset white papers; establishing standard forms, templates and procedures to transmit information for the purposes of the application for authorisation as an issuer of asset-referenced tokens; establishing standard forms, formats and templates for the purposes of reporting on asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens denominated in a currency which is not an official currency of a Member State that are issued with a value higher than EUR 100 000 000; establishing standard forms, templates and procedures for the notification of information to competent authorities by credit institutions, central securities depositories, investment firms, market operators, electronic money institutions, UCITS management companies and alternative investment fund managers who intend to provide crypto-asset services; establishing standard forms, templates and procedures for the application for authorisation as crypto-asset service providers; determining the technical means for public disclosure of inside information and for delaying the public disclosure of inside information; and establishing standard forms, templates and procedures for the cooperation and exchange of information between competent authorities and between competent authorities, EBA and ESMA. The Commission should adopt those implementing technical standards by means of implementing acts pursuant to Article 291 TFEU and in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 and Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

(112)

Since the objectives of this Regulation, namely addressing the fragmentation of the legal framework applicable to offerors or persons seeking the admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens, to issuers of asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens and to crypto-asset service providers, and ensuring the proper functioning of markets in crypto-assets while ensuring the protection of holders of crypto-assets and clients of crypto-asset service providers, in particular retail holders, as well as the protection of market integrity and financial stability, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States but can rather, by creating a framework on which a larger cross-border market in crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers could develop, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.

(113)

In order to avoid disrupting market participants that provide services and activities in relation to crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens that have been issued before the date of application of this Regulation, issuers of such crypto-assets should be exempt from the obligation to publish a crypto-asset white paper and certain other requirements of this Regulation. However, certain obligations should apply when such crypto-assets were admitted to trading before the date of application of this Regulation. In order to avoid disruption to existing market participants, transitional provisions are necessary for issuers of asset-referenced tokens that were in operation at the time of entry into application of this Regulation.

(114)

Since the national regulatory frameworks applicable to crypto-asset service providers before the entry into application of this Regulation differ among Member States, it is essential that those Member States that do not, at present, have in place strong prudential requirements for crypto-asset service providers currently operating under their regulatory frameworks have the possibility of requiring such crypto-asset service providers to be subject to stricter requirements than those under the national regulatory frameworks. In such cases, Member States should be permitted to not apply, or to reduce, the 18-month transitional period that would otherwise allow crypto-asset service providers to provide services based on their existing national regulatory framework. Such an option for Member States should not set a precedent for any other Union legislative acts on financial services.

(115)

Whistleblowers should be able to bring new information to the attention of competent authorities that helps them in detecting infringements of this Regulation and imposing penalties. This Regulation should therefore ensure that adequate arrangements are in place to enable whistleblowers to alert competent authorities to actual or potential infringements of this Regulation and to protect them from retaliation. That should be done by amending Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council (23) in order to make it applicable to infringements of this Regulation.

(116)

Given that EBA should be mandated with the direct supervision of issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens and of significant e-money tokens, and ESMA should be mandated to make use of its powers in relation to significant crypto-asset service providers, it is necessary to ensure that EBA and ESMA are able to exercise all of their powers and tasks in order to fulfil their objectives of protecting the public interest by contributing to the short-, medium- and long-term stability and effectiveness of the financial system for the Union economy, its citizens and businesses and to ensure that issuers of crypto-assets and crypto-asset service providers are covered by Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010 and (EU) No 1095/2010. Those Regulations should therefore be amended accordingly.

(117)

The issuance, offer or seeking of admission to trading of crypto-assets and the provision of crypto-asset services could involve the processing of personal data. Any processing of personal data under this Regulation should be carried out in accordance with applicable Union law on the protection of personal data. This Regulation is without prejudice to the rights and obligations under Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council (24) and Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council (25).

(118)

The European Data Protection Supervisor was consulted in accordance with Article 42(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 and delivered an opinion on 24 June 2021 (26).

(119)

The date of application of this Regulation should be deferred in order to allow for the adoption of regulatory technical standards, implementing technical standards and delegated acts that are necessary to further specify certain elements of this Regulation,

HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

TITLE I

SUBJECT MATTER, SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

1.   This Regulation lays down uniform requirements for the offer to the public and admission to trading on a trading platform of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens, of asset-referenced tokens and of e-money tokens, as well as requirements for crypto-asset service providers.

2.   In particular, this Regulation lays down the following:

(a)

transparency and disclosure requirements for the issuance, offer to the public and admission of crypto-assets to trading on a trading platform for crypto-assets (‘admission to trading’);

(b)

requirements for the authorisation and supervision of crypto-asset service providers, issuers of asset-referenced tokens and issuers of e-money tokens, as well as for their operation, organisation and governance;

(c)

requirements for the protection of holders of crypto-assets in the issuance, offer to the public and admission to trading of crypto-assets;

(d)

requirements for the protection of clients of crypto-asset service providers;

(e)

measures to prevent insider dealing, unlawful disclosure of inside information and market manipulation related to crypto-assets, in order to ensure the integrity of markets in crypto-assets.

Article 2

Scope

1.   This Regulation applies to natural and legal persons and certain other undertakings that are engaged in the issuance, offer to the public and admission to trading of crypto-assets or that provide services related to crypto-assets in the Union.

2.   This Regulation does not apply to:

(a)

persons who provide crypto-asset services exclusively for their parent companies, for their own subsidiaries or for other subsidiaries of their parent companies;

(b)

a liquidator or an administrator acting in the course of an insolvency procedure, except for the purposes of Article 47;

(c)

the ECB, central banks of the Member States when acting in their capacity as monetary authorities, or other public authorities of the Member States;

(d)

the European Investment Bank and its subsidiaries;

(e)

the European Financial Stability Facility and the European Stability Mechanism;

(f)

public international organisations.

3.   This Regulation does not apply to crypto-assets that are unique and not fungible with other crypto-assets.

4.   This Regulation does not apply to crypto-assets that qualify as one or more of the following:

(a)

financial instruments;

(b)

deposits, including structured deposits;

(c)

funds, except if they qualify as e-money tokens;

(d)

securitisation positions in the context of a securitisation as defined in Article 2, point (1), of Regulation (EU) 2017/2402;

(e)

non-life or life insurance products falling within the classes of insurance listed in Annexes I and II to Directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (27) or reinsurance and retrocession contracts referred to in that Directive;

(f)

pension products that, under national law, are recognised as having the primary purpose of providing the investor with an income in retirement and that entitle the investor to certain benefits;

(g)

officially recognised occupational pension schemes falling within the scope of Directive (EU) 2016/2341 of the European Parliament and of the Council (28) or Directive 2009/138/EC;

(h)

individual pension products for which a financial contribution from the employer is required by national law and where the employer or the employee has no choice as to the pension product or provider;

(i)

a pan-European Personal Pension Product as defined in Article 2, point (2), of Regulation (EU) 2019/1238 of the European Parliament and of the Council (29);

(j)

social security schemes covered by Regulations (EC) No 883/2004 (30) and (EC) No 987/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (31).

5.   By 30 December 2024, ESMA shall, for the purposes of paragraph 4, point (a), of this Article issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 on the conditions and criteria for the qualification of crypto-assets as financial instruments.

6.   This Regulation shall be without prejudice to Regulation (EU) No 1024/2013.

Article 3

Definitions

1.   For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions apply:

(1)

‘distributed ledger technology’ or ‘DLT’ means a technology that enables the operation and use of distributed ledgers;

(2)

‘distributed ledger’ means an information repository that keeps records of transactions and that is shared across, and synchronised between, a set of DLT network nodes using a consensus mechanism;

(3)

‘consensus mechanism’ means the rules and procedures by which an agreement is reached, among DLT network nodes, that a transaction is validated;

(4)

‘DLT network node’ means a device or process that is part of a network and that holds a complete or partial replica of records of all transactions on a distributed ledger;

(5)

‘crypto-asset’ means a digital representation of a value or of a right that is able to be transferred and stored electronically using distributed ledger technology or similar technology;

(6)

‘asset-referenced token’ means a type of crypto-asset that is not an electronic money token and that purports to maintain a stable value by referencing another value or right or a combination thereof, including one or more official currencies;

(7)

‘electronic money token’ or ‘e-money token’ means a type of crypto-asset that purports to maintain a stable value by referencing the value of one official currency;

(8)

‘official currency’ means an official currency of a country that is issued by a central bank or other monetary authority;

(9)

‘utility token’ means a type of crypto-asset that is only intended to provide access to a good or a service supplied by its issuer;

(10)

‘issuer’ means a natural or legal person, or other undertaking, who issues crypto-assets;

(11)

‘applicant issuer’ means an issuer of asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens who applies for authorisation to offer to the public or seeks the admission to trading of those crypto-assets;

(12)

‘offer to the public’ means a communication to persons in any form, and by any means, presenting sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the crypto-assets to be offered so as to enable prospective holders to decide whether to purchase those crypto-assets;

(13)

‘offeror’ means a natural or legal person, or other undertaking, or the issuer, who offers crypto-assets to the public;

(14)

‘funds’ means funds as defined in Article 4, point (25), of Directive (EU) 2015/2366;

(15)

‘crypto-asset service provider’ means a legal person or other undertaking whose occupation or business is the provision of one or more crypto-asset services to clients on a professional basis, and that is allowed to provide crypto-asset services in accordance with Article 59;

(16)

‘crypto-asset service’ means any of the following services and activities relating to any crypto-asset:

(a)

providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(b)

operation of a trading platform for crypto-assets;

(c)

exchange of crypto-assets for funds;

(d)

exchange of crypto-assets for other crypto-assets;

(e)

execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(f)

placing of crypto-assets;

(g)

reception and transmission of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(h)

providing advice on crypto-assets;

(i)

providing portfolio management on crypto-assets;

(j)

providing transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(17)

‘providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients’ means the safekeeping or controlling, on behalf of clients, of crypto-assets or of the means of access to such crypto-assets, where applicable in the form of private cryptographic keys;

(18)

‘operation of a trading platform for crypto-assets’ means the management of one or more multilateral systems, which bring together or facilitate the bringing together of multiple third-party purchasing and selling interests in crypto-assets, in the system and in accordance with its rules, in a way that results in a contract, either by exchanging crypto-assets for funds or by the exchange of crypto-assets for other crypto-assets;

(19)

‘exchange of crypto-assets for funds’ means the conclusion of purchase or sale contracts concerning crypto-assets with clients for funds by using proprietary capital;

(20)

‘exchange of crypto-assets for other crypto-assets’ means the conclusion of purchase or sale contracts concerning crypto-assets with clients for other crypto-assets by using proprietary capital;

(21)

‘execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients’ means the conclusion of agreements, on behalf of clients, to purchase or sell one or more crypto-assets or the subscription on behalf of clients for one or more crypto-assets, and includes the conclusion of contracts to sell crypto-assets at the moment of their offer to the public or admission to trading;

(22)

‘placing of crypto-assets’ means the marketing, on behalf of or for the account of the offeror or a party related to the offeror, of crypto-assets to purchasers;

(23)

‘reception and transmission of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients’ means the reception from a person of an order to purchase or sell one or more crypto-assets or to subscribe for one or more crypto-assets and the transmission of that order to a third party for execution;

(24)

‘providing advice on crypto-assets’ means offering, giving or agreeing to give personalised recommendations to a client, either at the client’s request or on the initiative of the crypto-asset service provider providing the advice, in respect of one or more transactions relating to crypto-assets, or the use of crypto-asset services;

(25)

‘providing portfolio management of crypto-assets’ means managing portfolios in accordance with mandates given by clients on a discretionary client-by-client basis where such portfolios include one or more crypto-assets;

(26)

‘providing transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients’ means providing services of transfer, on behalf of a natural or legal person, of crypto-assets from one distributed ledger address or account to another;

(27)

‘management body’ means the body or bodies of an issuer, offeror or person seeking admission to trading, or of a crypto-asset service provider, which are appointed in accordance with national law, which are empowered to set the entity’s strategy, objectives and overall direction, and which oversee and monitor management decision-making in the entity and include the persons who effectively direct the business of the entity;

(28)

‘credit institution’ means a credit institution as defined in Article 4(1), point (1), of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and authorised under Directive 2013/36/EU;

(29)

‘investment firm’ means an investment firm as defined in Article 4(1), point (2), of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and authorised under Directive 2014/65/EU;

(30)

‘qualified investors’ means persons or entities that are listed in Section I, points (1) to (4), of Annex II to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(31)

‘close links’ means close links as defined in Article 4(1), point (35), of Directive 2014/65/EU;

(32)

‘reserve of assets’ means the basket of reserve assets securing the claim against the issuer;

(33)

‘home Member State’ means:

(a)

where the offeror or person seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens has its registered office in the Union, the Member State where that offeror or person has its registered office;

(b)

where the offeror or person seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens has no registered office in the Union but does have one or more branches in the Union, the Member State chosen by that offeror or person from among the Member States where it has branches;

(c)

where the offeror or person seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens is established in a third country and has no branch in the Union, either the Member State where the crypto-assets are intended to be offered to the public for the first time or, at the choice of the offeror or person seeking admission to trading, the Member State where the first application for admission to trading of those crypto-assets is made;

(d)

in the case of an issuer of asset-referenced tokens, the Member State where the issuer of asset-referenced tokens has its registered office;

(e)

in the case of an issuer of e-money tokens, the Member State where the issuer of e-money tokens is authorised as a credit institution under Directive 2013/36/EU or as an electronic money institution under Directive 2009/110/EC;

(f)

in the case of crypto-asset service providers, the Member State where the crypto-asset service provider has its registered office;

(34)

‘host Member State’ means the Member State where an offeror or person seeking admission to trading has made an offer to the public of crypto-assets or is seeking admission to trading, or where a crypto-asset service provider provides crypto-asset services, where different from the home Member State;

(35)

‘competent authority’ means one or more authorities:

(a)

designated by each Member State in accordance with Article 93 concerning offerors, persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens, issuers of asset-referenced tokens, or crypto-asset service providers;

(b)

designated by each Member State for the application of Directive 2009/110/EC concerning issuers of e-money tokens;

(36)

‘qualifying holding’ means any direct or indirect holding in an issuer of asset-referenced tokens or in a crypto-asset service provider which represents at least 10 % of the capital or of the voting rights, as set out in Articles 9 and 10 of Directive 2004/109/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (32), respectively, taking into account the conditions for the aggregation thereof laid down in Article 12(4) and (5) of that Directive, or which makes it possible to exercise a significant influence over the management of the issuer of asset-referenced tokens or the management of the crypto-asset service provider in which that holding subsists;

(37)

‘retail holder’ means any natural person who is acting for purposes which are outside that person’s trade, business, craft or profession;

(38)

‘online interface’ means any software, including a website, part of a website or an application, that is operated by or on behalf of an offeror or crypto-asset service provider, and which serves to give holders of crypto-assets access to their crypto-assets and to give clients access to crypto-asset services;

(39)

‘client’ means any natural or legal person to whom a crypto-asset service provider provides crypto-asset services;

(40)

‘matched principal trading’ means matched principal trading as defined in Article 4(1), point (38), of Directive 2014/65/EU;

(41)

‘payment services’ means payment services as defined in Article 4, point (3), of Directive (EU) 2015/2366;

(42)

‘payment service provider’ means a payment service provider as defined in Article 4, point (11), of Directive (EU) 2015/2366;

(43)

‘electronic money institution’ means an electronic money institution as defined in Article 2, point (1), of Directive 2009/110/EC;

(44)

‘electronic money’ means electronic money as defined in Article 2, point (2), of Directive 2009/110/EC;

(45)

‘personal data’ means personal data as defined in Article 4, point (1), of Regulation (EU) 2016/679;

(46)

‘payment institution’ means a payment institution as defined in Article 4, point (4), of Directive (EU) 2015/2366;

(47)

‘UCITS management company’ means a management company as defined in Article 2(1), point (b), of Directive 2009/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (33);

(48)

‘alternative investment fund manager’ means an AIFM as defined in Article 4(1), point (b), of Directive 2011/61/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (34);

(49)

‘financial instrument’ means financial instruments as defined in Article 4(1), point (15), of Directive 2014/65/EU;

(50)

‘deposit’ means a deposit as defined in Article 2(1), point (3), of Directive 2014/49/EU;

(51)

‘structured deposit’ means a structured deposit as defined in Article 4(1), point (43), of Directive 2014/65/EU.

2.   The Commission shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 139 to supplement this Regulation by further specifying technical elements of the definitions laid down in paragraph 1 of this Article, and to adjust those definitions to market developments and technological developments.

TITLE II

CRYPTO-ASSETS OTHER THAN ASSET-REFERENCED TOKENS OR E-MONEY TOKENS

Article 4

Offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens

1.   A person shall not make an offer to the public of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token in the Union unless that person:

(a)

is a legal person;

(b)

has drawn up a crypto-asset white paper in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 6;

(c)

has notified the crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 8;

(d)

has published the crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 9;

(e)

has drafted the marketing communications, if any, in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 7;

(f)

has published the marketing communications, if any, in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 9;

(g)

complies with the requirements for offerors laid down in Article 14.

2.   Paragraph 1, points (b), (c), (d) and (f), shall not apply to any of the following offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens:

(a)

an offer to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons per Member State where such persons are acting on their own account;

(b)

over a period of 12 months, starting with the beginning of the offer, the total consideration of an offer to the public of a crypto-asset in the Union does not exceed EUR 1 000 000, or the equivalent amount in another official currency or in crypto-assets;

(c)

an offer of a crypto-asset addressed solely to qualified investors where the crypto-asset can only be held by such qualified investors.

3.   This Title shall not apply to offers to the public of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens where any of the following apply:

(a)

the crypto-asset is offered for free;

(b)

the crypto-asset is automatically created as a reward for the maintenance of the distributed ledger or the validation of transactions;

(c)

the offer concerns a utility token providing access to a good or service that exists or is in operation;

(d)

the holder of the crypto-asset has the right to use it only in exchange for goods and services in a limited network of merchants with contractual arrangements with the offeror.

For the purposes of point (a) of the first subparagraph, a crypto-asset shall not be considered to be offered for free where purchasers are required to provide, or to undertake to provide, personal data to the offeror in exchange for that crypto-asset, or where the offeror of a crypto-asset receives from prospective holders of that crypto-asset any fees, commissions, or monetary or non-monetary benefits in exchange for that crypto-asset.

Where, for each 12-month period starting from the beginning of the initial offer to the public, the total consideration of an offer to the public of a crypto-asset in the circumstances referred to in the first subparagraph, point (d), in the Union exceeds EUR 1 000 000, the offeror shall send a notification to the competent authority containing a description of the offer and explaining why the offer is exempt from this Title pursuant to the first subparagraph, point (d).

Based on the notification referred to in the third subparagraph, the competent authority shall take a duly justified decision where it considers that the activity does not qualify for an exemption as a limited network under the first subparagraph, point (d), and shall inform the offeror accordingly.

4.   The exemptions listed in paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply where the offeror, or another person acting on the offeror’s behalf, makes known in any communication its intention to seek admission to trading of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token.

5.   Authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider pursuant to Article 59 is not required for providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients or for providing transfer services for crypto-assets in relation to crypto-assets whose offers to the public are exempt pursuant to paragraph 3 of this Article, unless:

(a)

there exists another offer to the public of the same crypto-asset and that offer does not benefit from the exemption; or

(b)

the crypto-asset offered is admitted to a trading platform.

6.   Where the offer to the public of the crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token concerns a utility token providing access to goods and services that do not yet exist or are not yet in operation, the duration of the offer to the public as described in the crypto-asset white paper shall not exceed 12 months from the date of publication of the crypto-asset white paper.

