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Document 52018SC0246

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the document Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

SWD/2018/246 final

Brussels, 4.5.2018

SWD(2018) 246 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying the document

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament

on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

{COM(2018) 257 final}


Table 1. Number of stations and station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) of reported groundwater monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, the change (%) between both periods, and the annual average sampling frequency in 2012-2015. 

Table 2. Number of stations and station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) of reported fresh surface water monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, the change (%) between both periods, and the annual average sampling frequency in 2012-2015. 

Table 3. Number of stations of reported saline surface water monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, and the change (%) between both periods. 

Table 4. Percentage of groundwater monitoring points per water quality class (annual average nitrate concentration in mg nitrate per L) for all stations of the EU 28 Member States for the period 2008-2011 and 2011-2015. 

Table 5. Percentage of fresh surface water monitoring points per water quality class (annual average nitrate concentration in mg nitrate per L) for all stations of the EU 28 Member States for the period 2008-2011 and 2011-2015. 

Table 6. Annual average nitrogen discharge (kton N) to the aquatic environment and relative contribution of agriculture (%), presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. * If different from 2008-2001 and 2012-2015. 

Table 7. Average livestock numbers (1,000,000) presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-201 and, 2012-2015, and the change between the two reporting periods. 

Table 8. Average annual animal manure nitrogen and fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, and the change between the two reporting periods. 

Table 9. Utilized agricultural area (1,000 ha) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 10. Number of farms in 2010 and 2013, and the change between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ). 

Table 11. Average farm size (ha) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 12. Number of total cattle (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 13. Number of dairy cattle (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 14. Number of pigs (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change in number between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 15. Number of poultry (1,000) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 16. Number of sheep (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change in number between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 17. Number of Livestock Units (1,000) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 18. Livestock density (LU per ha UAA) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 19. Fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 20. Fertiliser phosphate use (1,000 kg P) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 21. Animal manure nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 22. Animal manure phosphate use (1,000 kg P) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 23. Net nitrogen balance (kg N per ha) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 24. Phosphate balance (kg P per ha) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Table 25. Nitrate vulnerable zones in Member States and Member States applying an action programme to the whole national territory in line with Art. 3(5) of the Nitrates Directive (source: data provided by Member States to JRC). 

Table 26. Derogations in force at the end of the year 2015. 



Figure 1. Groundwater station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) in reporting period 2012-2015.Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements. 

Figure 2. Average annual groundwater sampling frequency in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.

Figure 3. Surface water station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.

Figure 4. Annual average fresh surface water sampling frequency in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements. 

Figure 5. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater, at all depths. 

Figure 6. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater at different depths, aggregated over all Member States. 

Figure 7. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater at different depths, aggregated over all Member States. 

Figure 8. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater. 

Figure 9. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in fresh surface waters (rivers and lakes). 

Figure 10. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in different surface waters, aggregated over all Member States. 

Figure 11. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in fresh surface water (rivers and lakes). 

Figure 12. Frequency diagram of the trophic status of rivers in reporting period 2012-2015. 

Figure 13. Frequency diagram of the trophic status of lakes in reporting period 2012-2015.

Figure 14. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of transitional waters in reporting period 2012-2015.

Figure 15. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of coastal waters in reporting period 2012-2015. 

Figure 16. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of marine waters in reporting period 2012-2015.

Figure 17. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of different water types in reporting period 2012-2015. Note that the number of underlying Member States is different per water type (Annex 2). 

Figure 18 Utilized agricultural area (1,000 ha) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 19 Change in utilized agricultural area (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 20 Number of farms in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 21 Change in the number of farms (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ).

Figure 22 Average farm size (ha) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 23 Change in average farm size (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 24 Average number of total cattle (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 25 Change in the number of total cattle (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 26 Average number of dairy cattle (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 27 Change in the number of dairy cattle (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ). 

Figure 28 Average number of pigs (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 29 Change in the number of pigs (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 30 Average number of poultry (1,000) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 31 Change in the number of poultry (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 32 Average number of sheep (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 33 Change in the number of sheep (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 34 Average number of Livestock Units (1,000) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ). 

Figure 35 Change in the number of Livestock Units (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 36 Average livestock density (LU per ha UAA) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).LU = LiveStock Unit; UAA=Utilised Agricultural Area.

Figure 37 Change in livestock density (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 38 Fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 39 Change in fertiliser nitrogen use (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 40 Fertiliser phosphate use (1,000 kg P) in the period 2008-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 41 Change in fertiliser phosphate use (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 42 Animal manure nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 43 Change in animal manure nitrogen use (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 44 Animal manure phosphate use (1,000 kg P) in the period 2008-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ). 

Figure 45 Change in animal manure phosphate use (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ). 

Figure 46 Average net nitrogen balance (kg N/ha) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 47 Change in the net nitrogen balance (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 48 Average phosphate balance (kg P/ha) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 

Figure 49 Change in the phosphate balance (kg P/ha) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017). 



Map 1. Annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 2. Stations with annual average nitrate concentrations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L in groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 3. Maximum nitrate concentrations in groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015

Map 4. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 in all stations. 

Map 5. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration below 25 mg/L in 2012-2015.

Map 6. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 25 and 40 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 7. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 40 and 50 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 8. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration equal to or above 50 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 9. Annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 10. Winter average nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 11. Maximum nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 12. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for all.

Map 16. Trends in winter average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. 

Map 13. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 2 and 10 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 14. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 10 and 25 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 15. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 25 and 40 mg/L in 2012-2015. 

Map 17. Trophic status in surface waters for the reporting period 2012-2015. 

Map 18. Implementation of Article 3 of the Nitrates Directive in 2015 (Source: JRC). 

SECTION I
WATER QUALITY: STATUS AND TRENDS

Monitoring networks

Groundwater

In the reporting period 2012-2015, the total number of groundwater monitoring stations with annual average nitrate measurements in the EU-28 was 34,091 which is an average of 7.8 stations per 1,000 km2 of land (( Table 1 , Figure 1 ). The station density varies from 0.6 in Finland to 130 stations per 1,000 km2 of land in Malta. Compared to the previous reporting period 2008-2011 the overall number of monitoring stations remained nearly the same. Relatively large (<-10%) decreases were seen in Spain, Portugal and Romania, while relative large increases (>+10%) were seen in Estonia, Greece, Finland, Latvia, Poland, Sweden and Slovenia.

The average sampling frequency of groundwater is nearly twice a year, and varies from less than once a year in, Denmark, Latvia, Poland and Sweden to around 5 times a year in Belgium and Croatia ( Figure 2 ).

Fresh surface water

In the reporting period 2012-2015, the total number of fresh surface water monitoring stations with annual average nitrate measurements in the EU-28 was 33,042 which is an average of 7.6 stations per 1,000 km2 of land ( Table 2 , Figure 3 ). The station density varies from 0.5 per 1,000 km2 in Finland to 34 stations per 1,000 km2 of land in the United Kingdom. Compared to the previous reporting period 2008-2011, the overall number of monitoring stations increased by 23% ( Table 2 ). Relatively large (<-10%) decreases were seen in Germany, Latvia, Malta, Poland and Slovakia, while relative large increases (>+10%) were seen in Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

The average sampling frequency is around four times a year, and varies from almost once a year in Sweden to just over 20 times a year in Ireland ( Figure 4 ).

Saline surface water

In the reporting period 2012-2015, the total number of saline surface water monitoring stations with annual average nitrate measurements in the EU-28 was 2,205 ( Table 3 ). Compared to the previous reporting period 2008-2011 the overall number of monitoring stations decreased by 29% ( Table 2 ). Relatively large (<-10%) decreases were seen in Bulgaria, Denmark, Greece, Spain, France, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Sweden, while relative large increases (>+10%) were seen in Estonia, Finland, Ireland and Malta.

Water Quality- Nitrates concentrations

Groundwater

In the reporting period 2012–2015, the average annual nitrate concentration was equal to or exceeded 50 mg/L at 13.2% of the monitoring stations in the EU-28 ( Error! Reference source not found. , Figure 5 ). This varied from no exceeding stations in Ireland, or less than 5% in Finland, Sweden, Lithuania, Latvia, Croatia and Estonia, to more than 20% in Spain, Germany and Malta. Overall, at EU-28 level, there is a slight improvement compared to the previous reporting period, in which 14.1% of the monitoring stations were equal to or exceeded an average annual nitrate concentration of 50 mg/L. In this reporting period the average annual nitrate concentration was between 40 and 50 mg/L at 5.7 % of the monitoring station in the EU-28.

The lowest nitrate concentrations are observed in captive and karstic 1 groundwater with around 5% of stations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L ( Figure 6 ). In phreatic groundwater the proportion of stations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L varied from 13% to 19%, with the highest values observed for groundwater depths of 5 to 15 meter. A similar effect was also observed for the trends ( Figure 8 ) with a relatively stable situation for karstic and captive groundwater, and a relatively high proportion of decreasing and increasing trends for phreatic groundwater. The lowest proportion of a stable situation was observed for phreatic groundwater at a depth of 5 to 15 meter.

