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Document 32006L0112

Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax

OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1–118 (ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, SK, SL, FI, SV)
Special edition in Bulgarian: Chapter 09 Volume 003 P. 7 - 125
Special edition in Romanian: Chapter 09 Volume 003 P. 7 - 125
Special edition in Croatian: Chapter 09 Volume 001 P. 120 - 237

In force

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2006/112/oj

11.12.2006   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 347/1


COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2006/112/EC

of 28 November 2006

on the common system of value added tax

THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 93 thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,

Having regard to the Opinion of the European Parliament,

Having regard to the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee,

Whereas:

(1)

Council Directive 77/388/EEC of 17 May 1977 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to turnover taxes — Common system of value added tax: uniform basis of assessment (1) has been significantly amended on several occasions. Now that new amendments are being made to the said Directive, it is desirable, for reasons of clarity and rationalisation that the Directive should be recast.

(2)

The recast text should incorporate all those provisions of Council Directive 67/227/EEC of 11 April 1967 on the harmonisation of legislation of Member States concerning turnover taxes (2) which are still applicable. That Directive should therefore be repealed.

(3)

To ensure that the provisions are presented in a clear and rational manner, consistent with the principle of better regulation, it is appropriate to recast the structure and the wording of the Directive although this will not, in principle, bring about material changes in the existing legislation. A small number of substantive amendments are however inherent to the recasting exercise and should nevertheless be made. Where such changes are made, these are listed exhaustively in the provisions governing transposition and entry into force.

(4)

The attainment of the objective of establishing an internal market presupposes the application in Member States of legislation on turnover taxes that does not distort conditions of competition or hinder the free movement of goods and services. It is therefore necessary to achieve such harmonisation of legislation on turnover taxes by means of a system of value added tax (VAT), such as will eliminate, as far as possible, factors which may distort conditions of competition, whether at national or Community level.

(5)

A VAT system achieves the highest degree of simplicity and of neutrality when the tax is levied in as general a manner as possible and when its scope covers all stages of production and distribution, as well as the supply of services. It is therefore in the interests of the internal market and of Member States to adopt a common system which also applies to the retail trade.

(6)

It is necessary to proceed by stages, since the harmonisation of turnover taxes leads in Member States to alterations in tax structure and appreciable consequences in the budgetary, economic and social fields.

(7)

The common system of VAT should, even if rates and exemptions are not fully harmonised, result in neutrality in competition, such that within the territory of each Member State similar goods and services bear the same tax burden, whatever the length of the production and distribution chain.

(8)

Pursuant to Council Decision 2000/597/EC, Euratom, of 29 September 2000 on the system of the European Communities' own resources (3), the budget of the European Communities is to be financed, without prejudice to other revenue, wholly from the Communities' own resources. Those resources are to include those accruing from VAT and obtained through the application of a uniform rate of tax to bases of assessment determined in a uniform manner and in accordance with Community rules.

(9)

It is vital to provide for a transitional period to allow national laws in specified fields to be gradually adapted.

(10)

During this transitional period, intra-Community transactions carried out by taxable persons other than exempt taxable persons should be taxed in the Member State of destination, in accordance with the rates and conditions set by that Member State.

(11)

It is also appropriate that, during that transitional period, intra-Community acquisitions of a certain value, made by exempt persons or by non-taxable legal persons, certain intra-Community distance selling and the supply of new means of transport to individuals or to exempt or non-taxable bodies should also be taxed in the Member State of destination, in accordance with the rates and conditions set by that Member State, in so far as such transactions would, in the absence of special provisions, be likely to cause significant distortion of competition between Member States.

(12)

For reasons connected with their geographic, economic and social situation, certain territories should be excluded from the scope of this Directive.

(13)

In order to enhance the non-discriminatory nature of the tax, the term ‘taxable person’ should be defined in such a way that the Member States may use it to cover persons who occasionally carry out certain transactions.

(14)

The term ‘taxable transaction’ may lead to difficulties, in particular as regards transactions treated as taxable transactions. Those concepts should therefore be clarified.

(15)

With a view to facilitating intra-Community trade in work on movable tangible property, it is appropriate to establish the tax arrangements applicable to such transactions when they are carried out for a customer who is identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that in which the transaction is physically carried out.

(16)

A transport operation within the territory of a Member State should be treated as the intra-Community transport of goods where it is directly linked to a transport operation carried out between Member States, in order to simplify not only the principles and arrangements for taxing those domestic transport services but also the rules applicable to ancillary services and to services supplied by intermediaries who take part in the supply of the various services.

(17)

Determination of the place where taxable transactions are carried out may engender conflicts concerning jurisdiction as between Member States, in particular as regards the supply of goods for assembly or the supply of services. Although the place where a supply of services is carried out should in principle be fixed as the place where the supplier has established his place of business, it should be defined as being in the Member State of the customer, in particular in the case of certain services supplied between taxable persons where the cost of the services is included in the price of the goods.

(18)

It is necessary to clarify the definition of the place of taxation of certain transactions carried out on board ships, aircraft or trains in the course of passenger transport within the Community.

(19)

Electricity and gas are treated as goods for VAT purposes. It is, however, particularly difficult to determine the place of supply. In order to avoid double taxation or non taxation and to attain a genuine internal market free of barriers linked to the VAT regime, the place of supply of gas through the natural gas distribution system, or of electricity, before the goods reach the final stage of consumption, should therefore be the place where the customer has established his business. The supply of electricity and gas at the final stage, that is to say, from traders and distributors to the final consumer, should be taxed at the place where the customer actually uses and consumes the goods.

(20)

In the case of the hiring out of movable tangible property, application of the general rule that supplies of services are taxed in the Member State in which the supplier is established may lead to substantial distortion of competition if the lessor and the lessee are established in different Member States and the rates of taxation in those States differ. It is therefore necessary to establish that the place of supply of a service is the place where the customer has established his business or has a fixed establishment for which the service has been supplied or, in the absence thereof, the place where he has his permanent address or usually resides.

(21)

However, as regards the hiring out of means of transport, it is appropriate, for reasons of control, to apply strictly the general rule, and thus to regard the place where the supplier has established his business as the place of supply.

(22)

All telecommunications services consumed within the Community should be taxed to prevent distortion of competition in that field. To that end, telecommunications services supplied to taxable persons established in the Community or to customers established in third countries should, in principle, be taxed at the place where the customer for the services is established. In order to ensure uniform taxation of telecommunications services which are supplied by taxable persons established in third territories or third countries to non-taxable persons established in the Community and which are effectively used and enjoyed in the Community, Member States should, however, provide for the place of supply to be within the Community.

(23)

Also to prevent distortions of competition, radio and television broadcasting services and electronically supplied services provided from third territories or third countries to persons established in the Community, or from the Community to customers established in third territories or third countries, should be taxed at the place of establishment of the customer.

(24)

The concepts of chargeable event and of the chargeability of VAT should be harmonised if the introduction of the common system of VAT and of any subsequent amendments thereto are to take effect at the same time in all Member States.

(25)

The taxable amount should be harmonised so that the application of VAT to taxable transactions leads to comparable results in all the Member States.

(26)

To prevent loss of tax revenues through the use of connected parties to derive tax benefits, it should, in specific limited circumstances, be possible for Member States to intervene as regards the taxable amount of supplies of goods or services and intra-Community acquisitions of goods.

(27)

In order to combat tax evasion or avoidance, it should be possible for Member States to include within the taxable amount of a transaction which involves the working of investment gold provided by a customer, the value of that investment gold where, by virtue of being worked, the gold loses its status of investment gold. When they apply these measures, Member States should be allowed a certain degree of discretion.

(28)

If distortions are to be avoided, the abolition of fiscal controls at frontiers entails, not only a uniform basis of assessment, but also sufficient alignment as between Member States of a number of rates and rate levels.

(29)

The standard rate of VAT in force in the various Member States, combined with the mechanism of the transitional system, ensures that this system functions to an acceptable degree. To prevent divergences in the standard rates of VAT applied by the Member States from leading to structural imbalances in the Community and distortions of competition in some sectors of activity, a minimum standard rate of 15 % should be fixed, subject to review.

(30)

In order to preserve neutrality of VAT, the rates applied by Member States should be such as to enable, as a general rule, deduction of the VAT applied at the preceding stage.

(31)

During the transitional period, certain derogations concerning the number and the level of rates should be possible.

(32)

To achieve a better understanding of the impact of reduced rates, it is necessary for the Commission to prepare an assessment report on the impact of reduced rates applied to locally supplied services, notably in terms of job creation, economic growth and the proper functioning of the internal market.

(33)

In order to tackle the problem of unemployment, those Member States wishing to do so should be allowed to experiment with the operation and impact, in terms of job creation, of a reduction in the VAT rate applied to labour-intensive services. That reduction is also likely to reduce the incentive for the businesses concerned to join or remain in the black economy.

(34)

However, such a reduction in the VAT rate is not without risk for the smooth functioning of the internal market and for tax neutrality. Provision should therefore be made for an authorisation procedure to be introduced for a period that is fixed but sufficiently long, so that it is possible to assess the impact of the reduced rates applied to locally supplied services. In order to make sure that such a measure remains verifiable and limited, its scope should be closely defined.

(35)

A common list of exemptions should be drawn up so that the Communities' own resources may be collected in a uniform manner in all the Member States.

(36)

For the benefit both of the persons liable for payment of VAT and the competent administrative authorities, the methods of applying VAT to certain supplies and intra-Community acquisitions of products subject to excise duty should be aligned with the procedures and obligations concerning the duty to declare in the case of shipment of such products to another Member State laid down in Council Directive 92/12/EEC of 25 February 1992 on the general arrangements for products subject to excise duty and on the holding, movement and monitoring of such products (4).

(37)

The supply of gas through the natural gas distribution system, and of electricity is taxed at the place of the customer. In order to avoid double taxation, the importation of such products should therefore be exempted from VAT.

(38)

In respect of taxable operations in the domestic market linked to intra-Community trade in goods carried out during the transitional period by taxable persons not established within the territory of the Member State in which the intra-Community acquisition of goods takes place, including chain transactions, it is necessary to provide for simplification measures ensuring equal treatment in all the Member States. To that end, the provisions concerning the taxation system and the person liable for payment of the VAT due in respect of such operations should be harmonised. It is however, necessary to exclude in principle from such arrangements goods that are intended to be supplied at the retail stage.

(39)

The rules governing deductions should be harmonised to the extent that they affect the actual amounts collected. The deductible proportion should be calculated in a similar manner in all the Member States.

(40)

The scheme which allows the adjustment of deductions for capital goods over the lifetime of the asset, according to its actual use, should also be applicable to certain services with the nature of capital goods.

(41)

It is appropriate to specify the persons liable for payment of VAT, particularly in the case of services supplied by a person who is not established in the Member State in which the VAT is due.

(42)

Member States should be able, in specific cases, to designate the recipient of supplies of goods or services as the person liable for payment of VAT. This should assist Member States in simplifying the rules and countering tax evasion and avoidance in identified sectors and on certain types of transactions.

(43)

Member States should be entirely free to designate the person liable for payment of the VAT on importation.

(44)

Member States should be able to provide that someone other than the person liable for payment of VAT is to be held jointly and severally liable for its payment.

(45)

The obligations of taxable persons should be harmonised as far as possible so as to ensure the necessary safeguards for the collection of VAT in a uniform manner in all the Member States.

(46)

The use of electronic invoicing should allow tax authorities to carry out their monitoring activities. It is therefore appropriate, in order to ensure the internal market functions properly, to draw up a list, harmonised at Community level, of the particulars that must appear on invoices and to establish a number of common arrangements governing the use of electronic invoicing and the electronic storage of invoices, as well as for self-billing and the outsourcing of invoicing operations.

(47)

Subject to conditions which they lay down, Member States should allow certain statements and returns to be made by electronic means, and may require that electronic means be used.

(48)

The necessary pursuit of a reduction in the administrative and statistical formalities to be completed by businesses, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, should be reconciled with the implementation of effective control measures and the need, on both economic and tax grounds, to maintain the quality of Community statistical instruments.

(49)

Member States should be allowed to continue to apply their special schemes for small enterprises, in accordance with common provisions, and with a view to closer harmonisation.