7.   Any subsequent offer to the public of the crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token shall be deemed a separate offer to the public to which the requirements of paragraph 1 apply, without prejudice to the possible application of paragraph 2 or 3 to the subsequent offer to the public.

No additional crypto-asset white paper shall be required for any subsequent offer to the public of the crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token so long as a crypto-asset white paper has been published in accordance with Articles 9 and 12, and the person responsible for drawing up such white paper consents to its use in writing.

8.   Where an offer to the public of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token is exempt from the obligation to publish a crypto-asset white paper under paragraph 2 or 3, but a white paper is nevertheless drawn up voluntarily, this Title shall apply.

Article 5

Admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens

1.   A person shall not seek admission to trading of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token within the Union unless that person:

(a)

is a legal person;

(b)

has drawn up a crypto-asset white paper in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 6;

(c)

has notified the crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 8;

(d)

has published the crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 9;

(e)

has drafted the marketing communications, if any, in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 7;

(f)

has published the marketing communications, if any, in respect of that crypto-asset in accordance with Article 9;

(g)

complies with the requirements for persons seeking admission to trading laid down in Article 14.

2.   When a crypto-asset is admitted to trading on the initiative of the operator of a trading platform and a crypto-asset white paper has not been published in accordance with Article 9 in the cases required by this Regulation, the operator of that trading platform for crypto-assets shall comply with the requirements set out in paragraph 1 of this Article.

3.   By way of derogation from paragraph 1, a person seeking admission to trading of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token and the respective operator of the trading platform may agree in writing that it shall be the operator of the trading platform who is required to comply with all or part of the requirements referred to in paragraph 1, points (b) to (g).

The agreement in writing referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph shall clearly state that the person seeking admission to trading is required to provide the operator of the trading platform with all necessary information to enable that operator to satisfy the requirements referred to in paragraph 1, points (b) to (g), as applicable.

4.   Paragraph 1, points (b), (c) and (d), shall not apply where:

(a)

the crypto-asset is already admitted to trading on another trading platform for crypto-assets in the Union; and

(b)

the crypto-asset white paper is drawn up in accordance with Article 6, updated in accordance with Article 12, and the person responsible for drawing up such white paper consents to its use in writing.

Article 6

Content and form of the crypto-asset white paper

1.   A crypto-asset white paper shall contain all of the following information, as further specified in Annex I:

(a)

information about the offeror or the person seeking admission to trading;

(b)

information about the issuer, if different from the offeror or person seeking admission to trading;

(c)

information about the operator of the trading platform in cases where it draws up the crypto-asset white paper;

(d)

information about the crypto-asset project;

(e)

information about the offer to the public of the crypto-asset or its admission to trading;

(f)

information about the crypto-asset;

(g)

information on the rights and obligations attached to the crypto-asset;

(h)

information on the underlying technology;

(i)

information on the risks;

(j)

information on the principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue the crypto-asset.

In cases where the crypto-asset white paper is not drawn up by the persons referred to in the first subparagraph, points (a), (b) and (c), the crypto-asset white paper shall also include the identity of the person that drew up the crypto-asset white paper and the reason why that particular person drew it up.

2.   All of the information listed in paragraph 1 shall be fair, clear and not misleading. The crypto-asset white paper shall not contain material omissions and shall be presented in a concise and comprehensible form.

3.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain the following clear and prominent statement on the first page:

‘This crypto-asset white paper has not been approved by any competent authority in any Member State of the European Union. The offeror of the crypto-asset is solely responsible for the content of this crypto-asset white paper.’.

Where the crypto-asset white paper is drawn up by the person seeking admission to trading or by an operator of a trading platform, then, instead of ‘offeror’, a reference to ‘person seeking admission to trading’ or ‘operator of the trading platform’ shall be included in the statement referred to in the first subparagraph.

4.   The crypto-asset white paper shall not contain any assertions as regards the future value of the crypto-asset, other than the statement referred to in paragraph 5.

5.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a clear and unambiguous statement that:

(a)

the crypto-asset may lose its value in part or in full;

(b)

the crypto-asset may not always be transferable;

(c)

the crypto-asset may not be liquid;

(d)

where the offer to the public concerns a utility token, that utility token may not be exchangeable against the good or service promised in the crypto-asset white paper, especially in the case of a failure or discontinuation of the crypto-asset project;

(e)

the crypto-asset is not covered by the investor compensation schemes under Directive 97/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (35);

(f)

the crypto-asset is not covered by the deposit guarantee schemes under Directive 2014/49/EU.

6.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a statement from the management body of the offeror, the person seeking admission to trading or the operator of the trading platform. That statement, which shall be inserted after the statement referred to in paragraph 3, shall confirm that the crypto-asset white paper complies with this Title and that, to the best of the knowledge of the management body, the information presented in the crypto-asset white paper is fair, clear and not misleading and the crypto-asset white paper makes no omission likely to affect its import.

7.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a summary, inserted after the statement referred to in paragraph 6, which shall in brief and non-technical language provide key information about the offer to the public of the crypto-asset or the intended admission to trading. The summary shall be easily understandable and presented and laid out in a clear and comprehensive format, using characters of readable size. The summary of the crypto-asset white paper shall provide appropriate information about the characteristics of the crypto-asset concerned in order to help prospective holders of the crypto-asset to make an informed decision.

The summary shall contain a warning that:

(a)

it should be read as an introduction to the crypto-asset white paper;

(b)

the prospective holder should base any decision to purchase the crypto-asset on the content of the crypto-asset white paper as a whole and not on the summary alone;

(c)

the offer to the public of the crypto-asset does not constitute an offer or solicitation to purchase financial instruments and that any such offer or solicitation can be made only by means of a prospectus or other offer documents pursuant to the applicable national law;

(d)

the crypto-asset white paper does not constitute a prospectus as referred to in Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 of the European Parliament and of the Council (36) or any other offer document pursuant to Union or national law.

8.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain the date of its notification and a table of contents.

9.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be drawn up in an official language of the home Member State, or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

Where the crypto-asset is also offered in a Member State other than the home Member State, the crypto-asset white paper shall also be drawn up in an official language of the host Member State, or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

10.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be made available in a machine-readable format.

11.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, formats and templates for the purposes of paragraph 10.

ESMA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

12.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards on the content, methodologies and presentation of the information referred to in paragraph 1, first subparagraph, point (j), in respect of the sustainability indicators in relation to adverse impacts on the climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts.

When developing the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph, ESMA shall consider the various types of consensus mechanisms used to validate transactions in crypto-assets, their incentive structures and the use of energy, renewable energy and natural resources, the production of waste and greenhouse gas emissions. ESMA shall update those regulatory technical standards in the light of regulatory and technological developments.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 7

Marketing communications

1.   Any marketing communications relating to an offer to the public of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token, or to the admission to trading of such crypto-asset, shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(a)

the marketing communications are clearly identifiable as such;

(b)

the information in the marketing communications is fair, clear and not misleading;

(c)

the information in the marketing communications is consistent with the information in the crypto-asset white paper, where such crypto-asset white paper is required pursuant to Article 4 or 5;

(d)

the marketing communications clearly state that a crypto-asset white paper has been published and clearly indicate the address of the website of the offeror, the person seeking admission to trading, or the operator of the trading platform for the crypto-asset concerned, as well as a telephone number and an email address to contact that person;

(e)

the marketing communications contain the following clear and prominent statement:

‘This crypto-asset marketing communication has not been reviewed or approved by any competent authority in any Member State of the European Union. The offeror of the crypto-asset is solely responsible for the content of this crypto-asset marketing communication.’.

Where the marketing communication is prepared by the person seeking admission to trading or the operator of a trading platform, then, instead of ‛offeror’, a reference to ‘person seeking admission to trading’ or ‘operator of the trading platform’ shall be included in the statement referred to in the first subparagraph, point (e).

2.   Where a crypto-asset white paper is required pursuant to Article 4 or 5, no marketing communications shall be disseminated prior to the publication of the crypto-asset white paper. The ability of the offeror, the person seeking admission to trading or the operator of a trading platform, to conduct market soundings shall not be affected.

3.   The competent authority of the Member State where the marketing communications are disseminated shall have the power to assess compliance with paragraph 1 in respect of those marketing communications.

Where necessary, the competent authority of the home Member State shall assist the competent authority of the Member State where the marketing communications are disseminated with assessing the consistency of the marketing communications with the information in the crypto-asset white paper.

4.   The use of any of the supervisory and investigatory powers set out in Article 94 in relation to the enforcement of this Article by the competent authority of a host Member State shall be notified without undue delay to the competent authority of the home Member State of the offeror, the person seeking admission to trading or the operator of the trading platform for the crypto-assets.

Article 8

Notification of the crypto-asset white paper and of the marketing communications

1.   Offerors, persons seeking admission to trading, or operators of trading platforms for crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall notify their crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority of their home Member State.

2.   Marketing communications shall, upon request, be notified to the competent authority of the home Member State and to the competent authority of the host Member State, when addressing prospective holders of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens in those Member States.

3.   Competent authorities shall not require prior approval of crypto-asset white papers, nor of any marketing communications relating thereto, before their respective publication.

4.   The notification of the crypto-asset white paper referred to in paragraph 1 shall be accompanied by an explanation of why the crypto-asset described in the crypto-asset white paper should not be considered to be:

(a)

a crypto-asset excluded from the scope of this Regulation pursuant to Article 2(4);

(b)

an e-money token; or

(c)

an asset-referenced token.

5.   The elements referred in paragraphs 1 and 4 shall be notified to the competent authority of the home Member State at least 20 working days before the date of publication of the crypto-asset white paper.

6.   Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall, together with the notification referred to in paragraph 1, provide the competent authority of their home Member State with a list of the host Member States, if any, where they intend to offer their crypto-assets to the public or intend to seek admission to trading. They shall also inform the competent authority of their home Member State of the starting date of the intended offer to the public or intended admission to trading and of any change to that date.

The competent authority of the home Member State shall notify the single point of contact of the host Member States of the intended offer to the public or the intended admission to trading and communicate to that single point of contact the corresponding crypto-asset white paper within five working days of receipt of the list of host Member States referred to in the first subparagraph.

7.   The competent authority of the home Member State shall communicate to ESMA the information referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 as well as the starting date of the intended offer to the public or intended admission to trading and of any change to that date. It shall communicate such information within five working days of receipt thereof from the offeror or the person seeking admission to trading.

ESMA shall make the crypto-asset white paper available in the register, under Article 109(2), by the starting date of the offer to the public or admission to trading.

Article 9

Publication of the crypto-asset white paper and of the marketing communications

1.   Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall publish their crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, their marketing communications, on their website, which shall be publicly accessible, at a reasonable time in advance of, and in any event before the starting date of, the offer to the public of those crypto-assets or the admission to trading of those crypto-assets. The crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, the marketing communications, shall remain available on the website of the offerors or persons seeking admission trading for as long as the crypto-assets are held by the public.

2.   The published crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, the marketing communications, shall be identical to the version notified to the competent authority in accordance with Article 8 or, where applicable, to the version modified in accordance with Article 12.

Article 10

Result of the offer to the public and safeguarding arrangements

1.   Offerors of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that set a time limit on their offer to the public of those crypto-assets shall publish on their website the result of the offer to the public within 20 working days of the end of the subscription period.

2.   Offerors of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that do not set a time limit on their offer to the public of those crypto-assets shall publish on their website on an ongoing basis, at least monthly, the number of units of the crypto-assets in circulation.

3.   Offerors of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that set a time limit on their offer to the public of crypto-assets shall have effective arrangements in place to monitor and safeguard the funds or other crypto-assets raised during the offer to the public. For that purpose, those offerors shall ensure that the funds or crypto-assets collected during the offer to the public are kept in custody by one or both of the following:

(a)

a credit institution, where funds are raised during the offer to the public;

(b)

a crypto-asset service provider providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients.

4.   When the offer to the public has no time limit, the offeror shall comply with paragraph 3 of this Article until the right of withdrawal of the retail holder pursuant to Article 13 has expired.

Article 11

Rights of offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens

1.   After publication of the crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 9 and, where applicable, of the modified crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 12, offerors may offer crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens throughout the Union and such crypto-assets may be admitted to trading on a trading platform for crypto-assets in the Union.

2.   Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens that have published a crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 9 and, where applicable, a modified crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 12, shall not be subject to any further information requirements with regard to the offer to the public or the admission to trading of that crypto-asset.

Article 12

Modification of published crypto-asset white papers and of published marketing communications

1.   Offerors, persons seeking admission to trading or operators of a trading platform for crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall modify their published crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, their published marketing communications, whenever there is a significant new factor, material mistake or material inaccuracy that is capable of affecting the assessment of the crypto-assets. That requirement shall apply for the duration of the offer to the public or for as long as the crypto-asset is admitted to trading.

2.   Offerors, persons seeking admission to trading or operators of a trading platform for crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall notify their modified crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, modified marketing communications, and the intended publication date, to the competent authority of their home Member State, including the reasons for such modification, at least seven working days before their publication.

3.   On the date of publication, or earlier if required by the competent authority, the offeror, the person seeking admission to trading or the operator of the trading platform shall immediately inform the public on its website of the notification of a modified crypto-asset white paper with the competent authority of its home Member State and shall provide a summary of the reasons for which it has notified a modified crypto-asset white paper.

4.   The order of the information in a modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, in modified marketing communications, shall be consistent with that of the crypto-asset white paper or marketing communications published in accordance with Article 9.

5.   Within five working days of receipt of the modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, of the modified marketing communications, the competent authority of the home Member State shall notify the modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified marketing communications to the competent authority of the host Member States referred to in Article 8(6) and communicate the notification and the date of publication to ESMA.

ESMA shall make the modified crypto-asset white paper available in the register, under Article 109(2), upon publication.

6.   Offerors, persons seeking admission to trading or operators of trading platforms for crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall publish the modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified marketing communications, including the reasons for such modification, on their website in accordance with Article 9.

7.   The modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified marketing communications, shall be time-stamped. The most recent modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified marketing communications shall be marked as the applicable version. All modified crypto-asset white papers and, where applicable, modified marketing communications shall remain available for as long as the crypto-assets are held by the public.

8.   Where the offer to the public concerns a utility token providing access to goods and services that do not yet exist or are not yet in operation, changes made in the modified crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified marketing communications, shall not extend the time limit of 12 months referred to in Article 4(6).

9.   Older versions of the crypto-asset white paper and the marketing communications shall remain publicly available on the website of the offerors, persons seeking admission to trading, or operators of trading platforms, for at least 10 years after the date of publication of those older versions, with a prominent warning stating that they are no longer valid and with a hyperlink to the dedicated section on the website where the most recent version of those documents is published.

Article 13

Right of withdrawal

1.   Retail holders who purchase crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens either directly from an offeror or from a crypto-asset service provider placing crypto-assets on behalf of that offeror shall have a right of withdrawal.

Retail holders shall have a period of 14 calendar days within which to withdraw from their agreement to purchase crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens and e-money tokens without incurring any fees or costs and without being required to give reasons. The period of withdrawal shall begin from the date of the agreement of the retail holder to purchase those crypto-assets.

2.   All payments received from a retail holder including, if applicable, any charges, shall be reimbursed without undue delay and in any event no later than 14 days from the date on which the offeror or the crypto-asset service provider placing crypto-assets on behalf of that offeror is informed of the retail holder’s decision to withdraw from the agreement to purchase those crypto-assets.

Such reimbursement shall be carried out using the same means of payment as that used by the retail holder for the initial transaction, unless the retail holder expressly agrees otherwise and provided that the retail holder does not incur any fees or costs as a result of such reimbursement.

3.   Offerors of crypto-assets shall provide information on the right of withdrawal referred to in paragraph 1 in their crypto-asset white paper.

4.   The right of withdrawal referred to in paragraph 1 shall not apply where the crypto-assets have been admitted to trading prior to their purchase by the retail holder.

5.   Where offerors have set a time limit on their offer to the public of such crypto-assets in accordance with Article 10, the right of withdrawal shall not be exercised after the end of the subscription period.

Article 14

Obligations of offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens

1.   Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall:

(a)

act honestly, fairly and professionally;

(b)

communicate with holders and prospective holders of the crypto-assets in a fair, clear and not misleading manner;

(c)

identify, prevent, manage and disclose any conflicts of interest that might arise;

(d)

maintain all of their systems and security access protocols in conformity with the appropriate Union standards.

For the purposes of point (d) of the first subparagraph, ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall by 30 December 2024 issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 to specify those Union standards.

2.   Offerors and persons seeking admission to trading of crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens shall act in the best interests of the holders of such crypto-assets and shall treat them equally, unless any preferential treatment of specific holders and the reasons for that preferential treatment are disclosed in the crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the marketing communications.

3.   Where an offer to the public of a crypto-asset other than an asset-referenced token or e-money token is cancelled, offerors of such crypto-asset shall ensure that any funds collected from holders or prospective holders are duly returned to them no later than 25 calendar days after the date of cancellation.

Article 15

Liability for the information given in a crypto-asset white paper

1.   Where an offeror, person seeking admission to trading or operator of a trading platform, has infringed Article 6 by providing in its crypto-asset white paper or in a modified crypto-asset white paper information that is not complete, fair or clear or that is misleading, that offeror, person seeking admission to trading or operator of a trading platform and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory body shall be liable to a holder of the crypto-asset for any loss incurred due to that infringement.

2.   Any contractual exclusion or limitation of civil liability as referred to in paragraph 1 shall be deprived of legal effect.

3.   Where the crypto-asset white paper and marketing communications are prepared by the operator of the trading platform in accordance with Article 5(3), the person seeking admission to trading shall also be held responsible when it provides information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading to the operator of the trading platform.

4.   It shall be the responsibility of the holder of the crypto-asset to present evidence indicating that the offeror, person seeking admission to trading, or operator of the trading platform for crypto-assets other than asset-referenced tokens or e-money tokens has infringed Article 6 by providing information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading and that reliance on such information had an impact on the holder’s decision to purchase, sell or exchange that crypto-asset.

5.   The offeror, person seeking admission to trading, or operator of the trading platform and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory body shall not be liable to a holder of a crypto-asset for loss incurred as a result of reliance on the information provided in a summary as referred to in Article 6(7), including any translation thereof, except where the summary:

(a)

is misleading, inaccurate or inconsistent when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper; or

(b)

does not provide, when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper, key information in order to aid prospective holders of the crypto-asset when considering whether to purchase such crypto-asset.

6.   This Article is without prejudice to any other civil liability pursuant to national law.

TITLE III

ASSET-REFERENCED TOKENS

CHAPTER 1

Authorisation to offer asset-referenced tokens to the public and to seek their admission to trading

Article 16

Authorisation

1.   A person shall not make an offer to the public, or seek the admission to trading, of an asset-referenced token, within the Union, unless that person is the issuer of that asset-referenced token and is:

(a)

a legal person or other undertaking that is established in the Union and has been authorised in accordance with Article 21 by the competent authority of its home Member State; or

(b)

a credit institution that complies with Article 17.

Notwithstanding the first subparagraph, upon the written consent of the issuer of an asset-referenced token, other persons may offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of that asset-referenced token. Those persons shall comply with Articles 27, 29 and 40.

For the purposes of point (a) of the first subparagraph, other undertakings may issue asset-referenced tokens only if their legal form ensures a level of protection for third parties’ interests equivalent to that afforded by legal persons and if they are subject to equivalent prudential supervision appropriate to their legal form.

