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Document 01997L0068-20090807

Consolidated text: Directive 97/68/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/1997/68/2009-08-07

1997L0068 — EN — 07.08.2009 — 006.002


This document is meant purely as a documentation tool and the institutions do not assume any liability for its contents

►B

DIRECTIVE 97/68/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

of 16 December 1997

on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery

(OJ L 059, 27.2.1998, p.1)

Amended by:

 

 

Official Journal

  No

page

date

►M1

COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2001/63/EC of 17 August 2001

  L 227

41

23.8.2001

►M2

DIRECTIVE 2002/88/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 9 December 2002

  L 35

28

11.2.2003

►M3

DIRECTIVE 2004/26/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL Text with EEA relevance of 21 April 2004

  L 146

1

30.4.2004

►M4

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2006/105/EC of 20 November 2006

  L 363

368

20.12.2006

►M5

REGULATION (EC) No 596/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 18 June 2009

  L 188

14

18.7.2009


Amended by:

 A1

  L 236

33

23.9.2003


Corrected by:

►C1

Corrigendum, OJ L 225, 25.6.2004, p. 3  (2004/26)




▼B

DIRECTIVE 97/68/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

of 16 December 1997

on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery



THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 100a thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission ( 1 ),

Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee ( 2 ),

Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 189b of the Treaty ( 3 ), in the light of the joint text approved by the Conciliation Committee on 11 November 1997,

(1) Whereas the Community programme of policy and action in relation to the environment and sustainable development ( 4 ) recognizes as a fundamental principle that all persons should be effectively protected against recognized health risks from air pollution and that this necessitates in particular the control of emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulates (PT) — black smoke, and other pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO); whereas with regard to the prevention of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation and its associated health and environmental impact, the emissions of the precursors nitrogenoxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC) must be reduced; whereas the environmental damage caused by acidification will also require reductions inter alia on the emission of NOx and HC;

(2)

Whereas the Community signed the UN/ECE protocol on volatile organic compound (VOC) reduction in April 1992 and adhered to the protocol on NOx reduction in December 1993, both of which are related to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution which was approved in July 1982;

(3)

Whereas the objective of reducing the level of pollutant emissions from non-road mobile machinery engines and the establishment and operation of the internal market for engines and machinery cannot be sufficiently achieved by individual Member States, and can therefore be better achieved by the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against air pollution by engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery;

(4)

Whereas recent investigations undertaken by the Commission show that the emissions from non-road mobile machinery engines constitute a significant proportion of the total man-made emissions of certain noxious atmospheric pollutants; whereas the category of compression ignition engines which will be regulated by this Directive is responsible for a considerable share of air pollution by NOx and PT, in particular when it is compared with that coming from the road transport sector;

(5)

Whereas emissions from non-road mobile machinery operating on the ground equipped with compression ignition engines, and in particular the emissions of NOx and PT, constitute a primary cause of concern in this area; whereas these sources should be regulated in the first instance; whereas, however, it will also be appropriate subsequently to extend the scope of this Directive to include the control of emissions from other non-road mobile machinery engines, including transportable generating sets, based on appropriate test cycles, and in particular from gasoline engines; whereas a considerable reduction of the CO and HC emissions may be achievable with the envisaged enlargement of the scope of this Directive to include gasoline engines;

(6)

Whereas emissions control legislation on agricultural and forestry tractor engines, ensuring a level of environmental protection equivalent to the level established pursuant to this Directive, with standards and requirements fully consistent with it, should be introduced as soon as possible;

(7)

Whereas, in respect of certification procedures, that type-approval approach has been taken which, as a European method, has stood the test of time for approvals of road vehicles and their components; whereas, as a new element, the approval of a parent engine on behalf of a group of engines (engine family) built using similar components according to similar construction principles, has been introduced;

(8)

Whereas the engines produced in compliance with the requirements of this Directive will have to be accordingly marked and notified to the approval authorities; whereas, in order to keep administrative burdens low, no direct control by the authority of the engine production dates relevant for strengthened requirements has been foreseen; whereas this freedom for the manufacturers requires them to facilitate the preparation of spot checks by the authority and to make available relevant production planning information at regular intervals; whereas absolute compliance with notification made in accordance with this procedure is not obligatory but a high degree of compliance would facilitate the approval authorities' planning of assessments and contribute to a relationship of increased trust between manufacturers and type-approval authorities;

(9)

Whereas approvals granted in accordance with Directive 88/77/EEC ( 5 ) and with UN/ECE Regulation 49 Series 02, as listed in Annex IV, Appendix II to Directive 92/53/EEC ( 6 ) are recognized as equivalent to those required by this Directive in its first stage;

(10)

Whereas engines which are in compliance with the requirements of this Directive and covered by its scope must be permitted to be placed on the market in the Member States; whereas these engines must not be subject to any other national emission requirement; whereas the Member State granting approvals will take the necessary control measures;

(11)

Whereas, in laying down the new test procedures and limit values, it is necessary to take into account the specific usage patterns of these types of engines;

(12)

Whereas it is appropriate to introduce these new standards according to the proven principle of a two-stage approach;

(13)

Whereas, for engines with higher power output, the achievement of substantial emission reduction seems to be easier, as existing technology that has been developed for engines of road vehicles can be used; whereas, taking this into account a staggered implementation of the requirements has been foreseen, beginning with the highest of three powerbands for stage I; whereas this principle has been retained for stage II with the exception of a new fourth powerband not covered by stage I;

(14)

Whereas for this sector of non-road mobile machinery applications, which is now regulated and is the most important one besides agricultural tractors if compared with emissions coming from road transport, a considerable reduction of emissions can be expected by the implementation of this Directive; whereas due to, in general, very good performance of diesel engines with respect to CO and HC emissions, the margin for improvement in respect of the total amount emitted is very small;

(15)

Whereas, in order to make provision for the case of exceptional technical or economic circumstances, procedures have been integrated which could exempt manufacturers from the obligations arising from this Directive;

(16)

Whereas, in order to ensure ‘conformity of production’ (COP) once an approval is granted for an engine, manufacturers will be required to provide corresponding arrangements; whereas provisions have been made for the case of discovered non-conformity which lay down information procedures, corrective actions and a cooperation procedure which will allow the settling of possible differences of opinion between Member States in respect of conformity of certified engines;

(17)

Whereas the entitlement of Member States to lay down requirements ensuring that workers are protected when using non-road mobile machinery shall not be affected by this Directive;

(18)

Whereas the technical provisions in certain Annexes to this Directive should be supplemented and, as necessary, adapted to technical progress according to a committee procedure;

(19)

Whereas provisions should be laid down to ensure testing of the engines in compliance with the rules of good laboratory practice;

(20)

Whereas there is a need to promote global trade in this sector by harmonizing, as far as possible, emission standards in the Community with those applied or planned in third countries;

(21)

Whereas it is therefore necessary to envisage the possibility of reconsidering the situation on the basis of the availability and the economic feasibility of new technologies and taking account of progress achieved in the implementation of the second stage;

(22)

Whereas an agreement on a modus vivendi between the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission concerning the implementing measures for acts adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 189b of the Treaty was reached on 20 December 1994 ( 7 ),

HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:



Article 1

Objectives

This Directive aims at approximating the laws of the Member States relating to emission standards and type-approval procedures for engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery. It will contribute to the smooth functioning of the internal market, while protecting human health and the environment.

Article 2

Definitions

For the purposes of this Directive:

  non-road mobile machinery shall mean any mobile machine, transportable industrial equipment or vehicle with or without body work, not intended for the use of passenger- or goods-transport on the road, in which an internal combustion engine as specified in Annex I section 1 is installed,

  type-approval shall mean the procedure whereby a Member State certifies that an internal combustion engine type or engine family with regard to the level of emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the engine(s), satisfies the relevant technical requirements of this Directive,

  engine type shall mean a category of engines which do not differ in such essential engine characteristics as specified in Annex II, Appendix 1,

  engine family shall mean a manufacturer's grouping of engines which, through their design, are expected to have similar exhaust emission characteristics and which comply with the requirements of this Directive,

  parent engine shall mean an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that it complies with the requirements set out in sections 6 and 7 of Annex I,

  engine power output shall mean net power as specified in section 2.4 of Annex I,

  engine production date shall mean the date when the engine passes the final check after it has left the production line. At this stage the engine is ready to be delivered or to be put on stock,

▼M2

  placing on the market shall mean the action of making an engine available for the first time on the market, for payment or free of charge, with a view to distribution and/or use in the Community,

▼B

  manufacturer shall mean the person or body who is responsible to the approval authority for all aspects of the type-approval process and for ensuring conformity of production. It is not essential that the person or body is directly involved in all stages of the construction of the engine,

  approval authority shall mean a Member State's competent authority or authorities responsible for all aspects of type-approval of an engine or of an engine family, for issuing and withdrawing approval certificates, for serving as the contact point with the approval authorities of the other Member States, and for verifying the manufacturer's conformity of production arrangements,

  technical service shall mean the organization(s) or body(ies) that has(have) been appointed as a testing laboratory to carry out tests or inspections on behalf of the approval authority of a Member State. This function may also be carried out by the approval authority itself,

  information document shall mean the document set out in Annex II that prescribes the information to be supplied by an applicant,

  information folder shall mean the total folder or file of data, drawings, photographs, etc. supplied by the applicant to the technical service or the approval authority as prescribed in the information document,

  information package shall mean the information folder plus any test reports or other documents that the technical service or the approval authority have added to the information folder in the course of carrying out their functions,

  index to the information package shall mean the document in which the contents of the information package, suitably numbered or otherwise marked to clearly identify all pages, are listed,

▼M2

  replacement engines shall mean a newly built engine to replace an engine in a machine, and which has been supplied for this purpose only,

  hand-held engine shall mean an engine that meets at least one of the following requirements:

 

(a) the engine must be used in a piece of equipment that is carried by the operator throughout the performance of its intended function(s);

(b) the engine must be used in a piece of equipment that must operate multipositionally, such as upside down or sideways, to complete its intended function(s);

(c) the engine must be used in a piece of equipment for which the combined engine and equipment dry weight is under 20 kilograms and at least one of the following attributes is also present:

(i) the operator must alternatively provide support or carry the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function(s);

(ii) the operator must provide support or attitudinal control for the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function(s);

(iii) the engine must be used in a generator or a pump,

  non-hand-held engine shall mean an engine which does not fall under the definition of a hand-held engine,

  professional use multipositional hand-held engine shall mean a hand-held engine which meets the requirements of both (a) and (b) of the hand-held engine definition and in relation to which the engine manufacturer has satisfied an approval authority that a Category 3 Emissions Durability Period (according to section 2.1 of Appendix 4 to Annex IV) would be applicable to the engine,

  emission durability period shall mean the number of hours indicated in Annex IV, Appendix 4, used to determine the deterioration factors,

  small volume engine family shall mean a spark-ignition (SI) engine family with a total yearly production of fewer than 5 000 units,

  small volume engine manufacturer of SI engines shall mean a manufacturer with a total yearly production of fewer than 25 000 units,

▼C1

  inland waterway vessel shall mean a vessel intended for use on inland waterways having a length of 20 metres or more and having a volume of 100 m3 or more according to the formula defined in Annex I, Section 2, point 2.8a, or tugs or pusher craft having been built to tow or to push or to move alongside vessels of 20 metres or more,

 This definition does not include:

 

 vessels intended for passenger transport carrying no more that 12 people in addition to the crew,

 recreational craft with a length of less than 24 metres (as defined in Article 1(2) of Directive 94/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 June 1994 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to recreational craft ( 8 ),

 service craft belonging to supervisory authorities,

 fire-service vessels,

 naval vessels,

 fishing vessels on the fishing vessels register of the Community,

 sea-going vessels, including sea-going tugs and pusher craft operating or based on tidal waters or temporarily on inland waterways, provided that they carry a valid navigation or safety certificate as defined in Annex I, Section 2, point 2.8b,

  original equipment manufacturer (OEM) shall mean a manufacturer of a type of non-road mobile machine,

  flexibility scheme shall mean the procedure allowing an engine manufacturer to place on the market, during the period between two successive stages of limit values, a limited number of engines, to be installed in non-road mobile machinery, that only comply with the previous stage of emission limit values.

▼B

Article 3

Application for type-approval

1.  Application for engine or engine family type-approval shall be submitted by the manufacturer to the approval authority of a Member State. An application shall be accompanied by an information folder, the contents of which are given in the information document in Annex II. An engine conforming to the engine type characteristics described in Annex II, Appendix 1, shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests.

2.  In the case of an application for type-approval of an engine family, if the approval authority determines that, with regard to the selected parent engine, the submitted application does not fully represent the engine family described in Annex II, Appendix 2, an alternative and, if necessary, an additional parent engine which is determined by the approval authority shall be provided for approval according to paragraph 1.

3.  No application in respect of one engine type or engine family may be submitted to more than one Member State. A separate application shall be submitted for each engine type or engine family to be approved.

Article 4

Type-approval procedure

1.  The Member State receiving the application shall grant type-approval to all engine types or engine families which conform to the particulars in the information folder and which meet the requirements of this Directive.

2.  The Member State shall complete all applicable sections of the type-approval certificate, the model being given in ►M2  Annex VII ◄ , for each engine type or engine family which it approves and shall compile or verify the contents of the index to the information package. Type-approval certificates shall be numbered in accordance with the method described in ►M2  Annex VIII ◄ . The completed type-approval certificate and its attachments shall be delivered to the applicant. ►M5  The Commission shall amend Annex VIII. Those measures, designed to amend non-essential elements of this Directive, shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 15(2). ◄

3.  Where the engine to be approved fulfils its function or offers a specific feature only in conjunction with other parts of the non-road mobile machinery, and for this reason compliance with one or more requirements can be verified only when the engine to be approved operates in conjunction with other machinery parts, whether real or simulated, the scope of the type-approval of the engine(s) must be restricted accordingly. The type-approval certificate for an engine type or engine family shall then include any restrictions on its use and shall indicate any conditions for fitting it.

4.  The approval authority of each Member State shall:

(a) send monthly to the approval authorities of the other Member States a list (containing the particulars shown in ►M2  Annex IX ◄ ) of the engine and engine family type-approvals it has granted, refused to grant or withdrawn during that month;

(b) on receiving a request from the approval authority of another Member State, send forthwith:

 a copy of the engine or engine family type-approval certificate with/without information package for each engine type or engine family which it has approved or refused to approve or withdrawn, and/or

 the list of engines produced according to type-approvals granted, as described in Article 6(3), containing the particulars shown in ►M2  Annex X ◄ , and/or

 a copy of the declaration described in Article 6(4).

5.  The approval authority of each Member State shall yearly, or in addition on receiving a corresponding application, send the Commission a copy of the data sheet as shown in ►M2  Annex XI ◄ related to the engines approved since the last notification was made.

▼M3

6.  Compression ignition engines for use other than in propulsion of locomotives, railcars and inland waterway vessels may be placed on the market under a flexible scheme in accordance with the procedure referred to in Annex XIII in addition to paragraphs 1 to 5.

▼B

Article 5

Amendments to approvals

1.  The Member State which has granted type-approval must take the necessary measures to ensure that it is informed of any change in the particulars appearing in the information package.

2.  The application for the amendment or extension of a type-approval shall be submitted exclusively to the approval authority of the Member State which granted the original type-approval.

3.  If particulars appearing in the information package have changed, the approval authority of the Member State in question shall:

 issue revised page(s) of the information package as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of the change and the date of re-issue. Wherever revised pages are issued the index to the information package (which is attached to the type-approval certificate) shall also be amended to show the latest dates of revised pages, and

 issue a revised type-approval certificate (denoted by an extension number) if any information on it (excluding its attachments) has changed or if the standards of this Directive have changed since the date currently on the approval. The revised certificate shall show clearly the reason for revision and the date of re-issue.

If the approval authority of the Member State in question finds that an amendment to an information package warrants fresh tests or checks, it shall inform the manufacturer thereof and issue the documents mentioned above only after the conduct of successful fresh tests or checks.

Article 6

Conformity

1.  The manufacturer shall affix to each unit manufactured in conformity with the approved type the markings as defined in section 3 of Annex I, including the type-approval number.

2.  Where the type-approval certificate, in accordance with Article 4(3), includes restrictions on use, the manufacturer shall deliver with each unit manufactured, detailed information on these restrictions and shall indicate any conditions for fitting it. Where a series of engine types is delivered to one single manufacturer of machinery, it is sufficient that he will be provided with only one such information document, at the latest on the delivery date of the first engine, which additionally lists the relevant engine identification numbers.

3.  The manufacturer shall send on demand to the approval authority which granted the type-approval, within 45 days after the end of each calendar year, and without delay after each application date when the requirements of this Directive change, and immediately following each additional date the authority may stipulate, a list which contains the range of identification numbers for each engine type produced in accordance with the requirements of this Directive since the last reporting was made, or since the requirements of this Directive were first applicable. Where not clarified by the engine coding system, this list must specify correlations of the identification numbers to the corresponding engine types or engine families and to the type-approval numbers. Additionally, this list must contain particular information if the manufacturer ceases to produce an approved engine type or engine family. Where this list is not required to be regularly sent to the approval authority, the manufacturer must maintain these records for a minimum period of 20 years.

4.  The manufacturer shall send to the approval authority which granted the type-approval, within 45 days after the end of each calendar year and at each application date referred to in Article 9, a declaration specifying the engine types and engine families together with the relevant engine identification codes for those engines he intends to produce from this date on.

▼M3

5.  Compression ignition engines placed on the market under a ‘flexible scheme’ shall be labelled in accordance with Annex XIII.

▼B

Article 7

Acceptance of equivalent approvals

1.  The European Parliament and the Council, acting on a proposal from the Commission, may acknowledge the equivalence between the conditions and provisions for type-approval of engines established by this Directive and the procedures established by international regulations or regulations of third countries, in the framework of multilateral or bilateral agreements between the Community and third countries.

▼M2

2.  Member States shall accept type-approvals and, where applicable, the pertaining approval marks listed in Annex XII as being in conformity with this Directive.

▼M3

Article 7a

Inland waterway vessels

1.  The following provisions shall apply to engines to be installed in inland waterway vessels. Paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply until the equivalence between the requirements established by this Directive and those established in the framework of the Mannheim Convention for the Navigation of the Rhine is recognised by the Central Commission of Navigation on Rhine (hereinafter: CCNR) and the Commission is informed thereof.

2.  Until 30 June 2007, Member States may not refuse the placing on the market of engines which meet the requirements established by CCNR stage I, the emission limit values for which are set out in Annex XIV.

3.  As from 1 July 2007 and until the entry into force of a further set of limit values which would result from further amendments to this Directive, Member States may not refuse the placing on the market of engines which meet the requirements established by CCNR stage II, the emission limit values for which are set out in Annex XV.

▼M5

4.  The Commission shall adapt Annex VII to integrate the additional and specific information which may be required as regards the type-approval certificate for engines to be installed in inland waterway vessels. Those measures, designed to amend non-essential elements of this Directive, shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 15(2).

▼C1

5.  For the purposes of this Directive, as far as inland waterway vessels are concerned, any auxiliary engine with a power of more than 560 kW shall be subject to the same requirements as propulsion engines.

▼B

Article 8

▼M3

Placing on the market

1.  Member States may not refuse the placing on the market of engines, whether or not already installed in machinery, which meet the requirements of this Directive.

▼B

2.  Member States shall only permit registration, where applicable, or placing on the market of new engines, whether or not already installed in machinery, which meet the requirements of this Directive.

▼M3

2a.  Member States shall not issue the Community Inland Water Navigation certificate established by Council Directive 82/714/EC of 4 October 1982 laying down technical requirements for inland waterway vessels ( 9 )to any vessels whose engines do not meet the requirements of this Directive.

▼B

3.  The approval authority of a Member State granting a type-approval shall take the necessary measures in relation to that approval to register and control, if need be in cooperation with the approval authorities of the other Member States, the identification numbers of those engines produced in conformity with the requirements of this Directive.

4.  An additional control of the identification numbers may take place in conjunction with the control of conformity of production as described in Article 11.

5.  With regard to the control of the identification numbers, the manufacturer or his agents established in the Community shall without delay give, on request, to the responsible approval authority all the information needed related to his/their purchasers together with the identification numbers of the engines reported as produced in accordance with Article 6(3). Where engines are sold to a manufacturer of machinery, further information is not required.

6.  If, at the request of the approval authority, the manufacturer is not able to verify the requirements as specified in Article 6 particularly in conjunction with paragraph 5 of this Article, the approval granted in respect of the corresponding engine type or family pursuant to this Directive may be withdrawn. The information procedure shall then be carried out as described in Article 12(4).

Article 9

▼M2

Timetable-compression ignition engines

▼B

1.   GRANT OF TYPE-APPROVALS

After 30 June 1998, Member States may not refuse to grant type-approval for an engine type or engine family or to issue the document as described in ►M2  Annex VII ◄ , and may not impose any other type-approval requirements with regard to air-polluting emissions for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine is installed, if the engine meets the requirements specified in this Directive as regards the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

2.   TYPE-APPROVALS STAGE I

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for an engine type or engine family and to issue the document as described in ►M2  Annex VII ◄ , and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine is installed:

after 30 June 1998 for engines of a power output:



—  A:

130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW,

—  B:

75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

—  C:

37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

if the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in ►M2  section 4.1.2.1 of Annex I ◄ .

3.   TYPE-APPROVALS STAGE II

▼M3

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for an engine type or engine family and to issue the document as described in Annex VII and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery, in which an engine, not already placed on the market, is installed:

▼B



—  D:

after 31 December 1999 for engines of a power output: 18 kW ≤ P < 37 kW,

—  E:

after 31 December 2000 for engines of a power output: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW,

—  F:

after 31 December 2001 for engines of a power output: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

—  G:

after 31 December 2002 for engines of a power output: 37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

if the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in ►M2  section 4.1.2.3 of Annex I ◄ .