Maximum nitrate concentrations were equal to or exceeded 50 mg/L in 20.3% of the monitoring stations in the EU-28, varying from 1.1% in Sweden to 75.6% in Malta. There is a slight improvement compared to the previous reporting period, in which 20.9% of the monitoring stations had maximum nitrate concentrations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L.

Compared to the previous reporting period 2008-2011, 26% of all stations in the EU-28 showed an increasing trend and 32% a decreasing trend ( Figure 8 ). Member States with a relatively high proportion (>40%) of stations with increasing trends were Malta, Bulgaria, Estonia and Lithuania.

Fresh surface water

In the reporting period 2012-2015, the average annual nitrate concentration was equal to or exceeded 50 mg/L at 1.8% of the monitoring station in the EU-28 ( Figure 9 ). Another 2.0% of the stations had average annual nitrate concentrations between 40 and 50 mg/l and 8.8% between 25 and 40 mg/L. The lowest annual average nitrate concentrations (highest proportion less than 2 mg/L) in fresh surface water were found in Sweden, Ireland and Greece and the highest (highest proportions equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L) in the United Kingdom, Belgium and Malta.

The highest nitrate concentrations are generally observed in rivers ( Figure 10 ).

There is a slight improvement compared to the previous reporting period, in which 2.4% of the monitoring stations had annual average nitrate concentrations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L and 2.4% showed concentrations between 40 and 50 mg/L ( Error! Reference source not found. ).

Compared to the reporting period 2008-2011, in the EU-28, a decreasing trend in annual average nitrates concentrations was observed in 31% of all freshwaters monitoring stations, of which 9% showed a large decreasing trend. 50% of the monitoring stations showed stable concentrations. An increasing trend in annual average nitrates concentrations was observed in 19% of all freshwaters monitoring stations, of which 5% showed a large increasing trend ( Figure 11 ).

Saline surface water

In saline waters, nitrate concentrations are lower than in fresh water concentrations, with 0.7% of the stations equal to or exceeding 25 mg/L and 75.7% of the stations below 2 mg, based on annual average values.

There is a slight improvement compared to the previous reporting period, in which 1.8% of the monitoring stations had annual average nitrate concentrations equal to or exceeding 25 mg/L.

Eutrophication

The assessment of the trophic status varied widely among Member States, not only regarding the parameters used, but also concerning the methodologies for the definition of trophic status classes. Information on reference conditions 2 is needed to provide a complete picture on eutrophication. The establishment of reference conditions is needed to identify how present day conditions are different from the reference conditions and to set targets for achieving good ecological status of all European waters within the Water Framework Directive. The data delivery on eutrophication varied per Member State and per water type ( Error! Reference source not found. ). Member States are not required to submit data on trends of eutrophication status. The overall comparison between the eutrophication status of the current and previous reporting period is hampered by differences in methods between Member States and also between reporting periods.

Of all reported river monitoring stations in EU-28, 12% and 7% were eutrophic and hypertrophic, respectively, while 31% and 21% were oligotrophic or ultra-oligotrophic respectively ( Figure 12 ). The eutrophication state of rivers varied from no eutrophic or hypertrophic stations in Cyprus to 100% hypertrophic rivers in Malta. Of all the Member states that reported on eutrophication the ones with relative low (<10%) proportions of eutrophic or hypertrophic stations were Cyprus, Slovenia, Portugal, Greece, Northern Ireland, Romania, Latvia and Bulgaria. Of all the Member states that reported on eutrophication, the ones with relatively high (>50%) proportions of eutrophic or hypertrophic stations were Austria, Luxemburg, Spain, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Belgium, Croatia and Malta 3 .

In general, the trophic status of rivers is slightly better than the status of lakes ( Figure 17 ).

Of all reported lakes monitoring stations in EU-28, 18% and 8% were eutrophic and hypertrophic, respectively, while 45% and 1% were oligotrophic or ultra-oligotrophic, respectively ( Figure 13 ). Of all the Member states that reported on eutrophication, the eutrophication state of lakes varied from no eutrophic or hypertrophic stations in Malta to 100% hypertrophic lakes in Croatia. Member states with relative low (<10%) proportions of eutrophic or hypertrophic stations were Malta 4 , Romania and Austria. Member States with relatively high (>50%) proportions of eutrophic or hypertrophic stations were Bulgaria, Croatia and Poland.

Eutrophication data on transitional, coastal and marine waters were only submitted by a limited number of Member States. For transitional waters, six out of the ten Member States that submitted data, showed a 100% proportion of eutrophic or hypertrophic waters ( Figure 14 ). For coastal waters, the proportion of stations with eutrophic or hypertrophic conditions varied from 0% in Slovenia to 100% in Latvia ( Figure 15 ). Five out of the ten Member States had more than 50% eutrophic or hypertrophic coastal waters. Marine data on eutrophication were submitted by three Member States ( Figure 16 ).

Forecast on water quality

The methods applied by Member States to assess future developments in water quality are mostly based on trend analysis, scenario assessments or model simulations, sometimes combined with analyses of past and expected developments in agricultural practices. These predictions, however, are hampered by large uncertainties, due to the large variations in climate and soil conditions and their effects on water quality.

Four Member States and a region (Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Portugal and Belgium-Flanders,) did not report on the forecast of water quality. Belgium-Flanders and Cyprus mentioned that reliable forecasts are not possible due to the time lag between measures implementation and effect, or due to complicated climates and hydrology.

The results of the other available analyses indicate that 14 Member States or regions (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, UK-Northern Ireland and UK-Scotland) predict a further decrease in nitrate concentrations in groundwater and surface waters, partly due to the expected effect of changes in agricultural practices driven by the Directive implementation and by several agro-environmental measures included in the Rural Development Programmes. Ten Member States or regions (Belgium-Wallonia, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, UK-England and UK-Wales) did not come to a clear direction about future water quality or predicted increasing or decreasing water quality for different water bodies. Lithuania reported that improvements are unlikely given the current set of measures.



Figure 1. Groundwater station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) in reporting period 2012-2015.Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.

Figure 2. Average annual groundwater sampling frequency in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.

Figure 3. Surface water station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.

Figure 4. Annual average fresh surface water sampling frequency in reporting period 2012-2015. Stations with data of average annual nitrate measurements.



Number of stations

Stations per 1000 km2

Change

Samplings per year

MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

2008-2011

2012-2015

(%)

2012-2015

AT

1,965

1,965

23.4

23.4

0.0

2.4

BE

2,974

2,937

97.4

96.2

-1.2

4.8

BG

426

406

3.8

3.7

-4.7

3.1

CY

244

230

26.4

24.9

-5.7

1.7

CZ

611

621

7.7

7.9

1.6

1.7

DE

693

697

1.9

2.0

0.6

1.1

DK

1,254

1,201

29.2

28.0

-4.2

0.7

EE

297

385

6.6

8.5

29.6

1.3

EL

370

1,078

2.8

8.2

191.4

1.7

ES

4,780

4,132

9.6

8.3

-13.6

1.6

FI

79

187

0.2

0.6

136.7

1.9

FR

2,509

2,598

4.6

4.8

3.5

1.1

HR

N.A.

126

N.A.

2.2

N.A

5.3

HU

1,763

1,756

19.0

18.9

-0.4

1.7

IE

211

205

3.0

2.9

-2.8

3.2

IT

5,296

5,035

17.6

16.7

-4.9

1.8

LT

62

65

0.9

1.0

4.8

1.0

LU

20

20

7.7

7.7

0.0

2.7

LV

173

199

2.7

3.1

15.0

0.6

MT

41

41

129.7

129.7

0.0

1.4

NL

1,321

1,318

35.4

35.3

-0.2

2.7

PL

1,258

1,563

4.0

5.0

24.2

0.9

PT

657

580

7.4

6.5

-11.7

1.5

RO

1,805

1,256

7.6

5.3

-30.4

1.6

SE

326

436

0.7

1.0

33.7

0.8

SI

104

198

5.1

9.8

90.4

1.5

SK

1,717

1,717

35.0

35.0

0.0

1.2

UK

3,087

3,139

12.4

12.6

1.7

1.8

EU

34,043

34,091

7.8

7.8

0.1

1.9

Table 1. Number of stations and station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) of reported groundwater monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, the change (%) between both periods, and the annual average sampling frequency in 2012-2015.

Number of stations

Stations per 1000 km2

Change

Samplings per year

MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

2008-2011

2012-2015

(%)

2012-2015

AT

109

108

1.3

1.3

-1

9.3

BE

858

835

28.1

27.4

-3

6.9

BG

305

318

2.8

2.9

4

5.8

CY

10

13

1.1

1.4

30

8.5

CZ

571

1,917

7.2

24.3

236

7.8

DE

303

241

0.8

0.7

-20

13.5

DK

161

177

3.8

4.1

10

3.5

EE

145

324

3.2

7.2

123

2.6

EL

105

479

0.8

3.6

356

1.2

ES

3,730

3,903

7.5

7.8

5

3.4

FI

141

167

0.4

0.5

18

6.9

FR

3,331

3,390

6.1

6.2

2

2.2

HR

N.A.

