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Document 52002DC0322

Report from the Commission (Humanitarian Aid Office - ECHO) - Annual Report 2001

/* COM/2002/0322 final */


Report from the Commission (Humanitarian Aid Office - ECHO) - Annual Report 2001 /* COM/2002/0322 final */

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION (Humanitarian Aid Office - ECHO)[1] - Annual Report 2001

[1] In accordance with Article 19 of Council Regulation (EC) N° 1257/96 of 20 June 1996 concerning humanitarian aid


The global disaster situation continues to challenge the humanitarian community. With respect to natural disasters, the global trend towards more frequent and more damaging disasters continues, aggravating demographic changes, environmental degradation, changes of land-use and other factors, particularly in the least developed and conflict-ridden states. The most important events in 2001 with humanitarian implications were the earthquake in El Salvador and India, the floods in India, and the droughts affecting Central Asia.

The global situation concerning man-made disasters remains challenging. The number of wars and violent crises has increased to 38 at the end of 2001. The circumstances are exacerbated in some regions by the effects of natural disasters and adverse climatic phenomena. While the overall stabilisation in the Balkans allowed ECHO to phase-down, in spite of the flaring up of tensions in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, areas of main concern include the Northern Caucasus and Afghanistan. Africa continues to suffer from major and protracted humanitarian disasters with a large crisis belt spanning across the continent from Sudan in the north-east, the DR of Congo and the Great Lakes in the centre to Angola in the south-west.

ECHO's response to humanitarian crises in 2001 was to allocate a total of EUR543.7 million to fund humanitarian projects in more than 60 countries. As regards the regional distribution of funds, the ACP countries were the biggest recipient of humanitarian aid allocated by the European Communities with a total amount of EUR173.320 million (33%). Within Africa, the biggest crisis remained in the Great Lakes with EUR35 million allocated for DRC, EUR32 million for Burundian refugees in Tanzania and EUR20 million for Burundi itself. Assistance to the Western Balkans decreased compared to last year (16% decrease) due to the stabilisation of the region. However, mainly due to the large caseload of refugees and IDPs, Serbia remained ECHO's largest operation. Aid for Asia increased slightly and reached 20% (2000:16%). Since the start of 2001, ECHO has provided almost EUR54.7 million of humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and neighbouring countries. Of these funds, EUR23.4 million were allocated prior to September 11.

With respect to the type of partners, the three main partner groups were EC-NGOs (62.5 % of ECHO's funding was implemented through them), the United Nations (26.5%) and other International Organisations (7.9%). With UNHCR (8.6%) and WFP (7.25%) as ECHO's main partners, funding percentage for the UN increased considerably from 19% to 26.5% in 2001.

In 2001, ECHO continued to implement the recommendations of the so called "Article 20 evaluation" as part of the overall reform effort. Important achievements have been made in several areas, namely clarifying ECHO's mandate mainly with respect to its role in the linking of relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD), improving ECHO's relations with the United Nations and implementing its administrative reform. The new primary emergency procedure came into operation in June 2001 and allows ECHO to arrange the immediate despatch of the assistance with its partners within hours of the sudden onset of a crisis.


In 2001, ECHO continued to implement the recommendations of the so called "Article 20 evaluation" [2] as part of the overall reform effort. Important achievements have been made in several areas, namely clarifying ECHO's mandate mainly with respect to its role in the linking of relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD), improving ECHO's relations with the United Nations and implementing its administrative reform.

[2] Communication COM (1999)468 final of 26.10.1999 on "Assessment and future of Community humanitarian activities" (article 20 of Regulation (EC) 1257/96).

ECHO's mandate and role vis-à-vis the other Community instruments in the field of external relations had been further clarified with respect to its role in the so-called "transition gap" between relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD). As outlined in the Commission Communication on LRRD published in April 2001 [3], ECHO will focus more clearly on its core mandate, i.e. providing immediate life saving relief in emergencies, while development cooperation will have to strengthen efforts to bridge the gap from the other side. In order to further enhance its transparency and predictability, ECHO prepared a working paper in December 2001 to clarify its general criteria for phase-outs and hand-overs. The working paper established these criteria in two steps: (1) by defining the point that should trigger the transition from humanitarian assistance to rehabilitation and development and (2) by looking at the main contextual factors that will have an impact on the modus operandi for phase-outs.

[3] Commission Communication on Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development - An Assessment (COM 2001 (153) final of 23.04.2001)

Also in 2001, ECHO developed a methodology to better define forgotten crises complementing the qualitative assessment by desks to identify such crises. This also includes unstable post-crisis situations where other donors may be reluctant to get involved in short-term rehabilitation measures because of the high risks involved or the destabilising effects, which a perceived lack impartiality on the part of those donors might entail. The identification of "forgotten crises" is based mainly on an analysis of media reporting and coverage of needs through other donors. The crises thus identified in 2001 were Angola, Western Sahara and the Northern Caucasus (Chechnya). In line with its strategic approach, ECHO provided considerable funding for the people affected by those "forgotten crises".

In view of improving capacity to prioritise its activities towards the areas of greatest humanitarian needs, in 2001 ECHO refined its methodology to assess needs. As a complementary instrument this analysis is based on aggregate data on relevant indicators (vulnerability, refugees, IDPs, mortality rates etc.). This planning tool offers cross-country comparisons to complement in-depth analyses of ECHO country desks and experts, partners on the ground and other donors (e.g. UN CAPs). It contains a collection of primary statistical data on the critical indicators of humanitarian needs for some 130 countries, aggregated into groups with high, medium and low needs. With this methodology, ECHO has been able to demonstrate that the large majority of its operations indeed focus on the areas of great needs.

As part of the overall reform effort, ECHO continued to implement the recommendations of the so-called "Article 20 evaluation". These focused mainly on restructuring ECHO's internal organisation and working methods, improving the performance of ECHO's operations and developing instruments to measure output and results. ECHO has also initiated a review of its internal procedures with a view to facilitating and accelerating the decision-making process, while maintaining an adequate level of control.

The package of measures adopted by the Commission in November 2000 on the simplification of procedures opened the possibility for ECHO to introduce a fast-track decision-making procedure ("primary emergency decision"). This has enabled ECHO to fund projects within 24-72 hours after a sudden-onset disaster. The new procedure was formally adopted in June 2001 and has been successfully tested following the earthquake in Peru, the flooding in Algeria, the cyclone Iris in Belize and the recent Afghan crisis.

