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Document 32013R0603

Eurodac: European system for the comparison of fingerprints of asylum applicants

Eurodac: European system for the comparison of fingerprints of asylum applicants


Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 establishing Eurodac for the comparison of asylum applicants' fingerprints



  • It expands Eurodac, which is an EU-wide biometric database containing fingerprints of asylum applicants and non-EU/EEA nationals for comparison between EU countries.
  • The aim is to:
    • make it easier for EU countries to determine responsibility for examining an asylum application by comparing the fingerprints of asylum applicants and non-EU/EEA nationals against a central database; and
    • enable law enforcement authorities, subject to strict conditions, to consult Eurodac for the investigation, detection and prevention of terrorist of serious criminal offences.


  • Each EU country must take the fingerprints of all asylum applicants and those apprehended while trying to cross a border irregularly (e.g. non-EU/EEA nationals or stateless persons entering without valid documents) over the age of 14 and, within 72 hours, transmit the data to Eurodac.
  • When an asylum-seeker or non-EU/EEA national has been found to be present illegally in an EU country, then that EU country can consult Eurodac to determine whether the individual has previously applied for asylum in an EU country or has previously been apprehended when trying to unlawfully enter the EU.
  • Fingerprint data should be erased once asylum applicants, non-EU/EEA nationals or stateless persons obtain citizenship of an EU country.
  • This regulation helps apply the Dublin III Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 604/2013), which lays down rules for determining which EU country is responsible for examining an asylum application.
  • The original Eurodac legislation (Council Regulation (EC) No 2725/2000) did not require a component for law enforcement authorities to request data comparisons. This regulation, however, allows national police forces and Europol to compare fingerprints linked to criminal investigations with those contained in Eurodac. However, due to the fundamental right to privacy, law enforcement agencies are only allowed to use Eurodac for comparisons:
    • if there are reasonable grounds that doing so will substantially assist them in preventing, detecting or investigating a terrorist offence or other serious criminal offence; and
    • only as a last resort after several other checks have been carried out first.
  • No Eurodac data may be shared with non-EU countries.
  • Some asylum applicants and non-EU/EEA nationals or stateless persons have refused to cooperate with EU countries’ attempts to fingerprint them for the Eurodac database. This led the European Commission to issue a document on possible best practices relating to fingerprinting.


The Eurodac Regulation became applicable on 20 July 2015.


Eurodac was originally created in 2000 (Council Regulation (EC) No 2725/2000) and it has been operating since 2003. The European Commission considers it to be a very successful information technology (IT) tool.


Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the establishment of ‘Eurodac’ for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person and on requests for the comparison with Eurodac data by Member States' law enforcement authorities and Europol for law enforcement purposes, and amending Regulation (EU) No 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the Operational Management of large-scale IT Systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (OJ L 180, 29.6.2013, pp. 1–30)


Commission staff working document on implementation of the Eurodac regulation as regards the obligation to take fingerprints (SWD(2015) 150 final of 27.5.2015)

last update 14.01.2016