(50)

Member States should remain free to apply a special scheme involving flat rate rebates of input VAT to farmers not covered by the normal scheme. The basic principles of that special scheme should be established and a common method adopted, for the purposes of collecting own resources, for calculating the value added by such farmers.

(51)

It is appropriate to adopt a Community taxation system to be applied to second-hand goods, works of art, antiques and collectors' items, with a view to preventing double taxation and the distortion of competition as between taxable persons.

(52)

The application of the normal VAT rules to gold constitutes a major obstacle to its use for financial investment purposes and therefore justifies the application of a special tax scheme, with a view also to enhancing the international competitiveness of the Community gold market.

(53)

The supply of gold for investment purposes is inherently similar to other financial investments which are exempt from VAT. Consequently, exemption appears to be the most appropriate tax treatment for supplies of investment gold.

(54)

The definition of investment gold should cover gold coins the value of which primarily reflects the price of the gold contained. For reasons of transparency and legal certainty, a yearly list of coins covered by the investment gold scheme should be drawn up, providing security for the operators trading in such coins. That list should be without prejudice to the exemption of coins which are not included in the list but which meet the criteria laid down in this Directive.

(55)

In order to prevent tax evasion while at the same time alleviating the financing burden for the supply of gold of a degree of purity above a certain level, it is justifiable to allow Member States to designate the customer as the person liable for payment of VAT.

(56)

In order to facilitate compliance with fiscal obligations by operators providing electronically supplied services, who are neither established nor required to be identified for VAT purposes within the Community, a special scheme should be established. Under that scheme it should be possible for any operator supplying such services by electronic means to non-taxable persons within the Community, if he is not otherwise identified for VAT purposes within the Community, to opt for identification in a single Member State.

(57)

It is desirable for the provisions concerning radio and television broadcasting and certain electronically supplied services to be put into place on a temporary basis only and to be reviewed in the light of experience within a short period of time.

(58)

It is necessary to promote the uniform application of the provisions of this Directive and to that end an advisory committee on value added taxshould be set up to enable the Member States and the Commission to cooperate closely.

(59)

Member States should be able, within certain limits and subject to certain conditions, to introduce, or to continue to apply, special measures derogating from this Directive in order to simplify the levying of tax or to prevent certain forms of tax evasion or avoidance.

(60)

In order to ensure that a Member State which has submitted a request for derogation is not left in doubt as to what action the Commission plans to take in response, time-limits should be laid down within which the Commission must present to the Council either a proposal for authorisation or a communication setting out its objections.

(61)

It is essential to ensure uniform application of the VAT system. Implementing measures are appropriate to realise that aim.

(62)

Those measures should, in particular, address the problem of double taxation of cross-border transactions which can occur as the result of divergences between Member States in the application of the rules governing the place where taxable transactions are carried out.

(63)

Although the scope of the implementing measures would be limited, those measures would have a budgetary impact which for one or more Member States could be significant. Accordingly, the Council is justified in reserving to itself the right to exercise implementing powers.

(64)

In view of their limited scope, the implementing measures should be adopted by the Council acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission.

(65)

Since, for those reasons, the objectives of this Directive cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore be better achieved by at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.

(66)

The obligation to transpose this Directive into national law should be confined to those provisions which represent a substantive change as compared with the earlier Directives. The obligation to transpose into national law the provisions which are unchanged arises under the earlier Directives.

(67)

This Directive should be without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States in relation to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives listed in Annex XI, Part B,

HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE 1 —

SUBJECT MATTER AND SCOPE

TITLE II —

TERRITORIAL SCOPE

TITLE III —

TAXABLE PERSONS

TITLE IV —

TAXABLE TRANSACTIONS

Chapter 1 —

Supply of goods

Chapter 2 —

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Chapter 3 —

Supply of services

Chapter 4 —

Importation of goods

TITLE V —

PLACE OF TAXABLE TRANSACTIONS

Chapter 1 —

Place of supply of goods

Section 1 —

Supply of goods without transport

Section 2 —

Supply of goods with transport

Section 3 —

Supply of goods on board ships, aircraft or trains

Section 4 —

Supply of goods through distribution systems

Chapter 2 —

Place of an intra-Community acquisition of goods

Chapter 3 —

Place of supply of services

Section 1 —

General rule

Section 2 —

Particular provisions

Subsection 1 —

Supply of services by intermediaries

Sub-section 2 —

Supply of services connected with immovable property

Subsection 3 —

Supply of transport

Subsection 4 —

Supply of cultural and similar services, ancillary transport services or services relating to movable tangible property

Subsection 5 —

Supply of miscellaneous services

Subsection 6 —

Criterion of effective use and enjoyment

Chapter 4 —

Place of importation of goods

TITLE VI —

CHARGEABLE EVENT AND CHARGEABILITY OF VAT

Chapter 1 —

General provisions

Chapter 2 —

Supply of goods or services

Chapter 3 —

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Chapter 4 —

Importation of goods

TITLE VII —

TAXABLE AMOUNT

Chapter 1 —

Definition

Chapter 2 —

Supply of goods or services

Chapter 3 —

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Chapter 4 —

Importation of goods

Chapter 5 —

Miscellaneous provisions

TITLE VIII —

RATES

Chapter 1 —

Application of rates

Chapter 2 —

Structure and level of rates

Section 1 —

Standard rate

Section 2 —

Reduced rates

Section 3 —

Particular provisions

Chapter 3 —

Temporary provisions for particular labour-intensive services

Chapter 4 —

Special provisions applying until the adoption of definitive arrangements

Chapter 5 —

Temporary provisions

TITLE IX —

EXEMPTIONS

Chapter 1 —

General provisions

Chapter 2 —

Exemptions for certain activities in the public interest

Chapter 3 —

Exemptions for other activities

Chapter 4 —

Exemptions for intra-Community transactions

Section 1 —

Exemptions related to the supply of goods

Section 2 —

Exemptions for intra-Community acquisitions of goods

Section 3 —

Exemptions for certain transport services

Chapter 5 —

Exemptions on importation

Chapter 6 —

Exemptions on exportation

Chapter 7 —

Exemptions related to international transport

Chapter 8 —

Exemptions relating to certain transactions treated as exports

Chapter 9 —

Exemptions for the supply of services by intermediaries

Chapter 10 —

Exemptions for transactions relating to international trade

Section 1 —

Customs warehouses, warehouses other than customs warehouses and similar arrangements

Section 2 —

Transactions exempted with a view to export and in the framework of trade between the Member States

Section 3 —

Provisions common to Sections 1 and 2

TITLE X —

DEDUCTIONS

Chapter 1 —

Origin and scope of right of deduction

Chapter 2 —

Proportional deduction

Chapter 3 —

Restrictions on the right of deduction

Chapter 4 —

Rules governing exercise of the right of deduction

Chapter 5 —

Adjustment of deductions

TITLE XI —

OBLIGATIONS OF TAXABLE PERSONS AND CERTAIN NON-TAXABLE PERSONS

Chapter 1 —

Obligation to pay

Section 1 —

Persons liable for payment of VAT to the tax authorities

Section 2 —

Payment arrangements

Chapter 2 —

Identification

Chapter 3 —

Invoicing

Section 1 —

Definition

Section 2 —

Concept of invoice

Section 3 —

Issue of invoices

Section 4 —

Content of invoices

Section 5 —

Sending invoices by electronic means

Section 6 —

Simplification measures

Chapter 4 —

Accounting

Section 1 —

Definition

Section 2 —

General obligations

Section 3 —

Specific obligations relating to the storage of all invoices

Section 4 —

Right of access to invoices stored by electronic means in another Member State

Chapter 5 —

Returns

Chapter 6 —

Recapitulative statements

Chapter 7 —

Miscellaneous provisions

Chapter 8 —

Obligations relating to certain importations and exportations

Section 1 —

Importation

Section 2 —

Exportation

TITLE XII —

SPECIAL SCHEMES

Chapter 1 —

Special scheme for small enterprises

Section 1 —

Simplified procedures for charging and collection

Section 2 —

Exemptions or graduated relief

Section 3 —

Reporting and review

Chapter 2 —

Common flat-rate scheme for farmers

Chapter 3 —

Special scheme for travel agents

Chapter 4 —

Special arrangements for second-hand goods, works of art, collectors' items and antiques

Section 1 —

Definitions

Section 2 —

Special arrangements for taxable dealers

Subsection 1 —

Margin scheme

Subsection 2 —

Transitional arrangements for second-hand means of transport

Section 3 —

Special arrangements for sales by public auction

Section 4 —

Measures to prevent distortion of competition and tax evasion

Chapter 5 —

Special scheme for investment gold

Section 1 —

General provisions

Section 2 —

Exemption from VAT

Section 3 —

Taxation option

Section 4 —

Transactions on a regulated gold bullion market

Section 5 —

Special rights and obligations for traders in investment gold

Chapter 6 —

Special scheme for non-established taxable persons supplying electronic services to non-taxable persons

Section 1 —

General provisions

Section 2 —

Special scheme for electronically supplied services

TITLE XIII —

DEROGATIONS

Chapter 1 —

Derogations applying until the adoption of definitive arrangements

Section 1 —

Derogations for States which were members of the Community on 1 January 1978

Section 2 —

Derogations for States which acceded to the Community after 1 January 1978

Section 3 —

Provisions common to Sections 1 and 2

Chapter 2 —

Derogations subject to authorisation

Section 1 —

Simplification measures and measures to prevent tax evasion or avoidance

Section 2 —

International agreements

TITLE XIV —

MISCELLANEOUS

Chapter 1 —

Implementing measures

Chapter 2 —

VAT Committee

Chapter 3 —

Conversion rates

Chapter 4 —

Other taxes, duties and charges

TITLE XV —

FINAL PROVISIONS

Chapter 1 —

Transitional arrangements for the taxation of trade between Member States

Chapter 2 —

Transitional measures applicable in the context of accession to the European Union

Chapter 3 —

Transposition and entry into force

ANNEX I —

LIST OF THE ACTIVITIES REFERRED TO IN THE THIRD SUBPARAGRAPH OF ARTICLE 13(1)

ANNEX II —

INDICATIVE LIST OF THE ELECTRONICALLY SUPPLIED SERVICES REFERRED TO IN POINT (K) OF ARTICLE 56(1)

ANNEX III —

LISTS OF SUPPLIES OF GOODS AND SERVICES TO WHICH THE REDUCED RATES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 98 MAY BE APPLIED

ANNEX IV —

LIST OF THE SERVICES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 106

ANNEX V —

CATEGORIES OF GOODS COVERED BY WAREHOUSING ARRANGEMENTS OTHER THAN CUSTOMS WAREHOUSING AS PROVIDED FOR UNDER ARTICLE 160(2)

ANNEX VI —

LIST OF SUPPLIES OF GOODS AND SERVICES AS REFERRED TO IN POINT (D) OF ARTICLE 199(1)

ANNEX VII —

LIST OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES REFERRED TO IN POINT (4) OF ARTICLE 295(1)

ANNEX VIII —

INDICATIVE LIST OF THE AGRICULTURAL SERVICES REFERRED TO IN POINT (5) OF ARTICLE 295(1)

ANNEX IX —

WORKS OF ART, COLLECTORS' ITEMS AND ANTIQUES, AS REFERRED TO IN POINTS (2), (3) AND (4) OF ARTICLE 311(1)

Part A —

Works of art

Part B —

Collectors' items

Part C —

Antiques

ANNEX X —

LIST OF TRANSACTIONS COVERED BY THE DEROGATIONS REFERRED TO IN ARTICLES 370 AND 371 AND ARTICLES 380 TO 390

Part A —

Transactions which Member States may continue to tax

Part B —

Transactions which Member States may continue to exempt

ANNEX XI

Part A —

Repealed Directives with their successive amendments

Part B —

Time limits for transposition into national law (referred to in Article 411)

ANNEX XII —

CORRELATION TABLE

TITLE I

SUBJECT MATTER AND SCOPE

Article 1

1.   This Directive establishes the common system of value added tax (VAT).

2.   The principle of the common system of VAT entails the application to goods and services of a general tax on consumption exactly proportional to the price of the goods and services, however many transactions take place in the production and distribution process before the stage at which the tax is charged.

