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Document 02011R1178-20191221

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 of 3 November 2011 laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance)Text with EEA relevance

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2011/1178/2019-12-21

02011R1178 — EN — 21.12.2019 — 012.001


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COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1178/2011

of 3 November 2011

laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council

(Text with EEA relevance)

(OJ L 311 25.11.2011, p. 1)

Amended by:

 

 

Official Journal

  No

page

date

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COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 290/2012 of 30 March 2012

  L 100

1

5.4.2012

►M2

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 70/2014 of 27 January 2014

  L 23

25

28.1.2014

►M3

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 245/2014 of 13 March 2014

  L 74

33

14.3.2014

►M4

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2015/445 of 17 March 2015

  L 74

1

18.3.2015

►M5

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/539 of 6 April 2016

  L 91

1

7.4.2016

►M6

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2018/1065 of 27 July 2018

  L 192

31

30.7.2018

►M7

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2018/1119 of 31 July 2018

  L 204

13

13.8.2018

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COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2018/1974 of 14 December 2018

  L 326

1

20.12.2018

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COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2019/27 of 19 December 2018

  L 8

1

10.1.2019

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COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2019/430 of 18 March 2019

  L 75

66

19.3.2019

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COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2019/1747 of 15 October 2019

  L 268

23

22.10.2019




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COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1178/2011

of 3 November 2011

laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council

(Text with EEA relevance)



Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation lays down detailed rules for:

(1) different ratings for pilots’ licences, the conditions for issuing, maintaining, amending, limiting, suspending or revoking licences, the privileges and responsibilities of the holders of licences, the conditions for the conversion of existing national pilots’ licences and of national flight engineers’ licences into pilots’ licences, as well as the conditions for the acceptance of licences from third countries;

(2) the certification of persons responsible for providing flight training or flight simulation training and for assessing pilots’ skills;

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(3) different medical certificates for pilots, the conditions for issuing, maintaining, amending, limiting, suspending or revoking medical certificates, the privileges and responsibilities of the holders of medical certificates;

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(4) the certification of aero-medical examiners, as well as the conditions under which general medical practitioners may act as aero-medical examiners;

(5) the periodical aero-medical assessment of cabin crew members, as well as the qualification of persons responsible for this assessment;

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(6) the conditions for issuing, maintaining, amending, limiting, suspending or revoking cabin crew attestations, as well as the privileges and responsibilities of the holders of cabin crew attestations;

(7) the conditions for issuing, maintaining, amending, limiting, suspending or revoking certificates of pilot training organisations and of aero-medical centres involved in the qualification and aero-medical assessment of civil aviation aircrew;

(8) the requirements for the certification of flight simulation training devices and for organisations operating and using those devices;

(9) the requirements for the administration and management system to be fulfilled by the Member States, the Agency and the organisations in relation with the rules referred to in points 1 to 8.

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Article 2

Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) ‘Part-FCL licence’ means a flight crew licence which complies with the requirements of Annex I;

(2) ‘JAR’ means joint aviation requirements adopted by the Joint Aviation Authorities as applicable on 30 June 2009;

(3) ‘Light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL)’ means the leisure pilot licence referred to in Article 7 of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008;

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(5) ‘Non-JAR-compliant licence’ means the pilot licence issued or recognised by a Member State in accordance with national legislation and not having been recommended for mutual recognition in relation to the relevant JAR;

(6) ‘Credit’ means the recognition of prior experience or qualifications;

(7) ‘Credit report’ means a report on the basis of which prior experience or qualifications may be recognised;

(8) ‘Conversion report’ means a report on the basis of which a licence may be converted into a Part-FCL licence;

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(11) ‘Cabin crew member’ means an appropriately qualified crew member, other than a flight crew or technical crew member, who is assigned by an operator to perform duties related to the safety of passengers and flight during operations;

(12) ‘Aircrew’ means flight crew and cabin crew;

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(14) ‘Acceptable means of compliance (AMC)’ means non-binding standards adopted by the Agency to illustrate means to establish compliance with Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules;

(15) ‘Alternative means of compliance (AltMoC)’ means those means that propose an alternative to an existing AMC or those that propose new means to establish compliance with Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules for which no associated AMC have been adopted by the Agency;

(16) ‘Approved training organisation (ATO)’ means an organisation which is entitled to provide training to pilots on the basis of an approval issued in accordance with the first subparagraph of Article 10a(1);

(17) ‘Basic instrument training device (BITD)’ means a ground-based training device for the training of pilots representing the student pilot's station of a class of aeroplanes, which may use screen-based instrument panels and spring-loaded flight controls, and providing a training platform for at least the procedural aspects of instrument flight;

(18) ‘Certification specifications (CS)’ mean technical standards adopted by the Agency indicating means to be used by an organisation for the purpose of certification;

(19) ‘Flight instructor (FI)’ means an instructor with the privileges to provide training, in accordance with Subpart J of Annex I (Part-FCL), in an aircraft;

(20) ‘Flight simulation training device (FSTD)’ means a device for the training of pilots which is:

(a) in the case of aeroplanes, a full flight simulator (FFS), a flight training device (FTD), a flight and navigation procedures trainer (FNPT) or a basic instrument training device (BITD);

(b) in the case of helicopters, a full flight simulator (FFS), a flight training device (FTD) or a flight and navigation procedures trainer (FNPT);

(21) ‘FSTD qualification’ means the level of technical ability of an FSTD as specified in the certification specifications relating to the FSTD in question;

(22) ‘Principal place of business’ of an organisation means the head office or registered office of the organisation within which the principal financial functions and operational control of the activities referred to in this Regulation are exercised;

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(22a) ‘ARO.RAMP’ means the Subpart RAMP of Annex II to the Regulation on Air Operations;

(22b) ‘Automatically validated’ means the acceptance, without formalities, by an ICAO contracting State listed in the ICAO attachment of a flight crew licence issued by a State in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention;

(22c) ‘ICAO attachment’ means an attachment to an automatically validated flight crew licence issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, which is mentioned under item XIII of the flight crew licence;

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(23) ‘Qualification test guide (QTG)’ means a document established to demonstrate that the performance and handling qualities of an FSTD represent those of the aircraft, class of aeroplane or type of helicopter, simulated within prescribed limits and that all applicable requirements have been met. The QTG includes both the data of the aircraft, class of aeroplane or type of helicopter and FSTD data used to support the validation;

(24) ‘Declared training organisation (DTO)’ means an organisation which is entitled to provide training to pilots on the basis of a declaration made in accordance with the second subparagraph of Article 10a(1);

(25) ‘DTO training programme’ means a document established by a DTO, describing in detail the training course provided by that DTO.

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Article 3

Pilot licensing and medical certification

1.  Without prejudice to Article 8 of this Regulation, pilots of aircraft referred to in Article 4(1)(b) and (c) and Article 4(5) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 shall comply with the technical requirements and administrative procedures laid down in Annex I and Annex IV to this Regulation.

2.  Notwithstanding the privileges of the holders of licences as defined in Annex I to this Regulation, holders of pilot licences issued in accordance with Subpart B or C of Annex I to this Regulation may carry out flights referred to in Article 6(4a) of Regulation (EU) No 965/2012. This is without prejudice to compliance with any additional requirements for the carriage of passengers or the development of commercial operations defined in Subparts B or C of Annex I to this Regulation.

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Article 4

Existing national pilots’ licences

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2.  Non-JAR-compliant licences including any associated ratings, certificates, authorisations and/or qualifications issued or recognised by a Member State before the applicability of this Regulation shall be converted into Part-FCL licences by the Member State that issued the licence.

3.  Non-JAR-compliant licences shall be converted into Part-FCL licences and associated ratings or certificates in accordance with:

(a) the provisions of Annex II; or

(b) the elements laid down in a conversion report.

4.  The conversion report shall:

(a) be established by the Member State that issued the pilot licence in consultation with the European Aviation Safety Agency (the Agency);

(b) describe the national requirements on the basis of which the pilot licences were issued;

(c) describe the scope of the privileges that were given to the pilots;

(d) indicate for which requirements in Annex I credit is to be given;

(e) indicate any limitations that need to be included on the Part-FCL licences and any requirements the pilot has to comply with in order to remove those limitations.