In this context, appropriate information is essential for early warning and rapid response. ECHO thus developed a web-based crisis information system, which provides it with daily disaster updates of both natural disasters and man-made disasters. Together with the Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), ECHO has also launched the Digital Map Archive (DMA) project providing ECHO with cartographic material and GIS-based decision support tools. Both instruments were designed to facilitate its day-to-day activities as well as its planning process.

Additionally, ECHO began to develop a new local information system, the so-called HOLIS project ("Humanitarian Office Local Information System"). This system will integrate existing information systems such as ECHO's contract database HOPE with sophisticated management systems that are currently being developed.


ECHO's response to humanitarian crises closely followed the global humanitarian situation in 2001. With respect to natural disasters, the global trend towards more frequent and more damaging disasters continues. Demographic changes, environmental degradation, changes of land-use and other factors aggravate the adverse effects of these natural events across the globe, particularly in the least developed and conflict-ridden states. The most important events with humanitarian implications were the earthquake in El Salvador and India, the floods in India and the droughts affecting Central Asia.

The global situation concerning man-made disasters remains challenging. Research institutions estimate that 2.2 million people were killed in conflicts since 1991. The number of wars and violent crises has increased from 27 in 1997 to 31 in 1998 and to 38 at the end of 2001 [4]. In 2001, the total number of refugees remained at some 11.7 million. The Global IDP project estimates the number of IDPs at 25 million by the end of 2001. [5] The circumstances are exacerbated in some regions by the effects of natural disasters and adverse climatic phenomena. While the overall stabilisation in the Balkans allowed ECHO to phase-down, areas of main concern include the Northern Caucasus and Afghanistan. Africa continues to suffer from major and protracted humanitarian disasters with a large crisis belt spanning across the continent from Sudan in the north-east, the DR Congo and the Great Lakes in the centre to Angola in the south-west.

[4] Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK), Annual Conflict Barometer: For more information see CRED and SIPRI

[5] Sources: UNHCR Basic Facts, UNHCR: Global Refugee Trends January - June 2001 (14 September 2001). IFRC World Disasters Report 2001. U.S. Committee. for Refugees: World Refugee Survey 2001: Global Overview of the Global IDP project:

ECHO's response to humanitarian crises in 2001 rose to a total of EUR543.7 million. To fund humanitarian projects in more than 60 countries, 1031 contracts were signed (including contracts implementing decision made in 2000 ). Regarding the regional distribution of funds, the ACP countries were the biggest recipient of humanitarian aid from the European Community with a total amount of EUR 173.320 million (33%). Assistance to the Western Balkans decreased compared to 2000, due to the stabilisation of the region, whereas aid for Asia increased slightly increase.

ECHO's main partner group remains EC-NGOs (62.5 % of ECHO's funding was implemented through them). With UNHCR (8.6%) and WFP (7.25%) as ECHO's main partners, funding for the UN increased in 2001 and reached 26.5% (2000:19.2%). Other international organisations, including ICRC and IFRC, received 7.9%.


In the year 2001, the ACP region was the biggest recipient of humanitarian aid from ECHO with a total amount of EUR173.320 million. Within Africa, the biggest crisis remained in the Great Lakes with EUR35 million allocated for DRC, EUR32 million for Burundian refugees in Tanzania and EUR20 million for Burundi itself. In addition, hundreds of thousands of refugees, IDPs and local vulnerable populations all over the continent benefited from life-saving emergency aid delivered by ECHO's partners under very difficult circumstances.

Although the political developments in many of the beneficiary countries leave some serious doubts as to whether a long-term improvement of the humanitarian situation will happen soon, there are nevertheless some positive signs (e.g. a stabilisation in West Africa).

ECHO managed to improve the delivery of its aid to ACP beneficiaries by making the bulk of funding available at the very beginning of the 2001, allowing for quick responses and fine-tuning of the strategy in the course of the year.

2.1.1. Horn of Africa and Eastern Africa

Since 1983, Sudan has been experiencing a long-term civil war between the Government of Sudan and opposing armed factions that control many areas in the South. The main consequences of the protracted conflict are death, displacement and vulnerability of the population, and continuous disruption or absence of basic services such as health, education and infrastructure. On top of this, recurring droughts and floods that impair food security, together with the continued presence of a number of diseases, exacerbate complement the dramatic situation. Unfortunately, peace talks have yet to achieve tangible results. ECHO contributed in 2001 with a Global Plan for Sudan that released EUR15 million for funding of projects in a wide range of areas, such as health, nutrition, food security, water and sanitation, emergency relief and preparedness, as well as supporting transport and the coordination and security of humanitarian staff. Additionally, EUR2 million was released in the course of 2001 to fight serious drought that hit large areas of the North and pockets in the South. The main constraints for implementing projects in Sudan last year were high insecurity and access restrictions due to military activities, as well as seasonal climatic influences and poor infrastructure.

Following the devastating drought which affected large parts of South East Ethiopia, ECHO kept his presence in the country. The 2001 Global Plan with a financial volume of EUR6.7 million focussed on three humanitarian theatres, of which support to drought recovery in the pastoralist regions was the most important component. Through combined livestock programmes and rehabilitation of water points, ECHO facilitated pastoralists in re-building their livelihoods after years of drought and improve their preparedness to future shocks. The activities promoted through some of these programmes have been selected for further funding by other Commission instruments. Furthermore, under its Global Plan, ECHO supported UNHCR in the return of refugees from Ethiopia to Somalia and funded basic rehabilitation in favour of war displaced in Tigray. In addition to the activities funded under the Global Plan, ECHO responded to an emergency caused by a large-scale outbreak of meningitis by allocating EUR2.5 million.

In Eritrea, ECHO continued its humanitarian support to operations in favour of vulnerable populations affected by the recent border war. As long as large numbers of war displaced were dwelling in camps, ECHO funding was provided to sustain them with clean water, shelter, health support and non-food items. After the Temporary Security Zone was established along the border to Ethiopia, in May 2001, the majority of the approx. 300,000 internally displaced returned to their villages. ECHO provided funding to facilitate the return of IDPs through the rehabilitation of water installations, health posts and the provision of non-food items. To help the returning populations in coping with the risks of mine contamination in their areas of return, ECHO funded mine demarcation and mine awareness programmes. Furthermore, ECHO initiated a nutritional surveillance system in large parts of the country including in part the drought affected areas. ECHO assistance was also extended to UNHCR in support of their repatriation of Eritrean refugees from Sudan starting in May 2001. A total of EUR7 million was made available in 2001.