On each transaction, VAT, calculated on the price of the goods or services at the rate applicable to such goods or services, shall be chargeable after deduction of the amount of VAT borne directly by the various cost components.

The common system of VAT shall be applied up to and including the retail trade stage.

Article 2

1.   The following transactions shall be subject to VAT:

(a)

the supply of goods for consideration within the territory of a Member State by a taxable person acting as such;

(b)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods for consideration within the territory of a Member State by:

(i)

a taxable person acting as such, or a non-taxable legal person, where the vendor is a taxable person acting as such who is not eligible for the exemption for small enterprises provided for in Articles 282 to 292 and who is not covered by Articles 33 or 36;

(ii)

in the case of new means of transport, a taxable person, or a non-taxable legal person, whose other acquisitions are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1), or any other non-taxable person;

(iii)

in the case of products subject to excise duty, where the excise duty on the intra-Community acquisition is chargeable, pursuant to Directive 92/12/EEC, within the territory of the Member State, a taxable person, or a non-taxable legal person, whose other acquisitions are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1);

(c)

the supply of services for consideration within the territory of a Member State by a taxable person acting as such;

(d)

the importation of goods.

2.

(a)

For the purposes of point (ii) of paragraph 1(b), the following shall be regarded as ‘means of transport’, where they are intended for the transport of persons or goods:

(i)

motorised land vehicles the capacity of which exceeds 48 cubic centimetres or the power of which exceeds 7,2 kilowatts;

(ii)

vessels exceeding 7,5 metres in length, with the exception of vessels used for navigation on the high seas and carrying passengers for reward, and of vessels used for the purposes of commercial, industrial or fishing activities, or for rescue or assistance at sea, or for inshore fishing;

(iii)

aircraft the take-off weight of which exceeds 1 550 kilograms, with the exception of aircraft used by airlines operating for reward chiefly on international routes.

(b)

These means of transport shall be regarded as ‘new’ in the cases:

(i)

of motorised land vehicles, where the supply takes place within six months of the date of first entry into service or where the vehicle has travelled for no more than 6 000 kilometres;

(ii)

of vessels, where the supply takes place within three months of the date of first entry into service or where the vessel has sailed for no more than 100 hours;

(iii)

of aircraft, where the supply takes place within three months of the date of first entry into service or where the aircraft has flown for no more than 40 hours.

(c)

Member States shall lay down the conditions under which the facts referred to in point (b) may be regarded as established.

3.   ‘Products subject to excise duty’ shall mean energy products, alcohol and alcoholic beverages and manufactured tobacco, as defined by current Community legislation, but not gas supplied through the natural gas distribution system or electricity.

Article 3

1.   By way of derogation from Article 2(1)(b)(i), the following transactions shall not be subject to VAT:

(a)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods by a taxable person or a non-taxable legal person, where the supply of such goods within the territory of the Member State of acquisition would be exempt pursuant to Articles 148 and 151;

(b)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods, other than those referred to in point (a) and Article 4, and other than new means of transport or products subject to excise duty, by a taxable person for the purposes of his agricultural, forestry or fisheries business subject to the common flat-rate scheme for farmers, or by a taxable person who carries out only supplies of goods or services in respect of which VAT is not deductible, or by a non-taxable legal person.

2.   Point (b) of paragraph 1 shall apply only if the following conditions are met:

(a)

during the current calendar year, the total value of intra-Community acquisitions of goods does not exceed a threshold which the Member States shall determine but which may not be less than EUR 10 000 or the equivalent in national currency;

(b)

during the previous calendar year, the total value of intra-Community acquisitions of goods did not exceed the threshold provided for in point (a).

The threshold which serves as the reference shall consist of the total value, exclusive of VAT due or paid in the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods began, of the intra-Community acquisitions of goods as referred to under point (b) of paragraph 1.

3.   Member States shall grant taxable persons and non-taxable legal persons eligible under point (b) of paragraph 1 the right to opt for the general scheme provided for in Article 2(1)(b)(i).

Member States shall lay down the detailed rules for the exercise of the option referred to in the first subparagraph, which shall in any event cover a period of two calendar years.

Article 4

In addition to the transactions referred to in Article 3, the following transactions shall not be subject to VAT:

(a)

the intra-Community acquisition of second-hand goods, works of art, collectors' items or antiques, as defined in points (1) to (4) of Article 311(1), where the vendor is a taxable dealer acting as such and VAT has been applied to the goods in the Member State in which their dispatch or transport began, in accordance with the margin scheme provided for in Articles 312 to 325;

(b)

the intra-Community acquisition of second-hand means of transport, as defined in Article 327(3), where the vendor is a taxable dealer acting as such and VAT has been applied to the means of transport in the Member State in which their dispatch or transport began, in accordance with the transitional arrangements for second-hand means of transport;

(c)

the intra-Community acquisition of second-hand goods, works of art, collectors' items or antiques, as defined in points (1) to (4) of Article 311(1), where the vendor is an organiser of sales by public auction, acting as such, and VAT has been applied to the goods in the Member State in which their dispatch or transport began, in accordance with the special arrangements for sales by public auction.

TITLE II

TERRITORIAL SCOPE

Article 5

For the purposes of applying this Directive, the following definitions shall apply:

(1)

‘Community’ and ‘territory of the Community’ mean the territories of the Member States as defined in point (2);

(2)

‘Member State’ and ‘territory of a Member State’ mean the territory of each Member State of the Community to which the Treaty establishing the European Community is applicable, in accordance with Article 299 of that Treaty, with the exception of any territory referred to in Article 6 of this Directive;

(3)

‘third territories’ means those territories referred to in Article 6;

(4)

‘third country’ means any State or territory to which the Treaty is not applicable.

Article 6

1.   This Directive shall not apply to the following territories forming part of the customs territory of the Community:

(a)

Mount Athos;

(b)

the Canary Islands;

(c)

the French overseas departments;

(d)

the Åland Islands;

(e)

the Channel Islands.

2.   This Directive shall not apply to the following territories not forming part of the customs territory of the Community:

(a)

the Island of Heligoland;

(b)

the territory of Büsingen;

(c)

Ceuta;

(d)

Melilla;

(e)

Livigno;

(f)

Campione d'Italia;

(g)

the Italian waters of Lake Lugano.

Article 7

1.   In view of the conventions and treaties concluded with France, the United Kingdom and Cyprus respectively, the Principality of Monaco, the Isle of Man and the United Kingdom Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia shall not be regarded, for the purposes of the application of this Directive, as third countries.

2.   Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that transactions originating in or intended for the Principality of Monaco are treated as transactions originating in or intended for France, that transactions originating in or intended for the Isle of Man are treated as transactions originating in or intended for the United Kingdom, and that transactions originating in or intended for the United Kingdom Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are treated as transactions originating in or intended for Cyprus.

Article 8

If the Commission considers that the provisions laid down in Articles 6 and 7 are no longer justified, particularly in terms of fair competition or own resources, it shall present appropriate proposals to the Council.

TITLE III

TAXABLE PERSONS

Article 9

1.   ‘Taxable person’ shall mean any person who, independently, carries out in any place any economic activity, whatever the purpose or results of that activity.

Any activity of producers, traders or persons supplying services, including mining and agricultural activities and activities of the professions, shall be regarded as ‘economic activity’. The exploitation of tangible or intangible property for the purposes of obtaining income therefrom on a continuing basis shall in particular be regarded as an economic activity.

2.   In addition to the persons referred to in paragraph 1, any person who, on an occasional basis, supplies a new means of transport, which is dispatched or transported to the customer by the vendor or the customer, or on behalf of the vendor or the customer, to a destination outside the territory of a Member State but within the territory of the Community, shall be regarded as a taxable person.

Article 10

The condition in Article 9(1) that the economic activity be conducted ‘independently’ shall exclude employed and other persons from VAT in so far as they are bound to an employer by a contract of employment or by any other legal ties creating the relationship of employer and employee as regards working conditions, remuneration and the employer's liability.

Article 11

After consulting the advisory committee on value added tax (hereafter, the ‘VAT Committee’), each Member State may regard as a single taxable person any persons established in the territory of that Member State who, while legally independent, are closely bound to one another by financial, economic and organisational links.

A Member State exercising the option provided for in the first paragraph, may adopt any measures needed to prevent tax evasion or avoidance through the use of this provision.

Article 12

1.   Member States may regard as a taxable person anyone who carries out, on an occasional basis, a transaction relating to the activities referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 9(1) and in particular one of the following transactions:

(a)

the supply, before first occupation, of a building or parts of a building and of the land on which the building stands;

(b)

the supply of building land.

2.   For the purposes of paragraph 1(a), ‘building’ shall mean any structure fixed to or in the ground.

Member States may lay down the detailed rules for applying the criterion referred to in paragraph 1(a) to conversions of buildings and may determine what is meant by ‘the land on which a building stands’.

Member States may apply criteria other than that of first occupation, such as the period elapsing between the date of completion of the building and the date of first supply, or the period elapsing between the date of first occupation and the date of subsequent supply, provided that those periods do not exceed five years and two years respectively.

3.   For the purposes of paragraph 1(b), ‘building land’ shall mean any unimproved or improved land defined as such by the Member States.

Article 13

1.   States, regional and local government authorities and other bodies governed by public law shall not be regarded as taxable persons in respect of the activities or transactions in which they engage as public authorities, even where they collect dues, fees, contributions or payments in connection with those activities or transactions.

However, when they engage in such activities or transactions, they shall be regarded as taxable persons in respect of those activities or transactions where their treatment as non-taxable persons would lead to significant distortions of competition.

In any event, bodies governed by public law shall be regarded as taxable persons in respect of the activities listed in Annex I, provided that those activities are not carried out on such a small scale as to be negligible.

2.   Member States may regard activities, exempt under Articles 132, 135, 136, 371, 374 to 377, and Article 378(2), Article 379(2), or Articles 380 to 390, engaged in by bodies governed by public law as activities in which those bodies engage as public authorities.

TITLE IV

TAXABLE TRANSACTIONS

CHAPTER 1

supply of goods

Article 14

1.   ‘Supply of goods’ shall mean the transfer of the right to dispose of tangible property as owner.

2.   In addition to the transaction referred to in paragraph 1, each of the following shall be regarded as a supply of goods:

(a)

the transfer, by order made by or in the name of a public authority or in pursuance of the law, of the ownership of property against payment of compensation;

(b)

the actual handing over of goods pursuant to a contract for the hire of goods for a certain period, or for the sale of goods on deferred terms, which provides that in the normal course of events ownership is to pass at the latest upon payment of the final instalment;

(c)

the transfer of goods pursuant to a contract under which commission is payable on purchase or sale.

3.   Member States may regard the handing over of certain works of construction as a supply of goods.

Article 15

1.   Electricity, gas, heat, refrigeration and the like shall be treated as tangible property.

2.   Member States may regard the following as tangible property:

(a)

certain interests in immovable property;

(b)

rights in rem giving the holder thereof a right of use over immovable property;

(c)

shares or interests equivalent to shares giving the holder thereof de jure or de facto rights of ownership or possession over immovable property or part thereof.

Article 16

The application by a taxable person of goods forming part of his business assets for his private use or for that of his staff, or their disposal free of charge or, more generally, their application for purposes other than those of his business, shall be treated as a supply of goods for consideration, where the VAT on those goods or the component parts thereof was wholly or partly deductible.

However, the application of goods for business use as samples or as gifts of small value shall not be treated as a supply of goods for consideration.

Article 17

1.   The transfer by a taxable person of goods forming part of his business assets to another Member State shall be treated as a supply of goods for consideration.

‘Transfer to another Member State’ shall mean the dispatch or transport of movable tangible property by or on behalf of the taxable person, for the purposes of his business, to a destination outside the territory of the Member State in which the property is located, but within the Community.