5.  The conversion report shall include copies of all documents necessary to demonstrate the elements set out in points (a) to (e) of paragraph 4, including copies of the relevant national requirements and procedures. When developing the conversion report, Member States shall aim at allowing pilots to, as far as possible, maintain their current scope of activities.

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6.  Notwithstanding paragraph 3, holders of a class rating instructor certificate or an examiner certificate who have privileges for single-pilot high performance complex aircraft shall have those privileges converted into a type rating instructor certificate or an examiner certificate for single-pilot aeroplanes.

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7.  A Member State may authorise student pilots who follow a LAPL training course to exercise limited privileges without supervision before they meet all the requirements necessary for the issuance of a LAPL, subject to the following conditions:

(a) the scope of the privileges shall be based on a safety risk assessment carried out by the Member State, taking into account the extent of training necessary for the intended level of pilot competence to be achieved;

(b) the privileges shall be limited to the following:

(i) the whole or part of the national territory of the authorising Member State;

(ii) aircraft registered in the authorising Member State;

(iii) aeroplanes and helicopters, both as single-engine piston aircraft with a maximum take-off mass not exceeding 2000 kg, sailplanes and balloons;

(c) for training conducted under the authorisation, the holder of such an authorisation who applies for the issuance of a LAPL shall receive credits that are determined by the Member State on the basis of a recommendation from an ATO or a DTO;

(d) the Member State shall submit periodical reports and safety risk assessments to the Commission and to the Agency every 3 years;

(e) the Member States shall monitor the use of authorisations issued under this paragraph to ensure an acceptable level of aviation safety and take appropriate action in case of identifying an increased safety risk or any other safety concerns.

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8.  Until ►M10  8 April 2021 ◄ , a Member State may issue an authorisation to a pilot to exercise specified limited privileges to fly aeroplanes under instrument flight rules before the pilot complies with all of the requirements necessary for the issue of an instrument rating in accordance with this Regulation, subject to the following conditions:

(a) the Member State shall only issue these authorisations when justified by a specific local need which cannot be met by the ratings established under this Regulation;

(b) the scope of the privileges granted by the authorisation shall be based on a safety risk assessment carried out by the Member State, taking into account the extent of training necessary for the intended level of pilot competence to be achieved;

(c) the privileges of the authorisation shall be limited to the airspace of the Member State’s national territory or parts of it;

(d) the authorisation shall be issued to applicants having completed appropriate training with qualified instructors and demonstrated the required competencies to a qualified examiner, as determined by the Member State;

(e) the Member State shall inform the Commission, EASA and the other Member States of the specificities of this authorisation, including its justification and safety risk assessment;

(f) the Member State shall monitor the activities associated with the authorisation to ensure an acceptable level of safety and take appropriate action in case of identifying an increased risk or any safety concerns;

(g) the Member State shall carry out a review of the safety aspects of the implementation of the authorisation and submit a report to the Commission by 8 April 2017 at the latest.

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9.  For licences issued before 19 August 2018, Member States shall comply with the requirements laid down in the second paragraph of point (a) of ARA.FCL.200 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/1065 ( 1 ) by 31 December 2022 at the latest.

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Article 4a

Performance-based navigation instrument rating privileges

1.  Pilots may only fly in accordance with performance-based navigation (‘PBN’) procedures after they have been granted PBN privileges as an endorsement to their instrument rating (‘IR’).

2.  A pilot shall be granted PBN privileges where he or she fulfils all of the following requirements:

(a) the pilot has successfully completed a course of theoretical knowledge including PBN, in accordance with FCL.615 of Annex I (Part-FCL);

(b) the pilot has successfully completed flying training including PBN, in accordance with FCL.615 of Annex I (Part-FCL);

(c) the pilot has successfully completed either a skill test in accordance with Appendix 7 to Annex I (Part-FCL) or a skill test or a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 of Annex I (Part-FCL).

3.  The requirements of paragraph 2(a) and (b) shall be deemed to have been fulfilled where the competent authority considers that the competence acquired, either through training or from familiarity with PBN operations, is equivalent to the competence acquired through the courses referred to in paragraph 2(a) and (b) and the pilot demonstrates such competence to the satisfaction of the examiner at the proficiency check or skill test referred to in paragraph 2(c).

4.  A record of the successful demonstration of competency in PBN shall, upon completion of the skill test or the proficiency check referred to in paragraph 2(c), be entered in the pilot's logbook or equivalent record and signed by the examiner who conducted the test or check.

5.  IR pilots without PBN privileges may only fly on routes and approaches that do not require PBN privileges and no PBN items shall be required for the renewal of their IR, until 25 August 2020; after that date, PBN privileges shall be required for every IR.

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Article 4b

Upset prevention and recovery training

1.  Upset prevention and recovery training shall become a mandatory part of a training course for a multi-crew pilot licence (MPL), an integrated training course for airline transport pilots for aeroplanes (ATP(A)), a training course for a commercial pilot licence for aeroplanes (CPL(A)) and training courses for a class or type rating for:

(a) single-pilot aeroplanes operated in multi-pilot operations;

(b) single-pilot non-high-performance complex aeroplanes;

(c) single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes; or

(d) multi-pilot aeroplanes;

in accordance with Annex I (Part-FCL).

2.  For training courses referred to in paragraph 1 that commence before 20 December 2019 at an approved training organisation (ATO), upset prevention and recovery training shall not be mandatory provided that:

(a) CPL(A), ATP(A) or MPL training course is otherwise completed in accordance with Annex I (Part-FCL) and the skill test is completed in compliance with points FCL.320 (CPL), FCL.620 (IR) or FCL.415.A (MPL) of Annex I (Part-FCL) by 20 December 2021 at the latest; or

(b) class or type rating training course for the aeroplanes is otherwise completed in accordance with Annex I (Part-FCL) and the skill test is completed in compliance with the second subparagraph of paragraph (c) of point FCL.725 of Annex I (Part-FCL) to this Regulation by 20 December 2021 at the latest.

For the purpose of paragraph 1, the competent authority may on its own assessment and pursuant to a recommendation from an ATO give credit for any upset prevention and recovery training completed before 20 December 2019 under national training requirements.

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Article 6

Conversion of flight test qualifications

1.  Pilots who before this Regulation applies conducted category 1 and 2 flight tests as defined in the Annex to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003 ( 2 ), or who provided instruction to flight test pilots, shall have their flight test qualifications converted into flight test ratings in accordance with Annex I to this Regulation and, where applicable, flight test instructor certificates by the Member State that issued the flight test qualifications.

2.  This conversion shall be carried out in accordance with the elements established in a conversion report that complies with the requirements set out in Article 4(4) and (5).

Article 7

Existing national flight engineers’ licences

1.  In order to convert flight engineer licences, issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, into Part-FCL licences, holders shall apply to the Member State that issued the licences.

2.  Flight engineer licences shall be converted into Part-FCL licences in accordance with a conversion report that complies with the requirements set out in Article 4(4) and (5).

3.  When applying for the airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) for aeroplanes, the provisions on credit in FCL.510.A(c)(2) of Annex I shall be complied with.

Article 8

Conditions for the acceptance of licences from third countries

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1.  Without prejudice to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and where there are no agreements concluded between the Union and a third country covering pilot licensing, Member States may accept third country licences, ratings or certificates, and associated medical certificates issued by or on behalf of third countries, in accordance with the provisions of Annex III to this Regulation.

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2.  Applicants for Part-FCL licences already holding at least an equivalent licence, rating or certificate issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention by a third country shall comply with all the requirements of Annex I to this Regulation, except that the requirements of course duration, number of lessons and specific training hours may be reduced.

3.  The credit given to the applicant shall be determined by the Member State to which the pilot applies on the basis of a recommendation from an approved training organisation.

4.  Holders of an ATPL issued by or on behalf of a third country in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention who have completed the experience requirements for the issue of an ATPL in the relevant aircraft category as set out in Subpart F of Annex I to this Regulation may be given full credit as regards the requirements to undergo a training course prior to undertaking the theoretical knowledge examinations and the skill test, provided that the third country licence contains a valid type rating for the aircraft to be used for the ATPL skill test.