▼M3

3a.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE IIIA ENGINES (ENGINE CATEGORIES H, I, J and K)

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in AnnexVII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine, not already placed on the market, is installed:

 H: after 30 June 2005 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW,

 I: after 31 December 2005 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

 J: after 31 December 2006 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

 K: after 31 December 2005 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 19 kW ≤ P < 37 kW,

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.4 of Annex I.

3b.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE IIIA CONSTANT SPEED ENGINES (ENGINE CATEGORIES H, I, J and K)

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine, not already placed on the market, is installed:

 Constant speed H engines: after 31 December 2009 for engines of a power output: 130 kW ≤ P < 560 kW,

 Constant speed I engines: after 31 December 2009 for engines of a power output: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

 Constant speed J engines: after 31 December 2010 for engines of a power output: 37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

 Constant speed K engines: after 31 December 2009 for engines of a power output: 19 kW ≤ P < 37 kW,

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in the table in Section 4.1.2.4 of Annex I.

3c.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III B ENGINES (ENGINE CATEGORIES L, M, N and P)

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine, not already placed on the market, is installed:

 L: after 31 December 2009 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW,

 M: after 31 December 2010 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

 N: after 31 December 2010 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 56 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

 P: after 31 December 2011 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 37 kW ≤ P < 56 kW,

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in the table in Section 4.1.2.5 of Annex I.

3d.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE IV ENGINES (ENGINE CATEGORIES Q and R)

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine, not already placed on the market, is installed:

 Q: after 31 December 2012 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW,

 R: after 30 September 2013 for engines — other than constant speed engines — of a power output: 56 kW ≤ P < 130 kW,

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in the table in Section 4.1.2.6 of Annex I.

3e.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III A PROPULSION ENGINES USED IN INLAND WATERWAY VESSELS (ENGINE CATEGORIES V)

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII:

 V1:1: after 31 December 2005 for engines of power output at or above 37 kW and swept volume below 0,9 litres per cylinder,

 V1:2: after 30 June 2005 for engines with swept volume at or above 0,9 but below 1,2 litres per cylinder,

 V1:3: after 30 June 2005 for engines with swept volume at or above 1,2 but below 2,5 litres per cylinder and an engine power output of: 37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW,

 V1:4: after 31 December 2006 for engines with swept volume at or above 2,5 but below 5 litres per cylinder,

 V2: after 31 December 2007 for engines with swept volume at or above 5 litres per cylinder,

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.4 of Annex I.

3f.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III A PROPULSION ENGINES USED IN RAILCARS

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII:

 RC A: after 30 June 2005 for engines of power output above 130 kW

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.4 of Annex I.

3g.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III B PROPULSION ENGINES USED IN RAILCARS

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII:

 RC B: after 31 December 2010 for engines of power output above 130 kW

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.5 of Annex I.

3h.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III A PROPULSION ENGINES USED IN LOCOMOTIVES

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII:

 RL A: after 31 December 2005 for engines of power output: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW

 RH A: after 31 December 2007 for engines of power output: 560 kW < P

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.4 of Annex I. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the engine types and families referred to where a contract has been entered into to purchase the engine before 20 May 2004 and provided that the engine is placed on the market no later than two years after the applicable date for the relevant category of locomotives.

3i.   TYPE-APPROVAL OF STAGE III B PROPULSION ENGINES USED IN LOCOMOTIVES

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for the following engine types or families and to issue the document as described in Annex VII:

 R B: after 31 December 2010 for engines of power output above 130 kW

where the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.1.2.5 of Annex I. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the engine types and families referred to where a contract has been entered into to purchase the engine before 20 May 2004 and provided that the engine is placed on the market no later than two years after the applicable date for the relevant category of locomotives.

▼B

4.    ►M3   ►C1  PLACING ON THE MARKET: ENGINE PRODUCTION DATES ◄  ◄

After the dates referred to hereafter, with the exception of machinery and engines intended for export to third countries, Member States shall permit the registration, where applicable, and ►M2  placing on the market of engines ◄ , whether or not already installed in machinery, only if they meet the requirements of this Directive, and only if the engine is approved in compliance with one of the categories as defined in paragraphs 2 and 3.

Stage I

 category A: 31 December 1998

 category B: 31 December 1998

 category C: 31 March 1999

Stage II

 category D: 31 December 2000

 category E: 31 December 2001

 category F: 31 December 2002

 category G: 31 December 2003

Nevertheless, for each category, Member States may postpone each date mentioned in the above requirement for two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said date.

The permission granted for stage I-engines shall be terminated with effect from the mandatory implementation of stage II.

▼M3

4a.   Without prejudice to Article 7a and to Article 9(3g) and (3h), after the dates referred to hereafter, with the exception of machinery and engines intended for export to third countries, Member States shall permit the placing on the market of engines, whether or not already installed in machinery, only if they meet the requirements of this Directive, and only if the engine is approved in compliance with one of the categories as defined in paragraphs 2 and 3.

Stage III A other than constant speed engines

 category H: 31 December 2005

 category I: 31 December 2006

 category J: 31 December 2007

 category K: 31 December 2006

Stage III A inland waterway vessel engines

 category V1:1: 31 December 2006

 category V1:2: 31 December 2006

 category V1:3: 31 December 2006

 category V1:4: 31 December 2008

 categories V2: 31 December 2008

Stage III A constant speed engines

 category H: 31 December 2010

 category I: 31 December 2010

 category J: 31 December 2011

 category K: 31 December 2010

Stage III A railcar engines

 category RC A: 31 December 2005

Stage III A locomotive engines

 category RL A:31 December 2006

 category RH A:31 December 2008

Stage III B other than constant speed engines

 category L: 31 December 2010

 category M: 31 December 2011

 category N: 31 December 2011

 category P: 31 December 2012

Stage III B railcar engines

 category RC B: 31 December 2011

Stage III B locomotive engines

 category R B: 31 December 2011

Stage IV other than constant speed engines

 category Q: 31 December 2013

 category R: 30 September 2014

For each category, the above requirements shall be postponed by two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to the said date.

The permission granted for one stage of emission limit values shall be terminated with effect from the mandatory implementation of the next stage of limit values.

4b.   LABELLING TO INDICATE EARLY COMPLIANCE WITH THE STANDARDS OF STAGES IIIA, IIIB AND IV

For engine types or engine families meeting the limit values set out in the table in section 4.1.2.4, 4.1.2.5 and 4.1.2.6 of Annex I before the dates laid down in paragraph 4 of this Article, Member States shall allow special labelling and marking to show that the equipment concerned meets the required limit values before the dates laid down.

▼M2

Article 9a

Timetable — Spark ignition engines

1.   DIVIDING INTO CLASSES

For the purpose of this Directive, spark-ignition engines shall be divided into the following classes.

Main class S

:

small engines with a net power ≤ 19 kW

The main class S shall be divided into two categories:

H

:

engines for hand-held machinery

N

:

engines for non-hand-held machinery



Class/category

Displacement (cubic cm)

Hand-held engines

Class SH:1

< 20

Class SH:2

≥ 20

< 50

Class SH:3

≥ 50

Non-hand-held engines

Class SN:1

< 66

Class SN:2

≥ 66

< 100

Class SN:3

≥ 100

< 225

Class SN:4

≥ 225

2.   GRANT OF TYPE APPROVALS

After 11 August 2004, Member States may not refuse to grant type-approval for an SI engine type or engine family or to issue the document as described in Annex VII, and may not impose any other type-approval requirements with regard to air-polluting emissions for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine is installed, if the engine meets the requirements specified in this Directive as regards the emissions of gaseous pollutants.

3.   TYPE-APPROVALS STAGE 1

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for an engine type or engine family and to issue the documents as described in Annex VII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine is installed after 11 August 2004 if the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.2.2.1 of Annex I.

4.   TYPE-APPROVALS STAGE II

Member States shall refuse to grant type-approval for an engine type or engine family and to issue the documents as described in Annex VII, and shall refuse to grant any other type-approval for non-road mobile machinery in which an engine is installed:

after 1 August 2004 for engine classes SN:1 and SN:2

after 1 August 2006 for engine class SN:4

after 1 August 2007 for engine classes SH:1, SH:2 and SN:3

after 1 August 2008 for engine class SH:3,

if the engine fails to meet the requirements specified in this Directive and where the emissions of gaseous pollutants from the engine do not comply with the limit values as set out in the table in section 4.2.2.2 of Annex I.

5.   PLACING ON THE MARKET: ENGINE PRODUCTION DATES

Six months after the dates for the relevant category of engine in paragraphs 3 and 4, with the exception of machinery and engines intended for export to third countries, Member States shall permit placing on the market of engines, whether or not already installed in machinery, only if they meet the requirements of this Directive.

6.   LABELLING OF EARLY COMPLIANCE WITH STAGE II

For engine types or engine families meeting the limit values set out in the table in section 4.2.2.2 of Annex I, before the dates laid down in point 4 of this Article, Member States shall allow special labelling and marking to show that the equipment concerned meets the required limit values before the dates laid down.

7.   EXEMPTIONS

The following machinery shall be exempted from the implementation dates of stage II emission limit requirements for a period of three years after the entry into force of those emission limit requirements. For those three years, the stage I emission limit requirements shall continue to apply:

hand-held chainsaw : a hand-held device designed to cut wood with a saw chain, designed to be supported with two hands and having an engine capacity in excess of 45 cm3, according to EN ISO 11681-1,

top handle machine (i.e., hand-held drills and tree service chainsaws) : a hand-held device with the handle on top of the machine designed to drill holes or to cut wood with a saw chain (according to ISO 11681-2),

hand-held brush cutter with an internal combustion engine : a hand-held device with a rotating blade made of metal or plastic intended to cut weeds, brush, small trees and similar vegetation. It must be designed according to EN ISO 11806 to operate multi-positionally, such as horizontally or upside down, and have an engine capacity in excess of 40 cm3,

hand-held hedge trimmer : a hand-held device designed for trimming hedges and bushes by means of one or more reciprocating cutter blades, according to EN 774,

hand-held power cutter with an internal combustion engine : a hand-held device intended for cutting hard materials such as stone, asphalt, concrete or steel by means of a rotating metal blade with a displacement in excess of 50 cm3, according to EN 1454, and

non-hand-held, horizontal shaft class SN:3 engine : only those class SN:3 non-hand-held engines with a horizontal shaft that produce power equal to or less than 2,5 kW and are used mainly for select, industrial purposes, including tillers, reel cutters, lawn aerators and generators.

8.   OPTIONAL IMPLEMENTATION DELAY

Nevertheless, for each category, Member States may postpone the dates in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 for two years in respect of engines with a production date prior to those dates.

▼B

Article 10

Exemptions and alternative procedures

▼M3

1.  The requirements of Article 8(1) and (2), Article 9(4) and Article 9a(5) shall not apply to:

 engines for use by the armed services,

 engines exempted in accordance with paragraphs 1a and 2,

 engines for use in machines intended primarily for the launch and recovery of lifeboats,

 engines for use in machines intended primarily for the launch and recovery of beach launched vessels.

1a.  Without prejudice to Article 7a and to Article 9(3g) and (3h), replacement engines, except for railcar, locomotive and inland waterway vessel propulsion engines, shall comply with the limit values that the engine to be replaced had to meet when originally placed on the market.

The text ‘REPLACEMENT ENGINE’ shall be attached to a label on the engine or inserted into the owner's manual.

▼B

2.  Each Member State may, at the request of the manufacturer, exempt end-of-series engines which are still in stock, or stocks of non-road mobile machinery in respect of their engines, from the time limit(s) for placing on the market set out in Article 9(4) in accordance with the following conditions:

 the manufacturer must submit an application to the approval authorities of that Member State which approved the corresponding engine type(s) or engine family(ies) before the entry into force of the time limit(s),

 the application of the manufacturer must include a list as defined in Article 6(3) of those new engines which are not placed on the market within the time limit(s); in the case of engines covered by this Directive for the first time, he must submit his application to the type-approval authority of that Member State where the engines are stored,

 the request must specify the technical and/or economic reasons on which it is based,

 the engines must conform to a type or family for which the type-approval is no longer valid, or which did not need a type-approval before, but which have been produced according to the time limit(s),

 the engines must have been physically stored within the Community within the time limit(s),

 the maximum number of new engines of one or more types placed on the market in each Member State by the application of this exemption must not exceed 10 % of the new engines of all types concerned placed on the market in that Member State during the previous year,

 if the request is accepted by the Member State, the latter must, within one month, send the approval authorities of the other Member States particulars of, and reasons for, the exemptions granted to the manufacturer,

 the Member State granting exemptions according to this Article shall be responsible for ensuring that the manufacturer complies with all corresponding obligations,

 the approval authority shall release for each engine in question a certificate of conformity on which a special entry has been made. If applicable a consolidated document that contains all engine identification numbers in question may be used,

 Member States shall each year send the Commission a list of exemptions granted specifying the reasons.

This option shall be limited to a period of 12 months as from the date on which the engines for the first time were subject to the time limit(s) for placing on the market.

▼M2

3.  The requirements of Article 9a(4) and (5) shall be postponed by three years for small volume engine manufacturers.

4.  The requirements of Article 9a(4) and (5) shall be replaced by the corresponding stage I requirements for a small volume engine family to a maximum of 25 000 units providing that the various engine families involved all have different cylinder displacements.

▼M3

5.  Engines may be placed on the market under a ‘flexible scheme’ in accordance with the provisions in Annex XIII.

6.  Paragraph 2 shall not apply to propulsion engines to be installed in inland waterway vessels.

7.  Member States shall permit the placing on the market of engines, as defined under A(i) and A(ii) of Annex I, under the ‘flexibility scheme’ in accordance with the provisions in Annex XIII.

▼B

Article 11

Conformity of production arrangements

1.  The Member State granting a type-approval shall take the necessary measures to verify, with regard to the specifications laid down in section 5 of Annex I, if need be in cooperation with the approval authorities of the other Member States, that adequate arrangements have been made to ensure effective control of the conformity of production before it grants type-approval.

2.  The Member State which has granted a type-approval shall take the necessary measures to verify, with regard to the specifications laid down in section 5 of Annex I, if need be in cooperation with the approval authorities of the other Member States, that the arrangements referred to in paragraph 1 continue to be adequate and that each production engine bearing a type-approval number pursuant to this Directive continues to conform to the description as given in the approval certificate and its Annexes for the approved engine type or family.

Article 12

Non-conformity with the approved type or family

1.  There shall be failure to conform to the approved type or family where deviations from the particulars in the type-approval certificate and/or the information package are found to exist and where these deviations have not been authorized, pursuant to Article 5(3), by the Member State which granted the type-approval.

2.  If a Member State which has granted type-approval finds that engines accompanied by a certificate of conformity or bearing an approval mark do not conform to the type or family it has approved, it shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the engines in production again conform to the approved type or family. The approval authorities of that Member State shall advise those of the other Member States of the measures taken which may, where necessary, extend to withdrawal of type-approval.

3.  If a Member State demonstrates that engines bearing a type-approval number do not conform to the approved type or family it may request the Member State which granted the type-approval to verify that engines in production conform to the approved type or family. Such action shall be taken within six months of the date of the request.

4.  The approval authorities of the Member States shall inform each other within one month of any withdrawal of type-approval and of the reasons for such measure.

5.  If the Member State which granted type-approval disputes the failure to conform notified to it, the Member States concerned shall endeavour to settle the dispute. The Commission shall be kept informed and shall, where necessary, hold appropriate consultations for the purpose of reaching a settlement.

Article 13

Worker protection requirements

The provisions of this Directive shall not affect Member States' entitlement to lay down, in due observance of the Treaty, such requirements as they may deem necessary to ensure that workers are protected when using the machinery referred to in this Directive, provided that this does not affect the placing on the market of the engines in question.

▼M5

Article 14

The Commission shall adopt any amendments which are necessary in order to adapt the Annexes, with the exception of the requirements specified in section 1, sections 2.1 to 2.8 and section 4 of Annex I, to technical progress.

Those measures, designed to amend non-essential elements of this Directive, shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 15(2).

Article 14a

The Commission shall study possible technical difficulties in complying with the stage II requirements for certain uses of the engines, in particular mobile machinery in which engines of classes SH:2 and SH:3 are installed. If the Commission studies conclude that for technical reasons certain mobile machinery, in particular, multi-positional, hand-held engines intended for professional use, cannot meet those requirements by the deadlines laid down, it shall submit, by 31 December 2003, a report accompanied by appropriate proposals for extensions of the period referred to in Article 9a(7) and/or further derogations, not exceeding five years in duration, save in exceptional circumstances, for such machinery. Those measures, designed to amend non-essential elements of this Directive by supplementing it, shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 15(2).

▼M2

Article 15

Committee

1.  The Commission shall be assisted by the Committee on Adaptation to Technical Progress of the Directives on the Removal of Technical Barriers to Trade in the Motor Vehicle Sector (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Committee’).

▼M5

2.  Where reference is made to this paragraph, Article 5a(1) to (4) and Article 7 of Decision 1999/468/EC shall apply, having regard to the provisions of Article 8 thereof.

▼M5 —————

▼B

Article 16

Approval authorities and technical services

The Member States shall notify to the Commission and to the other Member States the names and addresses of the approval authorities and technical services that are responsible for the purposes of this Directive. The notified services must satisfy the requirements as laid down in Article 14 of Directive 92/53/EEC.

Article 17

Transposal into national law

1.  Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive not later than 30 June 1998. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof.

When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or shall be accompanied by such reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such a reference shall be laid down by Member States.

2.  Member States shall communicate to the Commission the texts of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field governed by this Directive.

Article 18

Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Communities.

Article 19

Further reduction in emission limit values

The European Parliament and the Council shall decide, by the end of the year 2000 on a proposal which the Commission will submit before the end of 1999, on a further reduction in emission limit values, taking into account the global availability of techniques for controlling air-polluting emissions from compression ignition engines and the air quality situation.

Article 20

Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

▼M2




List of Annexes



ANNEX I

Scope, definitions, symbols and abbreviations, engine markings, specifications and tests, specification of conformity of production assessments, parameters defining the engine family, choice of the parent engine

ANNEX II

Information documents

Appendix 1

Essential characteristics of the (parent) engine

Appendix 2

Essential characteristics of the engine family

Appendix 3

Essential characteristics of engine type within family

ANNEX III

Test procedure for CI Engines

▼M3

Appendix 1

Measurement and sampling procedures

Appendix 2

Calibration procedure (NRSC, NRTC(1))

▼M2

Appendix 3

►M3   ►C1  Data evaluation and calculations ◄  ◄

▼M3

Appendix 4

NRTC engine dynamometer schedule

Appendix 5

Durability requirements

▼M2

ANNEX IV

Test procedure — Spark ignition engines

Appendix 1

Measurement and sampling procedures

Appendix 2

Calibration of the analytical instruments

Appendix 3

Data evaluation and calculations

Appendix 4

Deterioration factors

ANNEX V

►M3   ►C1  Technical characteristics of reference fuel prescribed for approval tests and to verify conformity of production ◄  ◄

▼M3

ANNEX VI

Analytical and sampling system

▼M2

ANNEX VII

Type approval certificate

▼M3

Appendix 1

Test results for compression ignition engines

▼M2

Appendix 2

Test result for SI engines

Appendix 3

Equipment and auxiliaries to be installed for the test to determine engine power

ANNEX VIII

Approval certificate numbering system

ANNEX IX

List of engine/engine family type-approvals issued

ANNEX X

List of engines produced

ANNEX XI

Data sheet of type approved engines

ANNEX XII

Recognition of alternative type approvals

▼M3

ANNEX XIII

PROVISIONS FOR ENGINES PLACED ON THE MARKET UNDER A ‘FLEXIBLE SCHEME’

ANNEXE XIV

 

ANNEXE XV

 

▼B




ANNEX I

SCOPE, DEFINITIONS, SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS, ENGINE MARKINGS, SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS, SPECIFICATION OF CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION ASSESSMENTS, PARAMETERS DEFINING THE ENGINE FAMILY, CHOICE OF THE PARENT ENGINE

1.   SCOPE

▼M2

This Directive applies to all engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery and to secondary engines fitted into vehicles intended for passenger or goods transport on the road.

▼B

This Directive does not apply to engines for the propulsion of:

 vehicles as defined by Directive 70/156/EEC ( 10 ), and by Directive 92/61/EEC ( 11 ),

 agricultural tractors as defined by Directive 74/150/EEC ( 12 ).

Additionally, in order to be covered by this Directive, the engines have to be installed in machinery which meets the following specific requirements:

▼M3

A. intended and suited, to move, or to be moved with or without road, and with

(i) a C.I. engine having a net power in accordance with section 2.4. that is higher than or equal to 19 kW but not more than 560 kW and that is operated under intermittent speed rather than a single constant speed; or

(ii) a C.I. engine having a net power in accordance with section 2.4. that is higher than or equal to 19 kW but not more than 560 kW and that is operated under constant speed. Limits only apply from 31 December 2006; or

(iii) a petrol fuelled S.I. engine having a net power in accordance with section 2.4. of not more than 19 kW; or

(iv) engines designed for the propulsion of railcars, which are self propelled on-track vehicles specifically designed to carry goods and/or passengers; or

(v) engines designed for the propulsion of locomotives which are self-propelled pieces of on-track equipment designed for moving or propelling cars that are designed to carry freight, passengers and other equipment, but which themselves are not designed or intended to carry freight, passengers (other than those operating the locomotive) or other equipment. Any auxiliary engine or engine intended to power equipment designed to perform maintenance or construction work on the tracks is not classified under this paragraph but under A(i).