Somalia, in particular its central and southern regions, remains ridden by civil strife and extreme insecurity which has made it very difficult for international aid agencies to implement humanitarian aid projects

ECHO continued to support projects in the area of health and nutrition as well as rehabilitation of water points with a total of EUR 1.7 million. In addition, the Commission decided to continue the ECHO Flight service in the Horn of Africa, which serves a large number of humanitarian and development projects in Somalia. The cost for this service to Somalia was EUR8.4 million this year.

ECHO continued its activities directed at mitigating the effects of the drought in Kenya, which struck the northern part of the country. Through the support of livestock programmes and the rehabilitation of water sources ECHO assisted the pastoralist population in their recovery from the drought. In 2001 a total of EUR4.6 million was made available in favour of Kenya.

2.1.2. Southern Africa

Although there were general expectations that in Angola social indicators in 2001 would improve, following some initial positive results in 2000, and that many dependent populations would be able to achieve food security, overall humanitarian conditions deteriorated and the civil war continued. 60% of areas hosting IDPs are still without any humanitarian presence and UN estimates show at least 500.000 Angolans in desperate need of food. Dangerous conditions continued to make it difficult for humanitarian organisations to operate, the greatest constraint being the lack of access to populations at risks, needing assistance.

In 2001, ECHO continued its emergency focused program, concentrating on short-term emergency response interventions in favour of the most vulnerable populations. Operations worth EUR9 million to support emergency projects covering health, nutrition, emergency relief, protection and air transport to ensure the supply of goods to humanitarian operations.

ECHO had intended to phase out its operations in Mozambique at the beginning of 2001, and the handover process to other Commission instruments for longer term rehabilitation projects was underway by the end of 2000. However, in February 2001 there was extensive flooding in the central region of Mozambique, affecting the provinces of Zambezia, Sofala, Tete and Manica. It is estimated that over 320,000 people were affected, many of them evacuated to temporary camps. These floods covered a larger area than in 2000, affected the poorest part of Mozambique and came at a time when Mozambique had not yet recovered from the previous year's devastation.

Two Commission Decisions were taken between April and July 2001, providing EUR2.84 million for humanitarian assistance to flood victims. The interventions covered food distribution, the supply of medicines and non-food items (such as temporary shelters and blankets), water and sanitation projects and the distribution of seeds and tools.

2.1.3. Central Africa

Although there was some political progress following the assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila in January, the territory of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remained divided among groups backed by neighbouring countries pursuing rival strategic and economic agendas. In addition, the eastern part of the country continued to be violently destabilised by a plethora of armed militias. A series of surveys confirmed catastrophic mortality rates, mostly caused by the breakdown of food production and lack of access to basic healthcare. After decades of mismanagement under the previous regime, now exacerbated by two successive civil wars, the general population is scarcely in better shape than DRC's estimated 3 million IDPs. ECHO's EUR35 million global plan consequently focused on providing primary healthcare in one third of the country and an integrated nutrition and food security programme targeting the most needy. An independent evaluation in September concluded that these objectives were by and large being met, but that insecurity and access in general remained major problems for the humanitarian community.

Since 1993, Burundi has been gripped by a civil war, which has left the population extremely vulnerable. The conflict, mainly political in nature with a strong ethnic component, opposes the Tutsi and the Hutu, some of which have formed armed groups. In August 2000, a peace agreement was signed by the main political forces in Burundi with the exception of the two armed rebel groups. A transition government was set up on 1 November 2001. However, the war rages on as no cease-fire has yet been implemented, and the current outlook for negotiations is bleak. Burundi is also directly affected by the crisis in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

The crisis has provoked large internal displacements of population and half a million Burundian have fled to Tanzania. In Burundi, one million people are still considered very vulnerable and are dependent on humanitarian aid. An unprecedented malaria epidemic wrought havoc in the country at the end of 2000 and beginning of 2001 and was followed by a major malnutrition crisis. ECHO and its partners have addressed pressing humanitarian needs in 2001 in the sectors of health, nutrition and food security with an overall amount of EUR20 million but large needs subsist as the security situation has not improved.

Tanzania is still hosting one of the largest refugee populations on the continent, with approximately 350,000 Burundian, 120,000 Congolese and 25,000 Rwandan refugees living in camps in the Western provinces. ECHO contributed over EUR32 million to the Tanzania refugee programme in 2001 through the UN and the Red Cross, thus funding one third of the total humanitarian aid provided to refugees in this country.

2.1.4. West Africa

The situation in Sierra Leone has been improving throughout 2001 with the peace process gaining momentum. By the end of the disarmament and demobilisation exercise, an estimated 45,000 ex-combatants were registered. UNAMSIL peace-keeping troops have been gradually deploying in RUF-controlled areas, which had not been accessible for almost a decade. ECHO has been supporting emergency interventions in these newly accessible areas, benefiting at the same time internally displaced, returnees or resident population. Priority sectors remained health, water and sanitation, distribution of emergency non-food items and psychosocial assistance to children affected by fighting forces (child protection). Total ECHO contribution for Sierra Leone in 2001 amounted to EUR12.2 million. The result of the upcoming presidential elections scheduled for May 2002 will prove crucial for the peaceful future of the country.

Up until March 2001 the refugee-affected areas of south-western Guinea were experiencing heavy fighting between Guinean military and various armed factions based in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This led to the displacement and eventually relocation of up to 70.000 refugees to new camps further inland whilst 75,000 refugees returned to Sierra Leone, some crossing through dangerous RUF territory. ECHO provided EUR 7.9 million for refugees, IDPs and local vulnerable populations in Guinea, focussing on health, water/sanitation, shelter and food security. Another main area of activity was special support to children affected by war.


2.2.1. Western Balkans

The recovery of the Western Balkans from the 1999 Kosovo crisis continued in 2001 although the conflict in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) overshadowed the improvement in the overall humanitarian situation. In 2001, ECHO continued to be present in five countries and entities in the region (Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, FYROM and Albania) with a budget of EUR83.05 million. The decrease from the two previous years reflects the improvement in the humanitarian situation and the increasing involvement of other Commission instruments.

ECHO's efforts in the Western Balkans pursued three objectives: to respond to the new humanitarian needs resulting from the FYROM crisis; to continue addressing basic humanitarian needs of refugees, IDPs and vulnerable social cases; and, to promote the LRRD process by supporting the transition to reconstruction and longer term development and by promoting self-reliance among the beneficiaries of aid.