5.  Aeroplane or helicopter type ratings may be issued to holders of Part-FCL licences that comply with the requirements for the issue of those ratings established by a third country. Such ratings will be restricted to aircraft registered in that third country. This restriction may be removed when the pilot complies with the requirements in point C.1 of Annex III.

Article 9

Credit for training commenced prior to the application of this Regulation

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1.  In respect of issuing Part-FCL licences in accordance with Annex I, training commenced prior to the application of this Regulation in accordance with the JARs and procedures, under the regulatory oversight of a Member State recommended for mutual recognition within the Joint Aviation Authorities’ system in relation to the relevant JARs, shall be given full credit provided that the training and testing were completed by 8 April 2016 at the latest and a Part-FCL licence is issued by 1 April 2020 at the latest.

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2.  Training commenced prior to the application of this Regulation in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention shall be given credit for the purposes of issuing Part-FCL licences on the basis of a credit report established by the Member State in consultation with the Agency.

3.  The credit report shall describe the scope of the training, indicate for which requirements of Part-FCL licences credit is given and, if applicable, which requirements applicants need to comply with in order to be issued with Part-FCL licences. It shall include copies of all documents necessary to demonstrate the scope of the training and of the national regulations and procedures in accordance with which the training was commenced.

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Article 9a

Type rating training and operational suitability data

1.  Where the Annexes to this Regulation make reference to the operational suitability data established in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 748/2012, and that data is not available for the relevant type aircraft, the applicant for a type rating training course shall comply with the provisions of the Annexes of Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 only.

2.  Type rating training courses approved before the approval of the minimum syllabus of pilot type rating training in the operational suitability data for the relevant type of aircraft in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 shall include the mandatory training elements not later than 18 December 2017 or within two years after the operational suitability data was approved, whichever is the latest.

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Article 10

Credit for pilot licences obtained during military service

1.  In order for holders of military flight crew licences to obtain Part-FCL licences, they shall apply to the Member State where they served.

2.  The knowledge, experience and skill gained in military service shall be given credit for the purposes of the relevant requirements of Annex I in accordance with the elements of a credit report established by the Member State in consultation with the Agency.

3.  The credit report shall:

(a) describe the national requirements on the basis of which the military licences, ratings, certificates, authorisations and/or qualifications were issued;

(b) describe the scope of the privileges that were given to the pilots;

(c) indicate for which requirements of Annex I credit is to be given;

(d) indicate any limitations that need to be included on the Part-FCL licences and indicate any requirements pilots have to comply with to remove those limitations;

(e) include copies of all documents necessary to demonstrate the elements above, accompanied by copies of the relevant national requirements and procedures.

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Article 10a

Pilot training organisations

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1.  Organisations shall, in accordance with Article 24(2) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, be entitled to provide training to pilots involved in the operation of aircraft referred to in points (b)(i) and (ii) of Article (2)(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 only where those organisations have been issued by the competent authority with an approval confirming that they comply with the essential requirements set out in Annex IV to Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 and with the requirements of Annex VII to this Regulation.

However, having regard to Article 24(6) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, organisations having their principal place of business in a Member State shall be entitled to provide the training referred to in point DTO.GEN.110 of Annex VIII to this Regulation without such approval inside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention where they have made a declaration to the competent authority in accordance with the requirements laid down in point DTO.GEN.115 of that Annex and, where so required pursuant to point DTO.GEN.230(c) of that Annex, the competent authority has approved the training programme.

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5.  Pilot training organisations shall ensure that the IR training course they offer include training for PBN privileges compliant with the requirements of Annex I (Part-FCL) by 25 August 2020 at the latest.

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Article 10b

Flight simulation training devices

1.  Flight simulation training devices (FSTDs) used for pilot training, testing and checking, with the exception of developmental training devices used for flight test training, shall comply with the technical requirements and administrative procedures laid down in Annexes VI and VII and shall be qualified.

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Article 10c

Aero-medical centres

1.  Aero-medical centres shall comply with the technical requirements and administrative procedures laid down in Annexes VI and VII and shall be certified.

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Article 11

Cabin crew medical fitness

1.  Cabin crew members involved in the operation of aircraft referred to in Article 4(1)(b) and (c) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 shall comply with the technical requirements and administrative procedures laid down in Annex IV.

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Article 11a

Cabin crew qualifications and related attestations

1.  Cabin crew members involved in commercial operation of aircraft referred to in Article 4(1)(b) and (c) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 shall be qualified and hold the related attestation in accordance with the technical requirements and administrative procedures laid down in Annexes V and VI.

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4.  Cabin crew members involved in commercial operations of helicopters on the date of application of this Regulation:

(a) shall be deemed to be compliant with the initial training requirements of Annex V if they comply with the applicable training, checking and recency provisions of the JARs for commercial air transportation by helicopters; or

(b) if they do not comply with the applicable training, checking and recency requirements of the JARs for commercial air transportation by helicopters, they shall complete all relevant training and checking required to operate on helicopter(s), except the initial training, before being deemed to be compliant with this Regulation; or

(c) if they have not operated in commercial operations by helicopters for more than 5 years, they shall complete the initial training course and shall pass the related examination as required in Annex V before being deemed to be compliant with this Regulation.

5.  Without prejudice to Article 2, cabin crew attestations complying with the format laid down in Annex VI shall be issued to all cabin crew members involved in commercial operations by helicopters by 8 April 2013 at the latest.

Article 11b

Oversight capabilities

1.  Member States shall designate one or more entities as the competent authority within that Member State with the necessary powers and allocated responsibilities for the certification and oversight of persons and organisations subject to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules.

2.  If a Member State designates more than one entity as competent authority:

(a) the areas of competence of each competent authority shall be clearly defined in terms of responsibilities and geographic limitation;

(b) coordination shall be established between those entities to ensure effective oversight of all organisations and persons subject to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules within their respective remits.

3.  Member States shall ensure that the competent authority(ies) has/have the necessary capability to ensure the oversight of all persons and organisations covered by their oversight programme, including sufficient resources to fulfil the requirements of this Regulation.

4.  Member States shall ensure that competent authority personnel do not perform oversight activities when there is evidence that this could result directly or indirectly in a conflict of interest, in particular when relating to family or financial interest.

5.  Personnel authorised by the competent authority to carry out certification and/or oversight tasks shall be empowered to perform at least the following tasks:

(a) examine the records, data, procedures and any other material relevant to the execution of the certification and/or oversight task;

(b) take copies of or extracts from such records, data, procedures and other material;

(c) ask for an oral explanation on site;

(d) enter relevant premises, operating sites or means of transport;

(e) perform audits, investigations, assessments and inspections, including ramp inspections and unannounced inspections; and

(f) take or initiate enforcement measures as appropriate.

6.  The tasks under paragraph 5 shall be carried out in compliance with the legal provisions of the relevant Member State.

Article 11c

Transitional measures

As regards organisations for which the Agency is the competent authority in accordance with Article 21(1)(b) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008:

(a) Member States shall transfer to the Agency all records related to the oversight of such organisations by 8 April 2013 at the latest;

(b) certification processes initiated before 8 April 2012 by a Member State shall be finalised by that Member State in coordination with the Agency. The Agency shall assume all its responsibilities as competent authority concerning such organisation after the issuance of the certificate by that Member State.

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Article 12

Entry into force and application

1.  This Regulation shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It shall apply from 8 April 2012.

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2a.  By way of derogation from paragraph 1, Member States may decide not to apply until 8 April 2020:

(1) the provisions of Annex I related to pilot licenses for sailplanes and balloons;

(2) the provisions of Annexes VII and VIII to a training organisation providing training only for a national licence that is eligible in accordance with Article 4(3) of Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011, for conversion into a Part-FCL light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL) for sailplanes or balloons, a Part-FCL sailplane pilot licence (SPL) or a Part-FCL balloon pilot licence (BPL);

(3) the provisions of Subpart B of Annex I.