▼M2

The Directive is not applicable for the following applications:

▼M3

B. ships, except vessels intended for use on inland waterways;

▼M3 —————

▼M2

D. aircraft;

E. recreational vehicles, e.g.

 snow mobiles,

 off road motorcycles,

 all-terrain vehicles

▼B

2.   DEFINITIONS, SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

For the purpose of this Directive,

2.1.

compression ignition (C.I.) engine shall mean an engine which works on the compression-ignition principle (e.g. diesel engine);

2.2.

gaseous pollutants shall mean carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of C1: H1.85 and oxides of nitrogen, the last named being expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO2 equivalent;

2.3.

particulate pollutants shall mean any material collected on a specified filter medium after diluting C.I. engine exhaust gas with clean filtered air so that the temperature does not exceed 325 K (52 oC);

2.4.

net power shall mean the power in ‘EEC kW’ obtained on the test bench at the end of the crankshaft, or its equivalent, measured in accordance with the EEC method of measuring the power of internal combustion engines for road vehicles as set out in Directive 80/1269/EEC ( 13 ), except that the power of the engine cooling fan is excluded ( 14 ) and the test conditions and reference fuel specified in this Directive are adhered to;

2.5.

rated speed shall mean the maximum full load speed allowed by the governor as specified by the manufacturer;

2.6.

per cent load shall mean the fraction of the maximum available torque at an engine speed;

2.7.

maximum torque speed shall mean the engine speed at which the maximum torque is obtained from the engine, as specified by the manufacturer;

2.8.

intermediate speed shall mean that engine speed which meets one of the following requirements:

 for engines which are designed to operate over a speed range on a full load torque curve, the intermediate speed shall be the declared maximum torque speed if it occurs between 60 % and 75 % of rated speed,

 if the declared maximum torque speed is less than 60 % of rated speed, then the intermediate speed shall be 60 % of the rated speed,

 if the declared maximum torque speed is greater than 75 % of the rated speed then the intermediate speed shall be 75 % of rated speed,

▼M2

 for engines to be tested on cycle G1, the intermediate speed shall be 85 % of the maximum rated speed (see section 3.5.1.2 of Annex IV);

▼M3

2.8a.

volume of 100 m 3 or more with regard to a vessel intended for use on inland waterways means its volume calculated on the formula LxBxT, ‘L’ being the maximum length of the hull, excluding rudder and bowsprit, ‘B’ being the maximum breadth of the hull in metres, measured to the outer edge of the shell plating (excluding paddle wheels, rubbing strakes, etc.) and ‘T’ being the vertical distance between the lowest moulded point of the hull or the keel and the maximum draught line;

2.8b.

valid navigation or safety certificate shall mean:

(a) a certificate proving conformity with the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), as amended, or equivalent, or

(b) a certificate proving conformity with the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines, as amended, or equivalent, and an IOPP certificate proving conformity with the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), as amended;

2.8c.

defeat device shall mean a device which measures, senses or responds to operating variables for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the operation of any component or function of the emission control system such that the effectiveness of the control system is reduced under conditions encountered during the normal non-road mobile machinery use unless the use of such a device is substantially included in the applied emission test certification procedure;

2.8d.

irrational control strategy shall mean any strategy or measure that, when the non-road mobile machinery is operated under normal conditions of use, reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system to a level below that expected in the applicable emission test procedures;

▼M2

2.9.

adjustable parameter shall mean any physically adjustable device, system or element of design which may affect emission or engine performance during emission testing or normal operation;

2.10.

after-treatment shall mean the passage of exhaust gases through a device or system whose purpose is chemically or physically to alter the gases prior to release to the atmosphere;

2.11.

spark ignition (SI) engine shall mean an engine which works on the spark-ignition principle;

2.12.

auxiliary emission control device shall mean any device that senses engine operation parameters for the purpose of adjusting the operation of any part of the emission control system;

2.13.

emission control system shall mean any device, system or element of design which controls or reduces emissions;

2.14.

fuel system shall mean all components involved in the metering and mixture of the fuel;

2.15.

secondary engine shall mean an engine installed in or on a motor vehicle, but not providing motive power to the vehicle;

2.16.

mode length means the time between leaving the speed and/or torque of the previous mode or the preconditioning phase and the beginning of the following mode. It includes the time during which speed and/or torque are changed and the stabilisation at the beginning of each mode;

▼M3

2.17.

test cycle shall mean a sequence of test points, each with a defined speed and torque, to be followed by the engine under steady state (NRSC test) or transient operating conditions (NRTC test);

▼M3

2.18.

Symbols and abbreviations

2.18.1.   Symbols for test parameters



Symbol

Unit

Term

A/Fst

-

Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio

AP

m2

Cross sectional area of the isokinetic sampling probe

AT

m2

Cross sectional area of the exhaust pipe

Aver

 

Weighted average values for:

m3/h

—  volume flow

kg/h

—  mass flow

C1

-

Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon

Cd

-

Discharge coefficient of the SSV

Conc

ppm

Concentration (with suffix of the component nominating)

Concc

ppm

Background corrected concentration

Concd

ppm

Concentration of the pollutant measured in the dilution air

Conce

ppm

Concentration of the pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas

d

m

Diameter

DF

-

Dilution factor

fa

-

Laboratory atmospheric factor

GAIRD

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis

GAIRW

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis

GDILW

kg/h

Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis

GEDFW

kg/h

Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GEXHW

kg/h

Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GFUEL

kg/h

Fuel mass flow rate

GSE

kg/h

Sampled exhaust mass flow rate

GT

cm3/min

Tracer gas flow rate

GTOTW

kg/h

Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

Ha

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the intake air

Hd

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the dilution air

HREF

g/kg

Reference value of absolute humidity (10,71 g/kg)

i

-

Subscript denoting an individual mode (for NRSC test)or an instantaneous value (for NRTC test)

KH

-

Humidity correction factor for NOx

Kp

-

Humidity correction factor for particulate

KV

-

CFV calibration function

KW, a

-

Dry to wet correction factor for the intake air

KW, d

-

Dry to wet correction factor for the dilution air

KW, e

-

Dry to wet correction factor for the diluted exhaust gas

KW, r

-

Dry to wet correction factor for the raw exhaust gas

L

%

Percent torque related to the maximum torque for the test speed

Md

mg

Particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected

MDIL

kg

Mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

MEDFW

kg

Mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle

MEXHW

kg

Total exhaust mass flow over the cycle

Mf

mg

Particulate sample mass collected

Mf, p

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on primary filter

Mf, b

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on back-up filter

Mgas

g

Total mass of gaseous pollutant over the cycle

MPT

g

Total mass of particulate over the cycle

MSAM

kg

Mass of the diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

MSE

kg

Sampled exhaust mass over the cycle

MSEC

kg

Mass of secondary dilution air

MTOT

kg

Total mass of double diluted exhaust over the cycle

MTOTW

kg

Total mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel over the cycle on wet basis

MTOTW, I

kg

Instantaneous mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel on wet basis

mass

g/h

Subscript denoting emissions mass flow (rate)

NP

-

Total revolutions of PDP over the cycle

nref

min-1

Reference engine speed for NRTC test

nsp

s-2

Derivative of the engine speed

P

kW

Power, brake uncorrected

p1

kPa

Pressure drop below atmospheric at the pump inlet of PDP

PA

kPa

Absolute pressure

Pa

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air (ISO 3046: psy=PSY test ambient)

PAE

kW

Declared total power absorbed by auxiliaries fitted for the test which are not required by paragraph 2.4. of this Annex

PB

kPa

Total atmospheric pressure (ISO 3046: Px=PX Site ambient total pressure Py=PY Test ambient total pressure)

pd

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air

PM

kW

Maximum power at the test speed under test conditions (see Annex VII, Appendix 1)

Pm

kW

Power measured on test bed

ps

kPa

Dry atmospheric pressure

q

-

Dilution ratio

Qs

m3/s

CVS volume flow rate

r

-

Ratio of the SSV throat to inlet absolute, static pressure

r

 

Ratio of cross sectional areas of isokinetic probe and exhaust pipe

Ra

%

Relative humidity of the intake air

Rd

%

Relative humidity of the dilution air

Re

-

Reynolds number

Rf

-

FID response factor

T

K

Absolute temperature

t

s

Measuring time

Ta

K

Absolute temperature of the intake air

TD

K

Absolute dew point temperature

Tref

K

Reference temperature of combustion air: (298 K)

Tsp

N·m

Demanded torque of the transient cycle

t10

s

Time between step input and 10 % of final reading

t50

s

Time between step input and 50 % of final reading

t90

s

Time between step input and 90 % of final reading

Δti

s

Time interval for instantaneous CFV flow

V0

m3/rev

PDP volume flow rate at actual conditions

Wact

kWh

Actual cycle work of NRTC

WF

-

Weighting factor

WFE

-

Effective weighting factor

X0

m3/rev

Calibration function of PDP volume flow rate

ΘD

kg·m2

Rotational inertia of the eddy-current dynamometer

ß

-

Ratio of the SSV throat diameter, d, to the inlet pipe inner diameter

λ

-

Relative air/fuel ratio, actual A/F divided by stoichiometric A/F

ρEXH

kg/m3

Density of the exhaust gas

2.18.2.   Symbols for chemical components



CH4

Methane

C3H8

Propane

C2H6

Ethane

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

DOP

Di-octylphthalate

H2O

Water

HC

Hydrocarbons

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

NO

Nitric oxide

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

O2

Oxygen

PT

Particulates

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

2.18.3.   Abbreviations



CFV

Critical flow venturi

CLD

Chemiluminescent detector

CI

Compression ignition

FID

Flame ionisation detector

FS

Full scale

HCLD

Heated chemiluminescent detector

HFID

Heated flame ionisation detector

NDIR

Non-dispersive infrared analyser

NG

Natural gas

NRSC

Non-road steady cycle

NRTC

Non-road transient cycle

PDP

Positive displacement pump

SI

Spark ignition

SSV

Subsonic venturi

▼B

3.   ENGINE MARKINGS

▼M2

3.1.

Compression ignition engines approved in accordance with this Directive must bear:

▼B

3.1.1.

the trade mark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;

3.1.2.

the engine type, engine family (if applicable), and a unique engine identification number;

3.1.3.

the EC type-approval number as described in ►M2  Annex VIII ◄ ;

▼M3

3.1.4.

labels in accordance with Annex XIII, if the engine is placed on the market under flexible scheme provisions.

▼M2

3.2.

Spark-ignition engines approved in accordance with this Directive must bear:

3.2.1.

the trade mark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;

3.2.2.

the EC type-approval number as defined in Annex VIII.

▼B

►M2  3.3. ◄

These marks must be durable for the useful life of the engine and must be clearly legible and indelible. If labels or plates are used, they must be attached in such a manner that in addition the fixing is durable for the useful life of the engine, and the labels/plates cannot be removed without destroying or defacing them.

►M2  3.4. ◄

These marks must be secured to an engine part necessary for normal engine operation and not normally requiring replacement during engine life.

►M2  3.4.1. ◄

These marks must be located so as to be readily visible to the average person after the engine has been completed with all the auxiliaries necessary for engine operation.

►M2  3.4.2. ◄

Each engine must be provided with a supplementary movable plate in a durable material, which must bear all data indicated under section 3.1, to be positioned, if necessary, in order to make the marks referred to under section 3.1 readily visible to the average person and easily accessible when the engine is installed in a machine.

►M2  3.5. ◄

The coding of the engines in context with the identification numbers must be such that it allows for the indubitable determination of the sequence of production.

►M2  3.6. ◄

Before leaving the production line the engines must bear all markings.

►M2  3.7. ◄

The exact location of the engine markings shall be declared in ►M2  Annex VII ◄ , Section 1.

4.   SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS

▼M2

4.1.   CI engines

▼B

►M2  4.1.1. ◄    General

The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the engine, in normal use, despite the vibrations to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Directive.

The technical measures taken by the manufacturer must be such as to ensure that the mentioned emissions are effectively limited, pursuant to this Directive, throughout the normal life of the engine and under normal conditions of use. These provisions are deemed to be met if the provisions of sections ►M2  4.1.2.1 ◄ , ►M2  4.1.2.3 ◄ and 5.3.2.1 are respectively complied with.

If a catalytic converter and/or a particulates trap is used the manufacturer must prove by durability tests, which he himself may carry out in accordance with good engineering practice, and by corresponding records, that these after-treatment devices can be expected to function properly for the lifetime of the engine. The records must be produced in compliance with the requirements of section 5.2 and in particular with section 5.2.3. A corresponding warranty must be guaranteed to the customer. Systematic replacement of the device, after a certain running time of the engine, is permissible. Any adjustment, repair, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement of engine components or systems which is performed on a periodic basis to prevent malfunction of the engine in context with the after-treatment device, shall only be done to the extent that is technologically necessary toassure proper functioning of the emission control system. Accordingly scheduled maintenance requirements must be included in the customer's manual, and be covered by the warranty provisions mentioned above, and be approved before an approval is granted. The corresponding extract from the manual with respect to maintenance/replacements of the treatment device(s), and to the warranty conditions, must be included in the information document as set out in Annex II to this Directive.

▼M3

All engines that expel exhaust gases mixed with water shall be equipped with a connection in the engine exhaust system that is located downstream of the engine and before any point at which the exhaust contacts water (or any other cooling/scrubbing medium) for the temporary attachment of gaseous or particulate emissions sampling equipment. It is important that the location of this connection allows a well mixed representative sample of the exhaust. This connection shall be internally threaded with standard pipe threads of a size not larger than one-half inch, and shall be closed by a plug when not in use (equivalent connections are allowed).

▼B

►M2  4.1.2. ◄    Specifications concerning the emissions of pollutants

The gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods described in ►M2  Annex VI ◄ .

Other systems or analysers may be accepted if they yield equivalent results to the following reference systems:

 for gaseous emissions measured in the raw exhaust, the system shown in Figure 2 of ►M2  Annex VI ◄ ,

 for gaseous emissions measured in the dilute exhaust of a full flow dilution system, the system shown in Figure 3 of ►M2  Annex VI ◄ ,

 for particulate emissions, the full flow dilution system, operating either with a separate filter for each mode or with the single filter method, shown in Figure 13 of ►M2  Annex VI ◄ .

The determination of system equivalency shall be based on a seven-test cycle (or larger) correlation study between the system under consideration and one or more of the above reference systems.

The equivalency criterion is defined as a ± 5 % agreement of the averages of the weighted cycle emissions values. The cycle to be used shall be that given in Annex III, section 3.6.1.

For introduction of a new system into the Directive the determination of equivalency shall be based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.

►M2  4.1.2.1. ◄

The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons, the emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulates obtained shall for stage I not exceed the amount shown in the table below:



Net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

130 ≤ P ≤ 560

5,0

1,3

9,2

0,54

75 ≤ P < 130

5,0

1,3

9,2

0,70

37 ≤ P < 75

6,5

1,3

9,2

0,85

►M2  4.1.2.2. ◄

The emission limits given in point ►M2  4.1.2.1 ◄ are engine-out limits and shall be achieved before any exhaust after-treatment device.

►M2  4.1.2.3. ◄

The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons, the emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulates obtained shall for stage II not exceed amounts shown in the table below:



Net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

130 ≤ P ≤ 560

3,5

1,0

6,0

0,2

75 ≤ P < 130

5,0

1,0

6,0

0,3

37 ≤ P < 75

5,0

1,3

7,0

0,4

18 ≤ P < 37

5,5

1,5

8,0

0,8

▼M3

4.1.2.4.

The emissions of carbon monoxide, the emissions of the sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulates shall for stage III A not exceed the amounts shown in the table below:



Category: Net power

(P )

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC+NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

H: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW

3,5

4,0

0,2

I: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW

5,0

4,0

0,3

J: 37 kW ≤ P < 75 kW

5,0

4,7

0,4

K: 19 kW ≤ P < 37 kW

5,5

7,5

0,6



Category: swept volume/net power

(SV/P )

(litres per cylinder/kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC+NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

V1:1 SV < 0,9 and P ≥ 37 kW

5,0

7,5

0,40

V1:2 0,9 ≤ SV < 1,2

5,0

7,2

0,30

V1:3 1,2 ≤ SV < 2,5

5,0

7,2

0,20

V1:4 2,5 ≤ SV < 5

5,0

7,2

0,20

V2:1 5 ≤ SV < 15

5,0

7,8

0,27

V2:2 15 ≤ SV < 20 and

5,0

8,7

0,50

V2:3 15 ≤ SV < 20

5,0

9,8

0,50

V2:4 20 ≤ SV < 25

5,0

9,8

0,50

V2:5 25 ≤ SV < 30

5,0

11,0

0,50



Category: Net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC+NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

RL A: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW

3,5

4,0

0,2

 

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

RH A: P > 560 kW

3,5

0,5

6,0

0,2

RH A Engines with P > 2 000 kW and SV > 5 l/cylinder

3,5

0,4

7,4

0,2



Category: net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC+NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

RC A: 130 kW < P

3,5

4,0

0,20

4.1.2.5.

The emissions of carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (or their sum where relevant) and the emissions of particulates shall, for stage III B, not exceed the amounts shown in the table below:



Category: net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

L: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW

3,5

0,19

2,0

0,025

M: 75 kW ≤ P < 130 kW

5,0

0,19

3,3

0,025

N: 56 kW ≤ P < 75 kW

5,0

0,19

3,3

0,025

 
 

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC+NOx)

(g/kWh)

 

P: 37 kW ≤ P < 56 kW

5,0

4,7

0,025



Category: net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

RC B: 130 kW < P

3,5

0,19

2,0

0,025



Category: net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen

(HC + NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

RC B: 130 kW < P

3,5

4,0

0,025

4.1.2.6.

The emissions of carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (or their sum where relevant) and the emissions of particulates shall for stage IV not exceed the amounts shown in the table below:



Category: Net power

(P)

(kW)

Carbon monoxide

(CO)

(g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons

(HC)

(g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen

(NOx)

(g/kWh)

Particulates

(PT)

(g/kWh)

Q: 130 kW ≤ P ≤ 560 kW

3,5

0,19

0,4

0,025

R: 56 kW ≤ P < 130 kW

5,0

0,19

0,4

0,025

4.1.2.7.

The limit values in sections 4.1.2.4, 4.1.2.5 and 4.1.2.6 shall include deterioration calculated in accordance with Annex III, Appendix 5.

In the case of limit values standards contained in sections 4.1.2.5 and 4.1.2.6, under all randomly selected load conditions, belonging to a definite control area and with the exception of specified engine operating conditions which are not subject to such a provision, the emissions sampled during a time duration as small as 30 s shall not exceed by more than 100 % the limit values of the above tables. ►M5  Where reference is made to this paragraph, Article 5a(1) to (4) and Article 7 of Decision 1999/468/EC shall apply, having regard to the provisions of Article 8 thereof. ◄

▼B

►M3   ►C1  4.1.2.8. ◄  ◄

Where, as defined according to Section 6 in conjunction with Annex II, Appendix 2, one engine family covers more than one power band, the emission values of the parent engine (type approval) and of all engine types within the same family (COP) must meet the more stringent requirements of the higher power band. The applicant has the free choice to restrict the definition of engine families to single power bands, and to correspondingly apply for certification.

▼M2

4.2.   SI engines

4.2.1.   General

The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous pollutants shall be so designed, constructed and assembled as to enable the engine, in normal use, despite the vibrations to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Directive.

The technical measures taken by the manufacturer must be such as to ensure that the mentioned emissions are effectively limited, pursuant to this Directive, throughout the normal life of the engine and under normal conditions of use in accordance with Annex IV, Appendix 4.

4.2.2.   Specifications concerning the emissions of pollutants.

The gaseous components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods described in Annex VI (and shall include any after-treatment device).

Other systems or analysers may be accepted if they yield equivalent results to the following reference systems:

 for gaseous emissions measured in the raw exhaust, the system shown in Figure 2 of Annex VI,

 for gaseous emissions measured in the dilute exhaust of a full flow dilution system, the system shown in figure 3 of Annex VI.

4.2.2.1.

The emissions of carbon monoxide, the emissions of hydrocarbons, the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and the sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen obtained shall for stage I not exceed the amount shown in the table below:



Stage I

Class

Carbon monoxide (CO) (g/kWh)

Hydrocarbons (HC) (g/kWh)

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (g/kWh)

HC + NOx

SH:1

805

295

5,36

 

SH:2

805

241

5,36

 

SH:3

603

161

5,36

 

SN:1

519

 
 

50

SN:2

519

 
 

40

SN:3

519

 
 

16,1

SN:4

519

 
 

13,4

4.2.2.2.

The emissions of carbon monoxide and the emissions of the sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen obtained shall for stage II not exceed the amount shown in the table below:



Stage II (1)

Class

Carbon monoxide (CO) (g/kWh)

Sum of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (g/kWh)

HC + NOx

SH:1

805

50

SH:2

805

50

SH:3

603

72

SN:1

610

50,0

SN:2

610

40,0

SN:3

610

16,1

SN:4

610

12,1

(1)   See Annex 4, Appendix 4: deterioration factors included.

The NOx emissions for all engine classes must not exceed 10 g/kWh.

4.2.2.3.

Notwithstanding the definition of ‘hand-held engine’ in Article 2 of this Directive two-stroke engines used to power snowthrowers only have to meet SH:1, SH:2 or SH:3 standards.

▼B

4.3.   Installation on the mobile machinery

The engine installation on the mobile machinery shall comply with the restrictions set out in the scope of the type-approval. Additionally the following characteristics in respect to the approval of the engine always must be met:

4.3.1.

intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex II, Appendix 1 or 3 respectively;

4.3.2.

exhaust back pressure shall not exceed that specified for the approved engine in Annex II, Appendix 1 or 3 respectively.

5.   SPECIFICATION OF CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION ASSESSMENTS

5.1.

With regard to the verification of the existence of satisfactory arrangements and procedures for ensuring effective control of production conformity before granting type-approval, the approval authority must also accept the manufacturer's registration to harmonized standard EN 29002 (whose scope covers the engines concerned) or an equivalent accreditation standard as satisfying the requirements. The manufacturer must provide details of the registration and undertake to inform the approval authority of any revisions to its validity or scope. In order to verify that the requirements of section 4.2 are continuously met, suitable controls of the production shall be carried out.

5.2.

The holder of the approval shall in particular:

5.2.1.

ensure existence of procedures for the effective control of the quality of the product;

5.2.2.

have access to the control equipment necessary for checking the conformity to each approved type;

5.2.3.

ensure that data of test results are recorded and that annexed documents shall remain available for a period to be determined in accordance with the approval authority;

5.2.4.

analyse the results of each type of test, in order to verify and ensure the stability of the engine characteristics, making allowance for variations in the industrial production process;

5.2.5.

ensure that any sampling of engines or components giving evidence of non-conformity with the type of test considered shall give rise to another sampling and another test. All the necessary steps shall be taken to re-establish the conformity of the corresponding production.