2.   Paragraph 1 shall not apply where:

(a)

over a period of 12 months, calculated at the end of each calendar day, the average outstanding value of the asset-referenced token issued by an issuer never exceeds EUR 5 000 000, or the equivalent amount in another official currency, and the issuer is not linked to a network of other exempt issuers; or

(b)

the offer to the public of the asset-referenced token is addressed solely to qualified investors and the asset-referenced token can only be held by such qualified investors.

Where this paragraph applies, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall draw up a crypto-asset white paper as provided for in Article 19 and notify that crypto-asset white paper and, upon request, any marketing communications, to the competent authority of their home Member State.

3.   The authorisation granted by the competent authority to a person referred to in paragraph 1, first subparagraph, point (a), shall be valid for the entire Union and shall allow an issuer of an asset-referenced token to offer to the public, throughout the Union, the asset-referenced token for which it has been authorised, or to seek an admission to trading of such asset-referenced token.

4.   The approval granted by the competent authority of an issuer’s crypto-asset white paper under Article 17(1) or Article 21(1) or of the modified crypto-asset white paper under Article 25 shall be valid for the entire Union.

Article 17

Requirements for credit institutions

1.   An asset-referenced token issued by a credit institution may be offered to the public or admitted to trading if the credit institution:

(a)

draws up a crypto-asset white paper as referred to in Article 19 for the asset-referenced token, submits that crypto-asset white paper for approval by the competent authority of its home Member State in accordance with the procedure set out in the regulatory technical standards adopted pursuant to paragraph 8 of this Article, and has the crypto-asset white paper approved by the competent authority;

(b)

notifies the respective competent authority, at least 90 working days before issuing the asset-referenced token for the first time, by providing it with the following information:

(i)

a programme of operations, setting out the business model that the credit institution intends to follow;

(ii)

a legal opinion that the asset-referenced token does not qualify as either of the following:

a crypto-asset excluded from the scope of this Regulation pursuant to Article 2(4);

an e-money token;

(iii)

a detailed description of the governance arrangements referred to in Article 34(1);

(iv)

the policies and procedures listed in Article 34(5), first subparagraph;

(v)

a description of the contractual arrangements with third-party entities as referred to in Article 34(5), second subparagraph;

(vi)

a description of the business continuity policy referred to in Article 34(9);

(vii)

a description of the internal control mechanisms and risk management procedures referred to in Article 34(10);

(viii)

a description of the systems and procedures in place to safeguard the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of data referred to in Article 34(11).

2.   A credit institution that has previously notified the competent authority in accordance with paragraph 1, point (b), when issuing another asset-referenced token shall not be required to submit any information that was previously submitted by it to the competent authority where such information would be identical. When submitting the information listed in paragraph 1, point (b), the credit institution shall expressly confirm that any information not resubmitted is still up-to-date.

3.   The competent authority receiving a notification referred to in paragraph 1, point (b), shall, within 20 working days of receipt of the information listed therein, assess whether the information required under that point has been provided. Where the competent authority concludes that a notification is not complete because information is missing, it shall immediately inform the notifying credit institution thereof and set a deadline by which that credit institution is required to provide the missing information.

The deadline for providing any missing information shall not exceed 20 working days from the date of the request. Until the expiry of that deadline, the period set by paragraph 1, point (b), shall be suspended. Any further requests by the competent authority for completion or clarification of the information shall be at its discretion but shall not result in a suspension of the period set by paragraph 1, point (b).

The credit institution shall not make an offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of the asset-referenced token as long as the notification is incomplete.

4.   A credit institution that issues asset-referenced tokens, including significant asset-referenced tokens, shall not be subject to Articles 16, 18, 20, 21, 24, 35, 41 and 42.

5.   The competent authority shall communicate to the ECB without delay the complete information received under paragraph 1 and, where the credit institution is established in a Member State whose official currency is not the euro or where an official currency of a Member State that is not the euro is referenced by the asset-referenced token, also to the central bank of that Member State.

The ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State as referred to in the first subparagraph shall, within 20 working days of receipt of the complete information, issue an opinion on that information and transmit that opinion to the competent authority.

The competent authority shall require the credit institution not to offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of the asset-referenced token in cases where the ECB or, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State as referred to in first subparagraph, gives a negative opinion on the grounds of a risk posed to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty.

6.   The competent authority shall communicate to ESMA the information specified in Article 109(3) after verifying the completeness of the information received under paragraph 1 of this Article.

ESMA shall make such information available in the register, under Article 109(3), by the starting date of the offer to the public or admission to trading.

7.   The relevant competent authority shall, within two working days of withdrawing authorisation, communicate to ESMA the withdrawal of authorisation of a credit institution that issues asset-referenced tokens. ESMA shall make the information on such withdrawal available in the register, under Article 109(3), without undue delay.

8.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the procedure for the approval of a crypto-asset white paper referred to in paragraph 1, point (a).

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 18

Application for authorisation

1.   Legal persons or other undertakings that intend to offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of asset-referenced tokens shall submit their application for an authorisation referred to in Article 16 to the competent authority of their home Member State.

2.   The application referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain all of the following information:

(a)

the address of the applicant issuer;

(b)

the legal entity identifier of the applicant issuer;

(c)

the articles of association of the applicant issuer, where applicable;

(d)

a programme of operations, setting out the business model that the applicant issuer intends to follow;

(e)

a legal opinion that the asset-referenced token does not qualify as either of the following:

(i)

a crypto-asset excluded from the scope of this Regulation pursuant to Article 2(4); or

(ii)

an e-money token;

(f)

a detailed description of the applicant issuer’s governance arrangements as referred to in Article 34(1);

(g)

where cooperation arrangements with specific crypto-asset service providers exist, a description of their internal control mechanisms and procedures to ensure compliance with the obligations in relation to the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing under Directive (EU) 2015/849;

(h)

the identity of the members of the management body of the applicant issuer;

(i)

proof that the persons referred to in point (h) are of sufficiently good repute and possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and experience to manage the applicant issuer;

(j)

proof that any shareholder or member, whether direct or indirect, that has a qualifying holding in the applicant issuer is of sufficiently good repute;

(k)

a crypto-asset white paper as referred to in Article 19;

(l)

the policies and procedures referred to in Article 34(5), first subparagraph;

(m)

a description of the contractual arrangements with the third-party entities as referred to in Article 34(5), second subparagraph;

(n)

a description of the applicant issuer’s business continuity policy referred to in Article 34(9);

(o)

a description of the internal control mechanisms and risk management procedures referred to in Article 34(10);

(p)

a description of the systems and procedures in place to safeguard the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of data as referred to in Article 34(11);

(q)

a description of the applicant issuer’s complaints-handling procedures as referred to in Article 31;

(r)

where applicable, a list of host Member States where the applicant issuer intends to offer the asset-referenced token to the public or intends to seek admission to trading of the asset-referenced token.

3.   Issuers that have already been authorised in respect of one asset-referenced token shall not be required to submit, for the purposes of authorisation in respect of another asset-referenced token, any information that was previously submitted by them to the competent authority where such information would be identical. When submitting the information listed in paragraph 2, the issuer shall expressly confirm that any information not resubmitted is still up-to-date.

4.   The competent authority shall promptly, and in any event within two working days of receipt of an application pursuant to paragraph 1, acknowledge receipt thereof in writing to the applicant issuer.

5.   For the purposes of paragraph 2, points (i) and (j), the applicant issuer of the asset-referenced token shall provide proof of all of the following:

(a)

for all members of the management body, the absence of a criminal record in respect of convictions or the absence of penalties imposed under the applicable commercial law, insolvency law and financial services law, or in relation to anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, to fraud or to professional liability;

(b)

that the members of the management body of the applicant issuer of the asset-referenced token collectively possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and experience to manage the issuer of the asset-referenced token and that those persons are required to commit sufficient time to perform their duties;

(c)

for all shareholders and members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the applicant issuer, the absence of a criminal record in respect of convictions and the absence of penalties imposed under the applicable commercial law, insolvency law and financial services law, or in relation to anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, to fraud or to professional liability.

6.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the information referred to in paragraph 2.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

7.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, templates and procedures for the information to be included in the application in order to ensure uniformity across the Union.

EBA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 19

Content and form of the crypto-asset white paper for asset-referenced tokens

1.   A crypto-asset white paper for an asset-referenced token shall contain all of the following information, as further specified in Annex II:

(a)

information about the issuer of the asset-referenced token;

(b)

information about the asset-referenced token;

(c)

information about the offer to the public of the asset-referenced token or its admission to trading;

(d)

information on the rights and obligations attached to the asset-referenced token;

(e)

information on the underlying technology;

(f)

information on the risks;

(g)

information on the reserve of assets;

(h)

information on the principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue the asset-referenced token.

The crypto-asset white paper shall also include the identity of the person other than the issuer that offers to the public or seeks admission to trading pursuant to Article 16(1), second subparagraph, and the reason why that particular person offers that asset-referenced token or seeks its admission to trading. In cases where the crypto-asset white paper is not drawn up by the issuer, the crypto-asset white paper shall also include the identity of the person that drew up the crypto-asset white paper and the reason why that particular person drew it up.

2.   All information listed in paragraph 1 shall be fair, clear and not misleading. The crypto-asset white paper shall not contain material omissions and shall be presented in a concise and comprehensible form.

3.   The crypto-asset white paper shall not contain any assertions as regards the future value of the crypto-assets, other than the statement referred to in paragraph 4.

4.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a clear and unambiguous statement that:

(a)

the asset-referenced token may lose its value in part or in full;

(b)

the asset-referenced token may not always be transferable;

(c)

the asset-referenced token may not be liquid;

(d)

the asset-referenced token is not covered by the investor compensation schemes under Directive 97/9/EC;

(e)

the asset-referenced token is not covered by the deposit guarantee schemes under Directive 2014/49/EU.

5.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a statement from the management body of the issuer of the asset-referenced token. That statement shall confirm that the crypto-asset white paper complies with this Title and that, to the best of the knowledge of the management body, the information presented in the crypto-asset white paper is fair, clear and not misleading and the crypto-asset white paper makes no omission likely to affect its import.

6.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a summary, inserted after the statement referred to in paragraph 5, which shall in brief and non-technical language provide key information about the offer to the public of the asset-referenced token or the intended admission to trading of the asset-referenced token. The summary shall be easily understandable and presented and laid out in a clear and comprehensive format, using characters of readable size. The summary of the crypto-asset white paper shall provide appropriate information about the characteristics of the asset-referenced token concerned in order to help prospective holders of that asset-referenced token to make an informed decision.

The summary shall contain a warning that:

(a)

it should be read as an introduction to the crypto-asset white paper;

(b)

the prospective holder should base any decision to purchase the asset-referenced token on the content of the crypto-asset white paper as a whole and not on the summary alone;

(c)

the offer to the public of the asset-referenced token does not constitute an offer or solicitation to purchase financial instruments and that any such offer or solicitation can be made only by means of a prospectus or other offer documents pursuant to the applicable national law;

(d)

the crypto-asset white paper does not constitute a prospectus as referred to in Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 or any other offer document pursuant to Union or national law.

The summary shall state that the holders of asset-referenced tokens have a right of redemption at any time, and the conditions for such redemption.

7.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain the date of its notification and a table of contents.

8.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be drawn up in an official language of the home Member State, or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

Where the asset-referenced token is also offered in a Member State other than the issuer’s home Member State, the crypto-asset white paper shall also be drawn up in an official language of the host Member State, or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

9.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be made available in a machine-readable format.

10.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, formats and templates for the purposes of paragraph 9.

ESMA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

11.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards on the content, methodologies and presentation of information referred to in paragraph 1, first subparagraph, point (h), in respect of the sustainability indicators in relation to adverse impacts on the climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts.

When developing the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph, ESMA shall consider the various types of consensus mechanisms used to validate transactions in crypto-assets, their incentive structures and the use of energy, renewable energy and natural resources, the production of waste and greenhouse gas emissions. ESMA shall update those regulatory technical standards in the light of regulatory and technological developments.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 20

Assessment of the application for authorisation

1.   Competent authorities receiving an application for authorisation as referred to in Article 18 shall, within 25 working days of receipt of such application, assess whether that application, including the crypto-asset white paper referred to in Article 19, comprises all of the required information. They shall immediately notify the applicant issuer whether the application, including the crypto-asset white paper, is missing required information. Where the application, including the crypto-asset white paper, is not complete, competent authorities shall set a deadline by which the applicant issuer is to provide any missing information.

2.   Competent authorities shall, within 60 working days of receipt of a complete application, assess whether the applicant issuer complies with the requirements of this Title and take a fully reasoned draft decision granting or refusing authorisation. Within those 60 working days, competent authorities may request from the applicant issuer any information on the application, including on the crypto-asset white paper referred in Article 19.

During the assessment process, competent authorities may cooperate with competent authorities for anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, financial intelligence units or other public bodies.

3.   The assessment period under paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be suspended for the period between the date of request for missing information by the competent authorities and the receipt by them of a response thereto from the applicant issuer. The suspension shall not exceed 20 working days. Any further requests by the competent authorities for completion or clarification of the information shall be at their discretion but shall not result in a suspension of the assessment period under paragraphs 1 and 2.

4.   Competent authorities shall, after the period of 60 working days referred to in paragraph 2, transmit their draft decision and the application to EBA, ESMA and the ECB. Where the applicant issuer is established in a Member State whose official currency is not the euro, or where an official currency of a Member State that is not the euro is referenced by the asset-referenced token, the competent authorities shall transmit their draft decision and the application also to the central bank of that Member State.

5.   EBA and ESMA shall, at the request of the competent authority, and within 20 working days of receipt of the draft decision and the application, issue an opinion as regards their evaluation of the legal opinion referred to in Article 18(2), point (e), and transmit their respective opinions to the competent authority concerned.

The ECB or, where applicable, the central bank referred to in paragraph 4 shall, within 20 working days of receipt of the draft decision and the application, issue an opinion as regards its evaluation of the risks that issuing that asset-referenced token might pose to financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission and monetary sovereignty, and transmit its opinion to the competent authority concerned.

Without prejudice to Article 21(4), the opinions referred to in the first and second subparagraphs of this paragraph shall be non-binding.

The competent authority shall, however, duly consider the opinions referred in the first and second subparagraphs of this paragraph.

Article 21

Grant or refusal of the authorisation

1.   Competent authorities shall, within 25 working days of receipt of the opinions referred to in Article 20(5), take a fully reasoned decision granting or refusing authorisation to the applicant issuer and, within five working days of taking that decision, notify it to the applicant issuer. Where an applicant issuer is authorised, its crypto-asset white paper shall be deemed to be approved.

2.   Competent authorities shall refuse authorisation where there are objective and demonstrable grounds that:

(a)

the management body of the applicant issuer might pose a threat to its effective, sound and prudent management and business continuity and to the adequate consideration of the interest of its clients and the integrity of the market;

(b)

members of the management body do not meet the criteria set out in Article 34(2);

(c)

shareholders and members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings do not meet the criteria of sufficiently good repute set out in Article 34(4);

(d)

the applicant issuer fails to meet or is likely to fail to meet any of the requirements of this Title;

(e)

the applicant issuer’s business model might pose a serious threat to market integrity, financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems, or exposes the issuer or the sector to serious risks of money laundering and terrorist financing.

3.   EBA and ESMA shall, by 30 June 2024, jointly issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 and Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010, respectively, on the assessment of the suitability of the members of the management body of issuers of asset-referenced tokens and of the shareholders and members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in issuers of asset-referenced tokens.

4.   Competent authorities shall also refuse authorisation if the ECB or, where applicable, the central bank gives a negative opinion under Article 20(5) on the grounds of a risk posed to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission, or monetary sovereignty.

5.   Competent authorities shall, within two working days of granting authorisation, communicate to the single point of contact of the host Member States, to ESMA, to EBA, to the ECB and, where applicable, to the central bank referred to in Article 20(4), the information specified in Article 109(3).

ESMA shall make such information available in the register, under Article 109(3), by the starting date of the offer to the public or admission to trading.

6.   Competent authorities shall inform EBA, ESMA, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4), of all requests for authorisations refused, and provide the underlying reasoning for the decision and, where applicable, an explanation for any deviation from the opinions referred to in Article 20(5).

Article 22

Reporting on asset-referenced tokens

1.   For each asset-referenced token with an issue value that is higher than EUR 100 000 000, the issuer shall report on a quarterly basis to the competent authority the following information:

(a)

the number of holders;

(b)

the value of the asset-referenced token issued and the size of the reserve of assets;

(c)

the average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day during the relevant quarter;

(d)

an estimate of the average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day during the relevant quarter that are associated to its uses as a means of exchange within a single currency area.

For the purposes of points (c) and (d) of the first subparagraph, ‘transaction’ shall mean any change of the natural or legal person entitled to the asset-referenced token as a result of the transfer of the asset-referenced token from one distributed ledger address or account to another.

Transactions that are associated with the exchange for funds or other crypto-assets with the issuer or with a crypto-asset service provider shall not be considered associated to uses of the asset-referenced token as a means of exchange, unless there is evidence that the asset-referenced token is used for the settlement of transactions in other crypto-assets.

2.   The competent authority may require issuers of asset-referenced tokens to comply with the reporting obligation referred to in paragraph 1 in respect of asset-referenced tokens issued with a value of less than EUR 100 000 000.

3.   Crypto-asset service providers that provide services related to asset-referenced tokens shall provide the issuer of the asset-referenced token with the information necessary to prepare the report referred to in paragraph 1, including by reporting transactions outside the distributed ledger.

4.   The competent authority shall share the information received with the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4) and the competent authorities of host Member States.

5.   The ECB and, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4) may provide to the competent authority their own estimates of the quarterly average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day that are associated to uses of the asset-referenced token as a means of exchange within a single currency area.

6.   EBA, in close cooperation with the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to specify the methodology to estimate the quarterly average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day that are associated to uses of the asset-referenced token as a means of exchange within a single currency area.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

7.   EBA shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, formats and templates for the purposes of reporting referred to in paragraph 1 and the provision of the information referred to in paragraph 3.

EBA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 23

Restrictions on the issuance of asset-referenced tokens used widely as a means of exchange

1.   Where, for an asset-referenced token, the estimated quarterly average number and average aggregate value of transactions per day associated to its uses as a means of exchange within a single currency area is higher than 1 million transactions and EUR 200 000 000, respectively, the issuer shall:

(a)

stop issuing that asset-referenced token; and

(b)

within 40 working days of reaching that threshold, submit a plan to the competent authority to ensure that the estimated quarterly average number and average aggregate value of those transactions per day is kept below 1 million transactions and EUR 200 000 000 respectively.

2.   The competent authority shall use the information provided by the issuer, its own estimates, or the estimates provided by the ECB or, where applicable, by the central bank referred to in Article 20(4), whichever is higher, in order to assess whether the threshold referred to in paragraph 1 is reached.

3.   Where several issuers issue the same asset-referenced token, the criteria referred in paragraph 1 shall be assessed by the competent authority after aggregating the data from all issuers.

4.   The issuer shall submit the plan referred to in paragraph 1, point (b), for approval to the competent authority. Where necessary, the competent authority shall require modifications, such as imposing a minimum denomination amount, in order to ensure a timely decrease of the use as a means of exchange of the asset-referenced token.

5.   The competent authority shall only allow the issuer to issue the asset-referenced token again when it has evidence that the estimated quarterly average number and average aggregated value of transactions per day associated to its uses as a means of exchange within a single currency area is lower than 1 million transactions and EUR 200 000 000 respectively.