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4.  By way of derogation from paragraph 1, Member States may decide not to apply the provisions of this Regulation until 20 June 2020, to pilots holding a licence and associated medical certificate issued by a third country involved in the non-commercial operation of aircraft as specified in Article 2(1)(b), points (i) or (ii), of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139. Member States shall make those decisions publicly available.

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7.  When a Member State makes use of the requirements of paragraphs 2a and 4, it shall notify the Commission and the Agency. This notification shall describe the reasons for such derogation as well as the programme for implementation containing actions envisaged and related timing.

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8.  By way of derogation from paragraph 1, point FCL.315.A, the second sentence of paragraph (a) of point FCL.410.A and paragraph (c) of point FCL.725.A of Annex I (Part-FCL) shall apply from 20 December 2019.

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This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.




ANNEX I

[PART-FCL]

SUBPART A

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

FCL.001    Competent authority

For the purpose of this Part, the competent authority shall be an authority designated by the Member State to whom a person applies for the issue of pilot licences or associated ratings or certificates.

FCL.005    Scope

This Part establishes the requirements for the issue of pilot licences and associated ratings and certificates and the conditions of their validity and use.

FCL.010    Definitions

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For the purposes of this Annex (Part-FCL), the following definitions shall apply:

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‘Accessible’ means that a device can be used by:

 the approved training organisation (ATO) under whose approval a training course for a class or type rating is being conducted; or

 the examiner conducting the assessment of competence, skill test or proficiency check for the purpose of assessing, testing or checking.

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‘Aerobatic flight’ means an intentional manoeuvre involving an abrupt change in an aircraft's attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration, not necessary for normal flight or for instruction for licences, certificates, or ratings other than the aerobatic rating.

▼B

‘Aeroplane’ means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air which is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.

‘Aeroplane required to be operated with a co-pilot’ means a type of aeroplane which is required to be operated with a co-pilot as specified in the flight manual or by the air operator certificate.

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‘Aeroplane upset prevention and recovery training’ (UPRT) means training consisting of:

 aeroplane upset prevention training: a combination of theoretical knowledge and flying training with the aim of providing flight crew with the required competencies to prevent aeroplane upsets; and

 aeroplane upset recovery training: a combination of theoretical knowledge and flying training with the aim of providing flight crew with the required competencies to recover from aeroplane upsets.

▼B

‘Aircraft’ means any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

‘Airmanship’ means the consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objectives.

‘Airship’ means a power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft, with the exception of hot-air airships, which, for the purposes of this Part, are included in the definition of balloon.

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‘Available FSTD’ means any flight simulation training device (FSTD) that is vacant for use of the FSTD operator or of the customer irrespective of any time considerations.

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‘Angular operation’ means an instrument approach operation in which the maximum tolerable error/deviation from the planned track is expressed in terms of deflection of the needles on the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) or equivalent display in the cockpit.

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‘Assessment of competence’ means the demonstration of skills, knowledge and attitude for the initial issue, revalidation or renewal of an instructor or examiner certificate.

▼B

‘Balloon’ means a lighter-than-air aircraft which is not engine-driven and sustains flight through the use of either gas or an airborne heater. For the purposes of this Part, a hot-air airship, although engine-driven, is also considered a balloon.

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▼B

‘Category of aircraft’ means a categorisation of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics, for example aeroplane, powered-lift, helicopter, airship, sailplane, free balloon.

‘Class of aeroplane’ means a categorisation of single-pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type rating.

‘Class of balloon’ means a categorisation of balloons taking into account the lifting means used to sustain flight.

‘Commercial air transport’ means the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire.

‘Competency’ means a combination of skills, knowledge and attitude required to perform a task to the prescribed standard.

‘Competency element’ means an action which constitutes a task that has a triggering event and a terminating event that clearly defines its limits, and an observable outcome.

‘Competency unit’ means a discrete function consisting of a number of competency elements.

‘Co-pilot’ means a pilot operating other than as pilot-in-command, on an aircraft for which more than one pilot is required, but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction for a licence or rating.

‘Cross-country’ means a flight between a point of departure and a point of arrival following a pre-planned route, using standard navigation procedures.

‘Cruise relief co-pilot’ means a pilot who relieves the co-pilot of his/her duties at the controls during the cruise phase of a flight in multi-pilot operations above FL 200.

‘Dual instruction time’ means flight time or instrument ground time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorised instructor.

‘Error’ means an action or inaction taken by the flight crew which leads to deviations from organisational or flight intentions or expectations.

‘Error management’ means the process of detecting and responding to errors with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of errors, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.

‘Full Flight Simulator’ (FFS) means a full size replica of a specific type or make, model and series aircraft flight deck, including the assemblage of all equipment and computer programmes necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight operations, a visual system providing an out-of-the-flight deck view, and a force cueing motion system.

‘Flight time’:

for aeroplanes, touring motor gliders and powered-lift, it means the total time from the moment an aircraft first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight;

for helicopters, it means the total time from the moment a helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped;

for airships, it means the total time from the moment an airship is released from the mast for the purpose of taking off until the moment the airship finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and is secured on the mast;

for sailplanes, it means the total time from the moment the sailplane commences the ground run in the process of taking off until the moment the sailplane finally comes to a rest at the end of flight;

for balloons, it means the total time from the moment the basket leaves the ground for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to a rest at the end of the flight.

‘Flight time under Instrument Flight Rules’ (IFR) means all flight time during which the aircraft is being operated under the Instrument Flight Rules.

‘Flight Training Device’ (FTD) means a full size replica of a specific aircraft type’s instruments, equipment, panels and controls in an open flight deck area or an enclosed aircraft flight deck, including the assemblage of equipment and computer software programmes necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight conditions to the extent of the systems installed in the device. It does not require a force cueing motion or visual system, except in the case of helicopter FTD levels 2 and 3, where visual systems are required.

‘Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer’ (FNPT) means a training device which represents the flight deck or cockpit environment, including the assemblage of equipment and computer programmes necessary to represent an aircraft type or class in flight operations to the extent that the systems appear to function as in an aircraft.

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‘Flown solely by reference to instruments’ means that the pilots fly the aircraft without any external visual references, in simulated or actual instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

▼B

‘Group of balloons’ means a categorisation of balloons, taking into account the size or capacity of the envelope.

‘Helicopter’ means a heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on one or more power-driven rotors on substantially vertical axes.

‘Instrument flight time’ means the time during which a pilot is controlling an aircraft in flight solely by reference to instruments.

‘Instrument ground time’ means the time during which a pilot is receiving instruction in simulated instrument flight, in flight simulation training devices (FSTD).

‘Instrument time’ means instrument flight time or instrument ground time.

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‘Linear operation’ means an instrument approach operation in which the maximum tolerable error/deviation from the planned track is expressed in units of length, for instance nautical miles, for cross-track lateral deviation.

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‘Line flying under supervision’ (LIFUS) means line flying after an approved zero flight time type rating training course or the line flying required by an operational suitability data (OSD) report.

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‘LNAV’ means Lateral Navigation.

‘LPV’ means Localiser Performance with Vertical Guidance.

▼B

‘Multi-pilot operation’:

for aeroplanes, it means an operation requiring at least 2 pilots using multi-crew cooperation in either multi-pilot or single-pilot aeroplanes;

for helicopters, it means an operation requiring at least 2 pilots using multi-crew cooperation on multi-pilot helicopters.

‘Multi-crew cooperation’ (MCC) means the functioning of the flight crew as a team of cooperating members led by the pilot-in-command.

‘Multi-pilot aircraft’:

for aeroplanes, it means aeroplanes certificated for operation with a minimum crew of at least two pilots;

for helicopters, airships and powered-lift aircraft, it means the type of aircraft which is required to be operated with a co-pilot as specified in the flight manual or by the air operator certificate or equivalent document.

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‘Night’ means the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority.

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‘OSD’ means the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.

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‘Other training devices’ (OTD) means training aids other than FSTDs which provide means for training where a complete flight deck environment is not necessary.

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‘Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)’ means area navigation based on performance requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS route, on an instrument approach procedure or in a designated airspace.

▼B

‘Performance criteria’ means a simple, evaluative statement on the required outcome of the competency element and a description of the criteria used to judge if the required level of performance has been achieved.