5.3.

The competent authority which has granted approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.

5.3.1.

In every inspection, the test books and production survey record shall be presented to the visiting inspector.

5.3.2.

When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the data presented in application of section 4.2, the following procedure is adopted:

5.3.2.1.

an engine is taken from the series and subjected to the test described in Annex III. The emissions of the carbon monoxide, the emissions of the hydrocarbons, the emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and the emissions of particulates obtained shall not exceed the amounts shown in the table in section 4.2.1, subject to the requirements of section 4.2.2, or those shown in the table in section 4.2.3 respectively;

5.3.2.2.

if the engine taken from the series does not satisfy the requirements of section 5.3.2.1 the manufacturer may ask for measurements to be performed on a sample of engines of the same specification taken from the series and including the engine originally taken. The manufacturershall determine the size n of the sample in agreement with the technical service. Engines other than the engine originally taken shall be subjected to a test. The arithmetical mean (

image

) of the results obtained with the sample shall then be determined for each pollutant. The production of the series shall then be deemed to confirm if the following condition is met:

image

 ( 15 )

where:

L is the limit value laid down in section 4.2.1/4.2.3 for each pollutant considered,

k is a statistical factor depending on n and given in the following table:



n

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

k

0,973

0,613

0,489

0,421

0,376

0,342

0,317

0,296

0,279



n

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

k

0,265

0,253

0,242

0,233

0,224

0,216

0,210

0,203

0,198

if n ≥ 20,

image

5.3.3.

The approval authority or the technical service responsible for verifying the conformity of production shall carry out tests on engines which have been run-in partially or completely, according to the manufacturer's specifications.

5.3.4.

The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the competent authority shall be one per year. If the requirements of section 5.3.2 are not met, the competent authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of production as rapidly as possible.

6.   PARAMETERS DEFINING THE ENGINE FAMILY

The engine family may be defined by basic design parameters which must be common to engines within the family. In some cases there may be interaction of parameters. These effects must also be taken into consideration to ensure that only engines with similar exhaust emission characteristics are included within an engine family.

In order that engines may be considered to belong to the same engine family, the following list of basic parameters must be common:

6.1.

Combustion cycle:

 2 cycle

 4 cycle

6.2.

Cooling medium:

 air

 water

 oil

▼M2

6.3.

Individual cylinder displacement, within 85 % and 100 % of the largest displacement within the engine family

6.4.

Method of air aspiration

6.5.

Fuel type

 Diesel

 Petrol.

6.6.

Combustion chamber type/design

6.7.

Valve and porting — configurations, size and number

6.8.

Fuel system

For diesel:

 pump-line injector

 in-line pump

 distributor pump

 single element

 unit injector.

For petrol:

 carburettor

 port fuel injection

 direct injection.

6.9.

Miscellaneous features

 Exhaust gas recirculation

 Water injection/emulsion

 Air injection

 Charge cooling system

 Ignition type (compression, spark).

6.10.

Exhaust after-treatment

 Oxidation catalyst

 Reduction catalyst

 Three way catalyst

 Thermal reactor

 Particulate trap.

▼B

7.   CHOICE OF THE PARENT ENGINE

7.1.

The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine shall be selected using the secondary criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be characterized by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it may have the highest emission levels of the engines within that family.

7.2.

If engines within the family incorporate other variable features which could be considered to affect exhaust emissions, these features must also be identified and taken into account in the selection of the parent engine.




ANNEX II

INFORMATION DOCUMENT No. …

relating to type-approval and referring to measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery

(Directive 97/68/EC as last amended by Directive ../…/EC)

image




Appendix 1

image

image

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Appendix 2

image

►(2) M2   ►(2) M2  




Appendix 3

image

image

►(1) M2  

image

►(6) M2  

►(6) M2  

►(6) M2  

►(6) M2  

►(6) M2  

►(6) M2  




ANNEX III

▼M2

TEST PROCEDURE FOR C.I. ENGINES

▼B

1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1.

This Annex describes the method of determining emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from the engines to be tested.

▼M3

Two test cycles are described that shall be applied according to the provisions of Annex I, Section 1:

 the NRSC (non-road steady cycle) which shall be used for stages I, II and IIIA and for constant speed engines as well as for stages IIIB and IV in the case of gaseous pollutants,

 the NRTC (non-road transient cycle) which shall be used for the measurement of particulate emissions for stages IIIB and IV and for all engines but constant speed engines. By the choice of the manufacturer this test can be used also for stage IIIA and for the gaseous pollutants in stages IIIB and IV,

 for engines intended to be used in inland waterway vessels the ISO test procedure as specified by ISO 8178-4:2002 [E] and IMO MARPOL 73/78, Annex VI (NOx Code) shall be used,

 for engines intended for propulsion of railcars an NRSC shall be used for the measurement of gaseous and particulate pollutants for stage III A and for stage III B,

 for engines intended for propulsion of locomotives an NRSC shall be used for the measurement of gaseous and particulate pollutants for stage III A and for stage III B.

▼B

1.2.

The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a dynamometer.

▼M3

1.3.

Measurement principle:

The engine exhaust emissions to be measured include the gaseous components (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen), and the particulates. Additionally, carbon dioxide is often used as a tracer gas for determining the dilution ratio of partial and full flow dilution systems. Good engineering practice recommends the general measurement of carbon dioxide as an excellent tool for the detection of measurement problems during the test run.

1.3.1.   NRSC test:

During a prescribed sequence of operating conditions, with the engines warmed up, the amounts of the above exhaust emissions shall be examined continuously by taking a sample from the raw exhaust gas. The test cycle consists of a number of speed and torque (load) modes, which cover the typical operating range of diesel engines. During each mode, the concentration of each gaseous pollutant, exhaust flow and power output shall be determined, and the measured values weighted. The particulate sample shall be diluted with conditioned ambient air. One sample over the complete test procedure shall be taken and collected on suitable filters.

Alternatively, a sample shall be taken on separate filters, one for each mode, and cycle-weighted results computed.

The grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour shall be calculated as described in Appendix 3 to this Annex.

1.3.2.   NRTC test:

The prescribed transient test cycle, based closely on the operating conditions of diesel engines installed in non-road machinery, is run twice:

 The first time (cold start) after the engine has soaked to room temperature and the engine coolant and oil temperatures, after treatment systems and all auxiliary engine control devices are stabilised between 20 and 30 °C.

 The second time (hot start) after a twenty-minute hot soak that commences immediately after the completion of the cold start cycle.

During this test sequence the above pollutants shall be examined. Using the engine torque and speed feedback signals of the engine dynamometer, the power shall be integrated with respect to the time of the cycle, resulting in the work produced by the engine over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous components shall be determined over the cycle, either in the raw exhaust gas by integration of the analyser signal in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex, or in the diluted exhaust gas of a CVS full-flow dilution system by integration or by bag sampling in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex. For particulates, a proportional sample shall be collected from the diluted exhaust gas on a specified filter by either partial flow dilution or full-flow dilution. Depending on the method used, the diluted or undiluted exhaust gas flow rate shall be determined over the cycle to calculate the mass emission values of the pollutants. The mass emission values shall be related to the engine work to give the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt-hour.

Emissions (g/kWh) shall be measured during both the cold and hot start cycles. Composite weighted emissions shall be computed by weighting the cold start results 10 % and the hot start results 90 %. Weighted composite results shall meet the standards.

▼M5

Prior to the introduction of the cold/hot composite test sequence, the Commission shall modify the symbols (Annex I, section 2.18), the test sequence (Annex III) and the calculation equations (Annex III, Appendix 3). Those measures, designed to amend non-essential elements of this Directive, shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 15(2).

▼B

2.   TEST CONDITIONS

2.1.   General requirements

All volumes and volumetric flow rates shall be related to 273 K (0 oC) and 101,3 kPa.

2.2.   Engine test conditions

2.2.1.

The absolute temperature Ta of the engine intake air expressed in Kelvin, and the dry atmospheric pressure ps, expressed in kPa, shall be measured, and the parameter fa shall be determined according to the following provisions:

Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:

image

Turbocharged engine with or without cooling of the intake air:

image

2.2.2.

Test validity

For a test to be recognized as valid, the parameter fa shall be such that:

▼M1

image

▼M3

2.2.3.

Engines with charge air cooling

The charge air temperature shall be recorded and, at the declared rated speed and full load, shall be within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer. The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293 K (20 °C).

If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature shall be set to within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified by the manufacturer at the speed of the declared maximum power and full load. Coolant temperature and coolant flow rate of the charge air cooler at the above set point shall not be changed for the whole test cycle. The charge air cooler volume shall be based upon good engineering practice and typical vehicle/machinery applications.

Optionally, the setting of the charge air cooler may be done in accordance with SAE J 1937 as published in January 1995.

▼B

2.3.   Engine air inlet system

▼M3

The test engine shall be equipped with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within ± 300 Pa of the value specified by the manufacturer for a clean air cleaner at the engine operating conditions as specified by the manufacturer, which result in maximum air flow. The restrictions are to be set at rated speed and full load. A test shop system may be used, provided it duplicates actual engine operating conditions.

▼B

2.4.   Engine exhaust system

▼M3

The test engine shall be equipped with an exhaust system with exhaust back pressure within ± 650 Pa of the value specified by the manufacturer at the engine operating conditions resulting in maximum declared power.

If the engine is equipped with an exhaust after-treatment device, the exhaust pipe shall have the same diameter as found in-use for at least four pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the beginning of the expansion section containing the after-treatment device. The distance from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust after-treatment device shall be the same as in the machine configuration or within the distance specifications of the manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as above, and may be set with a valve. The after-treatment container may be removed during dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.

▼B

2.5.   Cooling system

An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer.

2.6.   Lubricating oil

Specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test.

2.7.   Test fuel

The fuel shall be the reference fuel specified in ►M2  Annex V ◄ .

The cetane number and the sulphur content of the reference fuel used for test shall be recorded at sections 1.1.1 and 1.1.2 respectively of ►M2  Annex VII ◄ , Appendix 1.

The fuel temperature at the injection pump inlet shall be 306-316 K (33-43 oC).

▼M3

3.   TEST RUN (NRSC TEST)

▼M3

3.1.   Determination of dynamometer settings

The basis of specific emissions measurement is uncorrected brake power according to ISO 14396: 2002.

Certain auxiliaries, which are necessary only for the operation of the machine and may be mounted on the engine, should be removed for the test. The following incomplete list is given as an example:

 air compressor for brakes

 power steering compressor

 air conditioning compressor

 pumps for hydraulic actuators.

Where auxiliaries have not been removed, the power absorbed by them at the test speeds shall be determined in order to calculate the dynamometer settings, except for engines where such auxiliaries form an integral part of the engine (e.g. cooling fans for air cool engines).

The settings of inlet restriction and exhaust pipe backpressure shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's upper limits, in accordance with sections 2.3. and 2.4.

The maximum torque values at the specified test speeds shall be determined by experimentation in order to calculate the torque values for the specified test modes. For engines which are not designed to operate over a range on a full load torque curve, the maximum torque at the test speeds shall be declared by the manufacturer.

The engine setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:

image

If the ratio,

image

the value of PAE may be verified by the technical authority granting type approval.

▼B

►M3   ►C1  3.2. ◄  ◄    Preparation of the sampling filters

At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) shall be placed in a closed, but unsealed, petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilization. At the end of the stabilization period, each filter (pair) shall be weighed and the tare weight shall be recorded. The filter (pair) shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or filter holder until needed for testing. If the filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be reweighed before use.

►M3   ►C1  3.3. ◄  ◄    Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a full flow dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe shall be connected to the system.

►M3   ►C1  3.4. ◄  ◄    Starting the dilution system and engine

The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures and pressures have stabilized at full load and rated speed (section 3.6.2).

▼M3

3.5.   Adjustment of the dilution ratio

The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on bypass for the single filter method (optional for the multiple filter method). The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done at any time prior to, during, or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, the measurement must be done on one sample taken for the duration of the test.

The dilution air shall be set to obtain a filter face temperature between 315 K (42 °C) and 325 K (52 °C) at each mode. The total dilution ratio shall not be less than four.

NOTE: For steady-state procedure, the filter temperature may be kept at or below the maximum temperature of 325 K (52 °C) instead of respecting the temperature range of 42 °C to 52 °C.

For the single and multiple filter methods, the sample mass flow rate through the filter shall be maintained at a constant proportion of the dilute exhaust mass flow rate for full flow systems for all modes. This mass ratio shall be within ± 5 % with respect to the averaged value of the mode, except for the first 10 seconds of each mode for systems without bypass capability. For partial flow dilution systems with single filter method, the mass flow rate through the filter shall be constant within ± 5 % with respect to the averaged value of the mode, except for the first 10 seconds of each mode for systems without bypass capability.

For CO2 or NOx concentration controlled systems, the CO2 or NOx content of the dilution air must be measured at the beginning and at the end of each test. The pre and post test background CO2 or NOx concentration measurements of the dilution air must be within 100 ppm or 5 ppm of each other, respectively.

When using a dilute exhaust gas analysis system, the relevant background concentrations shall be determined by sampling dilution air into a sampling bag over the complete test sequence.

Continuous (non-bag) background concentration may be taken at the minimum of three points, at the beginning, at the end, and a point near the middle of the cycle and averaged. At the manufacturer's request background measurements may be omitted.

▼B

►M3   ►C1  3.6. ◄  ◄    Checking the analysers

The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned.

►M3   ►C1  3.7. ◄  ◄    Test cycle

▼M3

3.7.1.

Equipment specification according to Section 1A of Annex I:

3.7.1.1.   Specification A.

For engines covered by Section 1A(i) and A(iv) of Annex I, the following 8-mode cycle ( 16 ) shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine:



Mode No

Engine speed

Load

Weighting factor

1

Rated

100

0,15

2

Rated

75

0,15

3

Rated

50

0,15

4

Rated

10

0,10

5

Intermediate

100

0,10

6

Intermediate

75

0,10

7

Intermediate

50

0,10

8

Idle

—-

0,15

3.7.1.2.   Specification B.

For engines covered by Section 1A(ii) of Annex I, the following 5-mode cycle ( 17 ) shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine:



Mode Number

Engine Speed

Load

Weighting Factor

1

Rated

100

0,05

2

Rated

75

0,25

3

Rated

50

0,30

4

Rated

25

0,30

5

Rated

10

0,10

The load figures are percentage values of the torque corresponding to the prime power rating defined as the maximum power available during a variable power sequence, which may be run for an unlimited number of hours per year, between stated maintenance intervals and under the stated ambient conditions, the maintenance being carried out as prescribed by the manufacturer.

3.7.1.3.   Specification C.

For propulsion engines ( 18 ) intended to be used in inland waterway vessels the ISO test procedure as specified by ISO 81784:2002(E) and IMO MARPOL 73/78, Annex VI (NOx Code) shall be used.

Propulsion engines that operate on a fixed-pitch propeller curve shall be tested on a dynamometer using the following 4-mode steady-state cycle ( 19 ) developed to represent in-use operation of commercial marine diesel engines:



Mode No

Engine speed

Load

Weighting factor

1

100 % (Rated)

100

0,20

2

91 %

75

0,50

3

80 %

50

0,15

4

63 %

25

0,15

Fixed speed inland waterway propulsion engines with variable pitch or electrically coupled propellers shall be tested on a dynamometer using the following 4-mode steady-state cycle ( 20 ) characterised by the same load and weighting factors as the above cycle, but with engine operated in each mode at rated speed:



Mode No

Engine speed

Load

Weighting factor

1

100 % (Rated)

100

0,20

2

91 %

75

0,50

3

80 %

50

0,15

4

63 %

25

0,15

3.7.1.4.   Specification D

For engines covered by Section 1A(v) of Annex I, the following 3-mode cycle ( 21 ) shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine:



Mode No

Engine speed

Load

Weighting factor

1

Rated

100

0,25

2

Intermediate

50

0,15

3

Idle

-

0,60

▼B

►M3   ►C1  3.7.2. ◄  ◄

Conditioning of the engine

Warming up of the engine and the system shall be at maximum speed and torque in order to stabilize the engine parameters according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.

Note: The conditioning period should also prevent the influence of deposits from a former test in the exhaust system. There is also a required period of stabilization between test points which has been included to minimise point to point influences.

►M3   ►C1  3.7.3. ◄  ◄

Test sequence

▼M3

The test sequence shall be started. The test shall be performed in the order of the mode numbers as set out above for the test cycles.

During each mode of the given test cycle after the initial transition period, the specified speed shall be held to within ± 1 % of rated speed or ± 3 min-1, whichever is greater, except for low idle which shall be within the tolerances declared by the manufacturer. The specified torque shall be held so that the average over the period during which the measurements are being taken is within ± 2 % of the maximum torque at the test speed.

For each measuring point a minimum time of 10 minutes is necessary. If for the testing of an engine, longer sampling times are required for reasons of obtaining sufficient particulate mass on the measuring filter the test mode period can be extended as necessary.

The mode length shall be recorded and reported.

The gaseous exhaust emission concentration values shall be measured and recorded during the last three minutes of the mode.

The particulate sampling and the gaseous emission measurement should not commence before engine stabilisation, as defined by the manufacturer, has been achieved and their completion must be coincident.

The fuel temperature shall be measured at the inlet to the fuel injection pump or as specified by the manufacturer, and the location of measurement recorded.

▼B

►M3   ►C1  3.7.4. ◄  ◄

Analyser response

The output of the analysers shall be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured with an equivalent data acquisition system with the exhaust gas flowing through the analysers at least during the last three minutes of each mode. If bag sampling is applied for the diluted CO and CO2 measurement (see Appendix 1, section 1.4.4), a sample shall be bagged during the last three minutes of each mode, and the bag sample analysed and recorded.

►M3   ►C1  3.7.5. ◄  ◄

Particulate sampling

The particulate sampling can be done either with the single filter method or with the multiple filter method (Appendix 1, section 1.5). Since the results of the methods may differ slightly, the method used must be declared with the results.

For the single filter method the modal weighting factors specified in the test cycle procedure shall be taken into account during sampling by adjusting sample flow rate and/or sampling time, accordingly.

Sampling must be conducted as late as possible within each mode. The sampling time per mode must be at least 20 seconds for the single filter method and at least 60 seconds for the multi-filter method. For systems without bypass capability, the sampling time per mode must be a least 60 seconds for single and multiple filter methods.

►M3   ►C1  3.7.6. ◄  ◄

Engine conditions

The engine speed and load, intake air temperatur, fuel flow and air or exhaust gas flow shall be measured for each mode once the engine has been stabilized.

If the measurement of the exhaust gas flow or the measurement of combustion air and fuel consumption is not possible, it can be calculated using the carbon and oxygen balance method (see Appendix 1, section 1.2.3).

Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded (see Appendix 3, sections 1.1 and 1.2).

►M3   ►C1  3.8. ◄  ◄    Re-checking the analysers

After the emission test a zero gas and the same span gas will be used for re-checking. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the two measuring results is less than 2 %.

▼M3

4.   TEST RUN (NRTC TEST)

4.1.   Introduction

The non-road transient cycle (NRTC) is listed in Annex III, Appendix 4 as a second-by-second sequence of normalised speed and torque values applicable to all diesel engines covered by this Directive. In order to perform the test on an engine test cell, the normalised values shall be converted to the actual values for the individual engine under test, based on the engine mapping curve. This conversion is referred to as denormalisation, and the test cycle developed is referred to as the reference cycle of the engine to be tested. With these reference speed and torque values, the cycle shall be run on the test cell, and the feedback speed and torque values recorded. In order to validate the test run, a regression analysis between reference and feedback speed and torque values shall be conducted upon completion of the test.

4.1.1. The use of defeat devices or irrational control or irrational emission control strategies shall be prohibited

4.2.   Engine mapping procedure

When generating the NRTC on the test cell, the engine shall be mapped before running the test cycle to determine the speed vs torque curve.

4.2.1.   Determination of the mapping speed range

The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:

Minimum mapping speed

=

idle speed

Maximum mapping speed

=

nhi x 1,02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero, whichever is lower (where nhi is the high speed, defined as the highest engine speed where 70 % of the rated power is delivered).

4.2.2.   Engine mapping curve

The engine shall be warmed up at maximum power in order to stabilise the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice. When the engine is stabilised, the engine mapping shall be performed according to the following procedures.

4.2.2.1.   Transient map

(a) The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed.

(b) The engine shall be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum mapping speed.

(c) The engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 ± 1 min-1/s from minimum to maximum mapping speed. Engine speed and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least one point per second.

4.2.2.2.   Step map

(a) The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed.

(b) The engine shall be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum mapping speed.

(c) While maintaining full load, the minimum mapping speed shall be maintained for at least 15 s, and the average torque during the last 5 s shall be recorded. The maximum torque curve from minimum to maximum mapping speed shall be determined in no greater than 100 ± 20/min speed increments. Each test point shall be held for at least 15 s, and the average torque during the last 5 s shall be recorded.

4.2.3.   Mapping curve generation

All data points recorded under section 4.2.2 shall be connected using linear interpolation between points. The resulting torque curve is the mapping curve and shall be used to convert the normalised torque values of the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex IV into actual torque values for the test cycle, as described in section 4.3.3.

4.2.4.   Alternate mapping

If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These alternate techniques must satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this section for reasons of safety or representativeness shall be approved by the parties involved along with the justification for their use. In no case, however, shall the torque curve be run by descending engine speeds for governed or turbocharged engines.

4.2.5.   Replicate tests

An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine must be remapped prior to a test cycle if:

 an unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by engineering judgement, or,

 physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine, which may potentially affect engine performance.

4.3.   Generation of the reference test cycle

4.3.1.   Reference speed

The reference speed (nref) corresponds to the 100 % normalised speed values specified in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex III, Appendix 4. It is obvious that the actual engine cycle resulting from denormalisation to the reference speed largely depends on selection of the proper reference speed. The reference speed shall be determined by the following definition:

nref = low speed + 0,95 x (high speed — low speed)

(the high speed is the highest engine speed where 70 % of the rated power is delivered, while the low speed is the lowest engine speed where 50 % of the rated power is delivered).