2.   The dispatch or transport of goods for the purposes of any of the following transactions shall not be regarded as a transfer to another Member State:

(a)

the supply of the goods by the taxable person within the territory of the Member State in which the dispatch or transport ends, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Article 33;

(b)

the supply of the goods, for installation or assembly by or on behalf of the supplier, by the taxable person within the territory of the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Article 36;

(c)

the supply of the goods by the taxable person on board a ship, an aircraft or a train in the course of a passenger transport operation, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Article 37;

(d)

the supply of gas through the natural gas distribution system, or of electricity, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Articles 38 and 39;

(e)

the supply of the goods by the taxable person within the territory of the Member State, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Articles 138, 146, 147, 148, 151 or 152;

(f)

the supply of a service performed for the taxable person and consisting of work on the goods in question physically carried out within the territory of the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends, provided that the goods, after being worked upon, are returned to that taxable person in the Member State from which they were initially dispatched or transported;

(g)

the temporary use of the goods within the territory of the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends, for the purposes of the supply of services by the taxable person established within the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods began;

(h)

the temporary use of the goods, for a period not exceeding twenty-four months, within the territory of another Member State, in which the importation of the same goods from a third country with a view to their temporary use would be covered by the arrangements for temporary importation with full exemption from import duties.

3.   If one of the conditions governing eligibility under paragraph 2 is no longer met, the goods shall be regarded as having been transferred to another Member State. In such cases, the transfer shall be deemed to take place at the time when that condition ceases to be met.

Article 18

Member States may treat each of the following transactions as a supply of goods for consideration:

(a)

the application by a taxable person for the purposes of his business of goods produced, constructed, extracted, processed, purchased or imported in the course of such business, where the VAT on such goods, had they been acquired from another taxable person, would not be wholly deductible;

(b)

the application of goods by a taxable person for the purposes of a non-taxable area of activity, where the VAT on such goods became wholly or partly deductible upon their acquisition or upon their application in accordance with point (a);

(c)

with the exception of the cases referred to in Article 19, the retention of goods by a taxable person, or by his successors, when he ceases to carry out a taxable economic activity, where the VAT on such goods became wholly or partly deductible upon their acquisition or upon their application in accordance with point (a).

Article 19

In the event of a transfer, whether for consideration or not or as a contribution to a company, of a totality of assets or part thereof, Member States may consider that no supply of goods has taken place and that the person to whom the goods are transferred is to be treated as the successor to the transferor.

Member States may, in cases where the recipient is not wholly liable to tax, take the measures necessary to prevent distortion of competition. They may also adopt any measures needed to prevent tax evasion or avoidance through the use of this Article.

CHAPTER 2

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Article 20

‘Intra-Community acquisition of goods’ shall mean the acquisition of the right to dispose as owner of movable tangible property dispatched or transported to the person acquiring the goods, by or on behalf of the vendor or the person acquiring the goods, in a Member State other than that in which dispatch or transport of the goods began.

Where goods acquired by a non-taxable legal person are dispatched or transported from a third territory or a third country and imported by that non-taxable legal person into a Member State other than the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends, the goods shall be regarded as having been dispatched or transported from the Member State of importation. That Member State shall grant the importer designated or recognised under Article 201 as liable for payment of VAT a refund of the VAT paid in respect of the importation of the goods, provided that the importer establishes that VAT has been applied to his acquisition in the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends.

Article 21

The application by a taxable person, for the purposes of his business, of goods dispatched or transported by or on behalf of that taxable person from another Member State, within which the goods were produced, extracted, processed, purchased or acquired within the meaning of Article 2(1)(b), or into which they were imported by that taxable person for the purposes of his business, shall be treated as an intra-Community acquisition of goods for consideration.

Article 22

The application by the armed forces of a State party to the North Atlantic Treaty, for their use or for the use of the civilian staff accompanying them, of goods which they have not purchased subject to the general rules governing taxation on the domestic market of a Member State shall be treated as an intra-Community acquisition of goods for consideration, where the importation of those goods would not be eligible for the exemption provided for in point (h) of Article 143.

Article 23

Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that a transaction which would have been classed as a supply of goods if it had been carried out within their territory by a taxable person acting as such is classed as an intra-Community acquisition of goods.

CHAPTER 3

Supply of services

Article 24

1.   ‘Supply of services’ shall mean any transaction which does not constitute a supply of goods.

2.   ‘Telecommunications services’ shall mean services relating to the transmission, emission or reception of signals, words, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems, including the related transfer or assignment of the right to use capacity for such transmission, emission or reception, with the inclusion of the provision of access to global information networks.

Article 25

A supply of services may consist, inter alia, in one of the following transactions:

(a)

the assignment of intangible property, whether or not the subject of a document establishing title;

(b)

the obligation to refrain from an act, or to tolerate an act or situation;

(c)

the performance of services in pursuance of an order made by or in the name of a public authority or in pursuance of the law.

Article 26

1.   Each of the following transactions shall be treated as a supply of services for consideration:

(a)

the use of goods forming part of the assets of a business for the private use of a taxable person or of his staff or, more generally, for purposes other than those of his business, where the VAT on such goods was wholly or partly deductible;

(b)

the supply of services carried out free of charge by a taxable person for his private use or for that of his staff or, more generally, for purposes other than those of his business.

2.   Member States may derogate from paragraph 1, provided that such derogation does not lead to distortion of competition.

Article 27

In order to prevent distortion of competition and after consulting the VAT Committee, Member States may treat as a supply of services for consideration the supply by a taxable person of a service for the purposes of his business, where the VAT on such a service, were it supplied by another taxable person, would not be wholly deductible.

Article 28

Where a taxable person acting in his own name but on behalf of another person takes part in a supply of services, he shall be deemed to have received and supplied those services himself.

Article 29

Article 19 shall apply in like manner to the supply of services.

CHAPTER 4

Importation of goods

Article 30

‘Importation of goods’ shall mean the entry into the Community of goods which are not in free circulation within the meaning of Article 24 of the Treaty.

In addition to the transaction referred to in the first paragraph, the entry into the Community of goods which are in free circulation, coming from a third territory forming part of the customs territory of the Community, shall be regarded as importation of goods.

TITLE V

PLACE OF TAXABLE TRANSACTIONS

CHAPTER 1

Place of supply of goods

Section 1

Supply of goods without transport

Article 31

Where goods are not dispatched or transported, the place of supply shall be deemed to be the place where the goods are located at the time when the supply takes place.

Section 2

Supply of goods with transport

Article 32

Where goods are dispatched or transported by the supplier, or by the customer, or by a third person, the place of supply shall be deemed to be the place where the goods are located at the time when dispatch or transport of the goods to the customer begins.

However, if dispatch or transport of the goods begins in a third territory or third country, both the place of supply by the importer designated or recognised under Article 201 as liable for payment of VAT and the place of any subsequent supply shall be deemed to be within the Member State of importation of the goods.

Article 33

1.   By way of derogation from Article 32, the place of supply of goods dispatched or transported by or on behalf of the supplier from a Member State other than that in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends shall be deemed to be the place where the goods are located at the time when dispatch or transport of the goods to the customer ends, where the following conditions are met:

(a)

the supply of goods is carried out for a taxable person, or a non-taxable legal person, whose intra-Community acquisitions of goods are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1) or for any other non-taxable person;

(b)

the goods supplied are neither new means of transport nor goods supplied after assembly or installation, with or without a trial run, by or on behalf of the supplier.

2.   Where the goods supplied are dispatched or transported from a third territory or a third country and imported by the supplier into a Member State other than that in which dispatch or transport of the goods to the customer ends, they shall be regarded as having been dispatched or transported from the Member State of importation.

Article 34

1.   Provided the following conditions are met, Article 33 shall not apply to supplies of goods all of which are dispatched or transported to the same Member State, where that Member State is the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends:

(a)

the goods supplied are not products subject to excise duty;

(b)

the total value, exclusive of VAT, of such supplies effected under the conditions laid down in Article 33 within that Member State does not in any one calendar year exceed EUR 100 000 or the equivalent in national currency;

(c)

the total value, exclusive of VAT, of the supplies of goods, other than products subject to excise duty, effected under the conditions laid down in Article 33 within that Member State did not in the previous calendar year exceed EUR 100 000 or the equivalent in national currency.

2.   The Member State within the territory of which the goods are located at the time when their dispatch or transport to the customer ends may limit the threshold referred to in paragraph 1 to EUR 35 000 or the equivalent in national currency, where that Member State fears that the threshold of EUR 100 000 might cause serious distortion of competition.

Member States which exercise the option under the first subparagraph shall take the measures necessary to inform accordingly the competent public authorities in the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods begins.

3.   The Commission shall present to the Council at the earliest opportunity a report on the operation of the special EUR 35 000 threshold referred to in paragraph 2, accompanied, if necessary, by appropriate proposals.

4.   The Member State within the territory of which the goods are located at the time when their dispatch or transport begins shall grant those taxable persons who carry out supplies of goods eligible under paragraph 1 the right to opt for the place of supply to be determined in accordance with Article 33.

The Member States concerned shall lay down the detailed rules governing the exercise of the option referred to in the first subparagraph, which shall in any event cover two calendar years.

Article 35

Articles 33 and 34 shall not apply to supplies of second-hand goods, works of art, collectors' items or antiques, as defined in points (1) to (4) of Article 311(1), nor to supplies of second-hand means of transport, as defined in Article 327(3), subject to VAT in accordance with the relevant special arrangements.

Article 36

Where goods dispatched or transported by the supplier, by the customer or by a third person are installed or assembled, with or without a trial run, by or on behalf of the supplier, the place of supply shall be deemed to be the place where the goods are installed or assembled.

Where the installation or assembly is carried out in a Member State other than that of the supplier, the Member State within the territory of which the installation or assembly is carried out shall take the measures necessary to ensure that there is no double taxation in that Member State.

Section 3

Supply of goods on board ships, aircraft or trains

Article 37

1.   Where goods are supplied on board ships, aircraft or trains during the section of a passenger transport operation effected within the Community, the place of supply shall be deemed to be at the point of departure of the passenger transport operation.

2.   For the purposes of paragraph 1, ‘section of a passenger transport operation effected within the Community’ shall mean the section of the operation effected, without a stopover outside the Community, between the point of departure and the point of arrival of the passenger transport operation.

‘Point of departure of a passenger transport operation’ shall mean the first scheduled point of passenger embarkation within the Community, where applicable after a stopover outside the Community.

‘Point of arrival of a passenger transport operation’ shall mean the last scheduled point of disembarkation within the Community of passengers who embarked in the Community, where applicable before a stopover outside the Community.

In the case of a return trip, the return leg shall be regarded as a separate transport operation.

3.   The Commission shall, at the earliest opportunity, present to the Council a report, accompanied if necessary by appropriate proposals, on the place of taxation of the supply of goods for consumption on board and the supply of services, including restaurant services, for passengers on board ships, aircraft or trains.

Pending adoption of the proposals referred to in the first subparagraph, Member States may exempt or continue to exempt, with deductibility of the VAT paid at the preceding stage, the supply of goods for consumption on board in respect of which the place of taxation is determined in accordance with paragraph 1.

Section 4

Supply of goods through distribution systems

Article 38

1.   In the case of the supply of gas through the natural gas distribution system, or of electricity, to a taxable dealer, the place of supply shall be deemed to be the place where that taxable dealer has established his business or has a fixed establishment for which the goods are supplied, or, in the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, the place where he has his permanent address or usually resides.

2.   For the purposes of paragraph 1, ‘taxable dealer’ shall mean a taxable person whose principal activity in respect of purchases of gas or electricity is reselling those products and whose own consumption of those products is negligible.

Article 39

In the case of the supply of gas through the natural gas distribution system, or of electricity, where such a supply is not covered by Article 38, the place of supply shall be deemed to be the place where the customer effectively uses and consumes the goods.

Where all or part of the gas or electricity is not effectively consumed by the customer, those non-consumed goods shall be deemed to have been used and consumed at the place where the customer has established his business or has a fixed establishment for which the goods are supplied. In the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, the customer shall be deemed to have used and consumed the goods at the place where he has his permanent address or usually resides.

CHAPTER 2

Place of an intra-Community acquisition of goods

Article 40

The place of an intra-Community acquisition of goods shall be deemed to be the place where dispatch or transport of the goods to the person acquiring them ends.

Article 41

Without prejudice to Article 40, the place of an intra-Community acquisition of goods as referred to in Article 2(1)(b)(i) shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the VAT identification number under which the person acquiring the goods made the acquisition, unless the person acquiring the goods establishes that VAT has been applied to that acquisition in accordance with Article 40.