‘Pilot-in-command’ (PIC) means the pilot designated as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of the flight.

‘Pilot-in-command under supervision’ (PICUS) means a co-pilot performing, under the supervision of the pilot-in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-command.

‘Powered-lift aircraft’ means any aircraft deriving vertical lift and in flight propulsion/lift from variable geometry rotors or engines/propulsive devices attached to or contained within the fuselage or wings.

‘Powered sailplane’ means an aircraft equipped with one or more engines having, with engines inoperative, the characteristics of a sailplane.

‘Private pilot’ means a pilot who holds a licence which prohibits the piloting of aircraft in operations for which remuneration is given, with the exclusion of instruction or examination activities, as established in this Part.

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‘Proficiency check’ means the demonstration of skill to revalidate or renew ratings or privileges, and including such oral examination as may be required.

▼B

‘Renewal’ (of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken after a rating or certificate has lapsed for the purpose of renewing the privileges of the rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.

‘Revalidation’ (of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken within the period of validity of a rating or certificate which allows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.

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‘RNP APCH’ means a PBN specification used for instrument approach operations.

‘RNP APCH operation down to LNAV minima’ means a 2D instrument approach operation for which the lateral guidance is based on GNSS positioning.

‘RNP APCH operation down to LNAV/VNAV minima’ means a 3D instrument approach operation for which the lateral guidance is based on GNSS positioning and the vertical guidance is provided either by the Baro VNAV function or by the GNSS positioning including SBAS.

‘RNP APCH operation down to LPV minima’ means a 3D instrument approach operation for which both lateral and vertical guidance are based on GNSS positioning including SBAS.

‘RNP AR APCH’ means a navigation specification used for instrument approach operations requiring a specific approval.

▼B

‘Route sector’ means a flight comprising take-off, departure, cruise of not less than 15 minutes, arrival, approach and landing phases.

‘Sailplane’ means a heavier-than-air aircraft which is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its fixed lifting surfaces, the free flight of which does not depend on an engine.

‘Single-pilot aircraft’ means an aircraft certificated for operation by one pilot.

‘Skill test’ means the demonstration of skill for a licence or rating issue, including such oral examination as may be required.

‘Solo flight time’ means flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft.

‘Student pilot-in-command’ (SPIC) means a student pilot acting as pilot-in-command on a flight with an instructor where the latter will only observe the student pilot and shall not influence or control the flight of the aircraft.

‘Threat’ means events or errors which occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity and which must be managed to maintain the margin of safety.

‘Threat management’ means the process of detecting and responding to the threats with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of threats, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.

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‘Three-dimensional (3D) instrument approach operation’ means an instrument approach operation using both lateral and vertical navigation guidance.

▼B

‘Touring Motor Glider’ (TMG) means a specific class of powered sailplane having an integrally mounted, non-retractable engine and a non-retractable propeller. It shall be capable of taking off and climbing under its own power according to its flight manual.

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‘Two-dimensional (2D) instrument approach operation’ means an instrument approach operation using lateral navigation guidance only.

▼B

‘Type of aircraft’ means a categorisation of aircraft requiring a type rating as determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, and which include all aircraft of the same basic design including all modifications thereto except those which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics.

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‘Type rating and licence endorsement list’ means a list published by the Agency based on the result of the OSD evaluation and containing classes of aeroplanes and types of aircraft for the purpose of flight crew licensing.

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‘VNAV’ means Vertical Navigation.

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FCL.015    Application and issue, revalidation and renewal of licences, ratings and certificates

▼B

(a)

An application for the issue, revalidation or renewal of pilot licences and associated ratings and certificates shall be submitted to the competent authority in a form and manner established by this authority. The application shall be accompanied by evidence that the applicant complies with the requirements for the issue, revalidation or renewal of the licence or certificate as well as associated ratings or endorsements, established in this Part and Part-Medical.

(b)

Any limitation or extension of the privileges granted by a licence, rating or certificate shall be endorsed in the licence or certificate by the competent authority.

(c)

A person shall not hold at any time more than one licence per category of aircraft issued in accordance with this Part.

(d)

An application for the issue of a licence for another category of aircraft, or for the issue of further ratings or certificates, as well as an amendment, revalidation or renewal of those licences, ratings or certificates shall be submitted to the competent authority which initially issued the pilot licence, except when the pilot has requested a change of competent authority and a transfer of his licensing and medical records to that authority.

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FCL.020    Student pilot

(a) A student pilot shall not fly solo unless authorised to do so and supervised by a flight instructor.

(b) Before his/her first solo flight, a student pilot shall be at least:

(1) in the case of aeroplanes, helicopters and airships: 16 years of age;

(2) in the case of sailplanes and balloons: 14 years of age.

FCL.025    Theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of licences and ratings

▼B

(a)    Responsibilities of the applicant

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(1) Applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a specific licence or rating under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent authority.

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(2) Applicants shall only take the theoretical knowledge examination when recommended by the declared training organisation (DTO) or the approved training organisation (ATO) responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard.

(3) The recommendation by a DTO or an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant.

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(b)    Pass standards

(1) A pass in a theoretical knowledge examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75 % of the marks allocated to that paper. No penalty marking shall be applied.

(2) Unless otherwise determined in this Part, an applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination for the appropriate pilot licence or rating if he or she has passed all the required theoretical knowledge examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination.

(3) If an applicant for the ATPL theoretical knowledge examination, or for the issue of a commercial pilot licence (CPL), an instrument rating (IR) or an en route instrument rating (EIR) has failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four attempts, or has failed to pass all papers within either six sittings or within the period mentioned in point (b)(2), he or she shall retake the complete set of theoretical knowledge examination papers.

(4) If applicants for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL), a private pilot licence (PPL), a sailplane pilot licence (SPL) or a balloon pilot licence (BPL) have failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four attempts or have failed to pass all papers within the period mentioned in point (b)(2), they shall retake the complete set of theoretical knowledge examination papers.

(5) Before retaking the theoretical knowledge examinations, applicants shall undertake further training at a DTO or an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicants.

▼B

(c)    Validity period

(1) The successful completion of the theoretical knowledge examinations will be valid:

(i) for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence, a private pilot licence, a sailplane pilot licence or a balloon pilot licence, for a period of 24 months;

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(ii) for the issue of a commercial pilot licence, instrument rating (IR) or en route instrument rating (EIR), for a period of 36 months;

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(iii) the periods in (i) and (ii) shall be counted from the day when the pilot successfully completes the theoretical knowledge examination, in accordance with (b)(2).

(2) The completion of the airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) theoretical knowledge examinations will remain valid for the issue of an ATPL for a period of 7 years from the last validity date of:

(i) an IR entered in the licence; or

(ii) in the case of helicopters, a helicopter’s type rating entered in that licence.

FCL.030    Practical skill test

(a)

Before a skill test for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination, except in the case of applicants undergoing a course of integrated flying training.

In any case, the theoretical knowledge instruction shall always have been completed before the skill tests are taken.

(b)

Except for the issue of an airline transport pilot licence, the applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner.

FCL.035    Crediting of flight time and theoretical knowledge

(a)    Crediting of flight time

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(1) Unless otherwise specified in this Part, flight time to be credited for a licence, rating or certificate shall have been flown in the same category of aircraft for which the licence, rating or certificate is sought.

(2) PIC or under instruction.

▼B

(i) An applicant for a licence, rating or certificate shall be credited in full with all solo, dual instruction or PIC flight time towards the total flight time required for the licence, rating or certificate.

(ii) A graduate of an ATP integrated training course is entitled to be credited with up to 50 hours of student pilot-in-command instrument time towards the PIC time required for the issue of the airline transport pilot licence, commercial pilot licence and a multi-engine type or class rating.

(iii) A graduate of a CPL/IR integrated training course is entitled to be credited with up to 50 hours of the student pilot-in-command instrument time towards the PIC time required for the issue of the commercial pilot licence and a multi-engine type or class rating.

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(3) Flight time as co-pilot or PICUS. Unless otherwise determined in this Part, the holder of a pilot licence, when acting as co-pilot or PICUS, is entitled to be credited with all of the co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a higher grade of pilot licence.