4.3.2.   Denormalisation of engine speed

The speed shall be denormalised using the following equation:

image

4.3.3.   Denormalisation of engine torque

The torque values in the engine dynamometer schedule of Annex III, Appendix 4 are normalised to the maximum torque at the respective speed. The torque values of the reference cycle shall be denormalised, using the mapping curve determined according to Section 4.2.2, as follows:

image

for the respective actual speed as determined in Section 4.3.2.

4.3.4.   Example of denormalisation procedure

As an example, the following test point shall be denormalised:

% speed = 43 %

% torque = 82 %

Given the following values:

reference speed = 2 200/min

idle speed = 600/min

results in

image

With the maximum torque of 700 Nm observed from the mapping curve at 1 288/min

image

4.4.   Dynamometer

4.4.1. When using a load cell, the torque signal shall be transferred to the engine axis and the inertia of the dyno shall be considered. The actual engine torque is the torque read on the load cell plus the moment of inertia of the brake multiplied by the angular acceleration. The control system has to perform this calculation in real time.

4.4.2. If the engine is tested with an eddy-current dynamometer, it is recommended that the number of points, where the difference image is smaller than – 5 % of the peak torque, does not exceed 30 (where Tsp is the demanded torque, image is the derivative of the engine speed, image is the rotational inertia of the eddy-current dynamometer).

4.5.   Emissions test run

The following flow chart outlines the test sequence.

image

One or more practice cycles may be run as necessary to check engine, test cell and emissions systems before the measurement cycle.

4.5.1.   Preparation of the sampling filters

At least one hour before the test, each filter shall be placed in a petri dish, which is protected against dust contamination and allows air exchange, and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter shall be weighed and the weight shall be recorded. The filter shall then be stored in a closed petri dish or sealed filter holder until needed for testing. The filter shall be used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber. The tare weight shall be recorded.

4.5.2.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. The tailpipe shall be connected to the full-flow dilution system, if used.

4.5.3.   Starting and preconditioning the dilution system and the engine

The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up. The sampling system preconditioning shall be conducted by operating the engine at a condition of rated-speed, 100 percent torque for a minimum of 20 minutes while simultaneously operating either the Partial flow Sampling System or the Full flow CVS with secondary dilution system. Dummy particulate matter emissions samples are then collected. Particulate sample filters need not be stabilised or weighed, and may be discarded. Filter media may be changed during conditioning as long as the total sampled time through the filters and sampling system exceeds 20 minutes. Flow rates shall be set at the approximate flow rates selected for transient testing. Torque shall be reduced from 100 percent torque while maintaining the rated speed condition as necessary so as not to exceed the 191 °C maximum sample zone temperature specifications.

4.5.4.   Starting the particulate sampling system

The particulate sampling system shall be started and run on by-pass. The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by sampling the dilution air prior to entrance of the exhaust into the dilution tunnel. It is preferred that background particulate sample be collected during the transient cycle if another PM sampling system is available. Otherwise, the PM sampling system used to collect transient cycle PM can be used. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements should be carried out prior to the beginning and after the end of the cycle and the values averaged.

4.5.5.   Adjustment of the dilution system

The total diluted exhaust gas flow of a full-flow dilution system or the diluted exhaust gas flow through a partial flow dilution system shall be set to eliminate water condensation in the system, and to obtain a filter face temperature between 315 K (42 °C) and 325 K (52 °C).

4.5.6.   Checking the analysers

The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned. If sample bags are used, they shall be evacuated.

4.5.7.   Engine starting procedure

The stabilised engine shall be started within 5 min after completion of warm-up according to the starting procedure recommended by the manufacturer in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer. Optionally, the test may start within 5 min of the engine preconditioning phase without shutting the engine off, when the engine has been brought to an idle condition.

4.5.8.   Cycle run

4.5.8.1.   Test sequence

The test sequence shall commence when the engine is started from shut down after the preconditioning phase or from idle conditions when starting directly from the preconditioning phase with the engine running. The test shall be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in Annex III, Appendix 4. Engine speed and torque command set points shall be issued at 5 Hz (10 Hz recommended) or greater. The set points shall be calculated by linear interpolation between the 1 Hz set points of the reference cycle. Feedback engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once every second during the test cycle, and the signals may be electronically filtered.

4.5.8.2.   Analyser response

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from preconditioning, the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:

 start collecting or analysing dilution air, if a full-flow dilution system is used,

 start collecting or analysing raw or diluted exhaust gas, depending on the method used,

 start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the required temperatures and pressures,

 start recording the exhaust gas mass flow rate, if raw exhaust gas analysis is used,

 recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.

If raw exhaust measurement is used, the emission concentrations (HC, CO and NOx) and the exhaust gas mass flow rate shall be measured continuously and stored with at least 2 Hz on a computer system. All other data may be recorded with a sample rate of at least 1 Hz. For analogue analysers the response shall be recorded, and the calibration data may be applied online or offline during the data evaluation.

If a full flow dilution system is used, HC and NOx shall be measured continuously in the dilution tunnel with a frequency of at least 2 Hz. The average concentrations shall be determined by integrating the analyser signals over the test cycle. The system response time shall be no greater than 20 s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO and CO2 shall be determined by integration or by analysing the concentrations in the sample bag collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall be determined by integration or by collection in the background bag. All other parameters that need to be measured shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second (1 Hz).

4.5.8.3.   Particulate sampling

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from preconditioning, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from by-pass to collecting particulates.

If a partial flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate.

If a full flow dilution system is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within ± 5 % of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e., proportional control of sample flow) is used, it must be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change by more than ± 5 % of its set value (except for the first 10 seconds of sampling).

NOTE: For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate through the sample filters and the secondary dilution airflow rate.

The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle (within ± 5 %) because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test shall be rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.

4.5.8.4.   Engine stalling

If the engine stalls anywhere during the test cycle, the engine shall be preconditioned and restarted, and the test repeated. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test cycle, the test shall be voided.

4.5.8.5.   Operations after test

At the completion of the test, the measurement of the exhaust gas mass flow rate, the diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate sample pump shall be stopped. For an integrating analyser system, sampling shall continue until system response times have elapsed.

The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, shall be analysed as soon as possible and in any case not later than 20 minutes after the end of the test cycle.

After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for re-checking the analysers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2 % of the span gas value.

The particulate filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber no later than one hour after completion of the test. They shall be conditioned in a petri dish, which is protected against dust contamination and allows air exchange, for at least one hour, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters shall be recorded.

4.6.   Verification of the test run

4.6.1.   Data shift

To minimise the biasing effect of the time lag between the feedback and reference cycle values, the entire engine speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced or delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the feedback signals are shifted, both speed and torque must be shifted by the same amount in the same direction.

4.6.2.   Calculation of the cycle work

The actual cycle work Wact (kWh) shall be calculated using each pair of engine feedback speed and torque values recorded. The actual cycle work Wact is used for comparison to the reference cycle work Wref and for calculating the brake specific emissions. The same methodology shall be used for integrating both reference and actual engine power. If values are to be determined between adjacent reference or adjacent measured values, linear interpolation shall be used.

In integrating the reference and actual cycle work, all negative torque values shall be set equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a frequency of less than 5 Hertz, and if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes from positive to negative or negative to positive, the negative portion shall be computed and set equal to zero. The positive portion shall be included in the integrated value.

Wact shall be between – 15 % and + 5 % of Wref.

4.6.3.   Validation statistics of the test cycle

Linear regressions of the feedback values on the reference values shall be performed for speed, torque and power. This shall be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this option is selected. The method of least squares shall be used, with the best fit equation having the form:

y = mx + b

where:

y

=

feedback (actual) value of speed (min-1), torque (N·m), or power (kW)

m

=

slope of the regression line

x

=

reference value of speed (min-1), torque (N·m), or power (kW)

b

=

y intercept of the regression line

The standard error of estimate (SE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r2) shall be calculated for each regression line.

It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1 Hertz. For a test to be considered valid, the criteria of Table 1 must be met.

Table 1 —   Regression line tolerances



 

Speed

Torque

Power

Standard error of estimate (SE) of Y on X

max 100 min-1

max 13 % of power map maximum engine torque

max 8 % of power map maximum engine power

Slope of the regression line, m

0,95 to 1,03

0,83 — 1,03

0,89 — 1,03

Coefficient of determination, r2

min 0,9700

min 0,8800

min 0,9100

Y intercept of the regression line, b

± 50 min-1

± 20 N·m or ± 2 % of max torque, whichever is greater

± 4 kW or ± 2 % of max power, whichever is greater

For regression purposes only, point deletions are permitted where noted in Table 2 before doing the regression calculation. However, those points must not be deleted for the calculation of cycle work and emissions. An idle point is defined as a point having a normalised reference torque of 0 % and a normalised reference speed of 0 %. Point deletion may be applied to the whole or to any part of the cycle.

Table 2 —   Permitted point deletions from regression analysis (points to which the point deletion is applied have to be specified)



Condition

Speed and/or torque and/or power points which may be deleted with reference to the conditions listed in the left column

First 24 (±1) s and last 25 s

Speed, torque and power

Wide open throttle, and torque feedback < 95 % torque reference

Torque and/or power

Wide open throttle, and speed feedback < 95 % speed reference

Speed and/or power

Closed throttle, speed feedback > idle speed + 50 min-1, and torque feedback > 105 % torque reference

Torque and/or power

Closed throttle, speed feedback ≤ idle speed + 50 min-1, and torque feedback = Manufacturer defined/measured idle torque ± 2 % of max torque

Speed and/or power

Closed throttle and speed feedback > 105 % speed reference

Speed and/or power

▼M3




Appendix 1

MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES

1.   MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRSC TEST)

Gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods described in Annex VI. The methods of Annex VI describe the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous emissions (Section 1.1) and the recommended particulate dilution and sampling systems (Section 1.2).

1.1.   Dynamometer specification

An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in Annex III, Section 3.7.1 shall be used. The instrumentation for torque and speed measurement shall allow the measurement of the power within the given limits. Additional calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment must be such that the maximum tolerances of the figures given in point 1.3 are not exceeded.

1.2.   Exhaust gas flow

The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods mentioned in sections 1.2.1 to 1.2.4.

1.2.1.   Direct measurement method

Direct measurement of the exhaust flow by flow nozzle or equivalent metering system (for detail see ISO 5167:2000).

Note: Direct gaseous flow measurement is a difficult task. Precautions must be taken to avoid measurement errors that will impact emission value errors.

1.2.2.   Air and fuel measurement method

Measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow.

Air flow-meters and fuel flow-meters with the accuracy defined in Section 1.3 shall be used.

The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:

GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL (for wet exhaust mass)

1.2.3.   Carbon balance method

Exhaust mass calculation from fuel consumption and exhaust gas concentrations using the carbon balance method (Annex III, Appendix 3).

1.2.4.   Tracer measurement method

This method involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust. A known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas flow as a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but must not react in the exhaust pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas sample.

In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall be located at least 1 m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger, downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to the injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration with the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.

The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle speed after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyser.

The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:

image

where

GEXHW

=

instantaneous exhaust mass flow (kg/s)

GT

=

tracer gas flow (cm3/min)

concmix

=

instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing, (ppm)

ρEXH

=

density of the exhaust gas (kg/m3)

conca

=

background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air (ppm)

The background concentration of the tracer gas (conc a) may be determined by averaging the background concentration measured immediately before and after the test run.

When the background concentration is less than 1 % of the concentration of the tracer gas after mixing (conc mix.) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be neglected.

The total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow and shall be calibrated according to Appendix 2, Section 1.11.2.

1.2.5.   Air flow and air to fuel ratio measurement method

This method involves exhaust mass calculation from the air flow and the air to fuel ratio. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow is as follows:

image

image

image

where

A/Fst

=

stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (kg/kg)

λ

=

relative air/fuel ratio

concCO2

=

dry CO2 concentration ( %)

concCO

=

dry CO concentration (ppm)

concHC

=

HC concentration (ppm)

Note: The calculation refers to a diesel fuel with a H/C ratio equal to 1,8.

The air flowmeter shall meet the accuracy specifications in Table 3, the CO2 analyser used shall meet the specifications of clause 1.4.1, and the total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.

Optionally, air to fuel ratio measurement equipment, such as a zirconia type sensor, may be used for the measurement of the relative air to fuel ratio in accordance with the specifications of clause 1.4.4.

1.2.6.   Total dilute exhaust gas flow

When using a full flow dilution system, the total flow of the dilute exhaust (GTOTW) shall be measured with a PDP or CFV or SSV (Annex VI, Section 1.2.1.2) The accuracy shall conform to the provisions of Annex III, Appendix 2, Section 2.2.

1.3.   Accuracy

The calibration of all measurement instruments shall be traceable to national or international standards and comply with the requirements listed in Table 3.

Table 3 —   Accuracy of measuring instruments



No

Measuring instrument

Accuracy

1

Engine speed

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value whichever is larger

2

Torque

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value whichever is larger

3

Fuel consumption

± 2 % of engine's max. value

4

Air consumption

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value whichever is larger

5

Exhaust gas flow

± 2,5 % of reading or ± 1,5 % of engine's max. value whichever is larger

6

Temperatures ≤ 600 K

± 2 K absolute

7

Temperatures > 600 K

± 1 % of reading

8

Exhaust gas pressure

± 0,2 kPa absolute

9

Intake air depression

± 0,05 kPa absolute

10

Atmospheric pressure

± 0,1 kPa absolute

11

Other pressures

± 0,1 kPa absolute

12

Absolute humidity

± 5 % of reading

13

Dilution air flow

± 2 % of reading

14

Diluted exhaust gas flow

± 2 % of reading

1.4.   Determination of the gaseous components

1.4.1.   General analyser specifications

The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (section1.4.1.1). It is recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration falls between 15 % and 100 % of full scale.

If the full scale value is 155 ppm (or ppm C) or less or if read-out systems (computers, data loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 % of full scale are used, concentrations below 15 % of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex III, Appendix 2, section 1.5.5.2.

The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be on a level as to minimise additional errors.

1.4.1.1.   Measurement error

The analyser shall not deviate from the nominal calibration point by more than ± 2 % of the reading or ± 0,3 % of full scale, whichever is larger.

NOTE: For the purpose of this standard, accuracy is defined as the deviation of the analyser reading from the nominal calibration values using a calibration gas (≡ true value)

1.4.1.2.   Repeatability

The repeatability, defined as 2,5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a given calibration or span gas, must be no greater than ± 1 % of full scale concentration for each range used above 155 ppm (or ppm C) or ± 2 % of each range used below 155 ppm (or ppm C).

1.4.1.3.   Noise

The analyser peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10-second period shall not exceed 2 % of full scale on all ranges used.

1.4.1.4.   Zero drift

The zero drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2 % of full scale on the lowest range used. The zero response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a zero gas during a 30-second time interval.

1.4.1.5.   Span drift

The span drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2 % of full scale on the lowest range used. Span is defined as the difference between the span response and the zero response. The span response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a span gas during a 30-second time interval.

1.4.2.   Gas drying

The optional gas drying device must have a minimal effect on the concentration of the measured gases. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from the sample.

1.4.3.   Analysers

Sections 1.4.3.1 to 1.4.3.5 of this Appendix describe the measurement principles to be used. A detailed description of the measurement systems is given in Annex VI.

The gases to be measured shall be analysed with the following instruments. For non-linear analysers, the use of linearising circuits is permitted.

1.4.3.1.   Carbon monoxide (CO) analysis

The carbon monoxide analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.

1.4.3.2.   Carbon dioxide (CO2) analysis

The carbon dioxide analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.

1.4.3.3.   Hydrocarbon (HC) analysis

The hydrocarbon analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization detector (HFID) type with detector, valves, pipework, etc, heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463 K (190 °C) ± 10 K.

1.4.3.4.   Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) analysis

The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the chemiluminescent detector (CLD) or heated chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO2/NO converter, if measured on a dry basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328 K (55 °C) shall be used, provided the water quench check (Annex III, Appendix 2, section 1.9.2.2) is satisfied.

For both CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of 328 K to 473 K (55 to 200 °C) up to the converter for dry measurement, and up to the analyser for wet measurement.

1.4.4.   Air to fuel measurement

The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified in section 1.2.5 shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of Zirconia type.

The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature is high enough to eliminate water condensation.

The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:

± 3 % of reading λ < 2

± 5 % of reading 2 ≤ λ < 5

± 10 % of reading 5 ≤ λ

To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the instrument manufacturer.

1.4.5.   Sampling for gaseous emissions

The gaseous emissions sampling probes must be fitted at least 0,5 m or three times the diameter of the exhaust pipe — whichever is the larger — upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system as far as applicable and sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust gas temperature of at least 343 K (70 °C) at the probe.

In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multi-cylinder engines having distinct groups of manifolds, such as in a ‘V’-engine configuration, it is permissible to acquire a sample from each group individually and calculate an average exhaust emission. Other methods which have been shown to correlate with the above methods may be used. For exhaust emissions calculation the total exhaust mass flow of the engine must be used.

If the composition of the exhaust gas is influenced by any exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust sample must be taken upstream of this device in the tests of stage I and downstream of this device in the tests of stage II. When a full flow dilution system is used for the determination of the particulates, the gaseous emissions may also be determined in the diluted exhaust gas. The sampling probes shall be close to the particulate sampling probe in the dilution tunnel (Annex VI, section 1.2.1.2, DT and Section 1.2.2, PSP). CO and CO2 may optionally be determined by sampling into a bag and subsequent measurement of the concentration in the sampling bag.

1.5.   Determination of the particulates

The determination of the particulates requires a dilution system. Dilution may be accomplished by a partial flow dilution system or a full flow dilution system. The flow capacity of the dilution system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems, and maintain the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas between 315 K (42 °C) and 325 K (52 °C) immediately upstream of the filter holders. De-humidifying the dilution air before entering the dilution system is permitted, if the air humidity is high. Dilution air pre-heating above the temperature limit of 303 K (30 °C) is recommended, if the ambient temperature is below 293 K (20 °C). However, the diluted air temperature must not exceed 325 K (52 °C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel.

Note: For steady-state procedure, the filter temperature may be kept at or below the maximum temperature of 325 K (52 °C) instead of respecting the temperature range of 42 to 52 °C.

For a partial flow dilution system, the particulate sampling probe must be fitted close to and upstream of the gaseous probe as defined in Section 4.4 and in accordance with Annex VI, section 1.2.1.1, figure 4-12 EP and SP.

The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to split the exhaust stream into two fractions, the smaller one being diluted with air and subsequently used for particulate measurement. From that it is essential that the dilution ratio be determined very accurately. Different splitting methods can be applied, whereby the type of splitting used dictates to a significant degree the sampling hardware and procedures to be used (Annex VI, section 1.2.1.1).

To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, particulate sampling filters, a microgram balance and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing chamber are required.

For particulate sampling, two methods may be applied:

 the single filter method uses one pair of filters (1.5.1.3 of this Appendix) for all modes of the test cycle. Considerable attention must be paid to sampling times and flows during the sampling phase of the test. However, only one pair of filters will be required for the test cycle,

 the multiple filter method dictates that one pair of filters (section 1.5.1.3 of this Appendix) is used for each of the individual modes of the test cycle. This method allows more lenient sample procedures but uses more filters.

1.5.1.   Particulate sampling filters

1.5.1.1.   Filter specification

Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon based membrane filters are required for certification tests. For special applications different filter materials may be used. All filter types shall have a 0,3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 99 % at a gas face velocity between 35 and 100 cm/s. When performing correlation tests between laboratories or between a manufacturer and an approval authority, filters of identical quality must be used.

1.5.1.2.   Filter size

Particulate filters must have a minimum diameter of 47 mm (37 mm stain diameter). Larger diameter filters are acceptable (section 1.5.1.5).

1.5.1.3.   Primary and back-up filters

The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and one back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more than 100 mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with, the primary filter. The filters may be weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.

1.5.1.4.   Filter face velocity

A gas face velocity through the filter of 35 to 100 cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure drop increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25 kPa.

1.5.1.5.   Filter loading

The recommended minimum filter loadings for the most common filter sizes are shown in the following table. For larger filter sizes, the minimum filter loading shall be 0,065 mg/1 000 mm2 filter area.



Filter diameter

(mm)

Recommended stain diameter

(mm)

Recommended minimum loading

(mg)

47

37

0,11

70

60

0,25

90

80

0,41

110

100

0,62

For the multiple filter method, the recommended minimum filter loading for the sum of all filters shall be the product of the appropriate value above and the square root of the total number of modes.

1.5.2.   Weighing chamber and analytical balance specifications

1.5.2.1.   Weighing chamber conditions

The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 295 K (22 °C) ± 3 K during all filter conditioning and weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dew point of 282,5 (9,5 °C) ± 3 K and a relative humidity of 45 ± 8 %.

1.5.2.2.   Reference filter weighing

The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilisation. Disturbances to weighing room specifications as outlined in section 1.5.2.1 will be allowed if the duration of the disturbances does not exceed 30 minutes. The weighing room should meet the required specifications prior to personnel entrance into the weighing room. At least two unused reference filters or reference filter pairs shall be weighed within four hours of, but preferably at the same time as the sample filter (pair) weighing. They shall be the same size and material as the sample filters.

If the average weight of the reference filters (reference filter pairs) changes between sample filter weighing by more than 10μg, then all sample filters shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated.

If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in section 1.5.2.1 is not met, but the reference filter (pair) weighing meet the above criteria, the engine manufacturer has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing the weighing room control system and re-running the test.

1.5.2.3.   Analytical balance

The analytical balance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 2 μg and a resolution of 1 μg (1 digit = 1 μg) specified by the balance manufacturer.

1.5.2.4.   Elimination of static electricity effects

To eliminate the effects of static electricity, the filters shall be neutralised prior to weighing, for example, by a Polonium neutraliser or a device of similar effect.

1.5.3.   Additional specifications for particulate measurement

All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter holder, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, must be designed to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts must be made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and must be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.