Article 24

Withdrawal of the authorisation

1.   Competent authorities shall withdraw the authorisation of an issuer of an asset-referenced token in any of the following situations:

(a)

the issuer has ceased to engage in business for six consecutive months, or has not used its authorisation for 12 consecutive months;

(b)

the issuer has obtained its authorisation by irregular means, such as by making false statements in the application for authorisation referred to in Article 18 or in any crypto-asset white paper modified in accordance with Article 25;

(c)

the issuer no longer meets the conditions under which the authorisation was granted;

(d)

the issuer has seriously infringed the provisions of this Title;

(e)

the issuer has been subject to a redemption plan;

(f)

the issuer has expressly renounced its authorisation or has decided to cease operations;

(g)

the issuer’s activity poses a serious threat to market integrity, financial stability, the smooth operation of payment systems or exposes the issuer or the sector to serious risks of money laundering and terrorist financing.

The issuer of the asset-referenced token shall notify its competent authority of any of the situations referred to in the first subparagraph, points (e) and (f).

2.   Competent authorities shall also withdraw the authorisation of an issuer of an asset-referenced token when the ECB or, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4), issues an opinion that the asset-referenced token poses a serious threat to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty.

3.   Competent authorities shall limit the amount of an asset-referenced token to be issued or impose a minimum denomination amount in respect of the asset-referenced token when the ECB or, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4), issues an opinion that the asset-referenced token poses a threat to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission or monetary sovereignty, and specify the applicable limit or minimum denomination amount.

4.   The relevant competent authorities shall notify the competent authority of an issuer of an asset-referenced token, without delay, of the following situations:

(a)

a third-party entity as referred to in Article 34(5), first subparagraph, point (h), of this Regulation has lost its authorisation as a credit institution as referred to in Article 8 of Directive 2013/36/EU, as a crypto-asset service provider as referred to in Article 59 of this Regulation, as a payment institution, or as an electronic money institution;

(b)

the members of the issuer’s management body or shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the issuer have infringed the provisions of national law transposing Directive (EU) 2015/849.

5.   Competent authorities shall withdraw the authorisation of an issuer of an asset-referenced token where they are of the opinion that the situations referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article affect the good repute of the members of the management body of that issuer or the good repute of any shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the issuer, or if there is an indication of a failure of the governance arrangements or internal control mechanisms as referred to in Article 34.

When the authorisation is withdrawn, the issuer of the asset-referenced token shall implement the procedure under Article 47.

6.   Competent authorities shall, within two working days of withdrawing authorisation, communicate to ESMA the withdrawal of the authorisation of the issuer of the asset-referenced token. ESMA shall make the information on such withdrawal available in the register referred to in Article 109 without undue delay.

Article 25

Modification of published crypto-asset white papers for asset-referenced tokens

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall notify the competent authority of their home Member State of any intended change of their business model likely to have a significant influence on the purchase decision of any holders or prospective holders of asset-referenced tokens, which occurs after the authorisation pursuant to Article 21 or after the approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17, as well as in the context of Article 23. Such changes include, amongst others, any material modifications to:

(a)

the governance arrangements, including reporting lines to the management body and risk management framework;

(b)

the reserve assets and the custody of the reserve assets;

(c)

the rights granted to the holders of asset-referenced tokens;

(d)

the mechanism through which an asset-referenced token is issued and redeemed;

(e)

the protocols for validating the transactions in asset-referenced tokens;

(f)

the functioning of issuers’ proprietary distributed ledger technology, where the asset-referenced tokens are issued, transferred and stored using such a distributed ledger technology;

(g)

the mechanisms to ensure the liquidity of asset-referenced tokens, including the liquidity management policy and procedures for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens referred to in Article 45;

(h)

the arrangements with third-party entities, including for managing the reserve assets and the investment of the reserve, the custody of reserve assets, and, where applicable, the distribution of the asset-referenced tokens to the public;

(i)

the complaints-handling procedures;

(j)

the money laundering and terrorist financing risk assessment and general policies and procedures related thereto.

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall notify the competent authority of their home Member State at least 30 working days before the intended changes take effect.

2.   Where any intended change as referred to in paragraph 1 has been notified to the competent authority, the issuer of an asset-referenced token shall draw up a draft modified crypto-asset white paper and shall ensure that the order of the information appearing therein is consistent with that of the original crypto-asset white paper.

The issuer of the asset-referenced token shall notify the draft modified crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority of the home Member State.

The competent authority shall electronically acknowledge receipt of the draft modified crypto-asset white paper as soon as possible, and at the latest five working days from receipt thereof.

The competent authority shall grant approval of, or refuse to approve, the draft modified crypto-asset white paper within 30 working days of acknowledgement of receipt thereof. During the examination of the draft modified crypto-asset white paper, the competent authority may request any additional information, explanations or justifications concerning the draft modified crypto-asset white paper. When the competent authority makes such request, the time limit of 30 working days shall commence only when the competent authority has received the additional information requested.

3.   Where the competent authority considers that the modifications to a crypto-asset white paper are potentially relevant for the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission and monetary sovereignty, it shall consult the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4). The competent authority may also consult EBA and ESMA in such cases.

The ECB or the relevant central bank and, where applicable, EBA and ESMA, shall provide an opinion within 20 working days of receipt of the consultation referred to in the first subparagraph.

4.   Where the competent authority approves the modified crypto-asset white paper, it may require the issuer of the asset-referenced token:

(a)

to put in place mechanisms to ensure the protection of holders of the asset-referenced token, when a potential modification of the issuer’s operations can have a material effect on the value, stability, or risks of the asset-referenced token or the reserve assets;

(b)

to take any appropriate corrective measures to address concerns related to market integrity, financial stability or the smooth operation of payment systems.

The competent authority shall require the issuer of the asset-referenced token to take any appropriate corrective measures to address concerns related to the smooth operation of payment systems, monetary policy transmission, or monetary sovereignty, if such corrective measures are proposed by the ECB or, where applicable, the central bank referred to in Article 20(4) in the consultations referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article.

Where the ECB or the central bank referred to in Article 20(4) has proposed different measures than the ones required by the competent authority, the measures proposed shall be combined or, if not possible, the more stringent measure shall be required.

5.   The competent authority shall communicate the modified crypto-asset white paper to ESMA, the single points of contact of the host Member States, EBA, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned within two working days of granting approval.

ESMA shall make the modified crypto-asset white paper available in the register referred to in Article 109 without undue delay.

Article 26

Liability of issuers of asset-referenced tokens for the information given in a crypto-asset white paper

1.   Where an issuer has infringed Article 19 by providing in its crypto-asset white paper or in a modified crypto-asset white paper information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading, that issuer and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory body shall be liable to a holder of such asset-referenced token for any loss incurred due to that infringement.

2.   Any contractual exclusion or limitation of civil liability as referred to in paragraph 1 shall be deprived of legal effect.

3.   It shall be the responsibility of the holder of the asset-referenced token to present evidence indicating that the issuer of that asset-referenced token has infringed Article 19 by providing in its crypto-asset white paper or in a modified crypto-asset white paper information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading and that reliance on such information had an impact on the holder’s decision to purchase, sell or exchange that asset-referenced token.

4.   The issuer and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory body shall not be liable for loss suffered as a result of reliance on the information provided in a summary pursuant to Article 19, including any translation thereof, except where the summary:

(a)

is misleading, inaccurate or inconsistent when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper; or

(b)

does not provide, when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper, key information in order to aid prospective holders when considering whether to purchase the asset-referenced token.

5.   This Article is without prejudice to any other civil liability pursuant to national law.

CHAPTER 2

Obligations of issuers of asset-referenced tokens

Article 27

Obligation to act honestly, fairly and professionally in the best interest of the holders of asset-referenced tokens

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall act honestly, fairly and professionally and shall communicate with the holders and prospective holders of asset-referenced tokens in a fair, clear and not misleading manner.

2.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall act in the best interests of the holders of such tokens and shall treat them equally, unless any preferential treatment is disclosed in the crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the marketing communications.

Article 28

Publication of the crypto-asset white paper

An issuer of an asset-referenced token shall publish on its website the approved crypto-asset white paper referred to in Article 17(1) or Article 21(1) and, where applicable, the modified crypto-asset white paper referred to in Article 25. The approved crypto-asset white paper shall be publicly accessible by the starting date of the offer to the public of the asset-referenced token or the admission to trading of that token. The approved crypto-asset white paper and, where applicable, the modified crypto-asset white paper shall remain available on the issuer’s website for as long as the asset-referenced token is held by the public.

Article 29

Marketing communications

1.   Any marketing communications relating to an offer to the public of an asset-referenced token, or to the admission to trading of such asset-referenced token, shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(a)

the marketing communications are clearly identifiable as such;

(b)

the information in the marketing communications is fair, clear and not misleading;

(c)

the information in the marketing communications is consistent with the information in the crypto-asset white paper;

(d)

the marketing communications clearly state that a crypto-asset white paper has been published and clearly indicate the address of the website of the issuer of the asset-referenced token, as well as a telephone number and an email address to contact the issuer.

2.   Marketing communications shall contain a clear and unambiguous statement that the holders of the asset-referenced token have a right of redemption against the issuer at any time.

3.   Marketing communications and any modifications thereto shall be published on the issuer’s website.

4.   Competent authorities shall not require prior approval of marketing communications before their publication.

5.   Marketing communications shall be notified to competent authorities upon request.

6.   No marketing communications shall be disseminated prior to the publication of the crypto-asset white paper. Such restriction does not affect the ability of the issuer of the asset-referenced token to conduct market soundings.

Article 30

Ongoing information to holders of asset-referenced tokens

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall in a clear, accurate and transparent manner disclose, in a publicly and easily accessible place on their website, the amount of asset-referenced tokens in circulation, and the value and composition of the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36. Such information shall be updated at least monthly.

2.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall publish as soon as possible in a publicly and easily accessible place on their website a brief, clear, accurate and transparent summary of the audit report, as well as the full and unredacted audit report, in relation to the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36.

3.   Without prejudice to Article 88, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall as soon as possible and in a clear, accurate and transparent manner disclose, in a publicly and easily accessible place, on their website any event that has or is likely to have a significant effect on the value of the asset-referenced tokens or on the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36.

Article 31

Complaints-handling procedures

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall establish and maintain effective and transparent procedures for the prompt, fair and consistent handling of complaints received from holders of asset-referenced tokens and other interested parties, including consumer associations that represent holders of asset-referenced tokens, and shall publish descriptions of those procedures. Where the asset-referenced tokens are distributed, totally or partially, by third-party entities as referred to in Article 34(5), first subparagraph, point (h), issuers of the asset-referenced tokens shall establish procedures to also facilitate the handling of such complaints between holders of the asset-referenced tokens and such third-party entities.

2.   Holders of asset-referenced tokens shall be able to file complaints free of charge with the issuers of their asset-referenced tokens or, where applicable, with the third-party entities as referred to in paragraph 1.

3.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens and, where applicable, the third-party entities as referred to in paragraph 1, shall develop and make available to holders of asset-referenced tokens a template for filing complaints and shall keep a record of all complaints received and any measures taken in response thereto.

4.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall investigate all complaints in a timely and fair manner and communicate the outcome of such investigations to the holders of their asset-referenced tokens within a reasonable period.

5.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the requirements, templates and procedures for handling complaints.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 32

Identification, prevention, management and disclosure of conflicts of interest

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall implement and maintain effective policies and procedures to identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest between themselves and:

(a)

their shareholders or members;

(b)

any shareholder or member, whether direct or indirect, that has a qualifying holding in the issuers;

(c)

the members of their management body;

(d)

their employees;

(e)

the holders of asset-referenced tokens; or

(f)

any third party providing one of the functions as referred in Article 34(5), first subparagraph, point (h).

2.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall, in particular, take all appropriate steps to identify, prevent, manage and disclose conflicts of interest arising from the management and investment of the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36.

3.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall, in a prominent place on their website, disclose to the holders of their asset-referenced tokens the general nature and sources of conflicts of interest referred to in paragraph 1 and the steps taken to mitigate them.

4.   The disclosure referred to in paragraph 3 shall be sufficiently precise to enable the prospective holders of their asset-referenced tokens to take an informed purchasing decision about the asset-referenced tokens.

5.   EBA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify:

(a)

the requirements for the policies and procedures referred to in paragraph 1;

(b)

the details and methodology for the content of the disclosure referred to in paragraph 3.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 33

Notification of changes to management body

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall notify immediately their competent authority of any changes to their management body, and shall provide their competent authority with all of the necessary information to assess compliance with Article 34(2).

Article 34

Governance arrangements

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall have robust governance arrangements, including a clear organisational structure with well-defined, transparent and consistent lines of responsibility, effective processes to identify, manage, monitor and report the risks to which they are or might be exposed, and adequate internal control mechanisms, including sound administrative and accounting procedures.

2.   Members of the management body of issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall be of sufficiently good repute and possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and experience, both individually and collectively, to perform their duties. In particular, they shall not have been convicted of offences relating to money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offences that would affect their good repute. They shall also demonstrate that they are capable of committing sufficient time to effectively perform their duties.

3.   The management body of issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall assess and periodically review the effectiveness of the policy arrangements and procedures put in place to comply with Chapters 2, 3, 5 and 6 of this Title and take appropriate measures to address any deficiencies in that respect.

4.   Shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall be of sufficiently good repute and, in particular, shall not have been convicted of offences relating to money laundering or terrorist financing or of any other offences that would affect their good repute.

5.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall adopt policies and procedures that are sufficiently effective to ensure compliance with this Regulation. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall establish, maintain and implement, in particular, policies and procedures on:

(a)

the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36;

(b)

the custody of the reserve assets, including the segregation of assets, as specified in Article 37;

(c)

the rights granted to the holders of asset-referenced tokens, as specified in Article 39;

(d)

the mechanism through which asset-referenced tokens are issued and redeemed;

(e)

the protocols for validating transactions in asset-referenced tokens;

(f)

the functioning of the issuers’ proprietary distributed ledger technology, where the asset-referenced tokens are issued, transferred and stored using such distributed ledger technology or similar technology that is operated by the issuers or a third party acting on their behalf;

(g)

the mechanisms to ensure the liquidity of asset-referenced tokens, including the liquidity management policy and procedures for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens referred to in Article 45;

(h)

arrangements with third-party entities for operating the reserve of assets, and for the investment of the reserve assets, the custody of the reserve assets and, where applicable, the distribution of the asset-referenced tokens to the public;

(i)

the written consent of the issuers of asset-referenced tokens given to other persons that might offer or seek the admission to trading of the asset-referenced tokens;

(j)

complaints-handling, as specified in Article 31;

(k)

conflicts of interest, as specified in Article 32.

Where issuers of asset-referenced tokens enter into arrangements as referred to in the first subparagraph, point (h), those arrangements shall be set out in a contract with the third-party entities. Those contractual arrangements shall set out the roles, responsibilities, rights and obligations both of the issuers of asset-referenced tokens and of the third-party entities. Any contractual arrangement with cross-jurisdictional implications shall provide for an unambiguous choice of applicable law.

6.   Unless they have initiated a redemption plan referred to in Article 47, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall employ appropriate and proportionate systems, resources and procedures to ensure the continued and regular performance of their services and activities. To that end, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall maintain all of their systems and security access protocols in conformity with the appropriate Union standards.

7.   If the issuer of an asset-referenced token decides to discontinue the provision of its services and activities, including by discontinuing the issue of that asset-referenced token, it shall submit a plan to the competent authority for approval of such discontinuation.

8.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall identify sources of operational risk and minimise those risks through the development of appropriate systems, controls and procedures.

9.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall establish a business continuity policy and plans to ensure, in the case of an interruption of their ICT systems and procedures, the preservation of essential data and functions and the maintenance of their activities or, where that is not possible, the timely recovery of such data and functions and the timely resumption of their activities.

10.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall have in place internal control mechanisms and effective procedures for risk management, including effective control and safeguard arrangements for managing ICT systems as required by Regulation (EU) 2022/2554 of the European Parliament and of the Council (37). The procedures shall provide for a comprehensive assessment relating to the reliance on third-party entities as referred to in paragraph 5, first subparagraph, point (h), of this Article. Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall monitor and evaluate on a regular basis the adequacy and effectiveness of the internal control mechanisms and procedures for risk assessment and take appropriate measures to address any deficiencies in that respect.

11.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall have systems and procedures in place that are adequate to safeguard the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of data as required by Regulation (EU) 2022/2554 and in line with Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Those systems shall record and safeguard relevant data and information collected and produced in the course of the issuers’ activities.

12.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall ensure that they are regularly audited by independent auditors. The results of those audits shall be communicated to the management body of the issuer concerned and made available to the competent authority.

13.   By 30 June 2024, EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 specifying the minimum content of the governance arrangements on:

(a)

the monitoring tools for the risks referred to in paragraph 8;

(b)

the business continuity plan referred to in paragraph 9;

(c)

the internal control mechanism referred to in paragraph 10;

(d)

the audits referred to in paragraph 12, including the minimum documentation to be used in the audit.

When issuing the guidelines referred to in the first subparagraph, EBA shall take into account the provisions on governance requirements in other Union legislative acts on financial services, including Directive 2014/65/EU.

Article 35

Own funds requirements

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall, at all times, have own funds equal to an amount of at least the highest of the following:

(a)

EUR 350 000;

(b)

2 % of the average amount of the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36;

(c)

a quarter of the fixed overheads of the preceding year.

For the purposes of point (b) of the first subparagraph, the average amount of the reserve of assets shall mean the average amount of the reserve assets at the end of each calendar day, calculated over the preceding six months.

Where an issuer offers more than one asset-referenced token, the amount referred to in point (b) of the first subparagraph shall be the sum of the average amount of the reserve assets backing each asset-referenced token.

The amount referred to in point (c) of the first subparagraph shall be reviewed annually and calculated in accordance with Article 67(3).

2.   The own funds referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of the Common Equity Tier 1 items and instruments referred to in Articles 26 to 30 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 after the deductions in full pursuant to Article 36 of that Regulation, without the application of the threshold exemptions referred to in Article 46(4) and Article 48 of that Regulation.

3.   The competent authority of the home Member State may require an issuer of an asset-referenced token to hold an amount of own funds which is up to 20 % higher than the amount resulting from the application of paragraph 1, first subparagraph, point (b), where an assessment of any of the following indicates a higher degree of risk:

(a)

the evaluation of the risk-management processes and internal control mechanisms of the issuer of the asset-referenced token as referred to in Article 34(1), (8) and (10);

(b)

the quality and volatility of the reserve of assets referred to in Article 36;

(c)

the types of rights granted by the issuer of the asset-referenced token to holders of the asset-referenced token in accordance with Article 39;

(d)

where the reserve of assets includes investments, the risks posed by the investment policy on the reserve of assets;

(e)

the aggregate value and number of transactions settled in the asset-referenced token;

(f)

the importance of the markets on which the asset-referenced token is offered and marketed;

(g)

where applicable, the market capitalisation of the asset-referenced token.

4.   The competent authority of the home Member State may require an issuer of an asset-referenced token that is not significant to comply with any requirement set out in Article 45, where necessary to address the higher degree of risks identified in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article, or any other risks that Article 45 aims to address, such as liquidity risks.

5.   Without prejudice to paragraph 3, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall conduct, on a regular basis, stress testing that takes into account severe but plausible financial stress scenarios, such as interest rate shocks, and non-financial stress scenarios, such as operational risk. Based on the outcome of such stress testing, the competent authority of the home Member State shall require the issuer of the asset-referenced token to hold an amount of own funds that is between 20 % and 40 % higher than the amount resulting from the application of paragraph 1, first subparagraph, point (b), in certain circumstances having regard to the risk outlook and stress testing results.