64

N.A.

1.1

N.A

6.8

HU

525

530

5.6

5.7

1

3.5

IE

252

254

3.6

3.6

1

20.6

IT

2,513

3,154

8.3

10.5

26

3.6

LT

291

320

4.5

4.9

10

3.1

LU

16

16

6.2

6.2

0

10.7

LV

339

222

5.3

3.4

-35

2.5

MT

7

5

22.2

15.8

-29

2.9

NL

457

850

12.2

22.7

86

10.3

PL

2,807

2,526

9.0

8.1

-10

3.2

PT

146

154

1.6

1.7

5

6.3

RO

1,114

1,224

4.7

5.1

10

5.2

SE

187

2,792

0.4

6.4

1393

0.9

SI

139

136

6.9

6.7

-2

3.0

SK

852

512

17.4

10.4

-40

4.6

UK

7,777

8,411

29.7

33.8

14

4.8

EU

26,791

33,042

6.1

.9.9

7.6

23

4.3

Table 2. Number of stations and station density (stations per 1,000 km2 of land) of reported fresh surface water monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, the change (%) between both periods, and the annual average sampling frequency in 2012-2015.



MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

AT

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

BE

10

10

0.0

BG

7

6

-14.3

CY

0

16

N.A.

CZ

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

DE

5

5

0

DK

70

44

-37

EE

23

26

13

EL

11

0

-100

ES

631

250

-60

FI

44

75

70

FR

21

8

-62

HR

N.A.

0

N.A.

HU

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

IE

104

117

13

IT

584

577

-1

LT

17

16

-6

LU

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

LV

45

43

-4

MT

31

49

58

NL

43

39

-9

PL

46

19

-59

PT

55

6

-89

RO

54

35

-35

SE

233

184

-21

SI

5

5

0

SK

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

UK

1065

675

-37

EU

3104

2205

-29

Table 3. Number of stations of reported saline surface water monitoring of annual average nitrate measurements in reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, and the change (%) between both periods.

Figure 5. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater, at all depths.

Figure 6. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater at different depths, aggregated over all Member States.



Figure 7. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater at different depths, aggregated over all Member States.

Figure 8. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in groundwater.

Figure 9. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in fresh surface waters (rivers and lakes).



Figure 10. Frequency diagram of annual average nitrate concentrations in different surface waters, aggregated over all Member States.

 

Figure 11. Frequency diagram of trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in fresh surface water (rivers and lakes).



Figure 12. Frequency diagram of the trophic status of rivers in reporting period 2012-2015.

Figure 13. Frequency diagram of the trophic status of lakes in reporting period 2012-2015.



Figure 14. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of transitional waters in reporting period 2012-2015.



Figure 15. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of coastal waters in reporting period 2012-2015.

Figure 16. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of marine waters in reporting period 2012-2015.



Figure 17. Frequency diagram of trophic status classes of different water types in reporting period 2012-2015. Note that the number of underlying Member States is different per water type (Annex 2).

(1) Karsts are formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks, including limestone and dolomite. Natural features of the landscape such as caves and springs are typical of karst regions. Confined groundwater is separated from atmospheric pressure by relatively impermeable material.
(2) The Water Framework Directive requires the establishment of type-specific reference conditions for surface water body types: “For each surface water body type….type-specific hydromorphological and physico-chemical conditions shall be established representing the values of the hydro-morphological and physicochemical quality elements specified….for that surface water body type at high ecological status….Type-specific biological reference conditions shall be established, representing the values of the biological quality elements…for that surface water body type at high ecological status….”
(3) Malta does not have any rivers or lakes but includes valley systems and standing waters as fresh surface water bodies.
(4) Malta does not have any rivers or lakes but includes valley systems and standing waters as fresh surface water bodies.
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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying the document

Report form the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament

on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

{COM(2018) 257 final}


Map 1. Annual average nitrate concentrations in 1groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015.



Map 2. Stations with annual average nitrate concentrations equal to or exceeding 50 mg/L in groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015.



Map 3. Maximum nitrate concentrations in groundwater for the reporting period 2012-2015



Map 4. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 in all stations.



Map 5. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration below 25 mg/L in 2012-2015.

Map 6. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 25 and 40 mg/L in 2012-2015.

Map 7. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 40 and 50 mg/L in 2012-2015.

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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying the document

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament

on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

{COM(2018) 257 final}


Map 8. Trends in nitrates concentrations in groundwater between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration equal to or above 50 mg/L in 2012-2015.

Map 9. Annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015.



Map 10. Winter average nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015.



Map 11. Maximum nitrate concentrations in surface water for the reporting period 2012-2015.



Map 12. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for all stations.

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Brussels, 4.5.2018

SWD(2018) 246 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying the document

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament

on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

{COM(2018) 257 final}


Map 13. Trends in winter average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015.



Map 14. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 2 and 10 mg/L in 2012-2015.

Map 15. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 10 and 25 mg/L in 2012-2015.



Map 16. Trends in annual average nitrate concentrations in surface water between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 for stations with an average annual nitrate concentration between 25 and 40 mg/L in 2012-2015.



Map 17. Trophic status in surface waters for the reporting period 2012-2015.






2008-2011

2012-2015







 

<25

25-40

40-50

>=50

<25

25-40

40-50

>=50

AT

74.5

11.5

5.3

8.8

75.3

11.2

5.3

8.1

BE

60.4

14.7

7.1

17.9

61.5

15.3

7.3

15.9

BG

57.3

16.7

8.0

18.1

58.6

14.5

8.1

18.7

CY

75.8

6.6

2.5

15.2

73.9

5.7

3.0

17.4

CZ

75.8

8.0

3.9

12.3

76.2

8.4

3.9

11.6

DE

48.1

15.3

8.5

28.1

49.2

14.5

8.3

28.0

DK

68.6

9.3

6.0

16.1

67.3

9.5

6.7

16.6

EE

54.2

23.6

8.4

13.8

79.2

11.4

5.2

4.2

EL

62.4

11.4

6.8

19.5

66.0

12.4

6.0

15.5

ES

57.5

13.1

6.3

23.1

59.0

12.9

6.6

21.5

FI

98.7

1.3

0.0

0.0

96.3

2.1

1.1

0.5

FR

51.0

25.1

12.0

12.0

49.9

24.8

12.9

12.4

HR

N.A.

77.8

19.0

0.8

2.4

HU

87.7

4.0

1.3

6.9

87.8

3.5

1.6

7.1

IE

86.7

10.9

2.4

0.0

86.8

12.2

1.0

0.0

IT

68.8

13.1

5.8

12.3

72.0

12.3

4.6

11.1

LT

93.5

3.2

0.0

3.2

93.8

3.1

1.5

1.5

LU

40.0

35.0

10.0

15.0

35.0

40.0

10.0

15.0

LV

95.4

2.9

0.6

1.2

96.0

1.5

0.5

2.0

MT

2.4

9.8

17.1

70.7

4.9

12.2

12.2

70.7

NL

77.8

6.5

3.2

12.5

78.9

6.1

3.3

11.8

PL

87.0

5.0

2.9

5.2

85.8

6.3

2.4

5.6

PT

64.5

11.6

3.5

20.4

67.6

11.0

3.4

17.9

RO

76.5

8.3

3.8

11.5

74.3

7.7

2.4

15.6

SE

98.2

0.9

0.6

0.3

96.6

1.6

0.9

0.9

SI

78.8

6.7

6.7

7.7

72.7

11.1

4.5

11.6

SK

75.1

10.0

3.8

11.0

73.1

10.7

3.4

12.8

UK

61.7

17.4

6.9

14.0

61.8

18.0

7.6

12.6

EU

67.5

12.6

5.8

14.1

68.7

12.4

5.7

13.2

Table 4. Percentage of groundwater monitoring points per water quality class (annual average nitrate concentration in mg nitrate per L) for all stations of the EU 28 Member States for the period 2008-2011 and 2011-2015.

2008-2011

2012-2015

< 2

2-10

10-25

25-40

40-50

>=50

< 2

2-10

10-25

25-40

40-50

>=50

AT

21.1

54.1

22.9

1.8

0.0

0.0

23.1

50.9

25.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

BE

5.2

27.6

37.6

16.8

5.6

7.1

6.6

32.0

37.5

15.4

3.6

4.9

BG

24.9

57.0

14.8

2.6

0.3

0.3

28.3

51.3

14.8

5.0

0.3

0.3

CY

10.0

50.0

40.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

15.4

61.5

23.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

CZ

0.2

13.5

57.6

24.0

2.6

2.1

1.7

29.5

50.2

14.4

2.1

2.0

DE

15.8

23.4

57.1

3.6

0.0

0.0

1.2

31.1

63.1

4.6

0.0

0.0

DK

31.1

15.5

37.3

14.3

1.2

0.6

37.9

13.6

36.7

10.2

1.1

0.6

EE

57.2

32.4

9.7

0.7

0.0

0.0

43.8

43.5

11.7

0.9

0.0

0.0

EL

45.7

44.8

9.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

84.1

15.7

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

ES

37.0

42.9

14.5

3.4

0.9

1.3

37.1

43.7

13.6

3.6

0.9

1.1

FI

66.7

33.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

66.5

32.3

1.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

FR

9.9

37.8

35.7

13.1

2.3

1.2

9.2

35.8

37.3

13.9

2.6

1.2

HR

N.A.