2.   MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES (NRTC TEST)

2.1.   Introduction

Gaseous and particulate components emitted by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods of Annex VI. The methods of Annex VI describe the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous emissions (Section 1.1) and the recommended particulate dilution and sampling systems (Section 1.2).

2.2.   Dynamometer and test cell equipment

The following equipment shall be used for emission tests of engines on engine dynamometers:

2.2.1.   Engine dynamometer

An engine dynamometer shall be used with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in Appendix 4 to this Annex. The instrumentation for torque and speed measurement shall allow the measurement of the power within the given limits. Additional calculations may be necessary. The accuracy of the measuring equipment must be such that the maximum tolerances of the figures given in Table 3 are not exceeded.

2.2.2.   Other instruments

Measuring instruments for fuel consumption, air consumption, temperature of coolant and lubricant, exhaust gas pressure and intake manifold depression, exhaust gas temperature, air intake temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity and fuel temperature shall be used, as required. These instruments shall satisfy the requirements given in Table 3:

Table 3 —   Accuracy of measuring instruments



No.

Measuring instrument

accuracy

1

Engine speed

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value, whichever is larger

2

Torque

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value, whichever is larger

3

Fuel consumption

± 2 % of engine's max. value

4

Air consumption

± 2 % of reading or ± 1 % of engine's max. value, whichever is larger

5

Exhaust gas flow

± 2,5 % of reading or ± 1,5 % of engine's max. value, whichever is larger

6

Temperatures ≤ 600 K

± 2 K absolute

7

Temperatures > 600 K

± 1 % of reading

8

Exhaust gas pressure

± 0,2 kPa absolute

9

Intake air depression

± 0,05 kPa absolute

10

Atmospheric pressure

± 0,1 kPa absolute

11

Other pressures

± 0,1 kPa absolute

12

Absolute humidity

± 5 % of reading

13

Dilution air flow

± 2 % of reading

14

Diluted exhaust gas flow

± 2 % of reading

2.2.3.   Raw exhaust gas flow

For calculating the emissions in the raw exhaust gas and for controlling a partial flow dilution system, it is necessary to know the exhaust gas mass flow rate. For determining the exhaust mass flow rate, either of the methods described below may be used.

For the purpose of emissions calculation, the response time of either method described below shall be equal to or less than the requirement for the analyser response time, as defined in Appendix 2, Section 1.11.1.

For the purpose of controlling a partial flow dilution system, a faster response is required. For partial flow dilution systems with online control, a response time of ≤ 0,3 s is required. For partial flow dilution systems with look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run, a response time of the exhaust flow measurement system of ≤ 5 s with a rise time of ≤ 1 s is required. The system response time shall be specified by the instrument manufacturer. The combined response time requirements for exhaust gas flow and partial flow dilution system are indicated in Section 2.4.

Direct measurement method

Direct measurement of the instantaneous exhaust flow may be done by systems, such as:

 pressure differential devices, like flow nozzle, (for details see ISO 5167: 2000)

 ultrasonic flowmeter

 vortex flowmeter.

Precautions shall be taken to avoid measurement errors, which will impact emission value errors. Such precautions include the careful installation of the device in the engine exhaust system according to the instrument manufacturers' recommendations and to good engineering practice. Especially, engine performance and emissions must not be affected by the installation of the device.

The flowmeters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3.

Air and fuel measurement method

This involves measurement of the airflow and the fuel flow with suitable flowmeters. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas flow is as follows:

GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL (for wet exhaust mass)

The flowmeters shall meet the accuracy specifications of Table 3, but shall also be accurate enough to also meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.

Tracer measurement method

This involves measurement of the concentration of a tracer gas in the exhaust.

A known amount of an inert gas (e.g. pure helium) shall be injected into the exhaust gas flow as a tracer. The gas is mixed and diluted by the exhaust gas, but must not react in the exhaust pipe. The concentration of the gas shall then be measured in the exhaust gas sample.

In order to ensure complete mixing of the tracer gas, the exhaust gas sampling probe shall be located at least 1 m or 30 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is larger, downstream of the tracer gas injection point. The sampling probe may be located closer to the injection point if complete mixing is verified by comparing the tracer gas concentration with the reference concentration when the tracer gas is injected upstream of the engine.

The tracer gas flow rate shall be set so that the tracer gas concentration at engine idle speed after mixing becomes lower than the full scale of the trace gas analyser.

The calculation of the exhaust gas flow is as follows:

image

where

GEXHW

=

instantaneous exhaust mass flow (kg/s)

GT

=

tracer gas flow (cm3/min)

conc mix

=

instantaneous concentration of the tracer gas after mixing (ppm)

ρEXH

=

density of the exhaust gas (kg/m3)

conc a

=

background concentration of the tracer gas in the intake air (ppm)

The background concentration of the tracer gas (conc a) may be determined by averaging the background concentration measured immediately before the test run and after the test run.

When the background concentration is less than 1 % of the concentration of the tracer gas after mixing (conc mix.) at maximum exhaust flow, the background concentration may be neglected.

The total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow, and shall be calibrated according to Appendix 2, paragraph 1.11.2.

Air flow and air to fuel ratio measurement method

This involves exhaust mass calculation from the airflow and the air to fuel ratio. The calculation of the instantaneous exhaust gas mass flow is as follows:

image

image

where

A/Fst

=

stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (kg/kg)

λ

=

relative air/fuel ratio

concCO2

=

dry CO2 concentration ( %)

concCO

=

dry CO concentration (ppm)

concHC

=

HC concentration (ppm)

Note: The calculation refers to a diesel fuel with a H/C ratio equal to 1,8.

The air flowmeter shall meet the accuracy specifications in Table 3, the CO2 analyser used shall meet the specifications of section 2.3.1, and the total system shall meet the accuracy specifications for the exhaust gas flow.

Optionally, air to fuel ratio measurement equipment, such as a zirconia type sensor, may be used for the measurement of the excess air ratio in accordance with the specifications of section 2.3.4.

2.2.4.   Diluted exhaust gas flow

For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, it is necessary to know the diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate. The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle (kg/test) shall be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V 0 for PDP, K V for CFV, C d for SSV): the corresponding methods described in Appendix 3, section 2.2.1 shall be used. If the total sample mass of particulates and gaseous pollutants exceeds 0,5 % of the total CVS flow, the CVS flow shall be corrected or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS prior to the flow measuring device.

2.3.   Determination of the gaseous components

2.3.1.   General analyser specifications

The analysers shall have a measuring range appropriate for the accuracy required to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas components (section 1.4.1.1). It is recommended that the analysers be operated in such a way that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 % of full scale.

If the full scale value is 155 ppm (or ppm C) or less, or if read-out systems (computers, data loggers) that provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 % of full scale are used, concentrations below 15 % of full scale are also acceptable. In this case, additional calibrations are to be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves – Annex III, Appendix 2, section 1.5.5.2.

The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the equipment shall be of a level such as to minimise additional errors.

2.3.1.1.   Measurement error

The analyser shall not deviate from the nominal calibration point by more than ± 2 % of the reading or ± 0,3 % of full scale, whichever is larger.

Note: For the purpose of this standard, accuracy is defined as the deviation of the analyser reading from the nominal calibration values using a calibration gas (≡ true value).

2.3.1.2.   Repeatability

The repeatability, defined as 2,5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a given calibration or span gas, must be no greater than ± 1 % of full scale concentration for each range used above 155 ppm (or ppm C) or ± 2 % for each range used below 155 ppm (or ppm C).

2.3.1.3.   Noise

The analyser peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10-second period shall not exceed 2 % of full scale on all ranges used.

2.3.1.4.   Zero drift

The zero drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2 % of full scale on the lowest range used. The zero response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a zero gas during a 30-second time interval.

2.3.1.5.   Span drift

The span drift during a one-hour period shall be less than 2 % of full scale on the lowest range used. Span is defined as the difference between the span response and the zero response. The span response is defined as the mean response, including noise, to a span gas during a 30-second time interval.

2.3.1.6.   Rise time

For raw exhaust gas analysis, the rise time of the analyser installed in the measurement system shall not exceed 2,5 s.

NOTE: Only evaluating the response time of the analyser alone will not clearly define the suitability of the total system for transient testing. Volumes, and especially dead volumes, through out the system will not only affect the transportation time from the probe to the analyser, but also affect the rise time. Also transport times inside of an analyser would be defined as analyser response time, like the converter or water traps inside of a NOx analysers. The determination of the total system response time is described in Appendix 2, Section 1.11.1.

2.3.2.   Gas drying

Same specifications as for NRSC test cycle apply (Section 1.4.2) as described here below.

The optional gas drying device must have a minimal effect on the concentration of the measured gases. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from the sample.

2.3.3.   Analysers

Same specifications as for NRSC test cycle apply (Section 1.4.3) as described here below.

The gases to be measured shall be analysed with the following instruments. For non-linear analysers, the use of linearising circuits is permitted.

2.3.3.1.   Carbon monoxide (CO) analysis

The carbon monoxide analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.

2.3.3.2.   Carbon dioxide (CO2) analysis

The carbon dioxide analyser shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.

2.3.3.3.   Hydrocarbon (HC) analysis

The hydrocarbon analyser shall be of the heated flame ionization detector (HFID) type with detector, valves, pipework, etc, heated so as to maintain a gas temperature of 463K (190 °C) ± 10 K.

2.3.3.4.   Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) analysis

The oxides of nitrogen analyser shall be of the chemiluminescent detector (CLD) or heated chemiluminescent detector (HCLD) type with a NO2/NO converter, if measured on a dry basis. If measured on a wet basis, a HCLD with converter maintained above 328 K (55 °C shall be used, provided the water quench check (Annex III, Appendix 2, section 1.9.2.2) is satisfied.

For both CLD and HCLD, the sampling path shall be maintained at a wall temperature of 328K to 473 K (55 to 200 °C) up to the converter for dry measurement, and up to the analyser for wet measurement.

2.3.4.   Air to fuel measurement

The air to fuel measurement equipment used to determine the exhaust gas flow as specified in section 2.2.3 shall be a wide range air to fuel ratio sensor or lambda sensor of Zirconia type.

The sensor shall be mounted directly on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust gas temperature is high enough to eliminate water condensation.

The accuracy of the sensor with incorporated electronics shall be within:

± 3 % of reading λ < 2

± 5 % of reading 2 ≤ λ < 5

± 10 % of reading 5 ≤ λ

To fulfil the accuracy specified above, the sensor shall be calibrated as specified by the instrument manufacturer.

2.3.5.   Sampling of gaseous emissions

2.3.5.1.   Raw exhaust gas flow

For calculation of the emissions in the raw exhaust gas the same specifications as for NRSC test cycle apply (Section 1.4.4), as described here below.

The gaseous emissions sampling probes must be fitted at least 0,5 m or three times the diameter of the exhaust pipe — whichever is the larger — upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system as far as applicable and sufficiently close to the engine as to ensure an exhaust gas temperature of at least 343 K (70 °C) at the probe.

In the case of a multicylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders. In multicylinder engines having distinct groups of manifolds, such as in a ‘V’-engine configuration, it is permissible to acquire a sample from each group individually and calculate an average exhaust emission. Other methods which have been shown to correlate with the above methods may be used. For exhaust emissions calculation the total exhaust mass flow of the engine must be used.

If the composition of the exhaust gas is influenced by any exhaust after-treatment system, the exhaust sample must be taken upstream of this device in the tests of stage I and downstream of this device in the tests of stage II.

2.3.5.2.   Diluted exhaust gas flow

If a full flow dilution system is used, the following specifications apply.

The exhaust pipe between the engine and the full flow dilution system shall conform to the requirements of Annex VI.

The gaseous emissions sample probe(s) shall be installed in the dilution tunnel at a point where the dilution air and exhaust gas are well mixed, and in close proximity to the particulates sampling probe.

Sampling can generally be done in two ways:

 the pollutants are sampled into a sampling bag over the cycle and measured after completion of the test,

 the pollutants are sampled continuously and integrated over the cycle; this method is mandatory for HC and NOx.

The background concentrations shall be sampled upstream of the dilution tunnel into a sampling bag, and shall be subtracted from the emissions concentration according to Appendix 3, Section 2.2.3.

2.4.   Determination of the particulates

Determination of the particulates requires a dilution system. Dilution may be accomplished by a partial flow dilution system or a full flow dilution system. The flow capacity of the dilution system shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems, and maintain the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas between 315 K (42 °C) and 325 K (52 °C) immediately upstream of the filter holders. De-humidifying the dilution air before entering the dilution system is permitted, if the air humidity is high. Dilution air pre-heating above the temperature limit of 303 K (30 °C) is recommended if the ambient temperature is below 293 K (20 °C). However, the diluted air temperature must not exceed 325 K (52 °C) prior to the introduction of the exhaust in the dilution tunnel.

The particulate sampling probe shall be installed in close proximity to the gaseous emissions sampling probe, and the installation shall comply with the provisions of Section 2.3.5.

To determine the mass of the particulates, a particulate sampling system, particulate sampling filters, microgram balance, and a temperature and humidity controlled weighing chamber, are required.

Partial flow dilution system specifications

The partial flow dilution system has to be designed to split the exhaust stream into two fractions, the smaller one being diluted with air and subsequently used for particulate measurement. For this it is essential that the dilution ratio be determined very accurately. Different splitting methods can be applied, whereby the type of splitting used dictates to a significant degree the sampling hardware and procedures to be used (Annex VI, section 1.2.1.1).

For the control of a partial flow dilution system, a fast system response is required. The transformation time for the system shall be determined by the procedure described in Appendix 2, Section 1.11.1.

If the combined transformation time of the exhaust flow measurement (see previous section) and the partial flow system is less than 0,3 s, online control may be used. If the transformation time exceeds 0,3 s, look ahead control based on a pre-recorded test run must be used. In this case, the rise time shall be ≤ 1 s and the delay time of the combination ≤ 10 s.

The total system response shall be designed as to ensure a representative sample of the particulates, GSE , proportional to the exhaust mass flow. To determine the proportionality, a regression analysis of GSE versus GEXHW shall be conducted on a minimum 5 Hz data acquisition rate, and the following criteria shall be met:

 the correlation coefficient r of the linear regression between GSE and GEXHW shall be not less than 0,95,

 the standard error of estimate of GSE on GEXHW shall not exceed 5 % of GSE maximum.

 GSE intercept of the regression line shall not exceed ± 2 % of GSE maximum.

Optionally, a pre-test may be run, and the exhaust mass flow signal of the pre-test be used for controlling the sample flow into the particulate system (look-ahead control). Such a procedure is required if the transformation time of the particulate system, t 50,P or/and the transformation time of the exhaust mass flow signal, t 50,F are > 0,3 s. Acorrect control of the partial dilution system is obtained, if the time trace of GEXHW ,pre of the pre-test, which controls GSE, is shifted by a ‘look-ahead’ time of t 50,P + t 50,F .

For establishing the correlation between GSE and GEXHW the data taken during the actual test shall be used, with GEXHW time aligned by t50,F relative to GSE (no contribution from t 50,P to the time alignment). That is, the time shift between GEXHW and GSE is the difference in their transformation times that were determined in Appendix 2, Section 2.6.

For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow GSE is of special concern, if not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:

GSE = GTOTW GDILW

In this case an accuracy of ± 2 % for GTOTW and GDILW is not sufficient to guarantee acceptable accuracies of GSE. If the gas flow is determined by differential flow measurement, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of GSE is within ± 5 % when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking root-mean-square of the errors of each instrument.

Acceptable accuracies of GSE can be obtained by either of the following methods:

(a) The absolute accuracies of GTOTW and GDILW are ± 0,2 % which guarantees an accuracy of GSE of ≤ 5 % at a dilution ratio of 15. However, greater errors will occur at higher dilution ratios.

(b) Calibration of GDILW relative to GTOTW is carried out such that the same accuracies for GSE as in (a) are obtained. For the details of such a calibration see Appendix 2, Section 2.6.

(c) The accuracy of GSE is determined indirectly from the accuracy of the dilution ratio as determined by a tracer gas, e.g. CO2. Again, accuracies equivalent to method (a) for GSE are required.

(d) The absolute accuracy of GTOTW and GDILW is within ± 2 % of full scale, the maximum error of the difference between GTOTW and GDILW is within 0,2 %, and the linearity error is within ± 0,2 % of the highest GTOTW observed during the test.

2.4.1.   Particulate sampling filters

2.4.1.1.   Filter specification

Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon based membrane filters are required for certification tests. For special applications different filter materials may be used. All filter types shall have a 0,3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate) collection efficiency of at least 99 % at a gas face velocity between 35 and 100 cm/s. When performing correlation tests between laboratories or between a manufacturer and an approval authority, filters of identical quality must be used.

2.4.1.2.   Filter size

Particulate filters must have a minimum diameter of 47 mm (37 mm stain diameter). Larger diameter filters are acceptable (section 2.4.1.5).

2.4.1.3.   Primary and back-up filters

The diluted exhaust shall be sampled by a pair of filters placed in series (one primary and one back-up filter) during the test sequence. The back-up filter shall be located no more than 100mm downstream of, and shall not be in contact with, the primary filter. The filters may be weighed separately or as a pair with the filters placed stain side to stain side.

2.4.1.4.   Filter face velocity

A gas face velocity through the filter of 35 to 100 cm/s shall be achieved. The pressure drop increase between the beginning and the end of the test shall be no more than 25 kPa.

2.4.1.5.   Filter loading

The recommended minimum filter loadings for the most common filter sizes are shown in the following table. For larger filter sizes, the minimum filter loading shall be 0,065 mg/1 000 mm2 filter area.



Filter diameter

(mm)

Recommended stain diameter

(mm)

Recommended minimum loading

(mg)

47

37

0,11

70

60

0,25

90

80

0,41

110

100

0,62

2.4.2.   Weighing chamber and analytical balance specifications

2.4.2.1.   Weighing chamber conditions

The temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained to within 295 K (22 °C) ± 3 K during all filter conditioning and weighing. The humidity shall be maintained to a dewpoint of 282,5 (9,5 °C) ± 3 K and a relative humidity of 45 ± 8 %.

2.4.2.2.   Reference filter weighing

The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants (such as dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilisation. Disturbances to weighing room specifications as outlined in section 2.4.2.1 will be allowed if the duration of the disturbances does not exceed 30 minutes. The weighing room should meet the required specifications prior to personnel entrance into the weighing room. At least two unused reference filters or reference filter pairs shall be weighed within four hours of, but preferably at the same time as the sample filter (pair) weighing. They shall be the same size and material as the sample filters.

If the average weight of the reference filters (reference filter pairs) changes between sample filter weighing by more than 10 μg, then all sample filters shall be discarded and the emissions test repeated.

If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in section 2.4.2.1 are not met, but the reference filter (pair) weighing meet the above criteria, the engine manufacturer has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing the weighing room control system and re-running the test.

2.4.2.3.   Analytical balance

The analytical balance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 2 μg and a resolution of 1 μg (1 digit = 1 μg) specified by the balance manufacturer.

2.4.2.4.   Elimination of static electricity effects

To eliminate the effects of static electricity, the filters shall be neutralised prior to weighing, for example, by a Polonium neutraliser or a device having similar effect.

2.4.3.   Additional specifications for particulate measurement

All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the exhaust pipe up to the filter holder, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust gas, must be designed to minimise deposition or alteration of the particulates. All parts must be made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas components, and must be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.




Appendix 2

CALIBRATION PROCEDURE (NRSC, NRTC ( 22 ))

▼B

1.   CALIBRATION OF THE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS

1.1.   Introduction

Each analyzer shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements of this standard. The calibration method that shall be used is described in this paragraph for the analysers indicated in Appendix 1, section 1.4.3.

1.2.   Calibration gases

The shelf life of all calibration gases must be respected.

The expiry date of the calibration gases stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded.

1.2.1.   Pure gases

The required purity of the gases is defined by the contamination limits given below. The following gases must be available for operation:

 purified nitrogen

 (contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO2, ≤ 0,1 ppm NO)

 purified oxygen

 (purity > 99,5 % vol O2)

 hydrogen-helium mixture

 (40 ± 2 % hydrogen, balance helium)

 (contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm ►M1  CO2  ◄ )

 purified synthetic air

 (contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm CO2, ≤ 0,1 ppm NO)

 (oxygen content between 18 – 21 % vol)

1.2.2.   Calibration and span gases

Mixture of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available:

 C3H8 and purified synthetic air (see section 1.2.1)

 CO and purified nitrogen

 NO and purified nitrogen (the amount of NO2 contained in this calibration gas must not exceed 5 % of the NO content)

 O2 and purified nitrogen

 CO2 and purified nitrogen

 CH4 and purified synthetic air

 C2H6 and purified synthetic air

Note: other gas combinations are allowed provided the gases do not react with one another.

The true concentration of a calibration and span gas must be within ± 2 % of the nominal value. All concentrations of calibration gas shall be given on a volume basis (volume percent or volume ppm).

The gases used for calibration and span may also be obtained by means of a gas divider, diluting with purified N2 or with purified synthetic air. The accuracy of the mixing device must be such that the concentration of the diluted calibration gases may be determined to within ± 2 %.

▼M3

This accuracy implies that primary gases used for blending shall be known to have an accuracy of at least ± 1 %, traceable to national or international gas standards. The verification shall be performed at between 15 and 50 % of full scale for each calibration incorporating a blending device. An additional verification may be performed using another calibration gas, if the first verification has failed.

Optionally, the blending device may be checked with an instrument which by nature is linear, e.g. using NO gas with a CLD. The span value of the instrument shall be adjusted with the span gas directly connected to the instrument. The blending device shall be checked at the used settings and the nominal value shall be compared to the measured concentration of the instrument. This difference shall in each point be within ± 1 % of the nominal value.

Other methods may be used based on good engineering practice and with the prior agreement of the parties involved.

Note: A precision gas divider of accuracy is within ± 1 %, is recommended for establishing the accurate analyser calibration curve. The gas divider shall be calibrated by the instrument manufacturer.