In Kosovo, ECHO concluded the bulk of one of its largest humanitarian operations, moving from a pure emergency intervention to rehabilitation and finally resulting in a successful transition towards a more structural development process. In June 1999, when the Kosovo refugees started returning, ECHO responded to the pressing humanitarian needs, providing food, medical assistance, as well as emergency shelter to more than 22,000 returnee families. In 2000, ECHO continued to respond to basic needs of the most vulnerable whilst supporting the initial steps of the recovery process (in the education and health sector, through the rehabilitation of water supplies and by supporting self-reliance projects). In 2001, ECHO succeeded in finalising its prior intervention and continued to support UNHCR's protection and assistance efforts in favour of minorities. In addition, ECHO provided basic assistance to the refugees from fYROM (72,000 at the peak of the crisis) and to their host families.

Serbia remained ECHO's largest operation. The political changes in Serbia and the reform-minded government have attracted long-term structural assistance from donors, including the Commission, as demonstrated by the success of the donor conference on FRY, held in Brussels in June 2001. However, humanitarian needs are still considerable in Serbia, mainly due to the large caseload of refugees and IDPs (almost 600,000). Whilst prospects for the return of IDPs are, at the moment, still bleak, durable solutions for refugees -mainly integration but also repatriation- are at sight. ECHO's programme in 2001 continued to address basic needs whilst pursuing more durable solutions, such as facilitating the repatriation (legal information, go and see visits) and supporting the private accommodation of refugees, as a more dignified alternative to life in collective centres.

In Montenegro and in Albania, the humanitarian needs resulting from the Kosovo crisis have virtually been fully covered. In Montenegro, ECHO focused on covering the winter needs and reducing the dependency of beneficiary groups on humanitarian assistance by funding self-reliance activities. In Albania, one of the poorest countries in Europe, the focus was on consolidating the previous health and water and sanitation interventions with a view to facilitating the transition to a development process.

In FYROM, 2001 witnessed an open conflict between the Ethnic Albanian Armed Groups (EAAG) and the Macedonian armed forces. The conflict escalated in various stages in the first half of the year resulting in various waves of population displacements within the country and outside its borders, especially into Kosovo. The international community, mainly the European Union, adopted a pro-active stance in terms of political mediation, of reconstruction assistance (through the Rapid Reaction Mechanism and the CARDS 2001 programme) as well as humanitarian assistance. In strict accordance with its mandate, ECHO has provided food assistance to all the IDPs and to vulnerable returnees, non-food assistance to the host families and IDPs, and has funded the emergency rehabilitation of schools and health centres damaged during the conflict, in order to facilitate the return of IDPs. Since the start of the conflict, close co-ordination among Commission services allowed to establish a task division between the various Commission instruments, thus avoiding both overlaps and gaps. ECHO focused on the immediate humanitarian needs whilst the RRM addressed medium term needs such as housing reconstruction. On the political front, in spite of some positive developments following the conclusion of a Framework Agreement between political leaders from both ethnic groups and the approval, in November, of constitutional changes, the political process was, at the end of 2001, still fragile.

2.2.2. Newly Independent States (NIS)

In 2001, the overall humanitarian situation in the NIS has not improved significantly. Though in many NIS countries efforts have been made to launch economic reforms, which led to a certain improvement in their overall economic standing (notably in the Russian Federation), no tangible results have yet been achieved as far as the living conditions of the general population are concerned. On the contrary, public spending on the health and social sectors tended to decrease, with hospital equipment becoming obsolete and the population finding it increasingly difficult to have access to appropriate health care. The strata of society most affected are large families, elderly and disabled people, who seriously suffer from the consequences of the continuously deteriorating general economic situation (i.e. from continued inflation, a significant reduction in real purchasing power and month-long delays in the payment of salaries, pensions and state allowances). Their coping mechanisms have practically been exhausted.

It is evident that the problems which have led to the must vulnerables' difficult humanitarian situation are clearly of a structural nature, which renders a justification of ECHO's intervention difficult, especially in the light of ECHO's refocusing on its core mandate of emergency relief. However, given the circumstances mentioned above and the insufficient deployment of another Commission instrument more suitable to intervene in this respect, ECHO continued to allocate - albeit limited - funding in 2001. The express aim has been to alleviate the precarious situation of the most vulnerable groups. Accordingly, the funded operations had clearly defined objectives so as to target well identified groups at special risk (e.g. children in institutions, isolated elderly, large families at risk).

In line with ECHO's refocussing on its core mandate, gradual phasing out neared completion in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine as well as in the Southern Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia), with, however, a limited specific drought response provided to vulnerable groups in both Georgia and Armenia. No intervention was required in the Central Asian countries of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, in the absence of a spill-over of the Afghan crisis.

ECHO's gradual phasing out continued in Tajikistan with a further reduction (to EUR10 million) in Global Plan funding for food, health and water programs throughout the country. An additional EUR2 million emergency allocation for small-scale food security programs aimed to mitigate the immediate negative effects of a second consecutive year of severe drought. ECHO involvement - albeit on a reduced scale - is likely to have to continue in the short term, until the post-conflict situation has stabilised, the drought has no more large-scale humanitarian impact and European Commission and Member States longer-term development instruments have resumed or stepped up their activities. The increased international attention given to Central Asia in connection with the Afghan crisis appears to be acting as a catalyst in this regard, at least to a certain extent.

In the Russian Federation, the latest armed conflict in Chechnya, which erupted in late 1999, still remains unsolved. It has led to large displacements of people in the Northern Caucasus region and created significant humanitarian needs. However, efforts by the international aid community to help cover those needs have often been thwarted by extremely difficult working conditions, notably in Chechnya itself. The international aid community would have expected a more cooperative attitude on the part of the Russian authorities, i.e. facilitating rather than obstructing aid distribution to the Chechen population. International humanitarian organisations intending to work in Chechnya have had to face rather long-winded and erratic "access and work permit system" as well as the absence of sufficient security guarantees, despite Russian promises of cooperating with EC-funded aid operations. ECHO funding helped inter alia to provide food aid to 230,000 IDPs and vulnerable people in Chechnya (including 30,000 school children), to enhance the water and sanitation conditions for some 100,000 IDPs and residents in Chechnya as well as for 10,000 IDPs living in tents and spontaneous settlements in Ingushetia. 40,000 IDPs living in camps both in Ingushetia and Chechnya benefited from primary health care services provided by ECHO partners. Furthermore, IDPs, returnees and residents throughout the Northern Caucasus were covered through ECHO-funded protection activities, notably legal counselling.

In the light of the progressing rapprochement of Eastern European countries towards the EU and their improving national economy as well as the deployment of other, more appropriate Commission instruments, no ECHO funding was allocated to operations there in 2001.

In 2001, ECHO made a limited allocation to respond to the disastrous winter, which affected a large part of the rural population in Mongolia. In this vein, operations were financed to help 40,000 of the most vulnerable people with basic food items and agricultural inputs.