▼B

(b)    Crediting of theoretical knowledge

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(1) An applicant having passed the theoretical knowledge examination for an airline transport pilot licence shall be credited with the theoretical knowledge requirements for the light aircraft pilot licence, the private pilot licence, the commercial pilot licence and, except in the case of helicopters, the IR and the EIR in the same category of aircraft.

▼B

(2) An applicant having passed the theoretical knowledge examination for a commercial pilot licence shall be credited with the theoretical knowledge requirement for a light aircraft pilot licence or a private pilot licence in the same category of aircraft.

(3) The holder of an IR or an applicant having passed the instrument theoretical knowledge examination for a category of aircraft shall be fully credited towards the requirements for the theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for an IR in another category of aircraft.

(4) The holder of a pilot licence shall be credited towards the requirements for theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for a licence in another category of aircraft in accordance with Appendix 1 to this Part.

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(5) Notwithstanding point (b)(3), the holder of an IR(A) who has completed a competency-based modular IR(A) course or the holder of an EIR shall only be credited in full towards the requirements for theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for an IR in another category of aircraft when also having passed the theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for the IFR part of the course required in accordance with FCL.720.A.(b)(2)(i).

▼B

This credit also applies to applicants for a pilot licence who have already successfully completed the theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of that licence in another category of aircraft, as long as it is within the validity period specified in FCL.025(c).

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FCL.040    Exercise of the privileges of licences

The exercise of the privileges granted by a licence shall be dependent upon the validity of the ratings contained therein, if applicable, and of the medical certificate as appropriate to the privileges exercised.

▼B

FCL.045    Obligation to carry and present documents

(a)

A valid licence and a valid medical certificate shall always be carried by the pilot when exercising the privileges of the licence.

(b)

The pilot shall also carry a personal identification document containing his/her photo.

(c)

A pilot or a student pilot shall without undue delay present his/her flight time record for inspection upon request by an authorised representative of a competent authority.

(d)

A student pilot shall carry on all solo cross-country flights evidence of the authorisation required by FCL.020(a).

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(e)

A pilot intending to fly outside Union territory on an aircraft registered in a Member State other than the one that issued the flight crew licence shall carry, in print or in electronic format, the latest issue of the ICAO attachment, which includes a reference to the ICAO registration number of the agreement that recognises the automatic validation of licences, as well as the list of States which are party to this agreement.

▼B

FCL.050    Recording of flight time

The pilot shall keep a reliable record of the details of all flights flown in a form and manner established by the competent authority.

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FCL.055    Language proficiency

(a) General. Aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The endorsement shall indicate the language, the proficiency level and the validity date, and it shall be obtained in accordance with a procedure established by a competent authority. The minimum acceptable proficiency level is the operational level (Level 4) in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.

(b) The applicant for a language proficiency endorsement shall demonstrate, in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex, at least an operational level of language proficiency both in the use of phraseologies and plain language to an assessor certified by a competent authority or a language-testing body approved by a competent authority as applicable. To do so, the applicant shall demonstrate the ability to:

(1) communicate effectively in voice-only and in face-to-face situations;

(2) communicate on common and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity;

(3) use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognise and resolve misunderstandings in a general or work-related context;

(4) handle successfully the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events which occurs within the context of a routine work situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar; and

(5) use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.

(c) Except for pilots who have demonstrated language proficiency at the expert level (level 6) in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex, the language proficiency endorsement shall be re-evaluated every:

(1) 4 years, if the level demonstrated is operational level (level 4); or

(2) 6 years, if the level demonstrated is extended level (level 5).

(d) Specific requirements for holders of an instrument rating (IR) or en-route instrument rating (EIR). Without prejudice to the points above, holders of an IR or an EIR shall have demonstrated the ability to use English at the appropriate proficiency level as defined in Appendix 2 to this Annex.

(e) The demonstration of language proficiency and the ability to use English for IR or EIR holders shall be done through a method of assessment established by any competent authority.

▼B

FCL.060    Recent experience

(a)

Balloons. A pilot shall not operate a balloon in commercial air transport or carrying passengers unless he/she has completed in the preceding 180 days:

(1) at least 3 flights as a pilot flying in a balloon, of which at least 1 shall be in a balloon of the relevant class and group; or

(2) 1 flight in the relevant class and group of balloon under the supervision of an instructor qualified in accordance with Subpart J.

(b)

Aeroplanes, helicopters, powered-lift, airships and sailplanes. A pilot shall not operate an aircraft in commercial air transport or carrying passengers:

(1) as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least 3 take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class. The 3 take-offs and landings shall be performed in either multi-pilot or single-pilot operations, depending on the privileges held by the pilot; and

(2) as PIC at night unless he/she:

(i) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and landing at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class; or

(ii) holds an IR;

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(3) as cruise relief co-pilot unless he/she:

(i) has complied with the requirements in (b)(1); or

(ii) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 3 sectors as a cruise relief pilot on the same type or class of aircraft; or

(iii) has carried out recency and refresher flying skill training in an FFS at intervals not exceeding 90 days. This refresher training may be combined with the operator’s refresher training prescribed in the relevant requirements of Part-ORO.

▼B

(4) When a pilot has the privilege to operate more than one type of aeroplane with similar handling and operation characteristics, the 3 take-offs, approaches and landings required in (1) may be performed as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21.

(5) When a pilot has the privilege to operate more than one type of non-complex helicopter with similar handling and operation characteristics, as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, the 3 take-offs, approaches and landings required in (1) may be performed in just one of the types, provided that the pilot has completed at least 2 hours of flight in each of the types of helicopter, during the preceding 6 months.

(c)

Specific requirements for commercial air transport:

(1) In the case of commercial air transport, the 90-day period prescribed in subparagraphs (b)(1) and (2) above may be extended up to a maximum of 120 days, as long as the pilot undertakes line flying under the supervision of a type rating instructor or examiner.

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(2) If the pilot does not comply with the requirement in point (1), he or she shall complete a training flight with an instructor qualified in accordance with Subpart J to instruct for that aircraft type. The training flight shall be performed in the aircraft or an FFS of the aircraft type to be used, and shall include at least the requirements described in points (b)(1) and (2) before he or she can exercise his/her privileges.

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FCL.065    Curtailment of privileges of licence holders aged 60 years or more in commercial air transport

(a)

Age 60-64. Aeroplanes and helicopters. The holder of a pilot licence who has attained the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport except as a member of a multi-pilot crew.

(b)

Age 65. Except in the case of a holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence, the holder of a pilot licence who has attained the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport.

(c)

Age 70. The holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence who has attained the age of 70 years shall not act as a pilot of a balloon or a sailplane engaged in commercial air transport.

▼B

FCL.070    Revocation, suspension and limitation of licences, ratings and certificates

(a)

Licences, ratings and certificates issued in accordance with this Part may be limited, suspended or revoked by the competent authority when the pilot does not comply with the requirements of this Part, Part-Medical or the applicable operational requirements, in accordance with the conditions and procedures laid down in Part-ARA.

(b)

When the pilot has his/her licence suspended or revoked, he/she shall immediately return the licence or certificate to the competent authority.

SUBPART B

LIGHT AIRCRAFT PILOT LICENCE — LAPL

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.100    LAPL — Minimum age

Applicants for the LAPL shall be:

(a) in the case of aeroplanes and helicopters, at least 17 years of age;

(b) in the case of sailplanes and balloons, at least 16 years of age.

FCL.105    LAPL — Privileges and conditions

(a)

General. The privileges of the holder of an LAPL are to act without remuneration as PIC in non-commercial operations on the appropriate aircraft category.

(b)

Conditions. Applicants for the LAPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the relevant aircraft category and, when applicable, for the class or type of aircraft used in the skill test.

FCL.110    LAPL — Crediting for the same aircraft category

(a)

Applicants for an LAPL who have held another licence in the same category of aircraft shall be fully credited towards the requirements of the LAPL in that category of aircraft.

(b)

Without prejudice to the paragraph above, if the licence has lapsed, the applicant shall have to pass a skill test in accordance with FCL.125 for the issue of an LAPL in the appropriate aircraft category.