▼B

1.3.   Operating procedure for analysers and sampling system

The operating procedure for analysers shall follow the start-up and operating instructions of the instrument manufacturer. The minimum requirements given in sections 1.4 to 1.9 shall be included.

1.4.   Leakage test

A system leakage test shall be performed. The probe shall be disconnected from the exhaust system and the end plugged. The analyser pump shall be switched on. After an initial stabilization period all flow meters should read zero. If not, the sampling lines shall be checked and the fault corrected. The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side shall be 0,5 % of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being checked. The analyser flows and bypass flows may be used to estimate the in-use flow rates.

Another method is the introduction of a concentration step change at the beginning of the sampling line by switching from zero to span gas.

If after an adequate period of time the reading shows a lower concentration compared to the introduced concentration, this points to calibration or leakage problems.

1.5.   Calibration procedure

1.5.1.   Instrument assembly

The instrument assembly shall be calibrated and calibration curves checked against standard gases. The same gas flow rates shall be used as when sampling exhaust.

1.5.2.   Warming-up time

The warming-up time should be according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. If not specified, a minimum of two Hours is recommended for warming-up the analysers.

1.5.3.   NDIR and HFID analyser

The NDIR analyser shall be tuned, as necessary, and the combustion flame of the HFID analyser shall be optimized (section 1.8.1).

1.5.4.   Calibration

Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated.

Using purified synthetic air (or nitrogen), the CO, CO2, Nox, HC and O2 analysers shall be set at zero.

The appropriate calibration gases shall be introduced to the analysers, the values recorded, and the calibration curve established according to section 1.5.6.

The zero setting shall be re-checked and the calibration procedure repeated, if necessary.

1.5.5.   Establishment of the calibration curve

1.5.5.1.   General guidelines

►M3   ►C1  The analyser calibration curve is established by at least six calibration points (excluding zero) spaced as uniformly as possible. ◄  ◄ The highest nominal concentration must be equal to or higher than 90 % of full scale.

The calibration curve is calculated by the method of least squares. If the resulting polynomial degree is greater than three, the number of calibration points (zero included) must be at least equal to this polynomial degree plus two.

▼M3

The calibration curve must not differ by more than ± 2 % from the nominal value of each calibration point and by more than ± 0,3 % of full scale at zero.

▼B

From the calibration curve and the calibration points, it is possible to verify that the calibration has been carried out correctly. The different characteristic parameters of the analyser must be indicated, particularly:

 the measuring range,

 the sensitivity,

 the date of carrying out the calibration.

1.5.5.2.   Calibration below 15 % of full scale

The analyser calibration curve is established by at least ten calibration points (excluding zero) spaced so that 50 % of the calibration points is below 10 % of full scale.

The calibration curve is calculated by the method of least squares.

▼M3

The calibration curve must not differ by more than ± 4 % from the nominal value of each calibration point and by more than ± 0,3 % of full scale at zero.

▼B

1.5.5.3.   Alternative methods

If it can be shown that alternative technology (e.g. computer, electronically controlled range switch, etc.) can give equivalent accuracy, then these alternatives may be used.

1.6.   Verification of the calibration

Each normally used operating range shall be checked prior to each analysis in accordance with the following procedure.

The calibration is checked by using a zero gas and a span gas whose nominal value is more than 80 % of full scale of the measuring range.

If, for the two points considered, the value found does not differ by more than ± 4 % of full scale from the declared reference value, the adjustment parameters may be modified. Should this not be the case, a new calibration curve shall be established in accordance with section 1.5.4.

1.7.   Efficiency test of the NOx converter

The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO2 into NO is tested as given in sections 1.7.1 to 1.7.8 (Figure 1).

1.7.1.   Test set-up

Using the test set-up as shown in Figure 1 (see also Appendix 1, section 1.4.3.5) and the procedure below, the efficiency of converters can be tested by means of an ozonator.

image

Figure 1

Schematic of NO2 converter efficiency device

1.7.2.   Calibration

The CLD and the HCLD shall be calibrated in the most common operating range following the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must amount to about 80 % of the operating range and the NO2 concentration of the gas mixture to less than 5 % of the NO concentration). The NOx analyser must be in the NO mode so that the span gas does not pass through the converter. The indicated concentration has to be recorded.

1.7.3.   Calculation

The efficiency of the NOx converter is calculated as follows:

image

(a)

NOx concentration according to section 1.7.6;

(b)

NOx concentration according to section 1.7.7;

(c)

NO concentration according to section 1.7.4;

(d)

NO concentration according to section 1.7.5.

1.7.4.   Adding of oxygen

Via a T-fitting, oxygen or zero air is added continuously to the gas flow until the concentration indicated is about 20 % less than the indicated calibration concentration given in section 1.7.2 (The analyser is in the NO mode.)

The indicated concentration (c) shall be recorded. The ozonator is kept de-activated throughout the process.

1.7.5.   Activation of the ozonator

The ozonator is now activated to generate enough ozone to bring the NO concentration down to about 20 % (minimum 10 %) of the calibration concentration given in section 1.7.2. The indicated concentration (d) shall be recorded. (The analyser is in the NO mode.)

1.7.6.   NOx mode

The NO analyser is then switched to the NOx mode so that the gas mixture (consisting of NO, NO2, O2 and N2) now passes through the converter. The indicated concentration (a) shall be recorded. (The analyser is in the NOx mode.)

1.7.7.   De-activation of the ozonator

The ozonator is now de-activated. The mixture of gases described in section 1.7.6 passes through the converter into the detector. The indicated concentration (b) shall be recorded. (The analyser is in the NOx mode.)

1.7.8.   NO mode

Switched to NO mode with the ozonator de-activated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air is also shut off. The NOx reading of the analyser shall not deviate by more than ± 5 % from the value measured according to section 1.7.2 (The analyser is in the NO mode.)

1.7.9.   Test interval

The efficiency of the converter must be tested prior to each calibration of the NOx analyser.

1.7.10.   Efficiency requirement

The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 90 %, but a higher efficiency of 95 % is strongly recommended.

Note: If, with the analyser in the most common range, the ozonator cannot give a reduction from 80 % to 20 % according to section 1.7.5, then the highest range which will give the reduction shall be used.

1.8.   Adjustment of the FID

1.8.1.   Optimization of the detector response

The HFID must be adjusted as specified by the instrument manufacturer. A propane in air span gas should be used to optimize the response on the most common operating range.

With the fuel and air flow rates set at the manufacturer's recommendations, a 350 ± 75 ppm C span gas shall be introduced to the analyser. The response at a given fuel flow shall be determined from the difference between the span gas response and the zero gas response. The fuel flow shall be incrementally adjusted above and below the manufacturer's specification. The span and zero response at these fuel flows shall be recorded. The difference between the span and zero response shall be plotted and the fuel flow adjusted to the rich side of the curve.

1.8.2.   Hydrocarbon response factors

The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air, according to section 1.5.

Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and after major service intervals. The response factor (Rf) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio of the FID C1 reading to the gas concentration in the cylinder expressed by ppm C1.

The concentration of the test gas must be at a level to give a response of approximately 80 % of full scale. The concentration must be known to an accuracy of ± 2 % in reference to a gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder must be pre-conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature of 298 K (25 oC) ± 5 K.

The test gases to be used and the recommended relative response factor ranges are as follows:



—  methane and purified synthetic air:

1,00 ≤ Rf ≤ 1,15

—  propylene and purified synthetic air:

0,90 ≤ Rf ≤ 1,1

—  toluene and purified synthetic air:

0,90 ≤ Rf ≤ 1,10

These values are relative to the response factor (Rf) of 1,00 for propane and purified synthetic air.

1.8.3.   Oxygen interference check

▼M3

The oxygen interference check shall be determined when introducing an analyser into service and after major service intervals.

A range shall be chosen where the oxygen interference check gases will fall within the upper 50 %. The test shall be conducted with the oven temperature set as required.

1.8.3.1.   Oxygen interference gases

Oxygen interference check gases shall contain propane with 350 ppmC ÷ 75 ppmC hydrocarbon. The concentration value shall be determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total hydrocarbons plus impurities or by dynamic blending. Nitrogen shall be the predominant diluent with the balance oxygen. Blends required for Diesel engine testing are:



O2 concentration

Balance

21 (20 to 22)

Nitrogen

10 (9 to 11

Nitrogen

5 (4 to 6)

Nitrogen

1.8.3.2.   Procedure

(a) The analyser shall be zeroed.

(b) The analyser shall be spanned with the 21 % oxygen blend.

(c) The zero response shall be rechecked. If it has changed more than 0,5 % of full scale clauses (a) and (b) shall be repeated.

(d) The 5 % and 10 % oxygen interference check gases shall be introduced.

(e) The zero response shall be rechecked. If it has changed more than ± 1 % of full scale, the test shall be repeated.

(f) The oxygen interference (%O2I) shall be calculated for each mixture in (d) as follows:

image

A

=

hydrocarbon concentration (ppmC) of the span gas used in (b)

B

=

hydrocarbon concentration (ppmC) of the oxygen interference check gases used in (d)

C

=

analyser response

image

D

=

percent of full scale analyser response due to A.

(g) The % of oxygen interference (%O2I) shall be less than ± 3,0 % for all required oxygen interference check gases prior to testing.

(h) If the oxygen interference is greater than ± 3,0 %, the air flow above and below the manufacturer's specifications shall be incrementally adjusted, repeating clause 1.8.1 for each flow.

(i) If the oxygen interference is greater than ± 3,0 % after adjusting the air flow, the fuel flow and thereafter the sample flow shall be varied, repeating clause 1.8.1 for each new setting.

(j) If the oxygen interference is still greater than ± 3,0 %, the analyser, FID fuel, or burner air shall be repaired or replaced prior to testing. This clause shall then be repeated with the repaired or replaced equipment or gases.

▼B

1.9.   Interference effects with NDIR and CLD analysers

Gases present in the exhaust other than the one being analysed can interfere with the reading in several ways. Positive interference occurs in NDIR instruments where the interfering gas gives the same effect as the gas being measured, but to a lesser degree. Negative interference occurs in NDIR instruments by the interfering gas broadening the absorption band of the measured gas, and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching the radiation. The interference checks in sections 1.9.1 and 1.9.2 shall be performed prior to an analyser's initial use and after major service intervals.

1.9.1.   CO analyser interference check

Water and CO2 can interfere with the CO analyser performance. Therefore a CO2 span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100 % of full scale of the maximum operating range used during testing shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and the analyser response recorded. The analyser response must not be more than 1 % of full scale for ranges equal to or above 300 ppm or more than 3 ppm for ranges below 300 ppm.

1.9.2.   NOx analyser quench checks

The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analysers are CO2 and water vapour. Quench responses of these gases are proportional to their concentrations, and therefore require test techniques to determine the quench at the highest expected concentrations experienced during testing.

1.9.2.1.   CO2 quench check

A CO2 span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100 % of full scale of the maximum operating range shall be passed through the NDIR analyser and the CO2 value recorded as A. It shall then be diluted approximately 50 % with NO span gas and passed through the NDIR and (H)CLD with the CO2 and NO values recorded as B and C, respectively. The CO2 shall be shut off and only the NO span gas be passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D.

The quench shall be calculated as follows:

image

and must not be greater than 3 % of full scale.

where:

A

:

undiluted CO2 concentration measured with NDIR %

B

:

diluted CO2 concentration measured with NDIR %

C

:

diluted NO concentration measured with CLD ppm

D

:

undiluted NO concentration measured with CLD ppm

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1.9.2.2.   Water quench check

▼M3

This check applies to wet gas concentration measurements only. Calculation of water quench must consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapour and scaling of water vapour concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing. A NO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100 % of full scale to the normal operating range shall be passed through the (H)CLD and the NO value recorded as D. The NO gas shall be bubbled through water at room temperature and passed through the (H)CLD and NO value recorded as C. The water temperature shall be determined and recorded as F. The mixture's saturation vapour pressure that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature (F) shall be determined and recorded as G. The water vapour concentration (in %) of the mixture shall be calculated as follows:

▼M1

image

and recorded as H. The expected diluted NO span gas (in water vapour) concentration shall be calculated as follows:

image

▼M3

and recorded as De. For diesel exhaust, the maximum exhaust water vapour concentration (in %) expected during testing shall be estimated, under the assumption of a fuel atom H/C ratio of 1,8 to 1, from the maximum CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas or from the undiluted CO2 span gas concentration (A, as measured in section 1.9.2.1) as follows:

▼M1

image

and recorded as Hm.

The water quench shall be calculated as follows:

image and must not be greater than 3 % of full scale.

De : expected diluted NO concentration (ppm)

C : diluted NO concentration (ppm)

Hm : maximum water vapour concentration (%)

H : actual water vapour concentration (%)

NB: It is important that the NO span gas contains minimal NO2 concentration for this check, since obsorption of NO2 in water has not been accounted for in the quench calculations.

▼B

1.10.   Calibration intervals

The analysers shall be calibrated according to section 1.5 at least every three months or whenever a system repair or change is made that could influence calibration.

▼M3

1.11.   Additional calibration requirements for raw exhaust measurements over NRTC test

1.11.1.   Response time check of the analytical system

The system settings for the response time evaluation shall be exactly the same as during measurement of the test run (i.e. pressure, flow rates, filter settings on the analysers and all other response time influences). The response time determination shall be done with gas switching directly at the inlet of the sample probe. The gas switching shall be done in less than 0,1 second. The gases used for the test shall cause a concentration change of at least 60 % FS.

The concentration trace of each single gas component shall be recorded. The response time is defined as the difference in time between the gas switching and the appropriate change of the recorded concentration. The system response time (t90) consists of the delay time to the measuring detector and the rise time of the detector. The delay time is defined as the time from the change (t0) until the response is 10 % of the final reading (t10). The rise time is defined as the time between 10 and 90 % response of the final reading (t90 — t10).

For time alignment of the analyser and exhaust flow signals in the case of raw measurement, the transformation time is defined as the time from the change (t0) until the response is 50 % of the final reading (t50).

The system response time shall be ≤ 10 seconds with a rise time ≤ 2,5 seconds for all limited components (CO, NOx, HC) and all ranges used.

1.11.2.   Calibration of tracer gas analyser for exhaust flow measurement

The analyser for measurement of the tracer gas concentration, if used, shall be calibrated using the standard gas.

The calibration curve shall be established by at least 10 calibration points (excluding zero) spaced so that a half of the calibration points are placed between 4 to 20 % of analyser's full scale and the rest are in between 20 to 100 % of the full scale. The calibration curve is calculated by the method of least squares.

The calibration curve shall not differ by more than ± 1 % of the full scale from the nominal value of each calibration point, in the range from 20 to 100 % of the full scale. It shall also not differ by more than ± 2 % from the nominal value in the range from 4 to 20 % of the full scale.

The analyser shall be set at zero and spanned prior to the test run using a zero gas and a span gas whose nominal value is more than 80 % of the analyser full scale.

▼B

2.   CALIBRATION OF THE PARTICULATE MEASURING SYSTEM

2.1.   Introduction

Each component shall be calibrated as often as necessary to fulfil the accuracy requirements of this standard. The calibration method to be used is described in this section for the components indicated in Annex III, Appendix 1, section 1.5 and Annex V.

2.2.   Flow measurement

▼M3

The calibration of gas flow-meters or flow measurement instrumentation shall be traceable to national and/or international standards.

The maximum error of the measured value shall be within ± 2 % of reading.

For partial flow dilution systems, the accuracy of the sample flow GSE is of special concern, if not measured directly, but determined by differential flow measurement:

GSE = GTOTW GDILW

In this case an accuracy of ± 2 % for GTOTW and GDILW is not sufficient to guarantee acceptable accuracies of GSE. If the gas flow is determined by differential flow measurement, the maximum error of the difference shall be such that the accuracy of GSE is within ± 5 % when the dilution ratio is less than 15. It can be calculated by taking root-mean-square of the errors of each instrument.

▼B

2.3.   Checking the dilution ratio

When using particulate sampling systems without EGA (Annex V, section 1.2.1.1), the dilution ratio shall be checked for each new engine installation with the engine running and the use of either the CO2 or NOx concentration measurements in the raw and dilute exhaust.

The measured dilution ratio shall be within ± 10 % of the calculated dilution ratio from CO2 or NOx concentration measurement.

2.4.   Checking the partial flow conditions

The range of the exhaust gas velocity and the pressure oscillations shall be checked and adjusted according to the requirements of Annex V, section 1.2.1.1, EP, if applicable.

2.5.   Calibration intervals

The flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated at least every three months, or whenever a system change is made that could influence calibration.

▼M3

2.6.   Additional calibration requirements for partial flow dilution systems

2.6.1   Periodical calibration

If the sample gas flow is determined by differential flow measurement the flow meter or the flow measurement instrumentation shall be calibrated by one of the following procedures, such that the probe flow GSE into the tunnel fulfils the accuracy requirements of Appendix I section 2.4:

The flow meter for GDILW is connected in series to the flow meter for GTOTW , the difference between the two flow meters is calibrated for at least five set points with flow values equally spaced between the lowest GDILW value used during the test and the value of GTOTW used during the test The dilution tunnel may be bypassed.

A calibrated mass flow device is connected in series to the flowmeter for GTOTW and the accuracy is checked for the value used for the test. Then the calibrated mass flow device is connected in series to the flow meter for GDILW, and the accuracy is checked for at least five settings corresponding to the dilution ratio between 3 and 50, relative to GTOTW used during the test.

The transfer tube TT is disconnected from the exhaust, and a calibrated flow measuring device with a suitable range to measure GSE is connected to the transfer tube. Then GTOTW is set to the value used during the test, and GDILW is sequentially set to at least five values corresponding to dilution ratios q between 3 and 50. Alternatively, a special calibration flow path may be provided, in which the tunnel is bypassed, but the total and dilution air flow through the corresponding meters are maintained as in the actual test.

A tracer gas is fed into the transfer tube TT. This tracer gas may be a component of the exhaust gas, like CO2 or NOx. After dilution in the tunnel the tracer gas component is measured. This shall be carried out for five dilution ratios between 3 and 50. The accuracy of the sample flow is determined from the dilution ration q:

GSE = GTOTW /q

The accuracies of the gas analysers shall be taken into account to guarantee the accuracy of GSE.

2.6.2.   Carbon flow check

A carbon flow check using actual exhaust is strongly recommended for detecting measurement and control problems and verifying the proper operation of the partial flow dilution system. The carbon flow check should be run at least each time a new engine is installed, or something significant is changed in the test cell configuration.

The engine shall be operated at peak torque load and speed or any other steady-state mode that produces 5 % or more of CO2. The partial flow sampling system shall be operated with a dilution factor of about 15 to 1.

2.6.3.   Pre-test check

A pre-test check shall be performed within two hours before the test run in the following way:

The accuracy of the flow meters shall be checked by the same method as used for calibration for at least two points, including flow values of GDILW that correspond to dilution ratios between five and 15 for the GTOTW value used during the test.

If it can be demonstrated by records of the calibration procedure described above that the flow meter calibration is stable over a longer period of time, the pre-test check may be omitted.

2.6.4.   Determination of the transformation time

The system settings for the transformation time evaluation shall be exactly the same as during measurement of the test run. The transformation time shall be determined by the following method:

An independent reference flowmeter with a measurement range appropriate for the probe flow shall be put in series with and closely coupled to the probe. This flow meter shall have a transformation time of less than 100 ms for the flow step size used in the response time measurement, with flow restriction sufficiently low not to affect the dynamic performance of the partial flow dilution system, and consistent with good engineering practice.

A step change shall be introduced to the exhaust flow (or air flow if exhaust flow is calculated) input of the partial flow dilution system, from a low flow to at least 90 % of full scale. The trigger for the step change should be the same one as that used to start the look-ahead control in actual testing. The exhaust flow step stimulus and the flowmeter response shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least 10 Hz.

From this data, the transformation time shall be determined for the partial flow dilution system, which is the time from the initiation of the step stimulus to the 50 % point of the flowmeter response. In a similar manner, the transformation times of the GSE signal of the partial flow dilution system and of the GEXHW signal of the exhaust flow meter shall be determined. These signals are used in the regression checks performed after each test (Appendix I section 2.4).

The calculation shall be repeated for at least five rise-and-fall stimuli, and the results shall be averaged. The internal transformation time (< 100 ms) of the reference flowmeter shall be subtracted from this value. This is the ‘look-ahead’ value of the partial flow dilution system, which shall be applied in accordance with Appendix I section 2.4.

3.   CALIBRATION OF THE CVS SYSTEM

3.1.   General

The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flowmeter and means to change operating conditions.

The flow through the system shall be measured at different flow operating settings, and the control parameters of the system shall be measured and related to the flow.

Various type of flowmeters may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi, calibrated laminar flowmeter, calibrated turbine meter.

3.2.   Calibration of the positive displacement pump (PDP)

All the parameters related to the pump shall be simultaneously measured along with the parameters related to a calibration venturi which is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flow rate (in m3/min at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) shall be plotted against a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters. The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function shall be determined. If a CVS has a multiple speed drive, the calibration shall be performed for each range used.

Temperature stability shall be maintained during calibration.

Leaks in all the connections and ducting between the calibration venturi and the CVS pump shall be maintained lower than 0,3 % of the lowest flow point (highest restriction and lowest PDP speed point).

3.2.1.   Data analysis

The air flowrate (Qs) at each restriction setting (minimum 6 settings) shall be calculated in standard m3/min from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The air flow rate shall then be converted to pump flow (V0) in m3/rev at absolute pump inlet temperature and pressure as follows

image

where,

Qs

=

air flow rate at standard conditions (101,3 kPa, 273 K) (m3/s)

T

=

temperature at pump inlet (K)

pA

=

absolute pressure at pump inlet (pB- p1) (kPa)

n

=

pump speed (rev/s)

To account for the interaction of pressure variations at the pump and the pump slip rate, the correlation function (X0) between pump speed, pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet and absolute pump outlet pressure shall be calculated as follows:

image

where,

image

pA

=

absolute outlet pressure at pump outlet (kPa)

A linear least-square fit shall be performed to generate the calibration equation as follows:

image

D0 and m are the intercept and slope constants, respectively, describing the regression lines.