7.8

71.9

9.4

9.4

0.0

1.6

HU

13.5

49.9

27.0

7.0

1.0

1.5

15.3

42.1

29.4

9.6

2.1

1.5

IE

48.4

35.3

15.5

0.8

0.0

0.0

51.2

32.7

15.4

0.8

0.0

0.0

IT

25.3

52.0

19.5

2.6

0.3

0.2

24.3

56.4

16.5

2.3

0.3

0.2

LT

63.6

29.9

6.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

69.7

25.0

4.7

0.6

0.0

0.0

LU

0.0

6.3

68.8

25.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

75.0

25.0

0.0

0.0

LV

52.8

40.4

4.7

2.1

0.0

0.0

59.9

34.2

4.5

0.9

0.5

0.0

MT

28.6

14.3

14.3

0.0

0.0

42.9

0.0

40.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

60.0

NL

60.6

38.3

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

21.9

53.8

19.9

3.3

0.6

0.6

PL

24.4

50.8

20.5

2.7

0.8

0.9

26.2

50.5

19.4

2.4

0.7

0.8

PT

63.0

33.6

3.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

61.0

35.7

3.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

RO

22.7

70.4

5.3

0.8

0.3

0.5

34.6

58.2

5.3

1.2

0.2

0.5

SE

77.0

18.7

4.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

95.9

3.1

0.8

0.2

0.0

0.0

SI

7.2

89.2

2.9

0.7

0.0

0.0

8.1

88.2

3.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

SK

1.9

79.0

17.0

1.4

0.4

0.4

1.2

79.5

17.4

1.2

0.2

0.6

UK

11.7

30.5

27.3

18.8

5.7

6.0

10.8

29.2

31.6

18.7

4.9

4.7

EU

21.3

41.2

23.3

9.3

2.4

2.4

27.2

36.9

23.2

8.8

2.0

1.8

Table 5. Percentage of fresh surface water monitoring points per water quality class (annual average nitrate concentration in mg nitrate per L) for all stations of the EU 28 Member States for the period 2008-2011 and 2011-2015.

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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying the document

Report form the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament

on the implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused from agricultural sources based on Member State reports for the period 2012-2015

{COM(2018) 257 final}


SECTION II

AGRICULTURAL PRESSURES IN THE EU: STATUS AND TRENDS

Pressures and consequences

Agriculture provides multiple benefits to society. However, some farming activities result in the alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles and represent an important pressure on the environment. The intensity of this pressure is dynamic and there can be important differences based on local environmental conditions, characteristics of the production systems and the intensity of production.

Large livestock numbers concentrated locally or regionally pose high risks to the environment when manure production is out of balance with land availability and crop nutrient requirements. This imbalance creates a surplus of nutrients much of which is sooner or later lost to water (nitrates and phosphates) and air (ammonia and nitrogen oxides), if not exported out of the region sometime leading to additional pressures in receiving areas. In particular the loss of nutrients into Europe's waters can result in numerous negative impacts on human health and the environment, such as groundwater pollution and the loss of habitats and biodiversity.

Farm numbers and farm size

In 2013, there were approximately 10.9 million farms in the EU-28, which is an 11% decrease compared to 2010 ( Table 10 ). Farm numbers decreased in all Member States, varying from decreases of less than 1% (Ireland) to 38% (Italy), with the exception of the Czech Republic where farm numbers increased by 15%. Farms with livestock decreased from approximately 6.9 to 6.2 million (-10%) in the EU-28 between 2010 and 2013.

The utilized agricultural area showed varying changes between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 9 ), with an average decrease of 1%. Member States with relative larger decreasing areas (<-2%) were Austria, Cyprus, Spain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Relative large increasing areas (>+2%) were observed in Estonia, Greece, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia and Malta.

Average farm sizes increased from 14.7 to 16.4 ha (+12%) between 2010 and 2013 ( Table 11 ). The changes in farm size varied from -13% in the Czech Republic to +77% in Croatia. Small farms (<5 ha) are seen in Cyprus, Malta and Romania, whereas relatively large (>50 ha) are seen in the Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, France, Luxemburg, Slovakia and the United Kingdom.

Livestock

Because not all Member States have submitted comprehensive data concerning agriculture, official statistics from Eurostat have been used to complement the information provided by the Member States 1 .

The total number of livestock units (comprising cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry, horses and rabbits) in the EU-28 decreased by 3.6% between 2010 and 2013 ( Table 17 ). Six Member States (the Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Finland, Ireland and Latvia) showed an increasing livestock population varying from less than less than 1% to 3.5%. Relatively large (<-10%) decreases were seen in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Greece, Croatia, Malta and Poland.

The average livestock density decreased, by 2.9% between 2010 and 2013 ( Table 18 ), from 0.75 to 0.73 livestock units per ha. In 2013, the livestock density varied from 0.21 livestock units per ha in Bulgaria to 3.57 livestock units per ha in the Netherlands. Other countries with relatively high livestock densities (>1.5 livestock units per ha) are Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark and Malta.

The total number of cattle in the EU-28 decreased by 0.7% between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 12 ). The changes varied from -11% to +14%. Relatively large increases (>+4%) were observed in Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, Cyprus and the Netherlands while relatively large decreases (<-4%) in Romania, Malta, Greece, and Lithuania.

The total number of dairy cattle in the EU-28 decreased by 0.9% between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 13 ). The changes varied from -19% to +14%. Relatively large (>+4%) increases were observed in Cyprus, Italy, Ireland and the Netherlands while relatively large decreases (<-4%) were observed in Croatia, Greece, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Slovakia.

The total number of pigs in the EU-28 decreased by 3% between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 14 ). Most countries showed decreasing pig populations, except Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Luxemburg, the Netherlands and Portugal. Relatively large decreases (< -10%) were observed in Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

The total number of poultry in the EU-28 decreased by 0.5% between 2010 and 2013 ( Table 15 ). The changes varied from -43% to +38%. Relatively large (>+15%) increases were observed in Finland, Germany 2 , Luxemburg and Sweden, while relatively large decreases (<-15%) were observed in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary and Portugal.

Changes in sheep numbers between reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 showed large variations between Member States ( Table 16 ). A very large increase was seen in Lithuania (+107%), and to some extent also in Latvia (+24%). Relatively large decreases (<-10%) were observed in Germany, Spain, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands and Portugal.

The nutrients excretion rate might vary between Member States. Therefore variations in animal numbers are not directly comparable in terms of nutrients production.

Animal manure

The total use of animal manure nitrogen in the EU-28 decreased from 9.5 to 9.2 kton N (- 2.6%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 21 ). The changes varied from -13% (Czech Republic) to +7% (Hungary). Relatively large (>+5%) increases were observed in Hungary and Latvia. Relatively large (<-5%) decreases were observed in Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Malta, Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

The total use of animal manure phosphate in the EU-28 decreased from 1.66 to 1.61 kton P (-3.1%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 22 ). The changes varied from -15% (Czech Republic) to +8% (Hungary). Relatively large (>+5%) increases were observed in Estonia, Hungary and Latvia. Relatively large (<-5%) decreases were observed in Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Slovenia.

Mineral fertilizer use

The total use of mineral fertiliser nitrogen in the EU-28 increased from 10.5 to 11.0 kton N (+ 4%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 19 ). The changes varied from -30% (Croatia) to +56% (Bulgaria). Relatively large (>+15%) increases were observed in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Spain, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Portugal and Slovakia.

The total use of mineral fertiliser phosphate in the EU-28 increased from 1.07 to 1.13 kton P (+ 6%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 ( Table 20 ). The changes varied from -46% (the Netherlands) to +56% (Bulgaria). Relatively large (>+15%) increases were observed in Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Spain, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia and Slovakia. Relatively large (<-15%) decreases were observed in Belgium, Greece, Italy, Malta and the Netherlands.

Nutrient surplus

A nutrient surplus occurs when not all the fertilizers and animal manure applied to the land are absorbed by the plants or removed during harvest. A surplus represents a potential loss to the environment or accumulation in the soil.

In the current reporting period, the net nitrogen balance in the EU-28 varies from around zero to around 147 kg N per ha ( Table 23 ). Member States with relatively high surpluses (>50 kg N/ha) are Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Luxemburg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The net nitrogen balance in the EU-28 increased from 31.8 to 32.5 kg N/ha (+2.4%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. The changes varied from -28 kg N/ha (Malta) to +10 kg N/ha (Ireland). Increase of >+5 kg N/ha were observed in Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Slovenia and Slovakia. Decreases of >5 kg N/ha were observed in Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Croatia, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands and Sweden.