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FCL.115    LAPL — Training course

(a) Applicants for an LAPL shall complete a training course at a DTO or an ATO.

(b) The course shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction appropriate to the privileges of the LAPL applied for.

(c) Theoretical knowledge instruction and flight instruction may be completed at a DTO or at an ATO different from the one where applicants have commenced their training.

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(d) For the training for the single-engine piston aeroplanes-sea class privilege, the elements of Appendix 9 to this Annex, point 7 (Class ratings – sea) of Section B (Specific requirements for the aeroplane category) shall be considered.

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FCL.120    LAPL — Theoretical knowledge examination

(a) Applicants for an LAPL(A) and an LAPL(H) shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted, through examinations on the following subjects:

(1) common subjects:

 Air law and air traffic control (ATC) procedures;

 Human performance;

 Meteorology;

 Communications;

 Navigation.

(2) specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

 Principles of flight;

 Operational procedures,;

 Flight performance and planning;

 Aircraft general knowledge.

(b) Applicants for an LAPL(B) and an LAPL(S) shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted, through examinations on the following:

(1) common subjects:

 Air law and air traffic control (ATC) procedures,

 Human performance,

 Meteorology, and

 Communications.

(2) specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

 Principles of flight,

 Operational procedures;

 Flight performance and planning,

 Aircraft general knowledge, and

 Navigation.

▼B

FCL.125    LAPL — Skill test

(a)

Applicants for an LAPL shall demonstrate through the completion of a skill test the ability to perform, as PIC on the appropriate aircraft category, the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

(b)

Applicants for the skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class or type of aircraft to be used for the skill test. The privileges will be restricted to the class or type used for the skill test until further extensions are endorsed on the licence, in accordance with this Subpart.

(c)

Pass marks

(1) The skill test shall be divided into different sections, representing all the different phases of flight appropriate to the category of aircraft flown.

(2) Failure in any item of a section will cause the applicant to fail the entire section. If the applicant fails only 1 section, he/she shall repeat only that section. Failure in more than 1 section will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.

(3) When the test needs to be repeated in accordance with (2), failure in any section, including those that have been passed on a previous attempt, will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.

(4) Failure to achieve a pass in all sections of the test in 2 attempts will require further practical training.

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the LAPL for aeroplanes — LAPL(A)

▼M11

FCL.105.A    LAPL(A) — Privileges and conditions

(a) Privileges

The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for aeroplanes are to act as PIC on single-engine piston aeroplanes-land (SEP(land)), single-engine piston aeroplanes-sea (SEP(sea)) or TMG with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are always a maximum of 4 persons on board of the aircraft.

(b) Conditions

(1) Holders of a LAPL(A) shall carry passengers only if they have completed 10 hours of flight time as PIC on aeroplanes or TMG after the issuance of the licence.

(2) Holders of a LAPL(A) who previously held an ATPL(A), an MPL(A), a CPL(A) or a PPL(A), are exempted from the requirements laid down in point (b)(1).

▼B

FCL.110.A    LAPL(A) — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for an LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 30 hours of flight instruction on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least:

(1) 15 hours of dual flight instruction in the class in which the skill test will be taken;

(2) 6 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 3 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which 1 full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

▼M7

(b)

Specific requirements for applicants holding an LAPL(S) or an SPL with TMG extension. Applicants for an LAPL(A) holding an LAPL(S) or an SPL with TMG extension shall have completed at least 21 hours of flight time on TMGs after the endorsement of the TMG extension and complied with the requirements of point FCL.135.A(a) on aeroplanes.

(c)

Crediting. Applicants with prior experience as PIC may be credited towards the requirements of point (a).

The amount of credit shall be decided by the DTO or the ATO where the pilot undergoes the training course, on the basis of a pre-entry flight test, but shall in any case:

(1) not exceed the total flight time as PIC;

(2) not exceed 50 % of the hours required in point (a);

(3) not include the requirements of point (a)(2).

▼B

FCL.135.A    LAPL(A) — Extension of privileges to another class or variant of aeroplane

(a)

The privileges of an LAPL(A) shall be limited to the class and variant of aeroplanes or TMG in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed in another class the requirements below:

(1) 3 hours of flight instruction, including:

(i) 10 dual take-offs and landings; and

(ii) 10 supervised solo take-offs and landings.

(2) a skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in the new class. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other class in the following subjects:

(i) Operational procedures;

(ii) Flight performance and planning;

(iii) Aircraft general knowledge.

▼M11

(b)

In order to extend the privileges to another variant within a class, the pilot shall either undertake differences training or do a familiarisation. The differences training shall be entered in the pilot’s logbook or into an equivalent record and be signed by the instructor.

FCL.140.A    LAPL(A) — Recency requirements

(a) Holders of a LAPL(A) shall exercise the privileges of their licence only if in the last 2 years they have met any of the following conditions as pilots of aeroplanes or TMGs:

(1) they have completed at least 12 hours of flight time as PIC or flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, including:

 12 take-offs and landings;

 refresher training of at least 1 hour of total flight time with an instructor;

(2) they have passed a LAPL(A) proficiency check with an examiner. The proficiency check programme shall be based on the skill test for the LAPL(A);

(b) If holders of a LAPL(A) hold both a SEP(land) and a SEP(sea) privilege, they may comply with the requirements in point (a)(1) in either class or a combination thereof which shall be valid for both privileges. For this purpose, at least 1 hour of the required flight time and 6 out of the required 12 take-offs and landings shall be completed in each class.

▼B

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for the LAPL for helicopters — LAPL(H)

FCL.105.H    LAPL(H) — Privileges

The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for helicopters are to act as PIC on single-engine helicopters with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2 000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board.

FCL.110.H    LAPL(H) — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for the LAPL(H) shall have completed 40 hours of flight instruction on helicopters. At least 35 hours of which shall be flown on the type of helicopter that is to be used for the skill test. The flight instruction shall include at least:

(1) 20 hours of dual flight instruction; and

(2) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which one full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

▼M7

(b)

Crediting. Applicants with prior experience as PIC may be credited towards the requirements of point (a).

The amount of credit shall be decided by the DTO or the ATO where the pilot undergoes the training course, on the basis of a pre-entry flight test, but shall in any case:

(1) not exceed the total flight time as PIC;

(2) not exceed 50 % of the hours required in point (a);

(3) not include the requirements of point (a)(2).

▼B

FCL.135.H    LAPL(H) — Extension of privileges to another type or variant of helicopter

(a)

The privileges of an LAPL(H) shall be limited to the specific type and variant of helicopter in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed:

(1) 5 hours of flight instruction, including:

(i) 15 dual take-offs, approaches and landings;

(ii) 15 supervised solo take-offs, approaches and landings;

(2) a skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in the new type. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other type in the following subjects:

 Operational procedures,

 Flight performance and planning,

 Aircraft general knowledge.

(b)

Before the holder of an LAPL(H) can exercise the privileges of the licence in another variant of helicopter than the one used for the skill test, the pilot shall undertake differences or familiarisation training, as determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21. The differences training shall be entered in the pilot’s logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor.

▼M11

FCL.140.H    LAPL(H) — Recency requirements

Holders of an LAPL(H) shall exercise the privileges of their licence on a specific type only if in the last 12 months they have either:

(a) completed at least six hours of flight time on helicopters of that type as PIC, or flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, including six take-offs, approaches and landings and completed a refresher training of at least 1 hour of total flight time with an instructor;

(b) passed a proficiency check with an examiner on the specific type before resuming the exercise of the privileges of their licence. That proficiency check programme shall be based on the skill test for the LAPL(H).

▼B

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for the LAPL for sailplanes — LAPL(S)

FCL.105.S    LAPL(S) — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for sailplanes are to act as PIC on sailplanes and powered sailplanes. In order to exercise the privileges on a TMG, the holder shall comply with the requirements in FCL.135.S.

▼M3

(b)

Holders of an LAPL(S) shall only carry passengers once they have completed 10 hours of flight time or 30 launches as PIC on sailplanes or powered sailplanes after the issuance of the licence.