For a CVS system with multiple speeds, the calibration curves generated for the different pump flow ranges shall be approximately parallel, and the intercept values (D0) shall increase as the pump flow range decreases.

The values calculated by the equation shall be within ± 0,5 % of the measured value of V0. Values of m will vary from one pump to another. Particulate influx over time will cause the pump slip to decrease, as reflected by lower values for m. Therefore, calibration shall be performed at pump start-up, after major maintenance, and if the total system verification (section 3.5) indicates a change in the slip rate.

3.3.   Calibration of the critical flow venturi (CFV)

Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature, as shown below:

image

where,

Kv

=

calibration coefficient

pA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)

T

=

temperature at venturi inlet (K)

3.3.1.   Data analysis

The air flow rate (Qs) at each restriction setting (minimum 8 settings) shall be calculated in standard m3/min from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The calibration coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as follows:

image

where,

Qs

=

air flow rate at standard conditions (101,3 kPa, 273 K) (m3/s)

T

=

temperature at the venturi inlet (K)

pA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)

To determine the range of critical flow, Kv shall be plotted as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For critical (choked) flow, Kv will have a relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and Kv decreases, which indicates that the CFV is operated outside the permissible range.

For a minimum of eight points in the region of critical flow, the average KV and the standard deviation shall be calculated. The standard deviation shall not exceed ± 0,3 % of the average KV

3.4.   Calibration of the subsonic venturi (SSV)

Calibration of the SSV is based upon the flow equation for a subsonic venturi. Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature, pressure drop between the SSV inlet and throat, as shown below:

image

where,

A0

=

collection of constants and units conversions

image

d

=

diameter of the SSV throat (m)

Cd

=

discharge coefficient of the SSV

PA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)

T

=

temperature at the venturi inlet (K)

image

3.4.1.   Data analysis

The air flow rate (QSSV) at each flow setting (minimum 16 settings) shall be calculated in standard m3/min from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method. The discharge coefficient shall be calculated from the calibration data for each setting as follows:

image

where,

QSSV

=

air flow rate at standard conditions (101,3 kPa, 273 K), m3/s

T

=

temperature at the venturi inlet, K

d

=

diameter of the SSV throat, m

image

To determine the range of subsonic flow, Cd shall be plotted as a function of Reynolds number, at the SSV throat. The Re at the SSV throat is calculated with the following formula:

image

where,

A1

=

a collection of constants and units conversions

image

QSSV

=

air flow rate at standard conditions (101,3 kPa, 273 K) (m3/s)

d

=

diameter of the SSV throat (m)

μ

=

absolute or dynamic viscosity of the gas, calculated with the following formula:

image

where:

image

Because QSSV is an input to the Re formula, the calculations must be started with an initial guess for QSSV or Cd of the calibration venturi, and repeated until QSSV converges. The convergence method must be accurate to 0,1 % or better.

For a minimum of sixteen points in the subsonic flow region, the calculated values of Cd from the resulting calibration curve fit equation must be within ± 0,5 % of the measured Cd for each calibration point.

3.5.   Total system verification

The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be determined by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system while it is being operated in the normal manner. The pollutant is analysed, and the mass calculated according to Annex III, Appendix 3, section 2.4.1 except in the case of propane where a factor of 0,000472 is used in place of 0,000479 for HC. Either of the following two techniques shall be used.

3.5.1.   Metering with a critical flow orifice

A known quantity of pure gas (propane) shall be fed into the CVS system through a calibrated critical orifice. If the inlet pressure is high enough, the flow rate, which is adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of the orifice outlet pressure (critical flow). The CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust emission test for about five to 10 minutes. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment (sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated. The mass so determined shall be within ± 3 % of the known mass of the gas injected.

3.5.2.   Metering by means of a gravimetric technique

The weight of a small cylinder filled with propane shall be determined with a precision of ± 0,01 g. For about five to 10 minutes, the CVS system shall be operated as in a normal exhaust emission test, while carbon monoxide or propane is injected into the system. The quantity of pure gas discharged shall be determined by means of differential weighing. A gas sample shall be analysed with the usual equipment (sampling bag or integrating method), and the mass of the gas calculated. The mass so determined shall be within ± 3 % of the known mass of the gas injected.

▼B




Appendix 3

▼M3

DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS

▼B

1.   DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS — NRSC TEST

1.1.   Gaseous emissions data evaluation

For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 60 seconds of each mode shall be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 if the carbon balance method is used, during each mode shall be determined from the average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording can be used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.

The average background concentrations (concd) may be determined from the bag readings of the dilution air or from the continous (non-bag) background reading and the corresponding calibration data.

▼M3

1.2.   Particulate emissions

For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (MSAM, i) through the filters shall be recorded for each mode. The filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber and conditioned for at least one hour, but not more than 80 hours, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters shall be recorded and the tare weight (see section 3.1, Annex III) subtracted. The particulate mass (Mf for single filter method; Mf, i for the multiple filter method) is the sum of the particulate masses collected on the primary and back-up filters. If background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (MDIL) through the filters and the particulate mass (Md) shall be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the quotient Md/MDIL must be calculated for each single measurement and the values averaged.

▼B

1.3.   Calculation of the gaseous emissions

The finally reported test results shall be derived through the following steps:

▼M3

1.3.1.   Determination of the exhaust gas flow

The exhaust gas flow rate (GEXHW,) shall be determined for each mode according to Annex III, Appendix 1, sections 1.2.1. to 1.2.3.

When using a full flow dilution system, the total dilute exhaust gas flow rate (GTOTW,) shall be determined for each mode according to Annex III, Appendix 1, section 1.2.4.

1.3.2.   Dry/wet correction

Dry/wet correction (GEXHW,) shall be determined for each mode according to Annex III, Appendix 1, sections 1.2.1. to 1.2.3.

When applying GEXHW the measured concentration shall be converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae, if not already measured on a wet basis:

conc (wet) = kw × conc (dry)

For the raw exhaust gas:

image

For the diluted gas:

image

or:

image

For the dilution air:

image

For the intake air (if different from the dilution air):

image

where:

Ha

:

absolute humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)

Hd

:

absolute humidity of the dilution air (g water per kg dry air)

Rd

:

relative humidity of the dilution air ( %)

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air ( %)

pd

:

saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air (kPa)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa).

Note: H a and H d may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

1.3.3.   Humidity correction for NOx

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity by the factors KH given in the following formula:

image

where:

Ta

:

temperatures of the air in (K)

Ha

:

humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air):

image

where:

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air ( %)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa).

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

1.3.4.   Calculation of emission mass flow rates

The emission mass flow rates for each mode shall be calculated as follows:

(a) For the raw exhaust gas ( 23 ):

Gasmass = u × conc × GEXHW

(b) For the dilute exhaust gas (23) :

Gasmass = u × concc × GTOTW

where:

concc is the background corrected concentration

image

or:

DF=13,4/concCO2

The coefficients u - wet shall be used according to Table 4:

Table 4:

Values of the coefficients u - wet for various exhaust components



Gas

u

conc

NOx

0,001587

ppm

CO

0,000966

ppm

HC

0,000479

ppm

CO2

15,19

percent

The density of HC is based upon an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1,85.

1.3.5.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The specific emission (g/kWh) shall be calculated for all individual components in the following way:

image

where Pi = Pm, i + PAE, i.

The weighting factors and the number of modes (n) used in the above calculation are according to Annex III, section 3.7.1.

1.4.   Calculation of the particulate emission

The particulate emission shall be calculated in the following way:

1.4.1.   Humidity correction factor for particulates

As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the particulate mass flow rate shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor Kp given in the following formula:

image

where:

Ha

:

humidity of the intake air, gram of water per kg dry air

image

where:

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air (%)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae

1.4.2.   Partial flow dilution system

The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derived through the following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation methods for equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate GEDF apply. All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes (i) during the sampling period.

1.4.2.1.   Isokinetic systems

GEDFW, i = GEXHW, i × qi

image

where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic probe Ap and exhaust pipe AT:

image

1.4.2.2.   Systems with measurement of CO2 or NOx concentration

GEDFW, i = GEXHW, i × qi

image

where:

ConcE

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in raw exhaust

ConcD

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the diluted exhaust

ConcA

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the dilution air

Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis according to section 1.3.2.

1.4.2.3.   Systems with CO2 measurement and carbon balance method

image

where:

CO2D

=

CO2 concentration of the diluted exhaust

CO2A

=

CO2 concentration of the dilution air

(concentrations in volume % on wet basis)

This equation is based upon the carbon balance assumption (carbon atoms supplied to the engine are emitted as CO2) and derived through the following steps:

GEDFW, i = GEXHW, i × qi

and:

image

1.4.2.4.   Systems with flow measurement

GEDFW, i = GEXHW, i × qi

image

1.4.3.   Full flow dilution system

The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derived through the following steps.

All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes (i) during the sampling period.

GEDFW, i = GTOTW, i

1.4.4.   Calculation of the particulate mass flow rate

The particulate mass flow rate shall be calculated as follows:

For the single filter method:

image

where:

(GEDFW)aver over the test cycle shall be determined by summation of the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period:

image

where i = 1, . . . n

For the multiple filter method:

image

where i = 1, . . . n

The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:

For single filter method:

image

If more than one measurement is made, (Md/MDIL) shall be replaced with (Md/MDIL)aver

image

or:

DF=13,4/concCO2

For multiple filter method:

image

If more than one measurement is made, (Md/MDIL) shall be replaced with (Md/MDIL)aver

image

or:

DF= 13,4/concCO2

1.4.5.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The specific emission of particulates PT (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way ( 24 ):

For the single filter method:

image

For the multiple filter method:

image

1.4.6.   Effective weighting factor

For the single filter method, the effective weighting factor WFE, i for each mode shall be calculated in the following way:

image

where i = l, . . . n.

The value of the effective weighting factors shall be within ± 0,005 (absolute value) of the weighting factors listed in Annex III, section 3.7.1.

▼M3

2.   DATA EVALUATION AND CALCULATIONS (NRTC TEST)

The two following measurement principles that can be used for the evaluation of pollutant emissions over the NRTC cycle are described in this section:

 the gaseous components are measured in the raw exhaust gas on a real-time basis, and the particulates are determined using a partial flow dilution system,

 the gaseous components and the particulates are determined using a full flow dilution system (CVS system).

2.1.   Calculation of gaseous emissions in the raw exhaust gas and of the particulate emissions with a partial flow dilution system

2.1.1.   Introduction

The instantaneous concentration signals of the gaseous components are used for the calculation of the mass emissions by multiplication with the instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate. The exhaust mass flow rate may be measured directly, or calculated using the methods described in Annex III, Appendix 1, section 2.2.3 (intake air and fuel flow measurement, tracer method, intake air and air/fuel ratio measurement). Special attention shall be paid to the response times of the different instruments. These differences shall be accounted for by time aligning the signals.

For particulates, the exhaust mass flow rate signals are used for controlling the partial flow dilution system to take a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow rate. The quality of proportionality is checked by applying a regression analysis between sample and exhaust flow as described in Annex III, Appendix 1, section 2.4.

2.1.2.   Determination of the gaseous components

2.1.2.1.   Calculation of mass emission

The mass of the pollutants Mgas (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions from the raw concentrations of the pollutants, the u values from Table 4 (see also Section 1.3.4) and the exhaust mass flow, aligned for the transformation time and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. Preferably, the concentrations should be measured on a wet basis. If measured on a dry basis, the dry/wet correction as described here below shall be applied to the instantaneous concentration values before any further calculation is done.

Table 4:   Values of the coefficients u — wet for various exhaust components



Gas

u

conc

NOx

0,001587

ppm

CO

0,000966

ppm

HC

0,000479

ppm

CO2

15,19

percent

The density of HC is based upon an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1,85.

The following formula shall be applied:

image

where

u

=

ratio between density of exhaust component and density of exhaust gas

conc i

=

instantaneous concentration of the respective component in the raw exhaust gas (ppm)

GEXHW, i

=

instantaneous exhaust mass flow (kg/s)

f

=

data sampling rate (Hz)

n

=

number of measurements

For the calculation of NOx, the humidity correction factor k H, as described here below, shall be used.

The instantaneously measured concentration shall be converted to a wet basis as described here below, if not already measured on a wet basis

2.1.2.2.   Dry/wet correction

If the instantaneously measured concentration is measured on a dry basis, it shall be converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae:

conc wet = k W x conc dry

where

image

with

image

where

conc CO2

=

dry CO2 concentration (%)

conc CO

=

dry CO concentration (%)

H a

=

intake air humidity, (g water per kg dry air)

image

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air (%)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.1.2.3.   NOx correction for humidity and temperature

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for humidity and ambient air temperature with the factors given in the following formula:

image

with:

T a

=

temperature of the intake air, K

H a

=

humidity of the intake air, g water per kg dry air

image

where:

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air ( %)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.1.2.4.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual component in the following way:

Individual gas = Mgas /W act

where:

W act

=

actual cycle work as determined in Annex III Section 4.6.2 (kWh)

2.1.3.   Particulate determination

2.1.3.1.   Calculation of mass emission

The mass of particulates MPT (g/test) shall be calculated by either of the following methods:

(a)  image

where

M f

=

particulate mass sampled over the cycle (mg)

MSAM

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters (kg)

M EDFW

=

mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (kg)

The total mass of equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass over the cycle shall be determined as follows:

image

where

GEDFW ,i

=

instantaneous equivalent diluted exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)

GEXHW ,i

=

instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate (kg/s)

q i

=

instantaneous dilution ratio

GTOTW ,I

=

instantaneous diluted exhaust mass flow rate through dilution tunnel (kg/s)

GDILW ,i

=

instantaneous dilution air mass flow rate (kg/s)

f

=

data sampling rate (Hz)

n

=

number of measurements

(b)  image

where

M f

=

particulate mass sampled over the cycle (mg)

r s

=

average sample ratio over the test cycle

where

image

MSE

=

sampled exhaust mass over the cycle (kg)

MEXHW

=

total exhaust mass flow over the cycle (kg)

MSAM

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the particulate collection filters (kg)

MTOTW

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas passing the dilution tunnel (kg)

Note: In case of the total sampling type system, MSAM and MTOTW are identical.

2.1.3.2.   Particulate correction factor for humidity

As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor Kp given in the following formula.

image

where

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air in g water per kg dry air

image

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air (%)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: Ha may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.1.3.3.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The particulate emission (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way:

image

where

W act

=

actual cycle work as determined in Annex III Section 4.6.2(kWh)

2.2.   Determination of gaseous and particulate components with a full flow dilution system

For calculation of the emissions in the diluted exhaust gas, it is necessary to know the diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate. The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle MTOTW (kg/test) shall be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V 0 for PDP, K V for CFV, C d for SSV): the corresponding methods described in section 2.2.1 may be used. If the total sample mass of particulates (MSAM ) and gaseous pollutants exceeds 0,5 % of the total CVS flow (MTOTW ), the CVS flow shall be corrected for MSAM or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS prior to the flow measuring device.

2.2.1.   Determination of the diluted exhaust gas flow

PDP-CVS system

The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept within ± 6 K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger, is as follows:

MTOTW = 1,293 x V0 x NP x (pB - p1) x273/(101,3 x T)

where

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle

V0

=

volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions (m3/rev)

NP

=

total revolutions of pump per test

pB

=

atmospheric pressure in the test cell (kPa)

p1

=

pressure drop below atmospheric at the pump inlet (kPa)

T

=

average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet over thecycle (K)

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:

MTOTW ,i = 1,293 × V0 × NP, i x (pB – p1) × 273/(101,3 x T)

where

NP, i

=

total revolutions of pump per time interval

CFV-CVS system

The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas is kept within ± 11 K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger, is as follows:

MTOTW = 1,293 × t × Kv × pA/T0,5

where

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle

t

=

cycle time (s)

KV

=

calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions,

pA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)

T

=

absolute temperature at venturi inlet (K)

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:

MTOTW ,i = 1,293 × Δti × KV × pA/T0,5

where

Δti

=

time interval(s)

SSV-CVS system

The calculation of the mass flow over the cycle is as follows if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept within ± 11 K over the cycle by using a heat exchanger:

image

where

image

A0

=

collection of constants and units conversions = 0,006111 in SI units of

image

d

=

diameter of the SSV throat (m)

Cd

=

discharge coefficient of the SSV

PA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet (kPa)

T

=

temperature at the venturi inlet (K)

image

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:

image

where

image

Δti

=

time interval (s)

The real time calculation shall be initialised with either a reasonable value for Cd, such as 0.98, or a reasonable value of Qssv. If the calculation is initialised with Qssv, the initial value of Qssv shall be used to evaluate Re.

During all emissions tests, the Reynolds number at the SSV throat must be in the range of Reynolds numbers used to derive the calibration curve developed in Appendix 2 section 3.2.

2.2.2.   NOx correction for humidity

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factors given in the following formulae.

image

where

Ta

=

temperature of the air (K)

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air (g water per kg dry air)

in which,

image

Ra

=

relative humidity of the intake air (%)

pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

=

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.2.3.   Calculation of the emission mass flow

2.2.3.1.   Systems with constant mass flow

For systems with heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants MGAS (g/test) shall be determined from the following equation:

Mgaz = u × conc × MTOTW

where

u

=

ratio between density of the exhaust component and density of diluted exhaust gas, as reported in Table 4, point 2.1.2.1

conc

=

average background corrected concentrations over the cycle from integration (mandatory for NOx and HC) or bag measurement (ppm)

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in section 2.2.1 (kg)

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k H, as described in section 2.2.2.

Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis in accordance with section 1.3.2.

2.2.3.1.1.   Determination of the background corrected concentrations

The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall be subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the pollutants. The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by the sample bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following formula shall be used.

conc = conce – concd × (1 – (1/DF))

where,

conc

=

concentration of the respective pollutant in the diluted exhaust gas, corrected by the amount of the respective pollutant contained in the dilution air (ppm)

conce

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas (ppm)

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air (ppm)

DF

=

dilution factor

The dilution factor shall be calculated as follows:

image

2.2.3.2.   Systems with flow compensation

For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants MGAS (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following formulae shall be applied:

image

where

conce, i

=

instantaneous concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas (ppm)

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air (ppm)

u

=

ratio between density of the exhaust component and density of diluted exhaust gas, as reported in Table 4, point 2.1.2.1

MTOTW, i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas (section 2.2.1) (kg)

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (section 2.2.1) (kg)

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in point 2.2.3.1.1.

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor k H, as described in section 2.2.2.

2.2.4.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The specific emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for each individual component in the following way:

Individual gas = Mgas /W act

where

W act

=

actual cycle work as determined in Annex III Section 4.6.2 (kWh)

2.2.5.   Calculation of the particulate emission

2.2.5.1.   Calculation of the mass flow

The particulate mass MPT (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:

image

Mf

=

particulate mass sampled over the cycle (mg)

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in section 2.2.1 (kg)

MSAM

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas taken from the dilution tunnel for collecting particulates (kg)

and,

Mf

=

Mf, p + Mf, b, if weighed separately (mg)

Mf, p

=

particulate mass collected on the primary filter (mg)

Mf, b

=

particulate mass collected on the back-up filter (mg)

If a double dilution system is used, the mass of the secondary dilution air shall be subtracted from the total mass of the double diluted exhaust gas sampled through the particulate filters.

MSAM = MTOT – MSEC

where

MTOT

=

mass of double diluted exhaust gas through particulate filter (kg)

MSEC

=

mass of secondary dilution air (kg)

If the particulate background level of the dilution air is determined in accordance with Annex III, section 4.4.4, the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this case, the particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:

image

where

Mf, MSAM, MTOTW

=

see above

MDIL

=

mass of primary dilution air sampled by background particulate sampler (kg)

Md

=

mass of the collected background particulates of the primary dilution air (mg)

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in section 2.2.3.1.1

2.2.5.2.   Particulate correction factor for humidity

As the particulate emission of diesel engines depends on ambient air conditions, the particulate concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factor Kp given in the following formula.

image

where

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air in g water per kg dry air

image

where:

Ra

:

relative humidity of the intake air ( %)

pa

:

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air (kPa)

pB

:

total barometric pressure (kPa)

Note: H a may be derived from relative humidity measurement, as described above, or from dewpoint measurement, vapour pressure measurement or dry/wet bulb measurement using the generally accepted formulae.

2.2.5.3.   Calculation of the specific emission

The particulate emission (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way:

image

where

Wact

=

actual cycle work, as determined in Annex III Section 4.6.2 (kWh)




Appendix 4

NRTC ENGINE DYNAMOMETER SCHEDULE



Time

(s)

Norm. Speed

(%)

Norm. Torque

(%)

1

0

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

5

0

0

6

0

0

7

0

0

8

0

0

9

0

0

10

0

0

11

0

0

12

0

0

13

0

0

14

0

0

15

0

0

16

0

0

17

0

0

18

0

0

19

0

0

20

0

0

21

0

0

22

0

0

23

0

0

24

1

3

25

1

3

26

1

3

27

1

3

28

1

3

29

1

3

30

1

6

31

1

6

32

2

1

33

4

13

34

7

18

35

9

21

36

17

20

37

33

42

38

57

46

39

44

33

40

31

0

41

22

27

42

33

43

43

80

49

44

105

47

45

98

70

46

104

36

47

104

65

48

96

71

49

101

62

50

102

51

51

102

50

52

102

46

53

102

41

54

102

31

55

89

2

56

82

0

57

47

1

58

23

1

59

1

3

60

1

8

61

1

3

62

1

5

63

1

6

64

1

4

65

1

4

66

0

6

67

1

4

68

9

21

69

25

56

70

64

26

71

60

31

72

63

20

73

62

24

74

64

8

75

58

44

76

65

10

77

65

12

78

68

23

79

69

30

80

71

30

81

74

15

82

71

23

83

73

20

84

73

21

85

73

19

86

70

33

87

70

34

88

65

47

89

66

47

90

64

53

91

65

45

92

66

38

93

67

49

94

69

39

95

69

39

96

66

42

97

71

29

98

75

29

99

72

23

100

74

22

101

75

24