6.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards further specifying:

(a)

the procedure and timeframe for an issuer of an asset-referenced token to adjust to higher own funds requirements as set out in paragraph 3;

(b)

the criteria for requiring a higher amount of own funds as set out in paragraph 3;

(c)

the minimum requirements for the design of stress testing programmes, taking into account the size, complexity and nature of the asset-referenced token, including but not limited to:

(i)

the types of stress testing and their main objectives and applications;

(ii)

the frequency of the different stress testing exercises;

(iii)

the internal governance arrangements;

(iv)

the relevant data infrastructure;

(v)

the methodology and the plausibility of assumptions;

(vi)

the application of the proportionality principle to all of the minimum requirements, whether quantitative or qualitative; and

(vii)

the minimum periodicity of the stress tests and the common reference parameters of the stress test scenarios.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

CHAPTER 3

Reserve of assets

Article 36

Obligation to have a reserve of assets, and composition and management of such reserve of assets

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall constitute and at all times maintain a reserve of assets.

The reserve of assets shall be composed and managed in such a way that:

(a)

the risks associated to the assets referenced by the asset-referenced tokens are covered; and

(b)

the liquidity risks associated to the permanent rights of redemption of the holders are addressed.

2.   The reserve of assets shall be legally segregated from the issuers’ estate, as well as from the reserve of assets of other asset-referenced tokens, in the interests of the holders of asset-referenced tokens in accordance with applicable law, so that creditors of the issuers have no recourse to the reserve of assets, in particular in the event of insolvency.

3.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall ensure that the reserve of assets is operationally segregated from their estate, as well as from the reserve of assets of other tokens.

4.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards further specifying the liquidity requirements, taking into account the size, complexity and nature of the reserve of assets and of the asset-referenced token itself.

The regulatory technical standards shall establish in particular:

(a)

the relevant percentage of the reserve of assets according to daily maturities, including the percentage of reverse repurchase agreements that are able to be terminated by giving prior notice of one working day, or the percentage of cash that is able to be withdrawn by giving prior notice of one working day;

(b)

the relevant percentage of the reserve of assets according to weekly maturities, including the percentage of reverse repurchase agreements that are able to be terminated by giving prior notice of five working days, or the percentage of cash that is able to be withdrawn by giving prior notice of five working days;

(c)

other relevant maturities, and overall techniques for liquidity management;

(d)

the minimum amounts in each official currency referenced to be held as deposits in credit institutions, which cannot be lower than 30 % of the amount referenced in each official currency.

For the purposes of points (a), (b) and (c) of the second subparagraph, EBA shall take into account, amongst others, the relevant thresholds laid down in Article 52 of Directive 2009/65/EC.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

5.   Issuers that offer two or more asset-referenced tokens to the public shall operate and maintain segregated pools of reserves of assets for each asset-referenced token. Each of those pools of reserves of assets shall be managed separately.

Where different issuers of asset-referenced tokens offer the same asset-referenced token to the public, those issuers shall operate and maintain only one reserve of assets for that asset-referenced token.

6.   The management bodies of issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall ensure the effective and prudent management of the reserve of assets. The issuers shall ensure that the issuance and redemption of asset-referenced tokens is always matched by a corresponding increase or decrease in the reserve of assets.

7.   The issuer of an asset-referenced token shall determine the aggregate value of the reserve of assets by using market prices. Its aggregate value shall be at least equal to the aggregate value of the claims against the issuer from the holders of the asset-referenced token in circulation.

8.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall have a clear and detailed policy describing the stabilisation mechanism of such tokens. That policy shall in particular:

(a)

list the assets referenced by the asset-referenced tokens and the composition of those assets;

(b)

describe the type of assets and the precise allocation of assets that are included in the reserve of assets;

(c)

contain a detailed assessment of the risks, including credit risk, market risk, concentration risk and liquidity risk resulting from the reserve of assets;

(d)

describe the procedure by which the asset-referenced tokens are issued and redeemed, and the procedure by which such issuance and redemption will result in a corresponding increase and decrease in the reserve of assets;

(e)

mention whether a part of the reserve of assets is invested as provided in Article 38;

(f)

where issuers of asset-referenced tokens invest a part of the reserve of assets as provided in Article 38, describe in detail the investment policy and contain an assessment of how that investment policy can affect the value of the reserve of assets;

(g)

describe the procedure to purchase asset-referenced tokens and to redeem such tokens against the reserve of assets, and list the persons or categories of persons who are entitled to do so.

9.   Without prejudice to Article 34(12), issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall mandate an independent audit of the reserve of assets every six months, assessing compliance with the rules of this Chapter, as of the date of their authorisation pursuant to Article 21 or as of the date of approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17.

10.   The issuer shall notify the results of the audit referred to in paragraph 9 to the competent authority without delay, and at the latest within six weeks of the reference date of the valuation. The issuer shall publish the result of the audit within two weeks of the date of notification to the competent authority. The competent authority may instruct an issuer to delay the publication of the results of the audit in the event that:

(a)

the issuer has been required to implement a recovery arrangement or measures in accordance with Article 46(3);

(b)

the issuer has been required to implement a redemption plan in accordance with Article 47;

(c)

it is deemed necessary to protect the economic interests of holders of the asset-referenced token;

(d)

it is deemed necessary to avoid a significant adverse effect on the financial system of the home Member State or another Member State.

11.   The valuation at market prices referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article shall be made by using mark-to-market, as defined in Article 2, point (8), of Regulation (EU) 2017/1131 of the European Parliament and of the Council (38) whenever possible.

When using mark-to-market valuation the reserve asset shall be valued at the more prudent side of the bid and offer unless the reserve asset can be closed out at mid-market. Only market data of good quality shall be used, and such data shall be assessed based on all of the following factors:

(a)

the number and quality of the counterparties;

(b)

the volume and turnover in the market of the reserve asset;

(c)

the size of the reserve of assets.

12.   Where use of mark-to-market as referred to in paragraph 11 of this Article is not possible or the market data is not of sufficiently good quality, the reserve asset shall be valued conservatively by using mark-to-model, as defined in Article 2, point (9), of Regulation (EU) 2017/1131.

The model shall accurately estimate the intrinsic value of the reserve asset, based on all of the following up-to-date key factors:

(a)

the volume and turnover in the market of that reserve asset;

(b)

the size of the reserve of assets;

(c)

the market risk, interest rate risk and credit risk attached to the reserve asset.

When using mark-to-model, the amortised cost method, as defined in Article 2, point (10), of Regulation (EU) 2017/1131, shall not be used.

Article 37

Custody of reserve assets

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall establish, maintain and implement custody policies, procedures and contractual arrangements that ensure at all times that:

(a)

the reserve assets are not encumbered nor pledged as a financial collateral arrangement as defined in Article 2(1), point (a), of Directive 2002/47/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (39);

(b)

the reserve assets are held in custody in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article;

(c)

the issuers of asset-referenced tokens have prompt access to the reserve assets to meet any requests for redemption from the holders of asset-referenced tokens;

(d)

concentrations of the custodians of reserve assets are avoided;

(e)

risk of concentration of reserve assets is avoided.

2.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens that issue two or more asset-referenced tokens in the Union shall have a custody policy in place for each pool of reserve of assets. Different issuers of asset-referenced tokens that have issued the same asset-referenced token shall operate and maintain a single custody policy.

3.   The reserve assets shall be held in custody by no later than five working days after the date of issuance of the asset-referenced token by one or more of the following:

(a)

a crypto-asset service provider providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, where the reserve assets take the form of crypto-assets;

(b)

a credit institution, for all types of reserve assets;

(c)

an investment firm that provides the ancillary service of safekeeping and administration of financial instruments for the account of clients as referred to in Section B, point (1), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU, where the reserve assets take the form of financial instruments.

4.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall exercise all due skill, care and diligence in the selection, appointment and review of crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms appointed as custodians of the reserve assets as referred to in paragraph 3. The custodian shall be a legal person different from the issuer.

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall ensure that the crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms appointed as custodians of the reserve assets as referred to in paragraph 3 have the necessary expertise and market reputation to act as custodians of such reserve assets, taking into account the accounting practices, safekeeping procedures and internal control mechanisms of those crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms. The contractual arrangements between the issuers of asset-referenced tokens and the custodians shall ensure that the reserve assets held in custody are protected against claims of the custodians’ creditors.

5.   The custody policies and procedures referred to in paragraph 1 shall set out the selection criteria for the appointment of crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions or investment firms as custodians of the reserve assets and the procedure for reviewing such appointment.

Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall review the appointment of crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions or investment firms as custodians of the reserve assets on a regular basis. For the purpose of that review, issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall evaluate their exposures to such custodians, taking into account the full scope of their relationship with them, and monitor the financial conditions of such custodians on an ongoing basis.

6.   Custodians of the reserve assets as referred to in paragraph 4 shall ensure that the custody of those reserve assets is carried out in the following manner:

(a)

credit institutions shall hold in custody funds in an account opened in the credit institutions’ books;

(b)

for financial instruments that can be held in custody, credit institutions or investment firms shall hold in custody all financial instruments that can be registered in a financial instruments account opened in the credit institutions’ or investments firms’ books and all financial instruments that can be physically delivered to such credit institutions or investment firms;

(c)

for crypto-assets that can be held in custody, the crypto-asset service providers shall hold in custody the crypto-assets included in the reserve assets or the means of access to such crypto-assets, where applicable, in the form of private cryptographic keys;

(d)

for other assets, the credit institutions shall verify the ownership of the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens and shall maintain a record of those reserve assets for which they are satisfied that the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens own those reserve assets.

For the purposes of point (a) of the first subparagraph, credit institutions shall ensure that funds are registered in the credit institutions’ books on a segregated account in accordance with the provisions of national law transposing Article 16 of Commission Directive 2006/73/EC (40). That account shall be opened in the name of the issuer of the asset-referenced tokens for the purposes of managing the reserve assets of each asset-referenced token, so that the funds held in custody can be clearly identified as belonging to each reserve of assets.

For the purposes of point (b) of the first subparagraph, credit institutions and investment firms shall ensure that all financial instruments that can be registered in a financial instruments account opened in the credit institutions’ books and investment firms’ books are registered in the credit institutions’ and investment firms’ books on segregated accounts in accordance with the provisions of national law transposing Article 16 of Directive 2006/73/EC. The financial instruments account shall be opened in the name of the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens for the purposes of managing the reserve assets of each asset-referenced token, so that the financial instruments held in custody can be clearly identified as belonging to each reserve of assets.

For the purposes of point (c) of the first subparagraph, crypto-asset service providers shall open a register of positions in the name of the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens for the purposes of managing the reserve assets of each asset-referenced token, so that the crypto-assets held in custody can be clearly identified as belonging to each reserve of assets.

For the purposes of point (d) of the first subparagraph, the assessment whether issuers of asset-referenced tokens own the reserve assets shall be based on information or documents provided by the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens and, where available, on external evidence.

7.   The appointment of crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions or investment firms as custodians of the reserve assets as referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall be evidenced by a contractual arrangement as referred to in Article 34(5), second subparagraph. Those contractual arrangements shall, amongst others, regulate the flow of information necessary to enable the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens and the crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms to perform their functions as custodians.

8.   The crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms appointed as custodians in accordance with paragraph 4 shall act honestly, fairly, professionally, independently and in the interest of the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens and the holders of such tokens.

9.   The crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions and investment firms appointed as custodians in accordance with paragraph 4 shall not carry out activities with regard to the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens that might create conflicts of interest between those issuers, the holders of the asset-referenced tokens and themselves unless all of the following conditions are met:

(a)

the crypto-asset service providers, credit institutions or investment firms have functionally and hierarchically separated the performance of their custody tasks from their potentially conflicting tasks;

(b)

the potential conflicts of interest have been properly identified, monitored, managed and disclosed by the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens to the holders of the asset-referenced tokens, in accordance with Article 32.

10.   In the case of a loss of a financial instrument or a crypto-asset held in custody pursuant to paragraph 6, the crypto-asset service provider, credit institution or investment firm that lost that financial instrument or crypto-asset shall compensate, or make restitution, to the issuer of the asset-referenced token with a financial instrument or a crypto-asset of an identical type or the corresponding value without undue delay. The crypto-asset service provider, credit institution or investment firm concerned shall not be liable for compensation or restitution where it can prove that the loss has occurred as a result of an external event beyond its reasonable control, the consequences of which were unavoidable despite all reasonable efforts to the contrary.

Article 38

Investment of the reserve of assets

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens that invest a part of the reserve of assets shall only invest those assets in highly liquid financial instruments with minimal market risk, credit risk and concentration risk. The investments shall be capable of being liquidated rapidly with minimal adverse price effect.

2.   Units in an undertaking for collective investment in transferable securities (UCITS) shall be deemed to be assets with minimal market risk, credit risk and concentration risk for the purposes of paragraph 1, where that UCITS invests solely in assets as further specified by EBA in accordance with paragraph 5 and where the issuer of the asset-referenced token ensures that the reserve of assets is invested in such a way that the concentration risk is minimised.

3.   The financial instruments in which the reserve of assets is invested shall be held in custody in accordance with Article 37.

4.   All profits or losses, including fluctuations in the value of the financial instruments referred to in paragraph 1, and any counterparty or operational risks that result from the investment of the reserve of assets shall be borne by the issuer of the asset-referenced token.

5.   EBA, in cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards specifying the financial instruments that can be considered highly liquid and bearing minimal market risk, credit risk and concentration risk as referred to in paragraph 1. When specifying those financial instruments, EBA shall take into account:

(a)

the various types of assets that can be referenced by an asset-referenced token;

(b)

the correlation between the assets referenced by the asset-referenced token and the highly liquid financial instruments that the issuer might invest in;

(c)

the liquidity coverage requirement as referred to in Article 412 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and as further specified in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/61 (41);

(d)

constraints on concentration preventing the issuer from:

(i)

investing more than a certain percentage of reserve assets in highly liquid financial instruments with minimal market risk, credit risk and concentration risk issued by a single entity;

(ii)

holding in custody more than a certain percentage of crypto-assets or assets with crypto-asset service providers or credit institutions which belong to the same group, as defined in Article 2, point (11), of Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (42), or investment firms.

For the purposes of point (d)(i) of the first subparagraph, EBA shall devise suitable limits to determine concentration requirements. Those limits shall take into account, amongst others, the relevant thresholds laid down in Article 52 of Directive 2009/65/EC.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

Article 39

Right of redemption

1.   Holders of asset-referenced tokens shall have a right of redemption at all times against the issuers of the asset-referenced tokens, and in respect of the reserve assets when issuers are not able to meet their obligations as referred to in Chapter 6 of this Title. Issuers shall establish, maintain and implement clear and detailed policies and procedures in respect of such permanent right of redemption.

2.   Upon request by a holder of an asset-referenced token, an issuer of such token shall redeem either by paying an amount in funds, other than electronic money, equivalent to the market value of the assets referenced by the asset-referenced token held or by delivering the assets referenced by the token. Issuers shall establish a policy on such permanent right of redemption setting out:

(a)

the conditions, including thresholds, periods and timeframes, for holders of asset-referenced tokens to exercise such right of redemption;

(b)

the mechanisms and procedures to ensure the redemption of the asset-referenced tokens, including in stressed market circumstances, as well as in the context of the implementation of the recovery plan set out in Article 46 or, in the case of an orderly redemption of asset-referenced tokens, under Article 47;

(c)

the valuation, or the principles of valuation, of the asset-referenced tokens and of the reserve assets when the right of redemption is exercised by the holder of asset-referenced tokens, including by using the valuation methodology set out in Article 36(11);

(d)

the conditions for settlement of the redemption; and

(e)

measures that the issuers take to adequately manage increases or decreases in the reserve of assets in order to avoid any adverse impacts on the market of the reserve assets.

Where issuers, when selling an asset-referenced token, accept a payment in funds other than electronic money, denominated in an official currency, they shall always provide an option to redeem the token in funds other than electronic money, denominated in the same official currency.

3.   Without prejudice to Article 46, the redemption of asset-referenced tokens shall not be subject to a fee.

Article 40

Prohibition of granting interest

1.   Issuers of asset-referenced tokens shall not grant interest in relation to asset-referenced tokens.

2.   Crypto-asset service providers shall not grant interest when providing crypto-asset services related to asset-referenced tokens.

3.   For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2, any remuneration or any other benefit related to the length of time during which a holder of asset-referenced tokens holds such asset-referenced tokens shall be treated as interest. That includes net compensation or discounts, with an effect equivalent to that of interest received by the holder of asset-referenced tokens, directly from the issuer or from third parties, and directly associated to the asset-referenced tokens or from the remuneration or pricing of other products.

CHAPTER 4

Acquisitions of issuers of asset-referenced tokens

Article 41

Assessment of proposed acquisitions of issuers of asset-referenced tokens

1.   Any natural or legal persons or such persons acting in concert who intend to acquire, directly or indirectly (the ‘proposed acquirer’), a qualifying holding in an issuer of an asset-referenced token or to increase, directly or indirectly, such a qualifying holding so that the proportion of the voting rights or of the capital held would reach or exceed 20 %, 30 % or 50 %, or so that the issuer of the asset-referenced token would become its subsidiary, shall notify the competent authority of that issuer thereof in writing, indicating the size of the intended holding and the information required by the regulatory technical standards adopted by the Commission in accordance with Article 42(4).

2.   Any natural or legal person who has taken a decision to dispose, directly or indirectly, of a qualifying holding in an issuer of an asset-referenced token shall, prior to disposing of that holding, notify in writing the competent authority of its decision and indicate the size of such holding. That person shall also notify the competent authority where it has taken a decision to reduce a qualifying holding so that the proportion of the voting rights or of the capital held would fall below 10 %, 20 %, 30 % or 50 %, or so that the issuer of the asset-referenced token would cease to be that person’s subsidiary.

3.   The competent authority shall promptly and in any event within two working days following receipt of a notification pursuant to paragraph 1 acknowledge receipt thereof in writing.

4.   The competent authority shall assess the proposed acquisition referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article and the information required by the regulatory technical standards adopted by the Commission in accordance with Article 42(4), within 60 working days of the date of the written acknowledgement of receipt referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article. When acknowledging receipt of the notification, the competent authority shall inform the proposed acquirer of the date of expiry of the assessment period.

5.   When performing the assessment referred to in paragraph 4, the competent authority may request from the proposed acquirer any additional information that is necessary to complete that assessment. Such request shall be made before the assessment is finalised, and in any case no later than on the 50th working day from the date of the written acknowledgement of receipt referred to in paragraph 3. Such requests shall be made in writing and shall specify the additional information needed.

The competent authority shall suspend the assessment period referred to in paragraph 4 until it has received the additional information referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph. The suspension shall not exceed 20 working days. Any further requests by the competent authority for additional information or for clarification of the information received shall not result in an additional suspension of the assessment period.

The competent authority may extend the suspension referred to in the second subparagraph of this paragraph by up to 30 working days if the proposed acquirer is situated outside the Union or regulated under the law of a third country.

6.   A competent authority that, upon completion of the assessment referred to in paragraph 4, decides to oppose the proposed acquisition referred to in paragraph 1 shall notify the proposed acquirer thereof within two working days, and in any event before the date referred to in paragraph 4 extended, where applicable, in accordance with paragraph 5, second and third subparagraphs. The notification shall provide the reasons for such a decision.

7.   Where the competent authority does not oppose the proposed acquisition referred to in paragraph 1 before the date referred to in paragraph 4 extended, where applicable, in accordance with paragraph 5, second and third subparagraphs, the proposed acquisition shall be deemed to be approved.