In the current reporting period, the phosphate balance in the EU-28 varies from – 7 to +30 kg P per ha ( Table 24 ). Member States with negative surpluses are Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Sweden and Slovakia. Relatively high surpluses (>5 kg P/ha) are observed in Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Croatia and Malta. The phosphate balance in the EU-28 increased from 1.8 to 2.0 kg P/ha (+14%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. The changes varied from -5.5 kg P/ha (Malta) to +3 kg P/ha (Austria). Relatively large (>2 kg P/ha) increases were observed in Austria and Hungary Relatively large decreases (<-2 kg P/ha) were observed in Malta, the Netherlands and Poland.

Nitrogen discharge

Data on nitrogen discharge into the aquatic environment has not been provided by all Member States ( Table 6 ). For the Member States that reported comparable data for both periods (Belgium-Wallonia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxemburg, Poland, Romania, UK-Northern Ireland and UK-Scotland), the average nitrogen discharge decreased by 3%. Increases were observed for Czech Republic, Estonia, Ireland and UK-Northern Ireland). In the reporting period 2012-2015 the contribution from agriculture varies from around 50% to nearly 100%.



Nitrogen discharge (kton N)

Contribution agriculture (%)

Specific reference years*

MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

AT

80

no data

50

no data

2001 - 2006

BE-F

24

16

-33

no data

no data

1990 / 2011

BE-W

18

15

-17

81

no data

BG

no data

no data

no data

no data

CY

27

16

-41

no data

no data

CZ

217

223

3

95

96

1

DE

56

56

0

86

88

2

DK

no data

no data

no data

no data

EE

23

26

13

85

96

13

EL

no data

no data

no data

no data

ES

no data

no data

no data

no data

FI

39

35

-10

74

70

-5

FR

720

809

12

no data

no data

HR

no data

122

no data

96

HU

410

459

12

93

96

3

2009 / 2011

IE

767

786

2

no data

no data

IT

no data

no data

no data

no data

LT

no data

no data

no data

no data

LU

3

3.0

0

65

73

12

LV

no data

no data

no data

no data

MT

0.2

no data

no data

no data

NL

57

51

-11

63

62

-2

2010 - 2012 / 2013

PL

1696

1521

-10

99

99

0

PT

no data

155

no data

87

RO

820

792

-3

no data

no data

SE

94

95

1

81

81

0

2009 / 2011

SI

no data

no data

87

89

2

SK

no data

17

no data

50

UK-EN

no data

193

no data

69

2012

UK-NI

16

17

6

79

79

0

UK-SC

189

169

-11

72

70

-3

UK-WA

no data

no data

no data

no data

Table 6. Annual average nitrogen discharge (kton N) to the aquatic environment and relative contribution of agriculture (%), presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. * If different from 2008-2001 and 2012-2015.



 

Cattle

 

 

 

Pigs

 

 

 

Poultry

 

 

 

MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

Specific reference year*

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

Specific reference year*

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

Specific reference year*

AT

2.01

1.96

-2.6

2010 / 2014

3.13

2.87

-8.5

2010 / 2014

14.74

15.73

6.7

2010 / 2014

BE-FL

1.33

1.30

-2.3

 

6.12

6.30

2.9

 

26.29

29.88

13.7

 

BE-WA

1.28

1.22

-4.7

 

0.36

0.34

-5.6

 

5.07

4.98

-1.8

 

BG

0.55

0.55

-0.4

 

0.69

0.57

-18.2

 

16.70

14.67

-12.1

 

CY

0.06

0.06

3.5

 

0.44

0.36

-18.2

 

3.83

3.30

-13.8

 

CZ

1.34

1.41

4.7

 

1.75

1.56

-10.8

 

21.25

22.51

5.9

 

DE

12.71

12.69

-0.2

2010 / 2013

26.90

28.13

4.6

2010 / 2013

128.901

177.33

37.6

 

DK

1.56

1.52

-2.6

 

21.30

20.10

-5.6

 

18.30

18.60

1.6

 

EE

0.24

0.26

8.3

 

0.37

0.26

-29.7

 

1.91

2.22

16.2

 

EL

0.63

0.43

-31.7

 

0.90

0.20

-77.8

 

31.60

46.60

47.5

 

ES

no data

no data

 

no data

no data

 

no data

no data

 

FI

0.93

0.91

-1.7

 

1.37

1.24

-9.5

 

9.59

12.58

31.2

 

FR

19.40

18.80

-3.1

2010 / 2013

13.80

13.30

-3.6

2010 / 2013

335.70

335.90

0.1

2010 / 2013

UK-EN

5.40

5.21

-3.5

2011 / 2015

3.60

3.83

6.4

2011 / 2015

120.29

125.43

4.3

2011 / 2015

UK-WA

1.13

1.11

-1.8

 

0.03

0.03

0.0

 

7.53

8.46

12.4

 

UK-SC

1.80

1.81

0.3

 

0.39

0.33

-16.4

 

14.53

14.17

-2.5

 

UK-NI

1.59

1.60

0.2

 

0.42

0.50

18.2

 

17.54

20.05

14.3

 

HR

no data

0.46

 

no data

1.51

 

no data

12.88

 

HU

0.69

0.82

18.3

 

3.27

3.12

-4.3

 

40.72

37.12

-8.8

 

IE

6.60

6.90

4.5

 

1.50

1.60

6.7

 

 

IT

6.00

6.00

0.0

 

11.00

11.00

0.0

 

183.00

186.00

1.6

 

LT

0.76

0.73

-3.9

 

0.89

0.76

-14.6

 

9.08

9.40

3.5

 

LU

0.20

0.20

-0.5

 

0.08

0.09

9.8

 

0.09

0.11

25.6

 

LV

0.38

0.41

7.9

 

0.38

0.32

-14.4

 

5.16

4.22

-18.2

 

MT

0.02

0.01

-35.9

 

0.07

0.03

-60.1

 

1.20

0.08

-93.5

 

NL

3.90

4.00

2.6

 

12.20

12.30

0.8

 

97.90

100.70

2.9

 

PL

5.76

5.76

0.0

 

15.28

10.59

-30.7

 

176.49

153.21

-13.2

 

PT

1.40

1.40

0.0

 

1.90

1.80

-5.3

 

35.40

 

RO

1.99

2.03

2.2

 

5.36

5.15

-4.0

 

79.84

78.34

-1.9

 

SE

1.54

1.50

-2.7

2009 / 2013

1.53

1.40

-8.5

2009 / 2013

12.42

16.54

33.2

2009 / 2013

SI

0.47

0.46

-1.3

 

0.40

0.29

-27.4

 

4.56

5.00

9.8

 

SK

0.47

0.47

-1.1

 

0.69

0.64

-7.5

 

12.30

11.77

-4.3

 

Table 7. Average livestock numbers (1,000,000) presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-201 and, 2012-2015, and the change between the two reporting periods.

* If different from 2008-2001 and 2012-2015; 1: DE reported that the figure was underestimated.



 

Animal manure

 

 

Fertilizer

 

 

 

MS

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

Specific reference year*

2008-2011

2012-2015

Change (%)

Specific reference year*

AT

174

167

-4.0

2010 / 2013

104

107

3.2

2010 / 2013

BE-FL

100

95

-4.9

2012-2014

39

39

0.0

2012-2014

BE-WA

74

71

-4.9

 

74

76

3.7

 

BG

69

73

6.9

 

186

191

2.9

 

CY

15

9

-37.2

 

8

7

-6.3

 

CZ

69

63

-8.7

 

353

397

12.6

 

DE

1246

1277

2.5

2010 / 2013

1578

1597

1.2

2010-2011

DK

227

217

-4.4

 

197

202

2.5

 

EE

22

23

2.7

 

30

34

12.2

 

EL

65

57

-12.2

 

225

no data

 

ES

no data

no data

 

no data

no data

 

FI

78

75

-3.4

 

157

147

-5.8

 

FR

1777

1720

-3.2

2010 / 2014

2080

2200

5.8

2010 / 2014

UK-EN

3051

no data

 

8242

8192

-0.6

2011/2015 

UK-WA

no data

no data

 

8242

8192

-0.6

 2011/2015

UK-SC

152

151

-0.7

 

127

143

12.6

 

UK-NI

973

983

1.2

 

68

71

4.1

 

HR

no data

49

 

no data

74

 

HU

121

123

1.6

 

288

335

16.3

 

IE

449

459

2.2

 

319

328

3.0

 

IT

3714

3524

-5.1

 

5455

8035

47.3

 

LT

53

47

-11.4

 

no data

no data

 

LU

12

12

0.0

 

13

13

0.8

 

LV

35336

39676

12.3

 

60

76

26.8

 

MT

no data

no data

 

0.6

0.6

0.0

 

NL

314

301

-4.1

 

204

190

-6.9

 

PL

483

517

7.0

 

1091

1004

-8.0

 

PT

no data

no data

 

no data

no data

 

RO

399

410

2.8

 

313

312

-0.2

 

SE

99

103

4.0

2009 / 2013

157

155

-1.0

2009 / 2013

SI

29

29

-1.0

 

27

27

1.5

 

SK

46

48

4.8

 

96

116

20.4

 

Table 8. Average annual animal manure nitrogen and fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) presented in the article 10 reports of the Member States for reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015, and the change between the two reporting periods.