If VAT is applied to the acquisition in accordance with the first paragraph and subsequently applied, pursuant to Article 40, to the acquisition in the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods ends, the taxable amount shall be reduced accordingly in the Member State which issued the VAT identification number under which the person acquiring the goods made the acquisition.

Article 42

The first paragraph of Article 41 shall not apply and VAT shall be deemed to have been applied to the intra-Community acquisition of goods in accordance with Article 40 where the following conditions are met:

(a)

the person acquiring the goods establishes that he has made the intra-Community acquisition for the purposes of a subsequent supply, within the territory of the Member State identified in accordance with Article 40, for which the person to whom the supply is made has been designated in accordance with Article 197 as liable for payment of VAT;

(b)

the person acquiring the goods has satisfied the obligations laid down in Article 265 relating to submission of the recapitulative statement.

CHAPTER 3

Place of supply of services

Section 1

General rule

Article 43

The place of supply of services shall be deemed to be the place where the supplier has established his business or has a fixed establishment from which the service is supplied, or, in the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, the place where he has his permanent address or usually resides.

Section 2

Particular provisions

Subsection 1

Supply of services by intermediaries

Article 44

The place of supply of services by an intermediary acting in the name and on behalf of another person, other than those referred to in Articles 50 and 54 and in Article 56(1), shall be the place where the underlying transaction is supplied in accordance with this Directive.

However, where the customer of the services supplied by the intermediary is identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that within the territory of which that transaction is carried out, the place of the supply of services by the intermediary shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

Subsection 2

Supply of services connected with immovable property

Article 45

The place of supply of services connected with immovable property, including the services of estate agents and experts, and services for the preparation and coordination of construction work, such as the services of architects and of firms providing on-site supervision, shall be the place where the property is located.

Subsection 3

Supply of transport

Article 46

The place of supply of transport other than the intra-Community transport of goods shall be the place where the transport takes place, proportionately in terms of distances covered.

Article 47

The place of supply of intra-Community transport of goods shall be the place of departure of the transport.

However, where intra-Community transport of goods is supplied to customers identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that of the departure of the transport, the place of supply shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

Article 48

‘Intra-Community transport of goods’ shall mean any transport of goods in respect of which the place of departure and the place of arrival are situated within the territories of two different Member States.

‘Place of departure’ shall mean the place where transport of the goods actually begins, irrespective of distances covered in order to reach the place where the goods are located.

‘Place of arrival’ shall mean the place where transport of the goods actually ends.

Article 49

The transport of goods in respect of which the place of departure and the place of arrival are situated within the territory of the same Member State shall be treated as intra-Community transport of goods where such transport is directly linked to transport of goods in respect of which the place of departure and the place of arrival are situated within the territory of two different Member States.

Article 50

The place of the supply of services by an intermediary, acting in the name and on behalf of another person, where the intermediary takes part in the intra-Community transport of goods, shall be the place of departure of the transport.

However, where the customer of the services supplied by the intermediary is identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that of the departure of the transport, the place of the supply of services by the intermediary shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

Article 51

Member States need not apply VAT to that part of the intra-Community transport of goods taking place over waters which do not form part of the territory of the Community.

Subsection 4

Supply of cultural and similar services, ancillary transport services or services relating to movable tangible property

Article 52

The place of supply of the following services shall be the place where the services are physically carried out:

(a)

cultural, artistic, sporting, scientific, educational, entertainment or similar activities, including the activities of the organisers of such activities and, where appropriate, ancillary services;

(b)

ancillary transport activities, such as loading, unloading, handling and similar activities;

(c)

valuations of movable tangible property or work on such property.

Article 53

By way of derogation from Article 52(b), the place of supply of services involving activities ancillary to the intra-Community transport of goods, supplied to customers identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that in the territory of which the activities are physically carried out, shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

Article 54

The place of the supply of services by an intermediary, acting in the name and on behalf of another person, where the intermediary takes part in the supply of services consisting in activities ancillary to the intra-Community transport of goods, shall be the place where the ancillary activities are physically carried out.

However, where the customer of the services supplied by the intermediary is identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that within the territory of which the ancillary activities are physically carried out, the place of supply of services by the intermediary shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

Article 55

By way of derogation from Article 52(c), the place of supply of services involving the valuation of movable tangible property or work on such property, supplied to customers identified for VAT purposes in a Member State other than that in the territory of which the services are physically carried out, shall be deemed to be within the territory of the Member State which issued the customer with the VAT identification number under which the service was rendered to him.

The derogation referred to in the first paragraph shall apply only where the goods are dispatched or transported out of the Member State in which the services were physically carried out.

Subsection 5

Supply of miscellaneous services

Article 56

1.   The place of supply of the following services to customers established outside the Community, or to taxable persons established in the Community but not in the same country as the supplier, shall be the place where the customer has established his business or has a fixed establishment for which the service is supplied, or, in the absence of such a place, the place where he has his permanent address or usually resides:

(a)

transfers and assignments of copyrights, patents, licences, trade marks and similar rights;

(b)

advertising services;

(c)

the services of consultants, engineers, consultancy bureaux, lawyers, accountants and other similar services, as well as data processing and the provision of information;

(d)

obligations to refrain from pursuing or exercising, in whole or in part, a business activity or a right referred to in this paragraph;

(e)

banking, financial and insurance transactions, including reinsurance, with the exception of the hire of safes;

(f)

the supply of staff;

(g)

the hiring out of movable tangible property, with the exception of all means of transport;

(h)

the provision of access to, and of transport or transmission through, natural gas and electricity distribution systems and the provision of other services directly linked thereto;

(i)

telecommunications services;

(j)

radio and television broadcasting services;

(k)

electronically supplied services, such as those referred to in Annex II;

(l)

the supply of services by intermediaries, acting in the name and on behalf of other persons, where those intermediaries take part in the supply of the services referred to in this paragraph.

2.   Where the supplier of a service and the customer communicate via electronic mail, that shall not of itself mean that the service supplied is an electronically supplied service for the purposes of point (k) of paragraph 1.

3.   Points (j) and (k) of paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 shall apply until 31 December 2006.

Article 57

1.   Where the services referred to in point (k) of Article 56(1) are supplied to non-taxable persons who are established in a Member State, or who have their permanent address or usually reside in a Member State, by a taxable person who has established his business outside the Community or has a fixed establishment there from which the service is supplied, or who, in the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, has his permanent address or usually resides outside the Community, the place of supply shall be the place where the non-taxable person is established, or where he has his permanent address or usually resides.

2.   Paragraph 1 shall apply until 31 December 2006.

Subsection 6

Criterion of effective use and enjoyment

Article 58

In order to avoid double taxation, non-taxation or distortion of competition, Member States may, with regard to the supply of the services referred to in Article 56(1) and with regard to the hiring out of means of transport:

(a)

consider the place of supply of any or all of those services, if situated within their territory, as being situated outside the Community, if the effective use and enjoyment of the services takes place outside the Community;

(b)

consider the place of supply of any or all of those services, if situated outside the Community, as being situated within their territory, if the effective use and enjoyment of the services takes place within their territory.

However, this provision shall not apply to the services referred to in point (k) of Article 56(1), where those services are rendered to non-taxable persons.

Article 59

1.   Member States shall apply Article 58(b) to telecommunications services supplied to non-taxable persons who are established in a Member State, or who have their permanent address or usually reside in a Member State, by a taxable person who has established his business outside the Community or has a fixed establishment there from which the services are supplied, or who, in the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, has his permanent address or usually resides outside the Community.

2.   Until 31 December 2006, Member States shall apply Article 58(b) to radio and television broadcasting services, as referred to in point (j) of Article 56(1), supplied to non-taxable persons who are established in a Member State, or who have their permanent address or usually reside in a Member State, by a taxable person who has established his business outside the Community or who has a fixed establishment there from which the services are supplied, or who, in the absence of such a place of business or fixed establishment, has his permanent address or usually resides outside the Community.

CHAPTER 4

Place of importation of goods

Article 60

The place of importation of goods shall be the Member State within whose territory the goods are located when they enter the Community.

Article 61

By way of derogation from Article 60, where, on entry into the Community, goods which are not in free circulation are placed under one of the arrangements or situations referred to in Article 156, or under temporary importation arrangements with total exemption from import duty, or under external transit arrangements, the place of importation of such goods shall be the Member State within whose territory the goods cease to be covered by those arrangements or situations.

Similarly, where, on entry into the Community, goods which are in free circulation are placed under one of the arrangements or situations referred to in Articles 276 and 277, the place of importation shall be the Member State within whose territory the goods cease to be covered by those arrangements or situations.

TITLE VI

CHARGEABLE EVENT AND CHARGEABILITY OF VAT

CHAPTER 1

General provisions

Article 62

For the purposes of this Directive:

(1)

‘chargeable event’ shall mean the occurrence by virtue of which the legal conditions necessary for VAT to become chargeable are fulfilled;

(2)

VAT shall become ‘chargeable’ when the tax authority becomes entitled under the law, at a given moment, to claim the tax from the person liable to pay, even though the time of payment may be deferred.

CHAPTER 2

Supply of goods or services

Article 63

The chargeable event shall occur and VAT shall become chargeable when the goods or the services are supplied.

Article 64

1.   Where it gives rise to successive statements of account or successive payments, the supply of goods, other than that consisting in the hire of goods for a certain period or the sale of goods on deferred terms, as referred to in point (b) of Article 14(2), or the supply of services shall be regarded as being completed on expiry of the periods to which such statements of account or payments relate.

2.   Member States may provide that, in certain cases, the continuous supply of goods or services over a period of time is to be regarded as being completed at least at intervals of one year.

Article 65

Where a payment is to be made on account before the goods or services are supplied, VAT shall become chargeable on receipt of the payment and on the amount received.

Article 66

By way of derogation from Articles 63, 64 and 65, Member States may provide that VAT is to become chargeable, in respect of certain transactions or certain categories of taxable person at one of the following times:

(a)

no later than the time the invoice is issued;

(b)

no later than the time the payment is received;

(c)

where an invoice is not issued, or is issued late, within a specified period from the date of the chargeable event.

Article 67

1.   Where, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Article 138, goods dispatched or transported to a Member State other than that in which dispatch or transport of the goods begins are supplied VAT-exempt or where goods are transferred VAT-exempt to another Member State by a taxable person for the purposes of his business, VAT shall become chargeable on the 15th day of the month following that in which the chargeable event occurs.

2.   By way of derogation from paragraph 1, VAT shall become chargeable on issue of the invoice provided for in Article 220, if that invoice is issued before the 15th day of the month following that in which the chargeable event occurs.

CHAPTER 3

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Article 68

The chargeable event shall occur when the intra-Community acquisition of goods is made.

The intra-Community acquisition of goods shall be regarded as being made when the supply of similar goods is regarded as being effected within the territory of the relevant Member State.

Article 69

1.   In the case of the intra-Community acquisition of goods, VAT shall become chargeable on the 15th day of the month following that in which the chargeable event occurs.

2.   By way of derogation from paragraph 1, VAT shall become chargeable on issue of the invoice provided for in Article 220, if that invoice is issued before the 15th day of the month following that in which the chargeable event occurs.

CHAPTER 4

Importation of goods

Article 70

The chargeable event shall occur and VAT shall become chargeable when the goods are imported.

Article 71

1.   Where, on entry into the Community, goods are placed under one of the arrangements or situations referred to in Articles 156, 276 and 277, or under temporary importation arrangements with total exemption from import duty, or under external transit arrangements, the chargeable event shall occur and VAT shall become chargeable only when the goods cease to be covered by those arrangements or situations.

However, where imported goods are subject to customs duties, to agricultural levies or to charges having equivalent effect established under a common policy, the chargeable event shall occur and VAT shall become chargeable when the chargeable event in respect of those duties occurs and those duties become chargeable.

2.   Where imported goods are not subject to any of the duties referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1, Member States shall, as regards the chargeable event and the moment when VAT becomes chargeable, apply the provisions in force governing customs duties.