8.   The competent authority may set a maximum period for concluding the proposed acquisition referred to in paragraph 1, and extend that maximum period where appropriate.

Article 42

Content of the assessment of proposed acquisitions of issuers of asset-referenced tokens

1.   When performing the assessment referred to in Article 41(4), the competent authority shall appraise the suitability of the proposed acquirer and the financial soundness of the proposed acquisition referred to in Article 41(1) against all of the following criteria:

(a)

the reputation of the proposed acquirer;

(b)

the reputation, knowledge, skills and experience of any person who will direct the business of the issuer of the asset-referenced token as a result of the proposed acquisition;

(c)

the financial soundness of the proposed acquirer, in particular in relation to the type of business envisaged and pursued in respect of the issuer of the asset-referenced token in which the acquisition is proposed;

(d)

whether the issuer of the asset-referenced token will be able to comply and continue to comply with the provisions of this Title;

(e)

whether there are reasonable grounds to suspect that, in connection with the proposed acquisition, money laundering or terrorist financing within the meaning of, respectively, Article 1(3) and (5) of Directive (EU) 2015/849 is being or has been committed or attempted, or that the proposed acquisition could increase the risk thereof.

2.   The competent authority may oppose the proposed acquisition only where there are reasonable grounds for doing so based on the criteria set out in paragraph 1 of this Article or where the information provided in accordance with Article 41(4) is incomplete or false.

3.   Member States shall not impose any prior conditions in respect of the level of qualifying holding that is required to be acquired under this Regulation nor allow their competent authorities to examine the proposed acquisition in terms of the economic needs of the market.

4.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards specifying the detailed content of the information that is necessary to carry out the assessment referred to in Article 41(4), first subparagraph. The information required shall be relevant for a prudential assessment, proportionate and adapted to the nature of the proposed acquirer and the proposed acquisition referred to in Article 41(1).

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

CHAPTER 5

Significant asset-referenced tokens

Article 43

Classification of asset-referenced tokens as significant asset-referenced tokens

1.   The criteria for classifying asset-referenced tokens as significant asset-referenced tokens shall be the following, as further specified by the delegated acts adopted pursuant to paragraph 11:

(a)

the number of holders of the asset-referenced token is larger than 10 million;

(b)

the value of the asset-referenced token issued, its market capitalisation or the size of the reserve of assets of the issuer of the asset-referenced token is higher than EUR 5 000 000 000;

(c)

the average number and average aggregate value of transactions in that asset-referenced token per day during the relevant period, is higher than 2,5 million transactions and EUR 500 000 000 respectively;

(d)

the issuer of the asset-referenced token is a provider of core platform services designated as a gatekeeper in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2022/1925 of the European Parliament and of the Council (43);

(e)

the significance of the activities of the issuer of the asset-referenced token on an international scale, including the use of the asset-referenced token for payments and remittances;

(f)

the interconnectedness of the asset-referenced token or its issuers with the financial system;

(g)

the fact that the same issuer issues at least one additional asset-referenced token or e-money token, and provides at least one crypto-asset service.

2.   EBA shall classify asset-referenced tokens as significant asset-referenced tokens where at least three of the criteria set out in paragraph 1 of this Article are met:

(a)

during the period covered by the first report of information as referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article, following authorisation pursuant to Article 21 or after approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17; or

(b)

during the period covered by at least two consecutive reports of information as referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article.

3.   Where several issuers issue the same asset-referenced token, the fulfilment of the criteria set out in paragraph 1 shall be assessed after aggregating the data from those issuers.

4.   Competent authorities of the issuer’s home Member State shall report to EBA and the ECB information relevant for the assessment of the fulfilment of the criteria set out in paragraph 1 of this Article, including, if applicable, the information received under Article 22, at least twice a year.

Where the issuer is established in a Member State whose official currency is not the euro, or where an official currency of a Member State that is not the euro is referenced by the asset-referenced token, competent authorities shall transmit the information referred to in the first subparagraph also to the central bank of that Member State.

5.   Where EBA concludes that an asset-referenced token fulfils the criteria set out in paragraph 1 in accordance with paragraph 2, EBA shall prepare a draft decision to classify the asset-referenced token as a significant asset-referenced token and notify that draft decision to the issuer of that asset-referenced token, to the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in paragraph 4, second subparagraph, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

Issuers of such asset-referenced tokens, their competent authorities, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of EBA’s draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

6.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to classify an asset-referenced token as a significant asset-referenced token within 60 working days of the date of notification referred to in paragraph 5 and immediately notify that decision to the issuer of such asset-referenced token and its competent authority.

7.   Where an asset-referenced token has been classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 6, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to the issuer of that significant asset-referenced token shall be transferred from the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State to EBA within 20 working days of the date of notification of that decision.

EBA and the competent authority shall cooperate in order to ensure the smooth transition of supervisory competences.

8.   EBA shall annually reassess the classification of significant asset-referenced tokens on the basis of the available information, including from the reports referred to in paragraph 4 or the information received under Article 22.

Where EBA concludes that certain asset-referenced tokens no longer fulfil the criteria set out in paragraph 1 in accordance with paragraph 2, EBA shall prepare a draft decision to no longer classify the asset-referenced tokens as significant and notify that draft decision to the issuers of those asset-referenced tokens and the competent authority of their home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in paragraph 4, second subparagraph, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

Issuers of such asset-referenced tokens, their competent authorities, the ECB and the central bank referred in paragraph 4 shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of that draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

9.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to no longer classify an asset-referenced token as significant within 60 working days from the date of the notification referred to in paragraph 8 and immediately notify that decision to the issuer of such asset-referenced tokens and its competent authority.

10.   Where an asset-referenced token is no longer classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 9, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to the issuer of that asset-referenced token shall be transferred from EBA to the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State within 20 working days from the date of notification of that decision.

EBA and the competent authority shall cooperate in order to ensure the smooth transition of supervisory competences.

11.   The Commission shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 139 to supplement this Regulation by further specifying the criteria set out in paragraph 1 for an asset-referenced token to be classified as significant and determine:

(a)

the circumstances under which the activities of the issuer of the asset-referenced token are deemed significant on an international scale outside the Union;

(b)

the circumstances under which asset-referenced tokens and their issuers shall be considered to be interconnected with the financial system;

(c)

the content and format of information provided by competent authorities to EBA and the ECB under paragraph 4 of this Article and Article 56(3).

Article 44

Voluntary classification of asset-referenced tokens as significant asset-referenced tokens

1.   Applicant issuers of asset-referenced tokens may indicate in their application for authorisation pursuant to Article 18, or in their notification pursuant to Article 17, that they wish for their asset-referenced tokens to be classified as significant asset-referenced tokens. In that case, the competent authority shall immediately notify such request of the applicant issuer to EBA, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in Article 43(4), to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

In order for an asset-referenced token to be classified as significant under this Article, the applicant issuer of the asset-referenced token shall demonstrate, through a detailed programme of operations referred to in Article 17(1), point (b)(i), and Article 18(2), point (d), that it is likely to fulfil at least three of the criteria set out in Article 43(1).

2.   EBA shall, within 20 working days of the notification referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, prepare a draft decision containing its opinion based on the programme of operations whether the asset-referenced token fulfils or is likely to fulfil at least three of the criteria set out in Article 43(1) and notify that draft decision to the competent authority of the applicant issuer’s home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in Article 43(4), second subparagraph, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

Competent authorities of issuers of such asset-referenced tokens, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned, shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of that draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

3.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to classify an asset-referenced token as a significant asset-referenced token within 60 working days of the notification referred to in paragraph 1 and immediately notify that decision to the applicant issuer of such asset-referenced token and its competent authority.

4.   Where asset-referenced tokens have been classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to issuers of those asset-referenced tokens shall be transferred from the competent authority to EBA on the date of the decision of the competent authority to grant the authorisation referred to in Article 21(1) or on the date of approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17.

Article 45

Specific additional obligations for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens

1.   Issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens shall adopt, implement and maintain a remuneration policy that promotes the sound and effective risk management of such issuers and that does not create incentives to relax risk standards.

2.   Issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens shall ensure that such tokens can be held in custody by different crypto-asset service providers authorised for providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, including by crypto-asset service providers that do not belong to the same group, as defined in Article 2, point (11), of Directive 2013/34/EU, on a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory basis.

3.   Issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens shall assess and monitor the liquidity needs to meet requests for redemption of asset-referenced tokens by their holders. For that purpose, issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens shall establish, maintain and implement a liquidity management policy and procedures. That policy and those procedures shall ensure that the reserve assets have a resilient liquidity profile that enables issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens to continue operating normally, including under scenarios of liquidity stress.

4.   Issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens shall, on a regular basis, conduct liquidity stress testing. Depending on the outcome of such tests, EBA may decide to strengthen the liquidity requirements referred to in paragraph 7, first subparagraph, point (b), of this Article and in Article 36(6).

Where issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens offer two or more asset-referenced tokens or provide crypto-asset services, those stress tests shall cover all of those activities in a comprehensive and holistic manner.

5.   The percentage referred to in Article 35(1), first subparagraph, point (b), shall be set at 3 % of the average amount of the reserve assets for issuers of significant asset-referenced tokens.

6.   Where several issuers offer the same significant asset-referenced token, paragraphs 1 to 5 shall apply to each issuer.

Where an issuer offers two or more asset-referenced tokens in the Union and at least one of those asset-referenced tokens is classified as significant, paragraphs 1 to 5 shall apply to that issuer.

7.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards specifying:

(a)

the minimum content of the governance arrangements on the remuneration policy referred to in paragraph 1;

(b)

the minimum contents of the liquidity management policy and procedures as set out in paragraph 3, and liquidity requirements, including by specifying the minimum amount of deposits in each official currency referenced, which cannot be lower than 60 % of the amount referenced in each official currency;

(c)

the procedure and timeframe for an issuer of a significant asset-referenced token to adjust the amount of its own funds as required by paragraph 5.

In the case of credit institutions, EBA shall calibrate the technical standards taking into consideration any possible interactions between the regulatory requirements established by this Regulation and the regulatory requirements established by other Union legislative acts.

EBA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

8.   EBA, in close cooperation with ESMA and the ECB, shall issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 with a view to establishing the common reference parameters of the stress test scenarios to be included in the stress tests referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article. Those guidelines shall be updated periodically taking into account the latest market developments.

CHAPTER 6

Recovery and redemption plans

Article 46

Recovery plan

1.   An issuer of an asset-referenced token shall draw up and maintain a recovery plan providing for measures to be taken by the issuer to restore compliance with the requirements applicable to the reserve of assets in cases where the issuer fails to comply with those requirements.

The recovery plan shall also include the preservation of the issuer’s services related to the asset-referenced token, the timely recovery of operations and the fulfilment of the issuer’s obligations in the case of events that pose a significant risk of disrupting operations.

The recovery plan shall include appropriate conditions and procedures to ensure the timely implementation of recovery actions as well as a wide range of recovery options, including:

(a)

liquidity fees on redemptions;

(b)

limits on the amount of the asset-referenced token that can be redeemed on any working day;

(c)

suspension of redemptions.

2.   The issuer of the asset-referenced token shall notify the recovery plan to the competent authority within six months of the date of authorisation pursuant to Article 21 or within six months of the date of approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17. The competent authority shall require amendments to the recovery plan where necessary to ensure its proper implementation and shall notify its decision requesting those amendments to the issuer within 40 working days of the date of notification of that plan. That decision shall be implemented by the issuer within 40 working days of the date of notification of that decision. The issuer shall regularly review and update the recovery plan.

Where applicable, the issuer shall also notify the recovery plan to its resolution and prudential supervisory authorities in parallel to the competent authority.

3.   Where the issuer fails to comply with the requirements applicable to the reserve of assets as referred to in Chapter 3 of this Title or, due to a rapidly deteriorating financial condition, is likely in the near future to not comply with those requirements, the competent authority, in order to ensure compliance with the applicable requirements, shall have the power to require the issuer to implement one or more of the arrangements or measures set out in the recovery plan or to update such a recovery plan when the circumstances are different from the assumptions set out in the initial recovery plan and implement one or more of the arrangements or measures set out in the updated plan within a specific timeframe.

4.   In the circumstances referred to in paragraph 3, the competent authority shall have the power to temporarily suspend the redemption of asset-referenced tokens, provided that the suspension is justified having regard to the interests of the holders of asset-referenced tokens and financial stability.

5.   Where applicable, the competent authority shall notify the issuer’s resolution and prudential supervisory authorities of any measure taken pursuant to paragraphs 3 and 4.

6.   EBA, after consultation with ESMA, shall issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 to specify the format of the recovery plan and the information to be provided in the recovery plan.

Article 47

Redemption plan

1.   An issuer of an asset-referenced token shall draw up and maintain an operational plan to support the orderly redemption of each asset-referenced token, which is to be implemented upon a decision by the competent authority that the issuer is unable or likely to be unable to fulfil its obligations, including in the case of insolvency or, where applicable, resolution or in the case of withdrawal of authorisation of the issuer, without prejudice to the commencement of a crisis prevention measure or crisis management measure as defined in Article 2(1), points (101) and (102), respectively, of Directive 2014/59/EU or a resolution action as defined in Article 2, point (11), of Regulation (EU) 2021/23 of the European Parliament and of the Council (44).

2.   The redemption plan shall demonstrate the ability of the issuer of the asset-referenced token to carry out the redemption of the outstanding asset-referenced token issued without causing undue economic harm to its holders or to the stability of the markets of the reserve assets.

The redemption plan shall include contractual arrangements, procedures and systems, including the designation of a temporary administrator in accordance with applicable law, to ensure the equitable treatment of all holders of asset-referenced tokens and to ensure that holders of asset-referenced tokens are paid in a timely manner with the proceeds from the sale of the remaining reserve assets.

The redemption plan shall ensure the continuity of any critical activities that are necessary for the orderly redemption and that are performed by issuers or by any third-party entity.

3.   The issuer of the asset-referenced token shall notify the redemption plan to the competent authority within six months of the date of authorisation pursuant to Article 21 or within six months of the date of approval of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to Article 17. The competent authority shall require amendments to the redemption plan where necessary to ensure its proper implementation and shall notify its decision requesting those amendments to the issuer within 40 working days of the date of notification of that plan. That decision shall be implemented by the issuer within 40 working days of the date of notification of that decision. The issuer shall regularly review and update the redemption plan.

4.   Where applicable, the competent authority shall notify the redemption plan to the resolution authority and prudential supervisory authority of the issuer.

The resolution authority may examine the redemption plan with a view to identifying any actions in the redemption plan that might adversely impact the resolvability of the issuer, and may make recommendations to the competent authority in respect thereof.

5.   EBA shall issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 to specify:

(a)

the content of the redemption plan and the periodicity for review, taking into account the size, complexity and nature of the asset-referenced token and the business model of its issuer; and

(b)

the triggers for implementation of the redemption plan.

TITLE IV

E-MONEY TOKENS

CHAPTER 1

Requirements to be fulfilled by all issuers of e-money tokens

Article 48

Requirements for the offer to the public or admission to trading of e-money tokens

1.   A person shall not make an offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of an e-money token, within the Union, unless that person is the issuer of such e-money token and:

(a)

is authorised as a credit institution or as an electronic money institution; and

(b)

has notified a crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority and has published that crypto-asset white paper in accordance with Article 51.

Notwithstanding the first subparagraph, upon the written consent of the issuer, other persons may offer to the public or seek the admission to trading of the e-money token. Those persons shall comply with Articles 50 and 53.

2.   E-money tokens shall be deemed to be electronic money.

An e-money token that references an official currency of a Member State shall be deemed to be offered to the public in the Union.

3.   Titles II and III of Directive 2009/110/EC shall apply with respect to e-money tokens unless otherwise stated in this Title.

4.   Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to issuers of e-money tokens exempted in accordance with Article 9(1) of Directive 2009/110/EC.

5.   This Title, with the exception of paragraph 7 of this Article and Article 51, shall not apply in respect of e-money tokens exempt pursuant to Article 1(4) and (5) of Directive 2009/110/EC.

6.   Issuers of e-money tokens shall, at least 40 working days before the date on which they intend to offer to the public those e-money tokens or seek their admission to trading, notify their competent authority of that intention.

7.   Where paragraph 4 or 5 applies, the issuers of e-money tokens shall draw up a crypto-asset white paper and notify such crypto-asset white paper to the competent authority in accordance with Article 51.

Article 49

Issuance and redeemability of e-money tokens

1.   By way of derogation from Article 11 of Directive 2009/110/EC, in respect of the issuance and redeemability of e-money tokens only the requirements set out in this Article shall apply to issuers of e-money tokens.

2.   Holders of e-money tokens shall have a claim against the issuers of those e-money tokens.

3.   Issuers of e-money tokens shall issue e-money tokens at par value and on the receipt of funds.

4.   Upon request by a holder of an e-money token, the issuer of that e-money token shall redeem it, at any time and at par value, by paying in funds, other than electronic money, the monetary value of the e-money token held to the holder of the e-money token.

5.   Issuers of e-money tokens shall prominently state the conditions for redemption in the crypto-asset white paper as referred to in Article 51(1), first subparagraph, point (d).

6.   Without prejudice to Article 46, the redemption of e-money tokens shall not be subject to a fee.

Article 50

Prohibition of granting interest

1.   Notwithstanding Article 12 of Directive 2009/110/EC, issuers of e-money tokens shall not grant interest in relation to e-money tokens.

2.   Crypto-asset service providers shall not grant interest when providing crypto-asset services related to e-money tokens.

3.   For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2, any remuneration or any other benefit related to the length of time during which a holder of an e-money token holds such e-money token shall be treated as interest. That includes net compensation or discounts, with an effect equivalent to that of interest received by the holder of the e-money token, directly from the issuer or from third parties, and directly associated to the e-money token or from the remuneration or pricing of other products.

Article 51

Content and form of the crypto-asset white paper for e-money tokens

1.   A crypto-asset white paper for an e-money token shall contain all of the following information, as further specified in Annex III:

(a)

information about the issuer of the e-money token;

(b)

information about the e-money token;

(c)

information about the offer to the public of the e-money token or its admission to trading;

(d)

information on the rights and obligations attached to the e-money token;

(e)

information on the underlying technology;

(f)

information on the risks;

(g)

information on the principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue the e-money token.

The crypto-asset white paper shall also include the identity of the person other than the issuer that offers the e-money token to the public or seeks its admission to trading pursuant to Article 48(1), second subparagraph, and the reason why that particular person offers that e-money token or seeks its admission to trading.

2.   All the information listed in paragraph 1 shall be fair, clear and not misleading. The crypto-asset white paper shall not contain material omissions and shall be presented in a concise and comprehensible form.

3.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain the following clear and prominent statement on the first page:

‘This crypto-asset white paper has not been approved by any competent authority in any Member State of the European Union. The issuer of the crypto-asset is solely responsible for the content of this crypto-asset white paper.’.

4.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a clear warning that:

(a)

the e-money token is not covered by the investor compensation schemes under Directive 97/9/EC;

(b)

the e-money token is not covered by the deposit guarantee schemes under Directive 2014/49/EU.

5.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a statement from the management body of the issuer of the e-money token. That statement, which shall be inserted after the statement referred to in paragraph 3, shall confirm that the crypto-asset white paper complies with this Title and that, to the best of the knowledge of the management body, the information presented in the crypto-asset white paper is complete, fair, clear and not misleading and that the crypto-asset white paper makes no omission likely to affect its import.