2.3.1. Asia

Since the start of 2001, ECHO has provided almost EUR54.7 million of humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and neighbouring countries. Of these funds, EUR23.4 million were allocated prior to September 11 to provide assistance to displaced people (medico-nutritional projects, shelter construction, and water and sanitation in the camps) and food-related assistance to resident populations in rural areas in response to the ongoing drought.

Since 11 September, using a progressive strategy, a further EUR31.3 million has been channelled through a variety of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and international organisations to continue delivering food for the drought affected populations and to pursue primary assistance to the IDP populations. These funds have also been used to: respond to war casualties and mine injuries resulting from increased population movements; to provide assistance for people returning to their home areas (farming tools, seeds and shelter materials); to carry out humanitarian mine clearance operations and mine training for new ammunition laid by the coalition; to fund logistics such as World Food Programme (WFP) lorries and telecommunications, air transport for NGO staff and humanitarian cargo; to contribute to the re-opening of an ECHO office in Kabul; to enhance better co-ordination between humanitarian actors and improve the humanitarian information management system.

Prior to the retreat of the Taliban at the end of November 2001, the dedication and competence of local staff have enabled the projects to continue, despite the absence of expatriates, who were limited to organising the redeployment of their bases around Afghanistan to ensure the continuity of a humanitarian aid pipeline.

In India, ECHO responded to two major natural disasters in 2001. Assistance was provided for the victims of the Gujarat earthquake in January, most of it geared towards the provision of temporary shelters such as tents, with a mobile field hospital also being provided. In July, ECHO provided emergency food and non-food aid for those affected by the floods in Orissa. ECHO funds for India totalled EUR14.602 million.

One project of the International Committee of the Red Cross was supported in Sri Lanka, to provide transport to 900,000 people in Jaffna cut off by the ongoing civil war. Next year, it is hoped to do more in this conflict, which certainly merits the label 'forgotten crisis'.

EUR2 million was allocated to the World Food Programme to feed 150,000 Bhutanese refugees who were expelled to Nepal 10 years ago and since then have found no welcome in either country. Without this help they would have suffered from serious food shortages.

ECHO has continued to be heavily involved in East Timor (EUR11.274 million), mainly in projects to improve water and sanitation and healthcare services. Now that a measure of stability has come to the country and the focus is shifting away from relief operations towards rehabilitation and development, ECHO will begin to phase out its operations there in 2002.

In 2001, ECHO increased its assistance to Myanmar/Burma (EUR2.0 millions) by sanitation and health programmes addressing the IDP population as well as by a protection programme for displaced prisoners.

ECHO financed activities in Thailand (EUR4.5 millions) were focused to the improvement of living conditions in the Burmese refugee camps, also taking into account the newly arriving refugees and the secret refugees around the camp.

In Indonesia, ECHO's activities in 2001 (EUR2.2 millions) have been marked by the assistance to the population affected by the local ethnic and religious conflicts like in the Moluccas, West Timor.

In the Philippines, ECHO has responded to the ongoing internal conflict in Mindanao, with projects guaranteeing minimal living conditions of the displaced and returnees persons victims of the violence. At the end of the year emergency relief was provided for victims of the Tropical Storm "Lingling" on Negros Island (total aid EUR1.46 million).

Although Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in South-East Asia, in a number of provinces progress in areas such as health care, water and sanitation has been sufficient to allow a shift from emergency aid to a longer term development approach. ECHO therefore concentrated its efforts (EUR4.052 million) in assisting operations in the most remote areas, often newly opened to relief workers. The focus of the help was on water and sanitation improvements, on basic health care, including small-scale emergency rehabilitation of health posts medical structures and on assistance in the processes of reintegrating refugees in Cambodian society.

Small-scale humanitarian mine clearance actions were integrated into these operations to ensure security for relief-workers and local populations in the former conflict zones. No emergency aid was deemed necessary for the September floods. Nevertheless, at the same time of the floods, Cambodia has been struck by droughts, requiring emergency interventions to ensure food security, for which ECHO provided assistance of EUR0.848 million.

In Vietnam, emergency aid of EUR0.53 million was granted in response to the flooding which affected the country in the autumn. ECHO's contribution focused on operations directed towards food security improvements, thus lessening the reliance on the usual mass distribution of food and relief items.

Two decisions were made in China in 2001 (EUR2.15 million) in response to two natural disasters. First there were the July typhoons and floods in Guangxi, southern China, where ECHO targeted its help to particularly vulnerable groups, such as those suffering from leprosy and isolated village communities. Then later on in the year blizzards in Inner Mongolia came hard on the heels of a prolonged period of drought, causing considerable difficulties for nomadic herdsmen - here ECHO's help aimed to cover basic nutritional needs.

The structural humanitarian crisis in North Korea was exacerbated by floods in October. ECHO continued to provide humanitarian assistance through the European NGOs present in the country and the Red Cross family (EUR3.365 million). Projects concentrated on the health sector and on provision of winter clothes for children. Particular attention was also given to obtaining improvements in the respect of humanitarian principles in North Korea (direct access to beneficiaries, free monitoring, focus on the most vulnerable groups) and to detailed feasibility studies for projects in the water and sanitation sectors.

Humanitarian conditions in Iraq continued to deteriorate in 2001, after 10 years of isolation from the international community. ECHO's support, through a Global Plan adopted in April 2001 (EUR13 million) sought to complement the "Oil for Food" UN Resolution 986, and to alleviate the suffering of the Iraqi people.

The Global Plan, channelled through the European NGOs working in Iraq and the UN agencies, focused on the rehabilitation of hospitals, primary health care centres and water treatment plants.

2.3.2. Middle East and North Africa

ECHO funds for the Middle East totalled EUR29.96 million, with the Palestinian territories remaining one of the major spheres of ECHO's intervention (total EUR26 million). In the first half of 2001, ECHO grants were given to emergency relief and humanitarian aid projects which aimed to promote the regaining of adequate access to water in areas particularly affected by the clashes and to ensure the functioning of primary health care centres. Distribution of food and essential non-food items to the most vulnerable Palestinian families was carried out as well. In 2001, ECHO channelled its aid mainly though the United Nations Relief and Work Agency for Palestine Refugees in Near East (UNRWA) which as a major partner received 4.84% of ECHO's total budget.

In addition, ECHO supported three projects to reconstruct and rehabilitate shelters in the refugee camps in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.

In response to the worsened situation after 11 September, ECHO financed projects for emergency food aid, for the improvement of mother and child healthcare and for psycho-social services for young people traumatised by the violence and emergency medical teams suffering from stress-related symptoms. Furthermore, ECHO supported projects for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the shelters of vulnerable refugee families as well as a project for the protection of civilians and the monitoring of compliance with the Geneva Convention IV.