* If different from 2008-2001 and 2012-2015; 1: 2010 survey;2 England & Wales; 3 Report also stated different values (116/118); 4 Data from 65% of the regions; 5 Data from 75% of the regions; 6 kg manure (no N content available).






 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

3,171

3,169

3,166

2,868

2,864

2,862

2,716

2,720

3,093

2,791

-9.8%

BE

1,374

1,365

1,358

1,337

1,334

1,339

1,333

1,331

1,359

1,334

-1.8%

BG

5,101

5,030

5,052

5,088

5,123

4,995

4,977

5,011

5,068

5,027

-0.8%

CY

127

125

115

116

116

107

107

126

120

114

-5.2%

CZ

3,572

3,546

3,524

3,504

3,526

3,521

3,516

3,494

3,536

3,514

-0.6%

DE

16,926

16,890

16,704

16,721

16,667

16,700

16,725

16,731

16,810

16,706

-0.6%

DK

2,683

2,639

2,676

2,673

2,664

2,628

2,652

2,633

2,668

2,644

-0.9%

EE

907

932

949

946

956

966

975

994

933

973

4.2%

EL

4,774

4,936

4,839

5,477

5,596

5,315

5,139

5,092

5,007

5,286

5.6%

ES

24,718

24,190

23,719

23,894

23,463

23,495

23,572

23,897

24,131

23,607

-2.2%

FI

2,296

2,296

2,292

2,287

2,285

2,259

2,267

2,273

2,293

2,271

-0.9%

FR

29,385

28,876

29,311

28,853

29,001

28,976

28,930

29,115

29,106

29,005

-0.3%

HR

1,289

1,300

1,334

1,326

1,331

1,301

1,241

1,538

1,312

1,353

3.1%

HU

5,790

5,783

5,343

5,337

5,338

5,340

5,346

5,346

5,563

5,343

-4.0%

IE

4,629

4,594

4,569

4,556

4,533

4,478

4,465

4,429

4,587

4,476

-2.4%

IT

13,338

13,111

12,885

12,670

12,548

12,426

12,720

12,661

13,001

12,589

-3.2%

LT

2,672

2,689

2,772

2,806

2,842

2,891

2,952

3,006

2,735

2,923

6.9%

LU

131

131

131

131

131

131

131

131

131

131

0.2%

LV

1,825

1,833

1,806

1,816

1,841

1,878

1,873

1,885

1,820

1,869

2.7%

MT

10

10

11

11

11

12

12

12

11

12

6.8%

NL

1,933

1,921

1,872

1,858

1,842

1,848

1,839

1,846

1,896

1,843

-2.8%

PL

15,608

15,625

14,603

14,780

14,529

14,410

14,424

14,398

15,154

14,440

-4.7%

PT

3,726

3,695

3,654

3,649

3,664

3,716

3,701

3,700

3,681

3,696

0.4%

RO

13,634

13,621

14,156

13,982

13,733

13,905

13,830

13,835

13,848

13,826

-0.2%

SE

3,076

3,067

3,074

3,063

3,032

3,036

3,036

3,028

3,070

3,033

-1.2%

SI

492

469

483

458

480

479

482

477

475

479

0.8%

SK

1,936

1,930

1,922

1,930

1,927

1,929

1,925

1,922

1,929

1,926

-0.2%

UK

17,703

17,325

17,234

17,172

17,282

17,259

17,240

17,147

17,359

17,232

-0.7%

EU-28

182,824

181,096

179,553

179,310

178,660

178,199

178,127

178,779

180,696

178,441

-1.2%

Table 9. Utilized agricultural area (1,000 ha) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 18 Utilized agricultural area (1,000 ha) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 19 Change in utilized agricultural area (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).






 

2010

2013

Change

AT

150,170

140,430

-6.5%

BE

42,850

37,760

-11.9%

BG

370,490

254,410

-31.3%

CY

38,860

35,380

-9.0%

CZ

22,860

26,250

14.8%

DE

299,130

285,030

-4.7%

DK

41,360

38,280

-7.4%

EE

19,610

19,190

-2.1%

EL

723,060

709,500

-1.9%

ES

989,800

965,000

-2.5%

FI

63,870

54,400

-14.8%

FR

516,100

472,210

-8.5%

HR

233,280

157,440

-32.5%

HU

576,810

491,330

-14.8%

IE

139,890

139,600

-0.2%

IT

1,620,880

1,010,330

-37.7%

LT

199,910

171,800

-14.1%

LU

2,200

2,080

-5.5%

LV

83,390

81,800

-1.9%

MT

12,530

9,360

-25.3%

NL

72,320

67,480

-6.7%

PL

1,506,620

1,429,010

-5.2%

PT

305,270

264,420

-13.4%

RO

3,859,040

3,629,660

-5.9%

SE

71,090

67,150

-5.5%

SI

74,650

72,380

-3.0%

SK

24,460

23,570

-3.6%

UK

185,200

183,040

-1.2%

EU-28

12,245,700

10,838,290

-11.5%

Table 10. Number of farms in 2010 and 2013, and the change between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ).



Figure 20 Number of farms in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 21 Change in the number of farms (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ).






 

2010

2013

Change

AT

19

19

1.3%

BE

32

35

9.3%

BG

12

18

51.3%

CY

3

3

1.4%

CZ

152

133

-12.7%

DE

56

59

4.9%

DK

64

68

6.9%

EE

48

50

4.0%

EL

7

7

-4.4%

ES

24

24

0.6%

FI

36

42

17.0%

FR

54

59

8.9%

HR

6

10

76.9%

HU

8

9

16.7%

IE

36

36

-0.4%

IT

8

12

51.0%

LT

14

17

21.4%

LU

60

63

5.7%

LV

22

23

6.6%

MT

1

1

27.2%

NL

26

27

5.8%

PL

10

10

5.2%

PT

12

14

14.6%

RO

3

4

4.3%

SE

43

45

4.8%

SI

6

7

3.8%

SK

77

81

4.1%

UK

91

95

3.8%

EU-28

15

16

12.1%

Table 11. Average farm size (ha) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 22 Average farm size (ha) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 23 Change in average farm size (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).






 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

1,997

2,026

2,013

1,977

1,956

1,958

1,961

1,958

2,003

1,958

-2.3%

BE

2,538

2,535

2,510

2,472

2,438

2,441

2,477

2,503

2,514

2,465

-1.9%

BG

574

548

554

568

535

586

562

561

561

561

0.0%

CY

56

54

55

57

57

57

60

59

55

58

5.0%

CZ

1,358

1,356

1,319

1,339

1,321

1,332

1,373

1,366

1,343

1,348

0.4%

DE

12,988

12,897

12,706

12,528

12,507

12,686

12,742

12,635

12,780

12,643

-1.1%

DK

1,599

1,621

1,630

1,612

1,607

1,583

1,553

1,566

1,616

1,577

-2.4%

EE

238

235

236

238

246

261

265

256

237

257

8.6%

EL

682

675

679

681

685

653

659

582

679

645

-5.1%

ES

6,020

6,082

6,075

5,923

5,813

5,802

6,079

6,183

6,025

5,969

-0.9%

FI

907

908

909

903

901

903

907

903

907

904

-0.3%

FR

20,028

19,842

19,599

19,129

19,052

19,129

19,271

19,406

19,650

19,215

-2.2%

HR

454

447

444

447

452

442

441

455

448

448

-0.1%

HU

701

700

682

697

760

782

802

821

695

791

13.8%

IE

6,304

6,232

5,918

5,925

6,253

6,309

6,243

6,422

6,095

6,307

3.5%

IT

6,486

6,447

5,832

6,252

6,252

6,249

6,125

6,156

6,254

6,196

-0.9%

LT

771

759

748

752

729

714

737

723

758

725

-4.2%

LU

196

195

194

188

188

198

201

201

193

197

1.9%

LV

380

378

379

381

393

406

422

419

380

410

8.0%

MT

18

16

15

15

16

15

15

15

16

15

-5.2%

NL

3,996

3,998

3,960

3,912

3,985

4,090

4,169

4,315

3,967

4,140

4.4%

PL

5,564

5,590

5,562

5,501

5,520

5,590

5,660

5,763

5,554

5,633

1.4%

PT

1,495

1,447

1,503

1,519

1,498

1,471

1,549

1,606

1,491

1,531

2.7%

RO

2,684

2,512

2,001

1,989

2,009

2,022

2,069

2,092

2,296

2,048

-10.8%

SE

1,505

1,482

1,475

1,450

1,444

1,444

1,436

1,428

1,478

1,438

-2.7%

SI

470

473

470

462

460

461

468

484

469

468

-0.1%

SK

488

472

467

463

471

468

466

457

473

465

-1.5%

UK

9,911

9,901

9,896

9,675

9,749

9,682

9,693

9,816

9,846

9,735

-1.1%

EU-28

90,408

89,829

87,831

87,054

87,297

87,734

88,406

89,152

88,781

88,147

-0.7%

Table 12. Number of total cattle (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 24 Average number of total cattle (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 25 Change in the number of total cattle (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017)..