6.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain a summary, inserted after the statement referred to in paragraph 5, which shall in brief and non-technical language provide key information about the offer to the public of the e-money token or the intended admission to trading of such e-money token. The summary shall be easily understandable and presented and laid out in a clear and comprehensive format, using characters of readable size. The summary of the crypto-asset white paper shall provide appropriate information about the characteristics of the crypto-assets concerned in order to help prospective holders of the crypto-assets to make an informed decision.

The summary shall contain a warning that:

(a)

it should be read as an introduction to the crypto-asset white paper;

(b)

the prospective holder should base any decision to purchase the e-money token on the content of the crypto-asset white paper as a whole and not on the summary alone;

(c)

the offer to the public of the e-money token does not constitute an offer or solicitation to purchase financial instruments and that any such offer or solicitation can be made only by means of a prospectus or other offer documents pursuant to the applicable national law;

(d)

the crypto-asset white paper does not constitute a prospectus as referred to in Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 or any other offer document pursuant to Union or national law.

The summary shall state that holders of the e-money token have a right of redemption at any time and at par value as well as the conditions for redemption.

7.   The crypto-asset white paper shall contain the date of its notification and a table of contents.

8.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be drawn up in an official language of the home Member State or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

Where the e-money token is also offered in a Member State other than the home Member State, the crypto-asset white paper shall also be drawn up in an official language of the host Member State or in a language customary in the sphere of international finance.

9.   The crypto-asset white paper shall be made available in a machine-readable format.

10.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, formats and templates for the purposes of paragraph 9.

ESMA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

11.   Issuers of e-money tokens shall notify their crypto-asset white paper to their competent authority at least 20 working days before the date of their publication.

Competent authorities shall not require prior approval of crypto-asset white papers before their publication.

12.   Any significant new factor, any material mistake or any material inaccuracy that is capable of affecting the assessment of the e-money token shall be described in a modified crypto-asset white paper drawn up by the issuers, notified to the competent authorities and published on the issuers’ websites.

13.   Before offering the e-money token to the public in the Union or seeking an admission to trading of the e-money token, the issuer of such e-money token shall publish a crypto-asset white paper on its website.

14.   The issuer of the e-money token shall together with the notification of the crypto-asset white paper pursuant to paragraph 11 of this Article provide the competent authority with the information referred to in Article 109(4). The competent authority shall communicate to ESMA, within five working days of receipt of the information from the issuer, the information specified in Article 109(4).

The competent authority shall also communicate to ESMA any modified crypto-asset white paper and any withdrawal of the authorisation of the issuer of the e-money token.

ESMA shall make such information available in the register, under Article 109(4), by the starting date of the offer to the public or admission to trading or, in the case of a modified crypto-asset white paper, or withdrawal of the authorisation, without undue delay.

15.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards on the content, methodologies and presentation of the information referred to in paragraph 1, point (g), in respect of the sustainability indicators in relation to adverse impacts on the climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts.

When developing the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph, ESMA shall consider the various types of consensus mechanisms used to validate transactions in crypto-assets, their incentive structures and the use of energy, renewable energy and natural resources, the production of waste, and greenhouse gas emissions. ESMA shall update the regulatory technical standards in the light of regulatory and technological developments.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 52

Liability of issuers of e-money tokens for the information given in a crypto-asset white paper

1.   Where an issuer of an e-money token has infringed Article 51, by providing in its crypto-asset white paper or in a modified crypto-asset white paper, information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading, that issuer and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory body shall be liable to a holder of such e-money token for any loss incurred due to that infringement.

2.   Any contractual exclusion or limitation of civil liability as referred to in paragraph 1 shall be deprived of legal effect.

3.   It shall be the responsibility of the holder of the e-money token to present evidence indicating that the issuer of that e-money token has infringed Article 51 by providing in its crypto-asset white paper or in a modified crypto-asset white paper information that is not complete, fair or clear, or that is misleading and that reliance on such information had an impact on the holder’s decision to purchase, sell or exchange that e-money token.

4.   The issuer and the members of its administrative, management or supervisory bodies shall not be liable for loss suffered as a result of reliance on the information provided in a summary pursuant to Article 51(6), including any translation thereof, except where the summary:

(a)

is misleading, inaccurate or inconsistent when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper; or

(b)

does not provide, when read together with the other parts of the crypto-asset white paper, key information in order to aid prospective holders when considering whether to purchase such e-money tokens.

5.   This Article is without prejudice to any other civil liability pursuant to national law.

Article 53

Marketing communications

1.   Marketing communications relating to an offer to the public of an e-money token, or to the admission to trading of such e-money token, shall comply with all the following requirements:

(a)

the marketing communications are clearly identifiable as such;

(b)

the information in the marketing communications is fair, clear and not misleading;

(c)

the information in the marketing communications is consistent with the information in the crypto-asset white paper;

(d)

the marketing communications clearly state that a crypto-asset white paper has been published and clearly indicate the address of the website of the issuer of the e-money token, as well as a telephone number and an email address to contact the issuer.

2.   Marketing communications shall contain a clear and unambiguous statement that the holders of the e-money token have a right of redemption against the issuer at any time and at par value.

3.   Marketing communications and any modifications thereto shall be published on the issuer’s website.

4.   Competent authorities shall not require prior approval of marketing communications before their publication.

5.   Marketing communications shall be notified to the competent authorities upon request.

6.   No marketing communications shall be disseminated prior to the publication of the crypto-asset white paper. Such restriction does not affect the ability of the issuer of the e-money token to conduct market soundings.

Article 54

Investment of funds received in exchange for e-money tokens

Funds received by issuers of e-money tokens in exchange for e-money tokens and safeguarded in accordance with Article 7(1) of Directive 2009/110/EC shall comply with the following:

(a)

at least 30 % of the funds received is always deposited in separate accounts in credit institutions;

(b)

the remaining funds received are invested in secure, low-risk assets that qualify as highly liquid financial instruments with minimal market risk, credit risk and concentration risk, in accordance with Article 38(1) of this Regulation, and are denominated in the same official currency as the one referenced by the e-money token.

Article 55

Recovery and redemption plans

Title III, Chapter 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis to issuers of e-money tokens.

By way of derogation from Article 46(2), the date by which the recovery plan is to be notified to the competent authority shall, in respect of issuers of e-money tokens, be within six months of the date of the offer to the public or admission to trading.

By way of derogation from Article 47(3), the date by which the redemption plan is to be notified to the competent authority shall, in respect of issuers of e-money tokens, be within six months of the date of the offer to the public or admission to trading.

CHAPTER 2

Significant e-money tokens

Article 56

Classification of e-money tokens as significant e-money tokens

1.   EBA shall classify e-money tokens as significant e-money tokens where at least three of the criteria set out in Article 43(1) are met:

(a)

during the period covered by the first report of information as referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article, following the offer to the public or the seeking admission to trading of those tokens; or

(b)

during the period covered by at least two consecutive reports of information as referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article.

2.   Where several issuers issue the same e-money token, the fulfilment of the criteria set out in Article 43(1) shall be assessed after aggregating the data from those issuers.

3.   Competent authorities of the issuer’s home Member State shall report to EBA and the ECB information relevant for the assessment of the fulfilment of the criteria set out in Article 43(1), including, if applicable, the information received under Article 22, at least twice a year.

Where the issuer is established in a Member State whose official currency is not the euro, or where an official currency of a Member State that is not the euro is referenced by the e-money token, competent authorities shall transmit the information referred to in the first subparagraph also to the central bank of that Member State.

4.   Where EBA concludes that an e-money token fulfils the criteria set out in Article 43(1) in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, EBA shall prepare a draft decision to classify the e-money token as a significant e-money token and notify that draft decision to the issuer of the e-money token, the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in paragraph 3, second subparagraph, of this Article, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

Issuers of such e-money tokens, their competent authorities, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of that draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

5.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to classify an e-money token as a significant e-money token within 60 working days from the date of notification referred to in paragraph 4 and immediately notify that decision to the issuer of such e-money token and its competent authority.

6.   Where an e-money token has been classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 5, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to the issuer of that e e-money token shall be transferred from the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State to EBA in accordance with Article 117(4) within 20 working days from the date of notification of that decision.

EBA and the competent authority shall cooperate in order to ensure the smooth transition of supervisory competences.

7.   By way of derogation from paragraph 6, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to the issuers of significant e-money tokens denominated in an official currency of a Member State other than the euro, where at least 80 % of the number of holders and of the volume of transactions of those significant e-money tokens are concentrated in the home Member State, shall not be transferred to EBA.

The competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State shall provide EBA annually with information on any cases where the derogation referred to in the first subparagraph is applied.

For the purposes of the first subparagraph, a transaction shall be considered to take place in the home Member State when the payer or the payee is established in that Member State.

8.   EBA shall annually reassess the classification of significant e-money tokens on the basis of the available information, including from the reports referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article or the information received under Article 22.

Where EBA concludes that certain e-money tokens no longer meet the criteria set out in Article 43(1), in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, EBA shall prepare a draft decision to no longer classify the e-money token as significant and notify that draft decision to the issuers of those e-money tokens, to the competent authorities of their home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in paragraph 3, second subparagraph, of this Article, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

Issuers of such e-money tokens, their competent authorities, the ECB and the central bank of the Member State concerned shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of that draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

9.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to no longer classify an e-money token as significant within 60 working days from the date of the notification referred to in paragraph 8 and immediately notify that decision to the issuer of that e-money token and its competent authority.

10.   Where an e-money token is no longer classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 9, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to the issuer of that e-money token shall be transferred from EBA to the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State within 20 working days from the date of notification of that decision.

EBA and the competent authority shall cooperate in order to ensure the smooth transition of supervisory competences.

Article 57

Voluntary classification of e-money tokens as significant e-money tokens

1.   An issuer of an e-money token, authorised as a credit institution or as an electronic money institution, or applying for such authorisation, may indicate that it wishes for its e-money token to be classified as a significant e-money token. In that case, the competent authority shall immediately notify such request of the issuer to EBA, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in Article 56(3), second subparagraph, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

In order for the e-money token to be classified as significant under this Article, the issuer of the e-money token shall demonstrate, through a detailed programme of operations, that it is likely to meet at least three of the criteria set out in Article 43(1).

2.   EBA shall, within 20 working days from the date of notification referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, prepare a draft decision containing its opinion based on the issuer’s programme of operations whether the e-money token fulfils or is likely to fulfil at least three of the criteria set out in Article 43(1) and notify that draft decision to the competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State, to the ECB and, in the cases referred to in Article 56(3), second subparagraph, to the central bank of the Member State concerned.

The competent authorities of issuers of such e-money tokens, the ECB and, where applicable, the central bank of the Member State concerned shall have 20 working days from the date of notification of that draft decision to provide observations and comments in writing. EBA shall duly consider those observations and comments before adopting a final decision.

3.   EBA shall take its final decision on whether to classify an e-money token as a significant e-money token within 60 working days of the date of notification referred to in paragraph 1 and immediately notify that decision to the issuer of such e-money token and its competent authority.

4.   Where an e-money token has been classified as significant pursuant to a decision of EBA taken in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to issuers of those e-money tokens shall be transferred from the competent authority to EBA in accordance with Article 117(4) within 20 working days from the date of notification of that decision.

EBA and the competent authorities shall cooperate in order to ensure the smooth transition of supervisory competences.

5.   By way of derogation from paragraph 4, the supervisory responsibilities with respect to issuers of significant e-money tokens denominated in an official currency of a Member State other than the euro shall not be transferred to EBA, where at least 80 % of the number of holders and of the volume of transactions of those significant e-money tokens are or are expected to be concentrated in the home Member State.

The competent authority of the issuer’s home Member State shall provide EBA annually with information on the application of the derogation referred to in the first subparagraph.

For the purposes of the first subparagraph, a transaction shall be considered to take place in the home Member State when the payer or the payee are established in that Member State.

Article 58

Specific additional obligations for issuers of e-money tokens

1.   Electronic money institutions issuing significant e-money tokens shall be subject to:

(a)

the requirements referred to in Articles 36, 37, 38 and Article 45, (1) to (4) of this Regulation, instead of Article 7 of Directive 2009/110/EC;

(b)

the requirements referred to in Article 35(2), (3) and (5) and Article 45(5) of this Regulation, instead of Article 5 of Directive 2009/110/EC.

By way of derogation from Article 36(9), the independent audit shall, in respect of issuers of significant e-money tokens, be mandated every six months as of the date of the decision to classify the e-money tokens as significant pursuant to Article 56 or 57, as applicable.

2.   Competent authorities of the home Member States may require electronic money institutions issuing e-money tokens that are not significant to comply with any requirement referred to in paragraph 1 where necessary to address the risks that those provisions aim to address, such as liquidity risks, operational risks, or risks arising from non-compliance with requirements for management of reserve of assets.

3.   Articles 22, 23 and 24(3) shall apply to e-money tokens denominated in a currency that is not an official currency of a Member State.

TITLE V

AUTHORISATION AND OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR CRYPTO-ASSET SERVICE PROVIDERS

CHAPTER 1

Authorisation of crypto-asset service providers

Article 59

Authorisation

1.   A person shall not provide crypto-asset services, within the Union, unless that person is:

(a)

a legal person or other undertaking that has been authorised as crypto-asset service provider in accordance with Article 63; or

(b)

a credit institution, central securities depository, investment firm, market operator, electronic money institution, UCITS management company, or an alternative investment fund manager that is allowed to provide crypto-asset services pursuant to Article 60.

2.   Crypto-asset service providers authorised in accordance with Article 63 shall have a registered office in a Member State where they carry out at least part of their crypto-asset services. They shall have their place of effective management in the Union and at least one of the directors shall be resident in the Union.

3.   For the purposes of paragraph 1, point (a), other undertakings that are not legal persons shall only provide crypto-asset services if their legal form ensures a level of protection for third parties’ interests equivalent to that afforded by legal persons and if they are subject to equivalent prudential supervision appropriate to their legal form.

4.   Crypto-asset service providers authorised in accordance with Article 63 shall at all times meet the conditions for their authorisation.

5.   A person who is not a crypto-asset service provider shall not use a name, or a corporate name, or issue marketing communications or undertake any other process suggesting that it is a crypto-asset service provider or that is likely to create confusion in that respect.

6.   Competent authorities that grant authorisations in accordance with Article 63 shall ensure that such authorisations specify the crypto-asset services that crypto-asset service providers are authorised to provide.

7.   Crypto-asset service providers shall be allowed to provide crypto-asset services throughout the Union, either through the right of establishment, including through a branch, or through the freedom to provide services. Crypto-asset service providers that provide crypto-asset services on a cross-border basis shall not be required to have a physical presence in the territory of a host Member State.

8.   Crypto-asset service providers seeking to add crypto-asset services to their authorisation as referred to in Article 63 shall request the competent authorities that granted their initial authorisation for an extension of their authorisation by complementing and updating the information referred to in Article 62. The request for extension shall be processed in accordance with Article 63.

Article 60

Provision of crypto-asset services by certain financial entities

1.   A credit institution may provide crypto-asset services if it notifies the information referred to in paragraph 7 to the competent authority of its home Member State at least 40 working days before providing those services for the first time.

2.   A central securities depository authorised under Regulation (EU) No 909/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council (45) shall only provide custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients if it notifies the information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article to the competent authority of the home Member State, at least 40 working days before providing that service for the first time.

For the purposes of the first subparagraph of this paragraph, providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients is deemed equivalent to providing, maintaining or operating securities accounts in relation to the settlement service referred to in Section B, point (3), of the Annex to Regulation (EU) No 909/2014.

3.   An investment firm may provide crypto-asset services in the Union equivalent to the investment services and activities for which it is specifically authorised under Directive 2014/65/EU if it notifies the competent authority of the home Member State of the information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article at least 40 working days before providing those services for the first time.

For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a)

providing custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients is deemed equivalent to the ancillary service referred to in Section B, point (1), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(b)

the operation of a trading platform for crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to the operation of a multilateral trading facility and operation of an organised trading facility referred to in Section A, points (8) and (9), respectively, of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(c)

the exchange of crypto-assets for funds and other crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to dealing on own account referred to in Section A, point (3), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(d)

the execution of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients is deemed equivalent to the execution of orders on behalf of clients referred to in Section A, point (2), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(e)

the placing of crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to the underwriting or placing of financial instruments on a firm commitment basis and placing of financial instruments without a firm commitment basis referred to in Section A, points (6) and (7), respectively, of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(f)

the reception and transmission of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients is deemed equivalent to the reception and transmission of orders in relation to one or more financial instruments referred to in Section A, point (1), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(g)

providing advice on crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to investment advice referred to in Section A, point (5), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU;

(h)

providing portfolio management on crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to portfolio management referred to in Section A, point (4), of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU.

4.   An electronic money institution authorised under Directive 2009/110/EC shall only provide custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients and transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients with regard to the e-money tokens it issues if it notifies the competent authority of the home Member State of the information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article at least 40 working days before providing those services for the first time.

5.   A UCITS management company or an alternative investment fund manager may provide crypto-asset services equivalent to the management of portfolios of investment and non-core services for which it is authorised under Directive 2009/65/EC or Directive 2011/61/EU if it notifies the competent authority of the home Member State of the information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article at least 40 working days before providing those services for the first time.

For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a)

the reception and transmission of orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients is deemed equivalent to the reception and transmission of orders in relation to financial instruments referred in Article 6(4), point (b)(iii), of Directive 2011/61/EU;

(b)

providing advice on crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to investment advice referred to in Article 6(4), point (b)(i), of Directive 2011/61/EU and in Article 6(3), point (b)(i), of Directive 2009/65/EC;

(c)

providing portfolio management on crypto-assets is deemed equivalent to the services referred to in Article 6(4), point (a), of Directive 2011/61/EU and in Article 6(3), point (a), of Directive 2009/65/EC.

6.   A market operator authorised under Directive 2014/65/EU may operate a trading platform for crypto-assets if it notifies the competent authority of the home Member State of the information referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article at least 40 working days before providing those services for the first time.

7.   For the purposes of paragraphs 1 to 6, the following information shall be notified:

(a)

a programme of operations setting out the types of crypto-asset services that the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide, including where and how those services are to be marketed;

(b)

a description of:

(i)

the internal control mechanisms, policies and procedures to ensure compliance with the provisions of national law transposing Directive (EU) 2015/849;

(ii)

the risk assessment framework for the management of money laundering and terrorist financing risks; and

(iii)

the business continuity plan;

(c)

the technical documentation of the ICT systems and security arrangements, and a description thereof in non-technical language;

(d)

a description of the procedure for the segregation of clients’ crypto-assets and funds;

(e)

a description of the custody and administration policy, where it is intended to provide custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(f)

a description of the operating rules of the trading platform and of the procedures and system to detect market abuse, where it is intended to operate a trading platform for crypto-assets;

(g)

a description of the non-discriminatory commercial policy governing the relationship with clients as well as a description of the methodology for determining the price of the crypto-assets they propose to exchange for funds or other crypto-assets, where it is intended to exchange crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets;

(h)

a description of the execution policy, where it is intended to execute orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients;

(i)

evidence that the natural persons giving advice on behalf of the applicant crypto-asset service provider or managing portfolios on behalf of the applicant crypto-asset service provider have the necessary knowledge and expertise to fulfil their obligations, where it is intended to provide advice on crypto-assets or provide portfolio management on crypto-assets;

(j)

whether the crypto-asset service relates to asset-referenced tokens, e-money tokens or other crypto-assets;

(k)

information on the manner in which such transfer services will be provided, where it is intended to provide transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients.