TITLE VII

TAXABLE AMOUNT

CHAPTER 4

IMPORTATION OF GOODS

Article 72

For the purposes of this Directive, ‘open market value’ shall mean the full amount that, in order to obtain the goods or services in question at that time, a customer at the same marketing stage at which the supply of goods or services takes place, would have to pay, under conditions of fair competition, to a supplier at arm's length within the territory of the Member State in which the supply is subject to tax.

Where no comparable supply of goods or services can be ascertained, ‘open market value’ shall mean the following:

(1)

in respect of goods, an amount that is not less than the purchase price of the goods or of similar goods or, in the absence of a purchase price, the cost price, determined at the time of supply;

(2)

in respect of services, an amount that is not less than the full cost to the taxable person of providing the service.

CHAPTER 2

Supply of goods or services

Article 73

In respect of the supply of goods or services, other than as referred to in Articles 74 to 77, the taxable amount shall include everything which constitutes consideration obtained or to be obtained by the supplier, in return for the supply, from the customer or a third party, including subsidies directly linked to the price of the supply.

Article 74

Where a taxable person applies or disposes of goods forming part of his business assets, or where goods are retained by a taxable person, or by his successors, when his taxable economic activity ceases, as referred to in Articles 16 and 18, the taxable amount shall be the purchase price of the goods or of similar goods or, in the absence of a purchase price, the cost price, determined at the time when the application, disposal or retention takes place.

Article 75

In respect of the supply of services, as referred to in Article 26, where goods forming part of the assets of a business are used for private purposes or services are carried out free of charge, the taxable amount shall be the full cost to the taxable person of providing the services.

Article 76

In respect of the supply of goods consisting in transfer to another Member State, the taxable amount shall be the purchase price of the goods or of similar goods or, in the absence of a purchase price, the cost price, determined at the time the transfer takes place.

Article 77

In respect of the supply by a taxable person of a service for the purposes of his business, as referred to in Article 27, the taxable amount shall be the open market value of the service supplied.

Article 78

The taxable amount shall include the following factors:

(a)

taxes, duties, levies and charges, excluding the VAT itself;

(b)

incidental expenses, such as commission, packing, transport and insurance costs, charged by the supplier to the customer.

For the purposes of point (b) of the first paragraph, Member States may regard expenses covered by a separate agreement as incidental expenses.

Article 79

The taxable amount shall not include the following factors:

(a)

price reductions by way of discount for early payment;

(b)

price discounts and rebates granted to the customer and obtained by him at the time of the supply;

(c)

amounts received by a taxable person from the customer, as repayment of expenditure incurred in the name and on behalf of the customer, and entered in his books in a suspense account.

The taxable person must furnish proof of the actual amount of the expenditure referred to in point (c) of the first paragraph and may not deduct any VAT which may have been charged.

Article 80

1.   In order to prevent tax evasion or avoidance, Member States may in any of the following cases take measures to ensure that, in respect of the supply of goods or services involving family or other close personal ties, management, ownership, membership, financial or legal ties as defined by the Member State, the taxable amount is to be the open market value:

(a)

where the consideration is lower than the open market value and the recipient of the supply does not have a full right of deduction under Articles 167 to 171 and Articles 173 to 177;

(b)

where the consideration is lower than the open market value and the supplier does not have a full right of deduction under Articles 167 to 171 and Articles 173 to 177 and the supply is subject to an exemption under Articles 132, 135, 136, 371, 375, 376, 377, 378(2), 379(2) or Articles 380 to 390;

(c)

where the consideration is higher than the open market value and the supplier does not have a full right of deduction under Articles 167 to 171 and Articles 173 to 177.

For the purposes of the first subparagraph, legal ties may include the relationship between an employer and employee or the employee's family, or any other closely connected persons.

2.   Where Member States exercise the option provided for in paragraph 1, they may restrict the categories of suppliers or recipients to whom the measures shall apply.

3.   Member States shall inform the VAT Committee of national legislative measures adopted pursuant to paragraph 1 in so far as these are not measures authorised by the Council prior to 13 August 2006 in accordance with Article 27 (1) to (4) of Directive 77/388/EEC, and which are continued under paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 81

Member States which, at 1 January 1993, were not availing themselves of the option under Article 98 of applying a reduced rate may, if they avail themselves of the option under Article 89, provide that in respect of the supply of works of art, as referred to in Article 103(2), the taxable amount is to be equal to a fraction of the amount determined in accordance with Articles 73, 74, 76, 78 and 79.

The fraction referred to in the first paragraph shall be determined in such a way that the VAT thus due is equal to at least 5 % of the amount determined in accordance with Articles 73, 74, 76, 78 and 79.

Article 82

Member States may provide that, in respect of the supply of goods and services, the taxable amount is to include the value of exempt investment gold within the meaning of Article 346, which has been provided by the customer to be used as basis for working and which as a result, loses its VAT exempt investment gold status when such goods and services are supplied. The value to be used is the open market value of the investment gold at the time that those goods and services are supplied.

CHAPTER 3

Intra-Community acquisition of goods

Article 83

In respect of the intra-Community acquisition of goods, the taxable amount shall be established on the basis of the same factors as are used in accordance with Chapter 1 to determine the taxable amount for the supply of the same goods within the territory of the Member State concerned. In the case of the transactions, to be treated as intra-Community acquisitions of goods, referred to in Articles 21 and 22, the taxable amount shall be the purchase price of the goods or of similar goods or, in the absence of a purchase price, the cost price, determined at the time of the supply.

Article 84

1.   Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the excise duty due from or paid by the person making the intra-Community acquisition of a product subject to excise duty is included in the taxable amount in accordance with point (a) of the first paragraph of Article 78.

2.   Where, after the intra-Community acquisition of goods has been made, the person acquiring the goods obtains a refund of the excise duty paid in the Member State in which dispatch or transport of the goods began, the taxable amount shall be reduced accordingly in the Member State in the territory of which the acquisition was made.

CHAPTER 4

Importation of goods

Article 85

In respect of the importation of goods, the taxable amount shall be the value for customs purposes, determined in accordance with the Community provisions in force.

Article 86

1.   The taxable amount shall include the following factors, in so far as they are not already included:

(a)

taxes, duties, levies and other charges due outside the Member State of importation, and those due by reason of importation, excluding the VAT to be levied;

(b)

incidental expenses, such as commission, packing, transport and insurance costs, incurred up to the first place of destination within the territory of the Member State of importation as well as those resulting from transport to another place of destination within the Community, if that other place is known when the chargeable event occurs.

2.   For the purposes of point (b) of paragraph 1, ‘first place of destination’ shall mean the place mentioned on the consignment note or on any other document under which the goods are imported into the Member State of importation. If no such mention is made, the first place of destination shall be deemed to be the place of the first transfer of cargo in the Member State of importation.

Article 87

The taxable amount shall not include the following factors:

(a)

price reductions by way of discount for early payment;

(b)

price discounts and rebates granted to the customer and obtained by him at the time of importation.

Article 88

Where goods temporarily exported from the Community are re-imported after having undergone, outside the Community, repair, processing, adaptation, making up or re-working, Member States shall take steps to ensure that the tax treatment of the goods for VAT purposes is the same as that which would have been applied had the repair, processing, adaptation, making up or re-working been carried out within their territory.

Article 89

Member States which, at 1 January 1993, were not availing themselves of the option under Article 98 of applying a reduced rate may provide that in respect of the importation of works of art, collectors' items and antiques, as defined in points (2), (3) and (4) of Article 311(1), the taxable amount is to be equal to a fraction of the amount determined in accordance with Articles 85, 86 and 87.

The fraction referred to in the first paragraph shall be determined in such a way that the VAT thus due on the importation is equal to at least 5 % of the amount determined in accordance with Articles 85, 86 and 87.

CHAPTER 5

Miscellaneous provisions

Article 90

1.   In the case of cancellation, refusal or total or partial non-payment, or where the price is reduced after the supply takes place, the taxable amount shall be reduced accordingly under conditions which shall be determined by the Member States.

2.   In the case of total or partial non-payment, Member States may derogate from paragraph 1.

Article 91

1.   Where the factors used to determine the taxable amount on importation are expressed in a currency other than that of the Member State in which assessment takes place, the exchange rate shall be determined in accordance with the Community provisions governing the calculation of the value for customs purposes.

2.   Where the factors used to determine the taxable amount of a transaction other than the importation of goods are expressed in a currency other than that of the Member State in which assessment takes place, the exchange rate applicable shall be the latest selling rate recorded, at the time VAT becomes chargeable, on the most representative exchange market or markets of the Member State concerned, or a rate determined by reference to that or those markets, in accordance with the rules laid down by that Member State.

However, for some of the transactions referred to in the first subparagraph or for certain categories of taxable persons, Member States may use the exchange rate determined in accordance with the Community provisions in force governing the calculation of the value for customs purposes.

Article 92

As regards the costs of returnable packing material, Member States may take one of the following measures:

(a)

exclude them from the taxable amount and take the measures necessary to ensure that this amount is adjusted if the packing material is not returned;

(b)

include them in the taxable amount and take the measures necessary to ensure that this amount is adjusted if the packing material is in fact returned.

TITLE VIII

RATES

CHAPTER 1

Application of rates

Article 93

The rate applicable to taxable transactions shall be that in force at the time of the chargeable event.

However, in the following situations, the rate applicable shall be that in force when VAT becomes chargeable:

(a)

in the cases referred to in Articles 65 and 66;

(b)

in the case of an intra-Community acquisition of goods;

(c)

in the cases, concerning the importation of goods, referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 71(1) and in Article 71(2).

Article 94

1.   The rate applicable to the intra-Community acquisition of goods shall be that applied to the supply of like goods within the territory of the Member State.

2.   Subject to the option under Article 103(1) of applying a reduced rate to the importation of works of art, collectors' items or antiques, the rate applicable to the importation of goods shall be that applied to the supply of like goods within the territory of the Member State.

Article 95

Where rates are changed, Member States may, in the cases referred to in Articles 65 and 66, effect adjustments in order to take account of the rate applying at the time when the goods or services were supplied.

Member States may also adopt all appropriate transitional measures.

CHAPTER 2

Structure and level of rates

Section 1

Standard rate

Article 96

Member States shall apply a standard rate of VAT, which shall be fixed by each Member State as a percentage of the taxable amount and which shall be the same for the supply of goods and for the supply of services.

Article 97

1.   From 1 January 2006 until 31 December 2010, the standard rate may not be less than 15 %.

2.   The Council shall decide, in accordance with Article 93 of the Treaty, on the level of the standard rate to be applied after 31 December 2010.

Section 2

Reduced rates

Article 98

1.   Member States may apply either one or two reduced rates.

2.   The reduced rates shall apply only to supplies of goods or services in the categories set out in Annex III.

The reduced rates shall not apply to the services referred to in point (k) of Article 56(1).

3.   When applying the reduced rates provided for in paragraph 1 to categories of goods, Member States may use the Combined Nomenclature to establish the precise coverage of the category concerned.

Article 99

1.   The reduced rates shall be fixed as a percentage of the taxable amount, which may not be less than 5 %.

2.   Each reduced rate shall be so fixed that the amount of VAT resulting from its application is such that the VAT deductible under Articles 167 to 171 and Articles 173 to 177 can normally be deducted in full.

Article 100

On the basis of a report from the Commission, the Council shall, starting in 1994, review the scope of the reduced rates every two years.

The Council may, in accordance with Article 93 of the Treaty, decide to alter the list of goods and services set out in Annex III.

Article 101

By 30 June 2007 at the latest the Commission shall present to the European Parliament and the Council an overall assessment report on the impact of reduced rates applying to locally supplied services, including restaurant services, notably in terms of job creation, economic growth and the proper functioning of the internal market, based on a study carried out by an independent economic think-tank.

Section 3

Particular provisions

Article 102

Member States may apply a reduced rate to the supply of natural gas, of electricity or of district heating, provided that no risk of distortion of competition thereby arises.

Any Member State intending to apply a reduced rate under the first paragraph must, before doing so, inform the Commission accordingly. The Commission shall decide whether or not there is a risk of distortion of competition. If the Commission has not taken that decision within three months of receipt of the information, no risk of distortion of competition shall be deemed to exist.