 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

530

533

533

527

523

530

538

534

531

531

0.1%

BE

518

518

518

511

504

516

519

529

516

517

0.2%

BG

315

297

314

313

294

313

302

283

310

298

-3.7%

CY

24

23

23

24

24

25

25

26

24

25

6.3%

CZ

400

384

375

374

367

375

372

369

383

371

-3.2%

DE

4,229

4,169

4,182

4,190

4,190

4,268

4,296

4,285

4,193

4,260

1.6%

DK

566

574

573

579

579

567

547

570

573

566

-1.3%

EE

100

97

97

96

97

98

96

91

97

95

-2.3%

EL

154

145

144

130

132

130

135

111

143

127

-11.3%

ES

888

828

845

798

827

844

845

844

840

840

0.0%

FI

288

286

284

282

280

282

283

282

285

282

-1.1%

FR

3,857

3,748

3,718

3,664

3,644

3,697

3,699

3,661

3,747

3,675

-1.9%

HR

213

212

207

185

181

168

159

152

204

165

-19.1%

HU

263

248

239

252

255

250

255

251

251

253

0.9%

IE

1,024

1,022

1,007

1,036

1,060

1,082

1,128

1,240

1,022

1,128

10.3%

IT

1,831

1,878

1,746

1,755

2,009

2,075

2,069

2,057

1,803

2,052

13.9%

LT

395

375

360

350

331

316

314

301

370

315

-14.7%

LU

46

46

46

44

45

48

47

49

46

47

3.8%

LV

170

166

164

164

165

165

166

162

166

164

-0.9%

MT

7

7

6

6

6

6

7

6

7

6

-5.0%

NL

1,587

1,562

1,518

1,504

1,541

1,597

1,610

1,717

1,543

1,616

4.8%

PL

2,697

2,585

2,529

2,446

2,346

2,299

2,248

2,134

2,564

2,257

-12.0%

PT

265

255

243

242

237

231

234

243

251

236

-6.1%

RO

1,483

1,419

1,179

1,170

1,163

1,169

1,188

1,191

1,313

1,178

-10.3%

SE

366

354

349

348

346

346

344

337

354

343

-3.1%

SI

113

113

109

109

111

110

108

113

111

110

-0.9%

SK

174

163

159

154

150

145

143

139

162

144

-11.2%

UK

1,903

1,864

1,847

1,800

1,786

1,817

1,883

1,918

1,854

1,851

-0.1%

EU-28

24,406

23,871

23,314

23,053

23,193

23,468

23,559

23,595

23,661

23,454

-0.9%

Table 13. Number of dairy cattle (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 26 Average number of dairy cattle (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 27 Change in the number of dairy cattle (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ).








 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

3,064

3,137

3,134

3,005

2,983

2,896

2,868

2,845

3,085

2,898

-6.1%

BE

6,208

6,228

6,176

6,328

6,448

6,351

6,350

6,364

6,235

6,378

2.3%

BG

784

730

664

608

531

586

553

600

696

568

-18.5%

CY

465

463

464

439

395

358

342

328

458

356

-22.3%

CZ

2,135

1,914

1,846

1,487

1,534

1,548

1,607

1,555

1,845

1,561

-15.4%

DE

26,719

26,841

26,901

27,402

28,331

28,133

28,339

27,652

26,966

28,114

4.3%

DK

12,195

12,873

12,293

12,348

12,281

12,402

12,709

12,702

12,427

12,524

0.8%

EE

365

365

372

366

375

359

358

305

367

349

-4.9%

EL

1,061

1,073

1,087

1,120

1,044

1,031

1,046

877

1,085

1,000

-7.9%

ES

26,290

25,343

25,704

25,635

25,250

25,495

26,568

28,367

25,743

26,420

2.6%

FI

1,400

1,353

1,340

1,290

1,271

1,258

1,223

1,239

1,346

1,248

-7.3%

FR

14,810

14,552

14,279

13,967

13,778

13,428

13,300

13,307

14,402

13,453

-6.6%

HR

1,104

1,250

1,231

1,233

1,182

1,110

1,156

1,167

1,204

1,154

-4.2%

HU

3,383

3,247

3,169

3,044

2,989

3,004

3,136

3,124

3,211

3,063

-4.6%

IE

1,511

1,502

1,500

1,553

1,493

1,469

1,506

1,475

1,517

1,486

-2.0%

IT

9,252

9,157

9,321

9,351

8,662

8,561

8,676

8,675

9,270

8,643

-6.8%

LT

897

928

929

790

808

755

714

688

886

741

-16.4%

LU

78

89

89

91

89

90

93

89

87

90

3.5%

LV

384

377

390

375

355

368

349

334

381

352

-7.8%

MT

66

66

69

46

45

49

47

44

62

46

-24.8%

NL

11,735

12,108

12,206

12,103

12,104

12,013

12,065

12,453

12,038

12,159

1.0%

PL

14,242

14,253

14,776

13,056

11,132

10,994

11,266

10,590

14,082

10,996

-21.9%

PT

1,955

1,945

1,917

1,985

2,024

2,014

2,127

2,247

1,950

2,103

7.8%

RO

6,174

5,793

5,428

5,364

5,234

5,180

5,042

4,927

5,690

5,096

-10.4%

SE

1,703

1,616

1,607

1,568

1,474

1,480

1,458

1,435

1,623

1,462

-9.9%

SI

432

415

396

347

296

288

282

271

398

284

-28.5%

SK

749

741

687

580

631

637

642

633

689

636

-7.7%

UK

4,550

4,423

4,385

4,326

4,216

4,383

4,510

4,422

4,421

4,383

-0.9%

EU-28

153,707

152,780

152,361

149,809

146,955

146,242

148,331

148,716

152,164

147,561

-3.0%

Table 14. Number of pigs (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change in number between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 28 Average number of pigs (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 29 Change in the number of pigs (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).








 

2010

2013

Change

AT

14,620

15,740

7.7%

BE

34,370

35,100

2.1%

BG

17,490

14,280

-18.4%

CY

3,220

1,850

-42.5%

CZ

25,320

25,340

0.1%

DE

128,900

177,340

37.6%

DK

18,740

19,430

3.7%

EE

1,940

2,170

11.9%

EL

36,760

27,880

-24.2%

ES

200,910

205,820

2.4%

FI

9,310

11,980

28.7%

FR

296,130

297,070

0.3%

HR

13,470

13,630

1.2%

HU

48,700

41,100

-15.6%

IE

10,930

10,130

-7.3%

IT

167,520

164,900

-1.6%

LT

8,600

9,330

8.5%

LU

90

120

33.3%

LV

5,160

5,030

-2.5%

MT

980

920

-6.1%

NL

103,620

99,430

-4.0%

PL

174,300

149,200

-14.4%

PT

35,350

28,620

-19.0%

RO

79,190

76,300

-3.6%

SE

14,290

16,620

16.3%

SI

4,900

4,870

-0.6%

SK

12,660

11,360

-10.3%

UK

162,560

155,510

-4.3%

EU-28

1,630,030

1,621,070

-0.5%

Table 15. Number of poultry (1,000) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 30 Average number of poultry (1,000) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 31 Change in the number of poultry (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).








 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

333

345

358

361

365

357

349

354

349

356

2.0%

BE

 

 

 

 

119

117

 

 

118

BG

1,475

1,400

1,368

1,455

1,362

1,370

1,335

1,332

1,424

1,350

-5.3%

CY

267

300

329

356

347

313

322

332

313

329

5.0%

CZ

183

197

 

 

 

 

 

 

190

DE

1,920

1,852

1,800

1,658

1,641

1,570

1,601

1,580

1,807

1,598

-11.6%

DK

90

:

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

EE

62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62

EL

8,994

8,859

9,791

9,781

9,213

9,356

9,072

8,852

9,356

9,123

-2.5%

ES

19,952

19,718

18,552

17,003

16,339

16,119

 

 

18,806

16,229

-13.7%

FI

94

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94

FR

7,715

7,528

7,955

7,621

7,453

7,193

7,168

7,057

7,705

7,218

-6.3%

HR

643

619

630

639

679

620

605

608

633

628

-0.8%

HU

1,236

1,223

1,181

1,120

1,185

1,214

1,185

1,190

1,190

1,194

0.3%

IE

3,423

3,183

3,122

3,321

3,430

3,324

3,325

3,325

3,262

3,351

2.7%

IT

8,175

8,013

7,900

7,943

7,016

7,182

7,166

7,149

8,008

7,128

-11.0%

LT

48

53

59

60

83

100

124

147

55

113

107.1%

LU

8

9

8

 

 

 

 

 

8

LV

67

71

77

80

84

85

93

102

74

91

23.5%

MT

13

13

12

12

12

11

11

11

13

11

-11.5%

NL

1,545

1,091

1,211

1,113

1,093

1,074

1,070

1,032

1,240

1,067

-13.9%

PL

270

224

214

213

219

 

 

 

230

219

-5.0%

PT

2,558

2,368

2,226

2,170

2,092

2,074

2,033

2,043

2,331

2,060

-11.6%

RO

8,882

9,142

8,417

8,533

8,834

9,136

9,518

9,810

8,743

9,324

6.6%

SE

521

540

565

623

611

577

589

595

562

593

5.4%

SI

139

138

 

 

 

 

 

 

138

SK

362

377

394

394

410

400

391

381

382

396

3.6%

UK

21,856

21,343

21,295

21,951

22,991

22,027

22,687

23,103

21,611

22,702

5.0%

EU-28

Table 16. Number of sheep (1,000) in the period 2008-2015, and the change in number between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 32 Average number of sheep (1,000) in the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 33 Change in the number of sheep (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).