8.   A competent authority receiving a notification as referred to in paragraphs 1 to 6 shall, within 20 working days of receipt of such notification, assess whether all required information has been provided. Where the competent authority concludes that a notification is not complete, it shall immediately inform the notifying entity thereof and set a deadline by which that entity is required to provide the missing information.

The deadline for providing any missing information shall not exceed 20 working days from the date of the request. Until the expiry of that deadline, each period as set out in paragraphs 1 to 6 shall be suspended. Any further requests by the competent authority for completion or clarification of the information shall be at its discretion but shall not result in a suspension of any period set out in paragraphs 1 to 6.

The crypto-asset service provider shall not begin providing the crypto-asset services as long as the notification is incomplete.

9.   The entities referred to in paragraphs 1 to 6 shall not be required to submit any information referred to in paragraph 7 that was previously submitted by them to the competent authority where such information would be identical. When submitting the information referred to in paragraph 7, the entities referred to in paragraphs 1 to 6 shall expressly state that any information that was submitted previously is still up-to-date.

10.   Where the entities referred to in paragraphs 1 to 6 of this Article provide crypto-asset services, they shall not be subject to Articles 62, 63, 64, 67, 83 and 84.

11.   The right to provide crypto-asset services referred to in paragraphs 1 to 6 of this Article shall be revoked upon the withdrawal of the relevant authorisation that enabled the respective entity to provide the crypto-asset services without being required to obtain an authorisation pursuant to Article 59.

12.   Competent authorities shall communicate to ESMA the information specified in Article 109(5), after verifying the completeness of the information referred to in paragraph 7.

ESMA shall make such information available in the register referred to in Article 109 by the starting date of the intended provision of crypto-asset services.

13.   ESMA, in close cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the information referred to in paragraph 7.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

14.   ESMA, in close cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, templates and procedures for the notification pursuant to paragraph 7.

ESMA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 61

Provision of crypto-asset services at the exclusive initiative of the client

1.   Where a client established or situated in the Union initiates at its own exclusive initiative the provision of a crypto-asset service or activity by a third‐country firm, the requirement for authorisation under Article 59 shall not apply to the provision of that crypto-asset service or activity by the third‐country firm to that client, including a relationship specifically relating to the provision of that crypto-asset service or activity.

Without prejudice to intragroup relationships, where a third‐country firm, including through an entity acting on its behalf or having close links with such third‐country firm or any other person acting on behalf of such entity, solicits clients or prospective clients in the Union, regardless of the means of communication used for the solicitation, promotion or advertising in the Union, it shall not be deemed to be a service provided on the client’s own exclusive initiative.

The second subparagraph shall apply notwithstanding any contractual clause or disclaimer purporting to state otherwise, including any clause or disclaimer that the provision of services by a third-country firm is deemed to be a service provided on the client’s own exclusive initiative.

2.   A client’s own exclusive initiative as referred to in paragraph 1 shall not entitle a third‐country firm to market new types of crypto-assets or crypto-asset services to that client.

3.   ESMA shall by 30 December 2024 issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 to specify the situations in which a third-country firm is deemed to solicit clients established or situated in the Union.

In order to foster convergence and promote consistent supervision in respect of the risk of abuse of this Article, ESMA shall also issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 on supervision practices to detect and prevent circumvention of this Regulation.

Article 62

Application for authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider

1.   Legal persons or other undertakings that intend to provide crypto-asset services shall submit their application for an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider to the competent authority of their home Member State.

2.   The application referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain all of the following information:

(a)

the name, including the legal name and any other commercial name used, the legal entity identifier of the applicant crypto-asset service provider, the website operated by that provider, a contact email address, a contact telephone number and its physical address;

(b)

the legal form of the applicant crypto-asset service provider;

(c)

the articles of association of the applicant crypto-asset service provider, where applicable;

(d)

a programme of operations, setting out the types of crypto-asset services that the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide, including where and how those services are to be marketed;

(e)

proof that the applicant crypto-asset service provider meets the requirements for prudential safeguards set out in Article 67;

(f)

a description of the applicant crypto-asset service provider’s governance arrangements;

(g)

proof that members of the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider are of sufficiently good repute and possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and experience to manage that provider;

(h)

the identity of any shareholders and members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the applicant crypto-asset service provider and the amounts of those holdings, as well as proof that those persons are of sufficiently good repute;

(i)

a description of the applicant crypto-asset service provider’s internal control mechanisms, policies and procedures to identify, assess and manage risks, including money laundering and terrorist financing risks, and business continuity plan;

(j)

the technical documentation of the ICT systems and security arrangements, and a description thereof in non-technical language;

(k)

a description of the procedure for the segregation of clients’ crypto-assets and funds;

(l)

a description of the applicant crypto-asset service provider’s complaints-handling procedures;

(m)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide custody and administration of crypto-assets on behalf of clients, a description of the custody and administration policy;

(n)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to operate a trading platform for crypto-assets, a description of the operating rules of the trading platform and of the procedure and system to detect market abuse;

(o)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to exchange crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, a description of the commercial policy, which shall be non-discriminatory, governing the relationship with clients as well as a description of the methodology for determining the price of the crypto-assets that the applicant crypto-asset service provider proposes to exchange for funds or other crypto-assets;

(p)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to execute orders for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, a description of the execution policy;

(q)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide advice on crypto-assets or portfolio management of crypto-assets, proof that the natural persons giving advice on behalf of the applicant crypto-asset service provider or managing portfolios on behalf of the applicant crypto-asset service provider have the necessary knowledge and expertise to fulfil their obligations;

(r)

where the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide transfer services for crypto-assets on behalf of clients, information on the manner in which such transfer services will be provided;

(s)

the type of crypto-asset to which the crypto-asset service relates.

3.   For the purposes of paragraph 2, points (g) and (h), an applicant crypto-asset service provider shall provide proof of all of the following:

(a)

for all members of the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider, the absence of a criminal record in respect of convictions and the absence of penalties imposed under the applicable commercial law, insolvency law and financial services law, or in relation to anti-money laundering, and counter-terrorist financing, to fraud or to professional liability;

(b)

that the members of the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider collectively possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and experience to manage the crypto-asset service provider and that those persons are required to commit sufficient time to perform their duties;

(c)

for all shareholders and members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the applicant crypto-asset service provider, the absence of a criminal record in respect of convictions or the absence of penalties imposed under the applicable commercial law, insolvency law and financial services law, or in relation to anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, to fraud or to professional liability.

4.   Competent authorities shall not require an applicant crypto-asset service provider to provide any information referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article that they have already received under the respective authorisation procedures in accordance with Directive 2009/110/EC, 2014/65/EU or (EU) 2015/2366, or pursuant to national law applicable to crypto-asset services prior to 29 June 2023, provided that such previously submitted information or documents are still up-to-date.

5.   ESMA, in close cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to further specify the information referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

6.   ESMA, in close cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft implementing technical standards to establish standard forms, templates and procedures for the information to be included in the application for authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider.

ESMA shall submit the draft implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 63

Assessment of the application for authorisation and grant or refusal of authorisation

1.   Competent authorities shall promptly, and in any event within five working days of receipt of an application under Article 62(1), acknowledge receipt thereof in writing to the applicant crypto-asset service provider.

2.   Competent authorities shall, within 25 working days of receipt of an application under Article 62(1), assess whether that application is complete by checking that the information listed in Article 62(2) has been submitted.

Where the application is not complete, competent authorities shall set a deadline by which the applicant crypto-asset service provider is to provide any missing information.

3.   Competent authorities may refuse to review applications where such applications remain incomplete after the expiry of the deadline set by them in accordance with paragraph 2, second subparagraph.

4.   Once an application is complete, competent authorities shall promptly notify the applicant crypto-asset service provider thereof.

5.   Before granting or refusing authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider, competent authorities shall consult the competent authorities of another Member State where the applicant crypto-asset service provider is in one of the following positions in relation to a credit institution, a central securities depository, an investment firm, a market operator, a UCITS management company, an alternative investment fund manager, a payment institution, an insurance undertaking, an electronic money institution or an institution for occupational retirement provision, authorised in that other Member State:

(a)

it is its subsidiary;

(b)

it is a subsidiary of the parent undertaking of that entity; or

(c)

it is controlled by the same natural or legal persons who control that entity.

6.   Before granting or refusing an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider, competent authorities:

(a)

may consult the competent authorities for anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing, and financial intelligence units, in order to verify that the applicant crypto-asset service provider has not been the subject of an investigation into conduct relating to money laundering or terrorist financing;

(b)

shall ensure that the applicant crypto-asset service provider that operates establishments or relies on third parties established in high-risk third countries identified pursuant to Article 9 of Directive (EU) 2015/849 complies with the provisions of national law transposing Articles 26(2), 45(3) and 45(5) of that Directive;

(c)

shall, where appropriate, ensure that the applicant crypto-asset service provider has put in place appropriate procedures to comply with the provisions of national law transposing Article 18a(1) and (3) of Directive (EU) 2015/849.

7.   Where close links exist between the applicant crypto-asset service provider and other natural or legal persons, competent authorities shall grant authorisation only if those links do not prevent the effective exercise of their supervisory functions.

8.   Competent authorities shall refuse authorisation if the laws, regulations or administrative provisions of a third country governing one or more natural or legal persons with which the applicant crypto-asset service provider has close links, or difficulties involved in their enforcement, prevent the effective exercise of their supervisory functions.

9.   Competent authorities shall, within 40 working days from the date of receipt of a complete application, assess whether the applicant crypto-asset service provider complies with this Title and shall adopt a fully reasoned decision granting or refusing an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider. Competent authorities shall notify the applicant of their decision within five working days of the date of that decision. That assessment shall take into account the nature, scale and complexity of the crypto-asset services that the applicant crypto-asset service provider intends to provide.

10.   Competent authorities shall refuse authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider where there are objective and demonstrable grounds that:

(a)

the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider poses a threat to its effective, sound and prudent management and business continuity, and to the adequate consideration of the interest of its clients and the integrity of the market, or exposes the applicant crypto-asset service provider to a serious risk of money laundering or terrorist financing;

(b)

the members of the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider do not meet the criteria set out in Article 68(1);

(c)

the shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the applicant crypto-asset service provider do not meet the criteria of sufficiently good repute set out in Article 68(2);

(d)

the applicant crypto-asset service provider fails to meet or is likely to fail to meet any of the requirements of this Title.

11.   ESMA and EBA shall jointly issue guidelines in accordance with Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 and Article 16 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010, respectively, on the assessment of the suitability of the members of the management body of the applicant crypto-asset service provider and of the shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, that have qualifying holdings in the applicant crypto-asset service provider.

ESMA and EBA shall issue the guidelines referred to in the first subparagraph by 30 June 2024.

12.   Competent authorities may, during the assessment period provided for in paragraph 9, and no later than on the 20th working day of that period, request any further information that is necessary to complete the assessment. Such request shall be made in writing to the applicant crypto-asset service provider and shall specify the additional information needed.

The assessment period under paragraph 9 shall be suspended for the period between the date of request for missing information by the competent authorities and the receipt by them of a response thereto from the applicant crypto-asset service provider. The suspension shall not exceed 20 working days. Any further requests by the competent authorities for completion or clarification of the information shall be at their discretion but shall not result in a suspension of the assessment period under paragraph 9.

13.   Competent authorities shall, within two working days of granting authorisation, communicate to ESMA the information specified in Article 109(5). Competent authorities shall also inform ESMA of any refusals of authorisations. ESMA shall make the information referred to in Article 109(5) available in the register referred to in that Article by the starting date of the provision of crypto-asset services.

Article 64

Withdrawal of authorisation of a crypto-asset service provider

1.   Competent authorities shall withdraw the authorisation of a crypto-asset service provider if the crypto-asset service provider does any of the following:

(a)

has not used its authorisation within 12 months of the date of the authorisation;

(b)

has expressly renounced its authorisation;

(c)

has not provided crypto-asset services for nine consecutive months;

(d)

has obtained its authorisation by irregular means, such as by making false statements in its application for authorisation;

(e)

no longer meets the conditions under which the authorisation was granted and has not taken the remedial action requested by the competent authority within the specified timeframe;

(f)

fails to have in place effective systems, procedures and arrangements to detect and prevent money laundering and terrorist financing in accordance with Directive (EU) 2015/849;

(g)

has seriously infringed this Regulation, including the provisions relating to the protection of holders of crypto-assets or of clients of crypto-asset service providers, or market integrity.

2.   Competent authorities may withdraw authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider in any of the following situations:

(a)

the crypto-asset service provider has infringed the provisions of national law transposing Directive (EU) 2015/849;

(b)

the crypto-asset service provider has lost its authorisation as a payment institution or its authorisation as an electronic money institution, and that crypto-asset service provider has failed to remedy the situation within 40 calendar days.

3.   Where a competent authority withdraws an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider, it shall notify ESMA and the single points of contact of the host Member States without undue delay. ESMA shall make such information available in the register referred to in Article 109.

4.   Competent authorities may limit the withdrawal of authorisation to a particular crypto-asset service.

5.   Before withdrawing an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider, competent authorities shall consult the competent authority of another Member State where the crypto-asset service provider concerned is:

(a)

a subsidiary of a crypto-asset service provider authorised in that other Member State;

(b)

a subsidiary of the parent undertaking of a crypto-asset service provider authorised in that other Member State;

(c)

controlled by the same natural or legal persons who control a crypto-asset service provider authorised in that other Member State.

6.   Before withdrawing an authorisation as a crypto-asset service provider, competent authorities may consult the authority competent for supervising compliance of the crypto-asset service provider with the rules on anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing.

7.   EBA, ESMA and any competent authority of a host Member State may at any time request that the competent authority of the home Member State examine whether the crypto-asset service provider still complies with the conditions under which the authorisation was granted, when there are grounds to suspect it may no longer be the case.

8.   Crypto-asset service providers shall establish, implement and maintain adequate procedures ensuring the timely and orderly transfer of their clients’ crypto-assets and funds to another crypto-asset service provider when an authorisation is withdrawn.

Article 65

Cross-border provision of crypto-asset services

1.   A crypto-asset service provider that intends to provide crypto-asset services in more than one Member State shall submit the following information to the competent authority of the home Member State:

(a)

a list of the Member States in which the crypto-asset service provider intends to provide crypto-asset services;

(b)

the crypto-asset services that the crypto-asset service provider intends to provide on a cross-border basis;

(c)

the starting date of the intended provision of the crypto-asset services;

(d)

a list of all other activities provided by the crypto-asset service provider not covered by this Regulation.

2.   The competent authority of the home Member State shall, within 10 working days of receipt of the information referred to in paragraph 1, communicate that information to the single points of contact of the host Member States, to ESMA and to EBA.

3.   The competent authority of the Member State that granted authorisation shall inform the crypto-asset service provider concerned of the communication referred to in paragraph 2 without delay.

4.   The crypto-asset service provider may begin to provide crypto-asset services in a Member State other than its home Member State from the date of receipt of the communication referred to in paragraph 3 or at the latest from the 15th calendar day after having submitted the information referred to in paragraph 1.

CHAPTER 2

Obligations for all crypto-asset service providers

Article 66

Obligation to act honestly, fairly and professionally in the best interests of clients

1.   Crypto-asset service providers shall act honestly, fairly and professionally in accordance with the best interests of their clients and prospective clients.

2.   Crypto-asset service providers shall provide their clients with information that is fair, clear and not misleading, including in marketing communications, which shall be identified as such. Crypto-asset service providers shall not, deliberately or negligently, mislead a client in relation to the real or perceived advantages of any crypto-assets.

3.   Crypto-asset service providers shall warn clients of the risks associated with transactions in crypto-assets.

When operating a trading platform for crypto-assets, exchanging crypto-assets for funds or other crypto-assets, providing advice on crypto-assets or providing portfolio management on crypto-assets, crypto-asset service providers shall provide their clients with hyperlinks to any crypto-asset white papers for the crypto-assets in relation to which they are providing those services.

4.   Crypto-asset service providers shall make their policies on pricing, costs and fees publicly available, in a prominent place on their website.

5.   Crypto-asset service providers shall make publicly available, in a prominent place on their website, information related to the principal adverse impacts on the climate and other environment-related adverse impacts of the consensus mechanism used to issue each crypto-asset in relation to which they provide services. That information may be obtained from the crypto-asset white papers.

6.   ESMA, in cooperation with EBA, shall develop draft regulatory technical standards on the content, methodologies and presentation of information referred to in paragraph 5 in respect of the sustainability indicators in relation to adverse impacts on the climate and other environment‐related adverse impacts.

When developing the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph, ESMA shall consider the various types of consensus mechanisms used to validate crypto-asset transactions, their incentive structures and the use of energy, renewable energy and natural resources, the production of waste and greenhouse gas emissions. ESMA shall update the regulatory technical standards in the light of regulatory and technological developments.

ESMA shall submit the draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 30 June 2024.

Power is delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation by adopting the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 67

Prudential requirements

1.   Crypto-asset service providers shall, at all times, have in place prudential safeguards equal to an amount of at least the higher of the following:

(a)

the amount of permanent minimum capital requirements indicated in Annex IV, depending on the type of the crypto-asset services provided;

(b)

one quarter of the fixed overheads of the preceding year, reviewed annually.

2.   Crypto-asset service providers that have not been in business for one year from the date on which they began providing services shall use, for the calculation referred to in paragraph 1, point (b), the projected fixed overheads included in their projections for the first 12 months of service provision, as submitted with their application for authorisation.

3.   For the purposes of paragraph 1, point (b), crypto-asset service providers shall calculate their fixed overheads for the preceding year, using figures resulting from the applicable accounting framework, by subtracting the following items from the total expenses after distribution of profits to shareholders or members in their most recently audited annual financial statements or, where audited statements are not available, in annual financial statements validated by national supervisors:

(a)

staff bonuses and other remuneration, to the extent that those bonuses and that remuneration depend on a net profit of the crypto-asset service providers in the relevant year;

(b)

employees’, directors’ and partners’ shares in profits;

(c)

other appropriations of profits and other variable remuneration, to the extent that they are fully discretionary;

(d)

non-recurring expenses from non-ordinary activities.

4.   The prudential safeguards referred to in paragraph 1 shall take any of the following forms or a combination thereof:

(a)

own funds, consisting of Common Equity Tier 1 items and instruments referred to in Articles 26 to 30 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 after the deductions in full, pursuant to Article 36 of that Regulation, without the application of threshold exemptions pursuant to Articles 46 and 48 of that Regulation;

(b)

an insurance policy covering the territories of the Union where crypto-asset services are provided or a comparable guarantee.

5.   The insurance policy referred to in paragraph 4, point (b), shall be disclosed to the public on the crypto-asset service provider’s website and shall have at least the following characteristics:

(a)

it has an initial term of not less than one year;

(b)

the notice period for its cancellation is at least 90 days;

(c)

it is taken out from an undertaking authorised to provide insurance, in accordance with Union or national law;

(d)

it is provided by a third-party entity.

6.   The insurance policy referred to in paragraph 4, point (b), shall include coverage against the risk of all of the following:

(a)

loss of documents;

(b)

misrepresentations or misleading statements made;

(c)

acts, errors or omissions resulting in a breach of:

(i)

legal and regulatory obligations;

(ii)

the obligation to act honestly, fairly and professionally towards clients;

(iii)

obligations of confidentiality;

(d)

failure to establish, implement and maintain appropriate procedures to prevent conflicts of interest;

(e)

losses arising from business disruption or system failures;

(f)

where applicable to the business model, gross negligence in the safeguarding of clients’ crypto-assets and funds;

(g)

liability of the crypto-asset service providers towards clients pursuant to Article 75(8).