Article 103

1.   Member States may provide that the reduced rate, or one of the reduced rates, which they apply in accordance with Articles 98 and 99 is also to apply to the importation of works of art, collectors' items and antiques, as defined in points (2), (3) and (4) of Article 311(1).

2.   If Member States avail themselves of the option under paragraph 1, they may also apply the reduced rate to the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of works of art, by their creator or his successors in title;

(b)

the supply of works of art, on an occasional basis, by a taxable person other than a taxable dealer, where the works of art have been imported by the taxable person himself, or where they have been supplied to him by their creator or his successors in title, or where they have entitled him to full deduction of VAT.

Article 104

Austria may, in the communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg (Kleines Walsertal), apply a second standard rate which is lower than the corresponding rate applied in the rest of Austria but not less than 15 %.

Article 105

Portugal may, in the case of transactions carried out in the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira and of direct importation into those regions, apply rates lower than those applying on the mainland.

CHAPTER 3

Temporary provisions for particular labour-intensive services

Article 106

The Council may, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission, allow Member States to apply until 31 December 2010 at the latest the reduced rates provided for in Article 98 to services listed in Annex IV.

The reduced rates may be applied to services from no more than two of the categories set out in Annex IV.

In exceptional cases a Member State may be allowed to apply the reduced rates to services from three of those categories.

Article 107

The services referred to in Article 106 must meet the following conditions:

(a)

they must be labour-intensive;

(b)

they must largely be provided direct to final consumers;

(c)

they must be mainly local and not likely to cause distortion of competition.

There must also be a close link between the decrease in prices resulting from the rate reduction and the foreseeable increase in demand and employment. Application of a reduced rate must not prejudice the smooth functioning of the internal market.

Article 108

Any Member State wishing to apply for the first time after 31 December 2005 a reduced rate to one or more of the services referred to in Article 106 pursuant to this Article shall inform the Commission accordingly no later than 31 March 2006. It shall communicate to it before that date all relevant information concerning the new measures it wishes to introduce, in particular the following:

(a)

scope of the measure and detailed description of the services concerned;

(b)

particulars showing that the conditions laid down in Article 107 have been met;

(c)

particulars showing the budgetary cost of the measure envisaged.

CHAPTER 4

Special provisions applying until the adoption of definitive arrangements

Article 109

Pending introduction of the definitive arrangements referred to in Article 402, the provisions laid down in this Chapter shall apply.

Article 110

Member States which, at 1 January 1991, were granting exemptions with deductibility of the VAT paid at the preceding stage or applying reduced rates lower than the minimum laid down in Article 99 may continue to grant those exemptions or apply those reduced rates.

The exemptions and reduced rates referred to in the first paragraph must be in accordance with Community law and must have been adopted for clearly defined social reasons and for the benefit of the final consumer.

Article 111

Subject to the conditions laid down in the second paragraph of Article 110, exemptions with deductibility of the VAT paid at the preceding stage may continue to be granted in the following cases:

(a)

by Finland in respect of the supply of newspapers and periodicals sold by subscription and the printing of publications distributed to the members of corporations for the public good;

(b)

by Sweden in respect of the supply of newspapers, including radio and cassette newspapers for the visually impaired, pharmaceutical products supplied to hospitals or on prescription, and the production of, or other related services concerning, periodicals of non-profit-making organisations.

Article 112

If the provisions of Article 110 cause for Ireland distortion of competition in the supply of energy products for heating and lighting, Ireland may, on specific request, be authorised by the Commission to apply a reduced rate to such supplies, in accordance with Articles 98 and 99.

In the case referred to in the first paragraph, Ireland shall submit a request to the Commission, together with all necessary information. If the Commission has not taken a decision within three months of receiving the request, Ireland shall be deemed to be authorised to apply the reduced rates proposed.

Article 113

Member States which, at 1 January 1991, in accordance with Community law, were granting exemptions with deductibility of the VAT paid at the preceding stage or applying reduced rates lower than the minimum laid down in Article 99, in respect of goods and services other than those specified in Annex III, may apply the reduced rate, or one of the two reduced rates, provided for in Article 98 to the supply of such goods or services.

Article 114

1.   Member States which, on 1 January 1993, were obliged to increase their standard rate in force at 1 January 1991 by more than 2 % may apply a reduced rate lower than the minimum laid down in Article 99 to the supply of goods and services in the categories set out in Annex III.

The Member States referred to in the first subparagraph may also apply such a rate to restaurant services, children's clothing, children's footwear and housing.

2.   Member States may not rely on paragraph 1 to introduce exemptions with deductibility of the VAT paid at the preceding stage.

Article 115

Member States which, at 1 January 1991, were applying a reduced rate to restaurant services, children's clothing, children's footwear or housing may continue to apply such a rate to the supply of those goods or services.

Article 116

Portugal may apply one of the two reduced rates provided for in Article 98 to restaurant services, provided that the rate is not lower than 12 %.

Article 117

1.   For the purposes of applying Article 115, Austria may continue to apply a reduced rate to restaurant services.

2.   Austria may apply one of the two reduced rates provided for in Article 98 to the letting of immovable property for residential use, provided that the rate is not lower than 10 %.

Article 118

Member States which, at 1 January 1991, were applying a reduced rate to the supply of goods or services other than those specified in Annex III may apply the reduced rate, or one of the two reduced rates, provided for in Article 98 to the supply of those goods or services, provided that the rate is not lower than 12 %.

The first paragraph shall not apply to the supply of second-hand goods, works of art, collectors' items or antiques, as defined in points (1) to (4) of Article 311(1), subject to VAT in accordance with the margin scheme provided for in Articles 312 to 325 or the arrangements for sales by public auction.

Article 119

For the purposes of applying Article 118, Austria may apply a reduced rate to wines produced on an agricultural holding by the producer-farmer, provided that the rate is not lower than 12 %.

Article 120

Greece may apply rates up to 30 % lower than the corresponding rates applied in mainland Greece in the departments of Lesbos, Chios, Samos, the Dodecanese and the Cyclades, and on the islands of Thassos, the Northern Sporades, Samothrace and Skiros.

Article 121

Member States which, at 1 January 1993, regarded work under contract as the supply of goods may apply to the delivery of work under contract the rate applicable to the goods obtained after execution of the work under contract.

For the purposes of applying the first paragraph, ‘delivery of work under contract’ shall mean the handing over by a contractor to his customer of movable property made or assembled by the contractor from materials or objects entrusted to him by the customer for that purpose, whether or not the contractor has provided any part of the materials used.

Article 122

Member States may apply a reduced rate to the supply of live plants and other floricultural products, including bulbs, roots and the like, cut flowers and ornamental foliage, and of wood for use as firewood.

CHAPTER 5

Temporary provisions

Article 123

The Czech Republic may, until 31 December 2007, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 5 % to the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of heat energy used by households and small entrepreneurs who are not subject to VAT for heating and the production of hot water, excluding raw materials used to generate heat energy;

(b)

the supply of construction work for residential housing not provided as part of a social policy, excluding building materials.

Article 124

Estonia may, until 30 June 2007, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 5 % to the supply of heating sold to natural persons, housing associations, apartment associations, churches, congregations, and institutions or bodies financed from the State, rural municipality or city budget, as well as to the supply of peat, fuel briquettes, coal and firewood to natural persons.

Article 125

1.   Cyprus may, until 31 December 2007, continue to grant an exemption with deductibility of VAT paid at the preceding stage in respect of the supply of pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs for human consumption, with the exception of ice cream, ice lollies, frozen yoghurt, water ice and similar products and savoury food products (potato crisps/sticks, puffs and similar products packaged for human consumption without further preparation).

2.   Cyprus may continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 5 % to the supply of restaurant services, until 31 December 2007 or until the introduction of definitive arrangements, as referred to in Article 402, whichever is the earlier.

Article 126

Hungary may continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 12 % to the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of coal, coal-brick and coke, firewood and charcoal, and the supply of district heating services, until 31 December 2007;

(b)

the supply of restaurant services and of foodstuffs sold on similar premises, until 31 December 2007 or until the introduction of definitive arrangements, as referred to in Article 402, whichever is the earlier.

Article 127

Malta may, until 1 January 2010, continue to grant an exemption with deductibility of VAT paid at the preceding stage in respect of the supply of foodstuffs for human consumption and pharmaceuticals.

Article 128

1.   Poland may, until 31 December 2007 grant an exemption with deductibility of VAT paid at the preceding stage in respect of the supply of certain books and specialist periodicals.

2.   Poland may, until 31 December 2007 or until the introduction of definitive arrangements, as referred to in Article 402, whichever is the earlier, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 7 % to the supply of restaurant services.

3.   Poland may, until 30 April 2008, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 3 % to the supply of foodstuffs as referred to in point (1) of Annex III.

4.   Poland may, until 30 April 2008, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 3 % to the supply of goods and services of a kind normally intended for use in agricultural production, but excluding capital goods such as machinery or buildings, as referred to in point (11) of Annex III.

5.   Poland may, until 31 December 2007, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 7 % to the supply of services, not provided as part of a social policy, for construction, renovation and alteration of housing, excluding building materials, and to the supply before first occupation of residential buildings or parts of residential buildings, as referred to in point (a) of Article 12(1).

Article 129

1.   Slovenia may, until 31 December 2007 or until the introduction of definitive arrangements as referred to in Article 402, whichever is the earlier, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 8,5 % to the preparation of meals.

2.   Slovenia may, until 31 December 2007, continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 5 % to the supply of construction, renovation and maintenance work for residential housing not provided as part of a social policy, excluding building materials.

Article 130

Slovakia may continue to apply a reduced rate of not less than 5 % to the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of construction work for residential housing not provided as part of a social policy, excluding building materials, until 31 December 2007;

(b)

the supply of heat energy used by private households and small entrepreneurs who are not subject to VAT for heating and the production of hot water, excluding raw materials used to generate heat energy, until 31 December 2008.

TITLE IX

EXEMPTIONS

CHAPTER 1

General provisions

Article 131

The exemptions provided for in Chapters 2 to 9 shall apply without prejudice to other Community provisions and in accordance with conditions which the Member States shall lay down for the purposes of ensuring the correct and straightforward application of those exemptions and of preventing any possible evasion, avoidance or abuse.

CHAPTER 2

Exemptions for certain activities in the public interest

Article 132

1.   Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the supply by the public postal services of services other than passenger transport and telecommunications services, and the supply of goods incidental thereto;

(b)

hospital and medical care and closely related activities undertaken by bodies governed by public law or, under social conditions comparable with those applicable to bodies governed by public law, by hospitals, centres for medical treatment or diagnosis and other duly recognised establishments of a similar nature;

(c)

the provision of medical care in the exercise of the medical and paramedical professions as defined by the Member State concerned;

(d)

the supply of human organs, blood and milk;

(e)

the supply of services by dental technicians in their professional capacity and the supply of dental prostheses by dentists and dental technicians;

(f)

the supply of services by independent groups of persons, who are carrying on an activity which is exempt from VAT or in relation to which they are not taxable persons, for the purpose of rendering their members the services directly necessary for the exercise of that activity, where those groups merely claim from their members exact reimbursement of their share of the joint expenses, provided that such exemption is not likely to cause distortion of competition;

(g)

the supply of services and of goods closely linked to welfare and social security work, including those supplied by old people's homes, by bodies governed by public law or by other bodies recognised by the Member State concerned as being devoted to social wellbeing;

(h)

the supply of services and of goods closely linked to the protection of children and young persons by bodies governed by public law or by other organisations recognised by the Member State concerned as being devoted to social wellbeing;

(i)

the provision of children's or young people's education, school or university education, vocational training or retraining, including the supply of services and of goods closely related thereto, by bodies governed by public law having such as their aim or by other organisations recognised by the Member State concerned as having similar objects;

(j)

tuition given privately by teachers and covering school or university education;

(k)

the supply of staff by religious or philosophical institutions for the purpose of the activities referred to in points (b), (g), (h) and (i) and with a view to spiritual welfare;

(l)

the supply of services, and the supply of goods closely linked thereto, to their members in their common interest in return for a subscription fixed in accordance with their rules by non-profit-making organisations with aims of a political, trade-union, religious, patriotic, philosophical, philanthropic or civic nature, provided that this exemption is not likely to cause distortion of competition;

(m)

the supply of certain services closely linked to sport or physical education by non-profit-making organisations to persons taking part in sport or physical education;

(n)

the supply of certain cultural services, and the supply of goods closely linked thereto, by bodies governed by public law or by other cultural bodies recognised by the Member State concerned;

(o)

the supply of services and goods, by organisations whose activities are exempt pursuant to points (b), (g), (h), (i), (l), (m) and (n), in connection with fund-raising events organised exclusively for their own benefit, provided that exemption is not likely to cause distortion of competition;

(p)

the supply of transport services for sick or injured persons in vehicles specially designed for the purpose, by duly authorised bodies;

(q)

the activities, other than those of a commercial nature, carried out by public radio and television bodies.