 

2010

2013

Change

AT

2,517

2,439

-3.1%

BE

3,799

3,584

-5.6%

BG

1,149

1,025

-10.8%

CY

201

175

-13.1%

CZ

1,722

1,728

0.3%

DE

17,793

18,407

3.5%

DK

4,919

4,133

-16.0%

EE

306

310

1.3%

EL

2,407

2,143

-11.0%

ES

14,831

14,502

-2.2%

FI

1,121

1,146

2.2%

FR

22,674

21,871

-3.5%

HR

1,020

864

-15.3%

HU

2,484

2,259

-9.0%

IE

5,787

5,929

2.5%

IT

9,912

9,374

-5.4%

LT

900

839

-6.8%

LU

168

165

-1.3%

LV

475

486

2.4%

MT

42

35

-16.1%

NL

6,712

6,602

-1.6%

PL

10,377

9,165

-11.7%

PT

2,206

2,036

-7.7%

RO

5,444

4,975

-8.6%

SE

1,752

1,712

-2.3%

SI

518

488

-5.9%

SK

668

645

-3.5%

UK

13,308

13,282

-0.2%

EU-28

135,212

130,320

-3.6%

Table 17. Number of Livestock Units (1,000) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 34 Average number of Livestock Units (1,000) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017 ).

Figure 35 Change in the number of Livestock Units (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).









 

2010

2013

Change

AT

0.80

0.85

7.2%

BE

2.80

2.68

-4.3%

BG

0.23

0.21

-9.8%

CY

1.75

1.63

-6.9%

CZ

0.49

0.49

0.4%

DE

1.07

1.10

3.5%

DK

1.84

1.57

-14.4%

EE

0.32

0.32

-0.5%

EL

0.50

0.40

-18.9%

ES

0.63

0.62

-1.3%

FI

0.49

0.51

3.7%

FR

0.77

0.75

-2.4%

HR

0.76

0.66

-13.2%

HU

0.46

0.42

-9.0%

IE

1.27

1.32

4.5%

IT

0.77

0.75

-1.9%

LT

0.32

0.29

-10.7%

LU

1.28

1.26

-1.2%

LV

0.26

0.26

-1.5%

MT

3.64

2.99

-17.9%

NL

3.58

3.57

-0.3%

PL

0.71

0.64

-10.5%

PT

0.60

0.55

-9.3%

RO

0.38

0.36

-7.0%

SE

0.57

0.56

-1.1%

SI

1.07

1.02

-5.1%

SK

0.35

0.33

-3.9%

UK

0.77

0.77

-0.3%

EU-28

0.75

0.73

-2.9%

Table 18. Livestock density (LU per ha UAA) in 2010 and 2013, and the change between the years 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 36 Average livestock density (LU per ha UAA) in 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).LU = LiveStock Unit; UAA=Utilised Agricultural Area.

Figure 37 Change in livestock density (%) between 2010 and 2013 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).








 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

108,502

89,132

104,762

98,161

107,895

110,626

121,562

125,323

100,139

116,352

16.2%

BE

134,648

147,412

151,341

148,562

144,685

143,618

145,382

143,592

145,491

144,319

-0.8%

BG

173,917

177,553

199,083

192,357

235,386

258,856

322,004

341,608

185,728

289,464

55.9%

CY

46

4,312

4,276

5,086

4,881

3,147

3,147

3,147

3,430

3,581

4.4%

CZ

341,628

253,759

270,256

352,745

349,008

331,616

325,667

397,136

304,597

350,857

15.2%

DE

1,807,176

1,550,625

1,569,045

1,786,485

1,640,414

1,648,828

1,675,289

1,822,791

1,678,333

1,696,831

1.1%

DK

220,674

200,412

190,072

197,162

187,164

193,688

186,971

203,631

202,080

192,864

-4.6%

EE

35,455

27,328

28,628

29,803

32,978

33,659

35,806

35,806

30,304

34,562

14.1%

EL

201,000

175,000

213,000

181,394

175,445

182,534

180,931

185,123

192,599

181,008

-6.0%

ES

739,757

781,069

940,984

846,697

843,410

961,507

1,101,895

1,068,103

827,127

993,729

20.1%

FI

162,905

136,009

156,523

146,189

138,900

138,136

147,373

143,479

150,407

141,972

-5.6%

FR

2,425,221

2,098,801

2,080,333

2,332,390

2,024,929

2,143,821

2,190,930

2,208,168

2,234,186

2,141,962

-4.1%

HR

170,152

90,793

109,345

125,015

106,884

77,920

73,680

87,428

123,826

86,478

-30.2%

HU

294,309

274,944

281,428

301,825

312,940

342,949

326,753

358,421

288,127

335,266

16.4%

IE

308,960

306,806

337,574

295,795

296,536

353,044

331,782

330,959

312,284

328,080

5.1%

IT

659,922

518,778

496,637

515,966

683,566

546,542

505,126

517,854

547,826

563,272

2.8%

LT

118,300

134,400

143,200

147,000

150,000

155,000

162,000

166,611

135,725

158,403

16.7%

LU

13,329

13,384

13,766

14,446

13,675

13,366

12,714

13,007

13,731

13,191

-3.9%

LV

47,492

51,877

59,458

59,803

65,204

69,696

72,935

75,820

54,658

70,914

29.7%

MT

594

615

636

640

644

649

653

657

621

651

4.7%

NL

220,712

211,350

205,211

200,420

199,520

216,026

213,200

244,893

209,423

218,410

4.3%

PL

1,142,273

1,095,441

1,027,430

1,091,065

1,094,673

1,194,757

1,098,455

1,003,597

1,089,052

1,097,871

0.8%

PT

105,131

97,293

100,249

95,088

106,864

110,643

122,842

121,028

99,440

115,344

16.0%

RO

279,886

296,055

305,757

313,333

289,963

344,468

303,562

357,352

298,758

323,836

8.4%

SE

186,500

142,400

168,000

169,800

148,100

161,100

181,100

190,200

166,675

170,125

2.1%

SI

25,039

28,202

27,486

27,134

26,300

27,263

28,612

28,319

26,965

27,624

2.4%

SK

121,435

96,334

106,513

120,555

127,797

140,665

143,074

134,546

111,209

136,521

22.8%

UK

1,000,999

948,022

1,016,417

1,022,082

1,000,196

999,002

1,060,000

1,049,000

996,880

1,027,050

3.0%

EU-28

11,045,962

9,948,106

10,307,410

10,816,998

10,507,957

10,903,126

11,073,445

11,357,599

10,529,619

10,960,532

4.1%

Table 19. Fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015, and the change between the periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).



Figure 38 Fertiliser nitrogen use (1,000 kg N) in the period 2008-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).

Figure 39 Change in fertiliser nitrogen use (%) between the reporting periods 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 (Source: Eurostat, June 2017).








 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

08-11

12-15

Change

AT

13,808

7,256

12,527

9,947

12,301

14,234

14,110

13,058

10,885

13,426

23.3%

BE

6,400

4,600

5,600

4,738

4,738

4,807

3,359

3,468

5,335

4,093

-23.3%

BG

13,342

13,387

17,043

12,902

20,798

11,656

28,144

27,573

14,169

22,043

55.6%

CY

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

801

801

801

1,000

851

-14.9%

CZ

24,097

7,585

13,654

17,304

18,713

18,201

20,070

21,221

15,660

19,551

24.8%

DE

138,274

76,122

102,675

125,025

107,880

124,073

123,999

131,503

110,524

121,864

10.3%

DK

7,000

11,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

13,601

13,985

14,430

9,500

13,004

36.9%

EE

4,187

2,471

2,671

2,680

2,955

3,129

3,775

3,708

3,002

3,392

13.0%

EL

28,000

33,000

29,000

23,000

24,000

25,523

22,547

22,076

28,250

23,537

-16.7%

ES

118,576

115,360

147,495

158,350

164,427

189,014

174,028

179,784

134,945

176,813

31.0%

FI

16,239

10,784

12,599

11,046

10,600

11,184

11,845

10,983

12,667

11,153

-12.0%

FR

282,425

129,142

177,025

218,428

189,633

217,184

206,798

187,054

201,755

200,167

-0.8%

HR

21,291

8,790

15,763

14,028

14,330

12,518

16,875

12,899