ECHO continued funding assistance to Yemen (EUR1.885 million), where one in four people live below the poverty line and where many die from disease every day. One important focus for ECHO has been on rehabilitating tracks and on providing people with drinkable water, notably on the island of Soqotra, which was flooded. Some of the most vulnerable people have also been re-housed. Access to water, sanitation and primary health care have been ECHO's other main objectives.

Serious food shortages developed in the camps in Algeria occupied by refugees from the Western Sahara. Average consumption among the 160,000 people involved again dropped dangerously below the 2,100 calories recommended as the minimum daily intake by the World Health Organisation. ECHO responded with an emergency decision to cover the provision of essential food supplies and to create a buffer stock corresponding to 3 months of basic food products. This buffer stock seems to have been very useful and has been used 7 times in 2001, thus helping the refugees to avoid more serious food shortages. The emergency decision was followed up by a global plan that, while focusing on complementary food items, also included significant funding for non-food items (mainly tents and health care operations) - total funding EUR15.57 million.

ECHO is currently phasing out its operations in Algeria but took a primary emergency decision (EUR758,800) in November to help the victims of the floods and to express the solidarity of the EU with the Algerian people.

2.3.3. Latin America

Colombia is ECHO's largest sphere of operations in Latin America (EUR10 million). The internal armed conflict continued to worsen, despite the efforts of the Colombian government to establish peace talks with the main guerrilla groups. The number of new internally displaced people (IDPs) exceeded the figure of 300,000 in 2000, according to independent estimates.

ECHO's strategy consisted of emergency assistance during and immediately following displacement; post-emergency assistance including shelter, health care, sanitation and psycho-social support in the main reception areas; and specific support for return and resettlement processes, if security conditions allow and if institutional support can be guaranteed. Although it is difficult to accurately determine the number of beneficiaries, it can be estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 internally displaced people were assisted in the framework of the 2001 Global Plan.

Humanitarian aid was channelled through international organisations such as the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and European non-governmental organisations.

An external evaluation was carried out during November and December 2001. The results of this evaluation will be taken into account when preparing the strategy for 2002.

Exceptionally heavy rains affected Bolivia from December 2000 to March 2001. According to a report of the National Civil Defence Service dated 5 March, a total of 52,913 people were affected by the floods, mainly in the departments of La Paz, Cochabamba, Potosí and Beni. According to IFRC, in the Chaco zone many of the areas that were severely affected by the floods had up to that point been affected by drought.

ECHO made humanitarian assistance available in order to relieve victims of the floods and the drought and to stabilise the livelihood of rural communities and overcome the consequences of the drought and floods.

Prolonged drought has affected the Chaco region of Paraguay since June 1999. As a consequence, many subsistence crops have been lost, making the living conditions of many peasant families very precarious. ECHO contributed to the relief of these families by distributing food, agriculture inputs and construction water-collecting systems that have helped around 6,500 families.

A strong earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale struck southern Peru on 23 June 2001. The immediate consequences of the disaster were 83 deaths and 66 missing, 2,812 wounded, 37,500 houses damaged and 22,220 destroyed.

ECHO reacted very swiftly and a primary emergency decision to allocate humanitarian aid amounting to EUR1.15 million was taken only two days later to help meet the initial urgent needs of the victims of the earthquake. This was the first time that the Commission made use of its new system for responding immediately to "sudden onset" humanitarian crises.

A further EUR2 million were earmarked to reduce the vulnerability of the poorest families living in rural areas affected by the earthquake, by helping them to rebuild their houses with earthquake-resistant designs, to rehabilitate essential water and irrigation systems, so as to enable local farmers to restart food production

In January and February, El Salvador was hit by two successive earthquakes, devastating substantial parts of the country. 25% of the population was affected. 270,000 houses were damaged. ECHO took two decisions, for a total of EUR10 million. In the first stage its partners brought basic food and non-food aid as well as health and water and sanitation assistance. In the second stage, its intervention was more focused on emergency rehabilitation and water and sanitation.

Three years of cumulative rain failures in Central America, combined with a loss of seasonal jobs due to the drastic fall in world coffee prices, provoked in the latter part of 2001 unprecedented food shortages in some regions, which are still reconstructing from the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch. Some of the rural families had to eat their contingency stocks of seeds, thus preventing them from planting for a second harvest. In the most critical regions of Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, ECHO supplied food or nutritional programs to try to put in place alternative sustainable feeding systems. ECHO funding in these three countries amounted to EUR2.3 million.

In November, the region was also hit by Hurricane Michelle, which a couple of days later affected Cuba, provoking flooding in the north east coastal region of Honduras and Nicaragua and severe infrastructure damage and loss of crops in Cuba and Jamaica. ECHO chose to intervene with an emergency decision amounting for EUR1.05 million.

ECHO decided to get involved in the most inaccessible regions of Central America, namely the Moskitia region of Honduras and department of la RAAN in Nicaragua, with a food aid program, help to displaced families and a system of epidemiological surveillance and vector control.

In Cuba, EUR8 million was also allocated in 2001, on the one hand for distribution of food, hygiene products, medicines and primary needs goods, and on the other hand for short term rehabilitation work in social centres for the most vulnerable groups, i.e. elderly and mentally and physically disabled people. It is now considered that development aid is more appropriate to this country than short-term relief, and as a consequence the ECHO's aid will be phased out during the year 2002.

ECHO funded a range of operations targeting some 15,000 IDPs and returnees in Chiapas province of Mexico, which has been affected by internal conflict with EUR1.8 million. Projects supported include healthcare, food aid and rehabilitation of homes.


In 2001, ECHO has pursued its DIPECHO programme, which aims at funding disaster preparedness activities within a regional framework. Two DIPECHO Action Plans approved in 2000 were under implementation all through 2001, the Action Plan for Southeast Asia and the one for Central America.

In the same time, ECHO has extended the DIPECHO programme to South Asia and a first Plan totalling EUR3.2 million was approved in July 2001. Notwithstanding the Gujarat earthquake, this Plan focuses on the main natural hazard affecting the region i.e. flooding. The objective is to enhance communities' response capacity to floods by making them better prepared and by promoting a culture of prevention. Training is the best way of improving country's response capacity, starting with the villages and the local prevention committees and involving women and young people in particular. Early warning system and small demonstration projects such as reforestation, backed up with training, can achieve a lot by raising awareness of the communities and authorities.