2.   For the purposes of point (o) of paragraph 1, Member States may introduce any restrictions necessary, in particular as regards the number of events or the amount of receipts which give entitlement to exemption.

Article 133

Member States may make the granting to bodies other than those governed by public law of each exemption provided for in points (b), (g), (h), (i), (l), (m) and (n) of Article 132(1) subject in each individual case to one or more of the following conditions:

(a)

the bodies in question must not systematically aim to make a profit, and any surpluses nevertheless arising must not be distributed, but must be assigned to the continuance or improvement of the services supplied;

(b)

those bodies must be managed and administered on an essentially voluntary basis by persons who have no direct or indirect interest, either themselves or through intermediaries, in the results of the activities concerned;

(c)

those bodies must charge prices which are approved by the public authorities or which do not exceed such approved prices or, in respect of those services not subject to approval, prices lower than those charged for similar services by commercial enterprises subject to VAT;

(d)

the exemptions must not be likely to cause distortion of competition to the disadvantage of commercial enterprises subject to VAT.

Member States which, pursuant to Annex E of Directive 77/388/EEC, on 1 January 1989 applied VAT to the transactions referred to in Article 132(1)(m) and (n) may also apply the conditions provided for in point (d) of the first paragraph when the said supply of goods or services by bodies governed by public law is granted exemption.

Article 134

The supply of goods or services shall not be granted exemption, as provided for in points (b), (g), (h), (i), (l), (m) and (n) of Article 132(1), in the following cases:

(a)

where the supply is not essential to the transactions exempted;

(b)

where the basic purpose of the supply is to obtain additional income for the body in question through transactions which are in direct competition with those of commercial enterprises subject to VAT.

CHAPTER 3

Exemptions for other activities

Article 135

1.   Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

insurance and reinsurance transactions, including related services performed by insurance brokers and insurance agents;

(b)

the granting and the negotiation of credit and the management of credit by the person granting it;

(c)

the negotiation of or any dealings in credit guarantees or any other security for money and the management of credit guarantees by the person who is granting the credit;

(d)

transactions, including negotiation, concerning deposit and current accounts, payments, transfers, debts, cheques and other negotiable instruments, but excluding debt collection;

(e)

transactions, including negotiation, concerning currency, bank notes and coins used as legal tender, with the exception of collectors' items, that is to say, gold, silver or other metal coins or bank notes which are not normally used as legal tender or coins of numismatic interest;

(f)

transactions, including negotiation but not management or safekeeping, in shares, interests in companies or associations, debentures and other securities, but excluding documents establishing title to goods, and the rights or securities referred to in Article 15(2);

(g)

the management of special investment funds as defined by Member States;

(h)

the supply at face value of postage stamps valid for use for postal services within their respective territory, fiscal stamps and other similar stamps;

(i)

betting, lotteries and other forms of gambling, subject to the conditions and limitations laid down by each Member State;

(j)

the supply of a building or parts thereof, and of the land on which it stands, other than the supply referred to in point (a) of Article 12(1);

(k)

the supply of land which has not been built on other than the supply of building land as referred to in point (b) of Article 12(1);

(l)

the leasing or letting of immovable property.

2.   The following shall be excluded from the exemption provided for in point (l) of paragraph 1:

(a)

the provision of accommodation, as defined in the laws of the Member States, in the hotel sector or in sectors with a similar function, including the provision of accommodation in holiday camps or on sites developed for use as camping sites;

(b)

the letting of premises and sites for the parking of vehicles;

(c)

the letting of permanently installed equipment and machinery;

(d)

the hire of safes.

Member States may apply further exclusions to the scope of the exemption referred to in point (l) of paragraph 1.

Article 136

Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of goods used solely for an activity exempted under Articles 132, 135, 371, 375, 376 and 377, Article 378(2), Article 379(2) and Articles 380 to 390, if those goods have not given rise to deductibility;

(b)

the supply of goods on the acquisition or application of which VAT was not deductible, pursuant to Article 176.

Article 137

1.   Member States may allow taxable persons a right of option for taxation in respect of the following transactions:

(a)

the financial transactions referred to in points (b) to (g) of Article 135(1);

(b)

the supply of a building or of parts thereof, and of the land on which the building stands, other than the supply referred to in point (a) of Article 12(1);

(c)

the supply of land which has not been built on other than the supply of building land referred to in point (b) of Article 12(1);

(d)

the leasing or letting of immovable property.

2.   Member States shall lay down the detailed rules governing exercise of the option under paragraph 1.

Member States may restrict the scope of that right of option.

CHAPTER 4

Exemptions for intra-community transactions

Section 1

Exemptions related to the supply of goods

Article 138

1.   Member States shall exempt the supply of goods dispatched or transported to a destination outside their respective territory but within the Community, by or on behalf of the vendor or the person acquiring the goods, for another taxable person, or for a non-taxable legal person acting as such in a Member State other than that in which dispatch or transport of the goods began.

2.   In addition to the supply of goods referred to in paragraph 1, Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of new means of transport, dispatched or transported to the customer at a destination outside their respective territory but within the Community, by or on behalf of the vendor or the customer, for taxable persons, or non-taxable legal persons, whose intra-Community acquisitions of goods are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1), or for any other non-taxable person;

(b)

the supply of products subject to excise duty, dispatched or transported to a destination outside their respective territory but within the Community, to the customer, by or on behalf of the vendor or the customer, for taxable persons, or non-taxable legal persons, whose intra-Community acquisitions of goods other than products subject to excise duty are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1), where those products have been dispatched or transported in accordance with Article 7(4) and (5) or Article 16 of Directive 92/12/EEC;

(c)

the supply of goods, consisting in a transfer to another Member State, which would have been entitled to exemption under paragraph 1 and points (a) and (b) if it had been made on behalf of another taxable person.

Article 139

1.   The exemption provided for in Article 138(1) shall not apply to the supply of goods carried out by taxable persons who are covered by the exemption for small enterprises provided for in Articles 282 to 292.

Nor shall that exemption apply to the supply of goods to taxable persons, or non-taxable legal persons, whose intra-Community acquisitions of goods are not subject to VAT pursuant to Article 3(1).

2.   The exemption provided for in Article 138(2)(b) shall not apply to the supply of products subject to excise duty by taxable persons who are covered by the exemption for small enterprises provided for in Articles 282 to 292.

3.   The exemption provided for in Article 138(1) and (2)(b) and (c) shall not apply to the supply of goods subject to VAT in accordance with the margin scheme provided for in Articles 312 to 325 or the special arrangements for sales by public auction.

The exemption provided for in Article 138(1) and (2)(c) shall not apply to the supply of second-hand means of transport, as defined in Article 327(3), subject to VAT in accordance with the transitional arrangements for second-hand means of transport.

Section 2

Exemptions for intra-Community acquisitions of goods

Article 140

Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods the supply of which by taxable persons would in all circumstances be exempt within their respective territory;

(b)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods the importation of which would in all circumstances be exempt under points (a), (b) and (c) and (e) to (l) of Article 143;

(c)

the intra-Community acquisition of goods where, pursuant to Articles 170 and 171, the person acquiring the goods would in all circumstances be entitled to full reimbursement of the VAT due under Article 2(1)(b).

Article 141

Each Member State shall take specific measures to ensure that VAT is not charged on the intra-Community acquisition of goods within its territory, made in accordance with Article 40, where the following conditions are met:

(a)

the acquisition of goods is made by a taxable person who is not established in the Member State concerned but is identified for VAT purposes in another Member State;

(b)

the acquisition of goods is made for the purposes of the subsequent supply of those goods, in the Member State concerned, by the taxable person referred to in point (a);

(c)

the goods thus acquired by the taxable person referred to in point (a) are directly dispatched or transported, from a Member State other than that in which he is identified for VAT purposes, to the person for whom he is to carry out the subsequent supply;

(d)

the person to whom the subsequent supply is to be made is another taxable person, or a non-taxable legal person, who is identified for VAT purposes in the Member State concerned;

(e)

the person referred to in point (d) has been designated in accordance with Article 197 as liable for payment of the VAT due on the supply carried out by the taxable person who is not established in the Member State in which the tax is due.

Section 3

Exemptions for certain transport services

Article 142

Member States shall exempt the supply of intra-Community transport of goods to and from the islands making up the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira, as well as the supply of transport of goods between those islands.

CHAPTER 5

Exemptions on importation

Article 143

Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the final importation of goods of which the supply by a taxable person would in all circumstances be exempt within their respective territory;

(b)

the final importation of goods governed by Council Directives 69/169/EEC (5), 83/181/EEC (6) and 2006/79/EC (7);

(c)

the final importation of goods, in free circulation from a third territory forming part of the Community customs territory, which would be entitled to exemption under point (b) if they had been imported within the meaning of the first paragraph of Article 30;

(d)

the importation of goods dispatched or transported from a third territory or a third country into a Member State other than that in which the dispatch or transport of the goods ends, where the supply of such goods by the importer designated or recognised under Article 201 as liable for payment of VAT is exempt under Article 138;

(e)

the reimportation, by the person who exported them, of goods in the state in which they were exported, where those goods are exempt from customs duties;

(f)

the importation, under diplomatic and consular arrangements, of goods which are exempt from customs duties;

(g)

the importation of goods by international bodies recognised as such by the public authorities of the host Member State, or by members of such bodies, within the limits and under the conditions laid down by the international conventions establishing the bodies or by headquarters agreements;

(h)

the importation of goods, into Member States party to the North Atlantic Treaty, by the armed forces of other States party to that Treaty for the use of those forces or the civilian staff accompanying them or for supplying their messes or canteens where such forces take part in the common defence effort;

(i)

the importation of goods by the armed forces of the United Kingdom stationed in the island of Cyprus pursuant to the Treaty of Establishment concerning the Republic of Cyprus, dated 16 August 1960, which are for the use of those forces or the civilian staff accompanying them or for supplying their messes or canteens;

(j)

the importation into ports, by sea fishing undertakings, of their catches, unprocessed or after undergoing preservation for marketing but before being supplied;

(k)

the importation of gold by central banks;

(l)

the importation of gas through the natural gas distribution system, or of electricity.

Article 144

Member States shall exempt the supply of services relating to the importation of goods where the value of such services is included in the taxable amount in accordance with Article 86(1)(b).

Article 145

1.   The Commission shall, where appropriate, as soon as possible, present to the Council proposals designed to delimit the scope of the exemptions provided for in Articles 143 and 144 and to lay down the detailed rules for their implementation.

2.   Pending the entry into force of the rules referred to in paragraph 1, Member States may maintain their national provisions in force.

Member States may adapt their national provisions so as to minimise distortion of competition and, in particular, to prevent non-taxation or double taxation within the Community.

Member States may use whatever administrative procedures they consider most appropriate to achieve exemption.

3.   Member States shall notify to the Commission, which shall inform the other Member States accordingly, the provisions of national law which are in force, in so far as these have not already been notified, and those which they adopt pursuant to paragraph 2.

CHAPTER 6

Exemptions on exportation

Article 146

1.   Member States shall exempt the following transactions:

(a)

the supply of goods dispatched or transported to a destination outside the Community by or on behalf of the vendor;

(b)

the supply of goods dispatched or transported to a destination outside the Community by or on behalf of a customer not established within their respective territory, with the exception of goods transported by the customer himself for the equipping, fuelling and provisioning of pleasure boats and private aircraft or any other means of transport for private use;

(c)

the supply of goods to approved bodies which export them out of the Community as part of their humanitarian, charitable or teaching activities outside the Community;