In December 2001, the Commission has approved the second DIPECHO Plan for the Andean Community (EUR1.8 million), which takes into account the recommendations of the evaluation of the first Plan. As there is no regional cooperation amongst the Andean countries, ECHO has decided to exclusively focus on local level projects through strengthening local civil defence committees and health centres, civil society capacity building, awareness-raising of communities and small-scale mitigation works.

The third Action Plan has been also launched by the Commission for the Caribbean region, Cuba included, with an amount of EUR3 million. This phase will also be focused on flooding in order to obtain some concrete results through micro-projects in the context of the DIPECHO programme. A special accent will be put on the regional effort to reinforce the co-ordination and the collaboration of each country of the region through an information network and a database dedicated to the natural disasters. For Cuba, an extension (EUR900,000) due to the seismic aspect will also be taken into consideration.



In 2001, ECHO signed the Framework Partnership Agreement with 27 new partners (FPA), bringing the total number of NGO Partners to 208. In addition, 300 candidate cases for partnership were closed and 91 new cases admitted for examination.

During 2001 ECHO carried out a wide consultation exercise with signatory organisations of the FPA in order to achieve an in-depth revision of the FPA. The revision has been fundamentally centred on the idea of management of "quality in humanitarian aid". Special attention has been given to a change of emphasis by moving away from control of resources towards planning of objectives and results. This revision is the second stage in adjustments to the FPA to the objectives established by the Commission in its Communication "Assessment and future of Community humanitarian activities" [6] and it will continue in 2002.

[6] Communication COM (1999)468 final of 26.10.1999 on "Assessment and future of Community humanitarian activities" (article 20 of Regulation (EC) 1257/96).


At regular intervals, ECHO launches a grant facility for training, studies and networks in the humanitarian field. ECHO made available a total of EUR1,6 million. Projects selected include training courses on security and studies on quality and early detection of man-made crises.

The network on humanitarian assistance (NOHA), launched in 1994, is a one-year multi-disciplinary post-graduate diploma in the humanitarian field. The curriculum provides a comprehensive overview of the humanitarian aid environment and is complemented by an internship either in a humanitarian organisation or in ECHO. Around 20 students attend the course in each of the eight participating European universities. ECHO's financial contribution to the coordination costs of the network was EUR270,053 in the year 2001.


ECHO's information and communication activities during 2001 reflected the new strategy adopted the previous year with its emphasis on defining target audiences more clearly, developing the use of new web-based techniques, adopting more structured objectives and establishing closer links between ECHO headquarters and field offices. The outcome of this approach included the publication of six leaflets highlighting ECHO's work in particular crisis zones or sectors, in response to a demand for more specific information, and the elaboration of local communication plans providing a framework for coherent and effective information action at field level. ECHO also restructured its website to boost the transparency of its actions and provide additional information tools for its operational partners.

Two important documents provided the basis for forward thinking in the information/ communication sphere. The first was the outcome of an independent evaluation commissioned by ECHO into a number of activities financed under its Grant Facility, including awareness-raising projects. The evaluator concluded that the grants were 'highly effective' but nonetheless made recommendations to deal with certain shortcomings identified in the system. These included improved strategic planning, more focused priorities and closer coordination with operational and field staff. The second document reported the results of an EU-wide opinion poll carried out early in 2001 by Eurobarometer, which contained a series of questions provided by ECHO. The aim was to gauge the level of public knowledge of ECHO and of humanitarian issues more generally, and to obtain a better understanding of European attitudes in this area. The poll revealed considerable support for the principle of European humanitarian assistance but relatively low recognition levels for the European Commission as a key humanitarian actor. It also highlighted a desire among respondents for more information about how the system works and about the concrete results of ECHO's interventions.

The detailed conclusions of both the evaluation and the Eurobarometer poll are being integrated into ECHO's continuing efforts to maximise the impact of its information and communication activities.

During 2001, ECHO funded a range of information and communication actions. Publications included the Annual Review, the quarterly newsletter "ECHO News" and leaflets on Sierra Leone, Guinea, Central America, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan (two versions) and Children at War. The issue of Child Soldiers was also highlighted in October at a conference in Brussels organised with VOICE (Voluntary Organisations in Cooperation in Emergencies) with the collaboration of the Save the Children Fund (UK).


ECHO's response to humanitarian crises in 2001 has been channelled through 107 funding decisions totalling EUR 543.7 million (from the EU Budget and the EDF). Following the great number of unforeseeable emergencies which occurred throughout the year and further to the events of September 11th, ECHO had to call on the use of the emergency aid reserve for an amount of EUR50 million in commitment appropriations. 1031 operation contracts were signed in 2001 (this includes 143 contracts to implement 2000 decisions). The rate of budget implementation in terms of commitment appropriations was 100% in 2001. The rate of budget implementation in terms of payment appropriations was 90,5 % in 2001

Financial audits and controls are undertaken both at the headquarters of ECHO's partners and at their field offices located in beneficiary countries that are the scene of humanitarian operations. In 2000 ECHO undertook 11 audits. In 2001 this number was increased to 27 audits. Of these 27 audits, nine were at the offices of partners in beneficiary countries. Also in 2001 for the first time ECHO contracted out 4 audits, one dealing with the ECHO Flight operation and three with NGO's who had in the past been associated with purchasing centres. For 2003 the number of audits at headquarters is to be at least 50, with no change in the number of field audits. The headquarters audit of 50 partners a year should result in a three year audit cycle for the major recipients of ECHO's financing. The results of the audits have not only been used in the liquidation of operation contracts but also in the revision of ECHO's principal tool, the FPA.

During 2001, ECHO implemented a further evaluation programme, usually undertaken on the principle of mixing the « ex post » and « ex ante » approach. Certain studies begun in 2000, like Angola, were completed and acted upon, while other country programmes like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Timor and Saharaoui refugees were undertaken during the year. Further evaluations like that of the programme in Colombia were underway at the end of the year.

In addition there was a global assessment of the various grants and subsidies granted by ECHO and, by year-end, an evaluation of contracts with UNHCR in certain chosen countries was almost complete. The former has already led to a first revision of procedures in line with its recommendations, while the latter, undertaken with the full cooperation of the UNHCR, is designed to improve the effectiveness of cooperation between ECHO and UNHCR.

In an attempt to widen the pool of known and proven evaluators of humanitarian aid, ECHO also published on the Web and in the Official Journal a call for a show of interest among firms and individuals. Applicants are vetted by a Committee before being put on the list of approved evaluators. The results are published on the Web.


The current global disaster situation continues to confront the humanitarian community with three major challenges: persistence of protracted man-made crises; emerging crisis theatres in areas considered more or less stable in the past; and increasingly adverse effects of natural disasters. The global trend towards more frequent and more damaging disasters continues, aggravating demographic changes, environmental degradation, changes of land-use and other factors, particularly in the least developed and conflict-ridden states.

Research institutions estimate that 2.2 million people were killed in conflicts since 1991. The number of wars and violent crises has increased from 27 in 1997 to 31 in 1998 and to 38 at the end of 2001 [7]. It is the civilian population, and in particular its most vulnerable members like children, the youth, women, ageing or handicapped people which suffer most and which are of main concern for the humanitarian community. The number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) highlights the humanitarian dimension of the global geopolitical situation. In 2001, the total number of refugees remained at 11.7 million. The Global IDP project estimates the number of IDPs at 25 million by the end of 2001. Although lower than in the mid-nineties, these figures are still unacceptably high [8].

[7] Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK), Annual Conflict Barometer: For more information see CRED and SIPRI

[8] Sources: UNHCR Basic Facts, UNHCR: Global Refugee Trends January - June 2001 (14 September 2001). IFRC World Disasters Report 2001. U.S. Committee. for Refugees: World Refugee Survey 2001: Global Overview of the Global IDP project:

In view of these overall trends, it remains a primary task for the humanitarian community to develop policies and strategies that can ensure effective spending of available resources to meet the most urgent and pressing humanitarian needs. The current institutional reform process within the European Community's institutions, therefore, provides a unique window of opportunity for ECHO to re-position itself within an evolving institutional context. In 2001, ECHO has made considerable progress in developing and implementing internal reform measures and new procedures, such as the primary emergency decision procedure. Many of these measures will be tested and complemented in the year 2002 and beyond.


Annex 1: ECHO's budget in 2001 was EUR543,703,460 (Annex 1A). The total number of contracts signed in 2001 is 1031, 807 of which were on the 2001 budget. This difference is explained by the fact that a large number of contracts signed in 2001 actually implement 2000 decisions. The main source of finance is budget line B7-210, as can be seen in Annex 1B. EUR20,750,000 have been used from the EDF (European Development Fund) budget. The amount on budget line B7-210A concerns administrative management (e.g. studies, training and information activities).

Annex 2: Annex 2 presents the geographic distribution of aid by region. DIPECHO and multi-country decisions were attributed, where possible, under the respective geographical region. Annex 2A shows no major changes between 2001 and 2000. However, a slight increase in the aid for Asia can be seen, whereas assistance to the Western Balkans decreased. Annex 2B focuses on the respective geographical sub-regions in 2001 rather than individual countries. The main item of the "Global" section encompasses the costs for the network of field experts.

Annex 3: In 2001, there had been a significant increase of the allocations to the UN family (Annex 3A). More than ¼ of all ECHO funding went to UN agencies, whereas in 2000 contributions to the UN were less than 20%. Main UN partners in 2001 were UNHCR (8.6%), WFP (7.25%), UNRWA (4.84%) and UNICEF (3.89%). A certain number of those contracts implement decisions of previous years. Therefore, the figure for 2001 is higher than the actual 2001 budget.

Annex 4: Most projects funded under the Grant Facility 2001 were allocated for the training of NGOs including security training and assistance to NGO networks (EUR1,125,578). Decisions foresaw EUR1.60 million to grant facilities for studies and training, whereas EUR1.55 million were allocated to contracts in 2001.

Annex 1: Overview of Financial Decisions 1995-2001

// Financial Decisions for EC Humanitarian Aid 1995-2001 (amounts in EUR)

1995 // 692,092,512

1996 // 656,655,500

1997 // 441,611,954

1998 // 517,657,060

1999 // 812,911,000

2000 // 491,715,000

2001 // 543,703,460

Annex 1A: ECHO Contracts 1998-2001


Annex 1B: Financial Decisions for EC Humanitarian Aid by Source of Finance


Annex 2: Financial Decisions in 2001 - Geographical Distribution

Financial Decisions for EC Humanitarian Aid by Region in % Total decisions in 2001: EUR 543,703,000 //

ACP-countries // 33%

Asia // 20%

Ex-Yugoslavia-W. Balkans // 15%

Latin America // 7%

Middle East, North Africa // 11%

NIS // 11%

Global // 3%

Annex 2A : geographical Distribution of Financial Decisions 1999-2001


Annex 2B: Distribution of funding decisions by country : (sub)-region

Financial decisions for humanitarian aid by region in 2001

Country/sub-region Decisions in EURm


Angola 09.000

Burundi 20.000

Burkina Faso, Chad 02.550

Central African Republic 01.000

Congo (Democratic Republic) 35.000

ECHO Flight 08.400

Ethiopia 09.200

Eritrea 07.000

Kenya 04.600

Madagascar 00.900

Mozambique 02.840

Caribbean/Pacific 00.880

Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia 20.600

Somalia 01.700

Sudan 17.000

Tanzania 32.150

Zimbabwe 00.500


Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine 1.900

Mongolia 1.030

Russian Federation (Chechnya crisis) 40.350

Armenia, Georgia 3.150

Tajikistan 12.000

Western Balkans

(Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo,

Albania, FYROM, Bosnia-Herzegovina) 83.050

Middle East/North Africa 61.049

Algeria 0.759

Iraq 12.875

Middle East 29.960

Western Saharan refugees 15.570

Yemen 01.885 // Country/sub-region Decisions in EURm

ASIA 104.354

Afghanistan/Pakistan/Iran 54.680

Cambodia 04.900

China 02.150

East Timor 11.274

India 14.602

Indonesia 02.200

Myanmar/Burma 01.990

Nepal 02.000

North Korea 03.365

Philippines 01.460

Sri Lanka 00.700

Thailand 04.500

Vietnam 00.533

Latin America 38.250

Bolivia, Paraguay 01.950

Colombia 10.000

Cuba 08.000

El Salvador 10.000

Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua 03.350

Mexico 01.800

Peru 03.150

DIPECHO 08.000

Andean Community 01.800

Caribbean 03.000

South Asia 03.200


Grants for studies etc. 01.600

Expenses for field experts 11.450

Training 00.250

Audit 02.600

Information 00.350

Evaluation 01.000

TOTAL 543.703

Annex 3: Distribution of Contracts by Implementing Partners

EC Humanitarian Assistance in 2001 by Groups of Partners (contract signature year) //

EC NGOs // 62,5%

United Nations // 26,5%

Other Int'l Organisations // 7,9%

Non-EC NGOs // 1,2%

EC Direct // 0,9%

Others // 1,0%

Annex 3A: Distribution of Funding by Groups of Partners 1999-2001