▼B

FCL.110.S    LAPL(S) — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for an LAPL(S) shall have completed at least 15 hours of flight instruction in sailplanes, or powered sailplanes, including at least:

(1) 10 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 2 hours of supervised solo flight time;

(3) 45 launches and landings;

(4) 1 solo cross-country flight of at least 50 km (27 NM) or 1 dual cross-country flight of at least 100 km (55 NM).

(b)

Of the 15 hours required in (a), a maximum of 7 hours may be completed in a TMG.

▼M7

(c)

Crediting. Applicants with prior experience as PIC may be credited towards the requirements of point (a).

The amount of credit shall be decided by the DTO or the ATO where the pilot undergoes the training course, on the basis of a pre-entry flight test, but shall in any case:

(1) not exceed the total flight time as PIC;

(2) not exceed 50 % of the hours required in point (a);

(3) not include the requirements of points (2), (3) and (4) of point (a).

▼B

FCL.130.S    LAPL(S) — Launch methods

(a)

The privileges of the LAPL(S) shall be limited to the launch method included in the skill test. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed:

(1) in the case of winch launch and car launch, a minimum of 10 launches in dual flight instruction, and 5 solo launches under supervision;

(2) in the case of aero tow or self launch, a minimum of 5 launches in dual flight instruction, and 5 solo launches under supervision. In the case of self launch, dual flight instruction may be done in a TMG;

(3) in the case of bungee launch, a minimum of 3 launches performed in dual flight instruction or solo under supervision.

(b)

The completion of the additional training launches shall be entered in the logbook and signed by the instructor.

(c)

In order to maintain their privileges in each launch method, pilots shall complete a minimum of 5 launches during the last 24 months, except for bungee launch, in which case pilots shall have completed only 2 launches.

(d)

When the pilot does not comply with the requirement in (c), he/she shall perform the additional number of launches flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor in order to renew the privileges.

FCL.135.S    LAPL(S) — Extension of privileges to TMG

▼M7

The privileges of an LAPL(S) shall be extended to a TMG when the pilot has completed, at a DTO or at an ATO, at least:

▼B

(a) 6 hours of flight instruction on a TMG, including:

(1) 4 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 1 solo cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which 1 full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be performed;

(b) a skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in a TMG. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the TMG in the following subjects:

 Principles of flight,

 Operational procedures,

 Flight performance and planning,

 Aircraft general knowledge,

 Navigation.

FCL.140.S    LAPL(S) — Recency requirements

(a)

Sailplanes and powered sailplanes. Holders of an LAPL(S) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence on sailplanes or powered sailplanes when they have completed on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, excluding TMGs, in the last 24 months, at least:

(1) 5 hours of flight time as PIC, including 15 launches;

(2) 2 training flights with an instructor.

(b)

TMG. Holders of an LAPL(S) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence on a TMG when they have:

(1) completed on TMGs in the last 24 months:

(i) at least 12 hours of flight time as PIC, including 12 take-offs and landings; and

(ii) refresher training of at least 1 hour total flight time with an instructor.

(2) When the holder of the LAPL(S) also has the privileges to fly aeroplanes, the requirements in (1) may be completed on aeroplanes.

(c)

Holders of an LAPL(S) who do not comply with the requirements in (a) or (b) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) pass a proficiency check with an examiner on a sailplane or a TMG, as appropriate; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a) or (b).

SECTION 5

Specific requirements for the LAPL for balloons — LAPL(B)

▼M4

FCL.105.B    LAPL(B) — Privileges

The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for balloons are to act as PIC on hot-air balloons or hot-air airships with a maximum of 3 400 m3 envelope capacity or gas balloons with a maximum of 1 260 m3 envelope capacity, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board of the balloon.

▼M3

FCL.110.B    LAPL(B) — Experience requirements and crediting

▼B

(a)

Applicants for an LAPL(B) shall have completed on balloons of the same class at least 16 hours of flight instruction, including at least:

(1) 12 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 10 inflations and 20 take-offs and landings; and

(3) 1 supervised solo flight with a minimum flight time of at least 30 minutes.

▼M7

(b)

Crediting. Applicants with prior experience as PIC on balloons may be credited towards the requirements of point (a).

The amount of credit shall be decided by the DTO or the ATO where the pilot undergoes the training course, on the basis of a pre-entry flight test, but shall in any case:

(1) not exceed the total flight time as PIC on balloons;

(2) not exceed 50 % of the hours required in point (a);

(3) not include the requirements of points (2) and (3) of point (a).

▼B

FCL.130.B    LAPL(B) — Extension of privileges to tethered flights

(a)

The privileges of the LAPL(B) shall be limited to non-tethered flights. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed at least 3 tethered instruction flights.

(b)

The completion of the additional training shall be entered in the logbook and signed by the instructor.

(c)

In order to maintain this privilege, pilots shall complete a minimum of 2 tethered flights during the last 24 months.

(d)

When the pilot does not comply with the requirement in (c), he/she shall perform the additional number of tethered flights flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor in order to renew the privileges.

FCL.135.B    LAPL(B) — Extension of privileges to another balloon class

▼M7

The privileges of the LAPL(B) shall be limited to the class of balloons in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed in the other class, at a DTO or at an ATO, at least:

▼B

(a) 5 dual instruction flights; or

(b) in the case of an LAPL(B) for hot-air balloons wishing to extend their privileges to hot-air airships, 5 hours of dual flight instruction time; and

(c) a skill test, during which they shall demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other class in the following subjects:

 Principles of flight,

 Operational procedures,

 Flight performance and planning, and

 Aircraft general knowledge.

FCL.140.B    LAPL(B) — Recency requirements

(a)

Holders of an LAPL(B) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when they have completed, in one class of balloons in the last 24 months, at least:

(1) 6 hours of flight time as PIC, including 10 take-offs and landings; and

(2) 1 training flight with an instructor;

(3) in addition, if the pilot is qualified to fly more than one class of balloons, in order to exercise their privileges in the other class, they shall have completed at least 3 hours of flight time in that class within the last 24 months, including 3 take-offs and landings.

(b)

Holders of an LAPL(B) who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) pass a proficiency check with an examiner in the appropriate class; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a).

SUBPART C

PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE (PPL), SAILPLANE PILOT LICENCE (SPL) AND BALLOON PILOT LICENCE (BPL)

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.200    Minimum age

(a)

An applicant for a PPL shall be at least 17 years of age;

(b)

An applicant for a BPL or an SPL shall be at least 16 years of age.

FCL.205    Conditions

Applicants for the issue of a PPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type rating for the aircraft used in the skill test, as established in Subpart H.

▼M7

FCL.210    Training course

(a) Applicants for a BPL, SPL or PPL shall complete a training course at a DTO or at an ATO.

(b) The course shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction appropriate to the privileges of the BPL, SPL or PPL applied for.

(c) Theoretical knowledge instruction and flight instruction may be completed at a DTO or at an ATO different from the one where applicants have commenced their training.

▼M11

FCL.215    Theoretical knowledge examination

(a) Applicants for a PPL shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted, through examinations in the following subjects:

(1) common subjects:

 Air law,

 Human performance,

 Meteorology, and

 Communications; and

 Navigation.

(2) specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

 Principles of flight,

 Operational procedures,

 Flight performance and planning, and

 Aircraft general knowledge.

(b) Applicants for a BPL or SPL shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted through examinations in the following subjects:

(1) common subjects:

 Air law,

 Human performance,

 Meteorology, and

 Communications.

(2) specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

 Principles of flight,

 perational procedures,

 Flight performance and planning,

 Aircraft general knowledge, and

 Navigation.

▼B

FCL.235    Skill test

(a)

Applicants for a BPL, SPL or PPL shall demonstrate through the completion of a skill test the ability to perform, as PIC on the appropriate aircraft category, the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

(b)

An applicant for the skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class or type of aircraft, or a group of balloons to be used for the skill test.

(c)

Pass marks

(1) The skill test shall be divided into different sections, representing all the different phases of flight appropriate to the category of aircraft flown.

▼M3

(2) Failure in any item of a section will cause the applicant to fail the entire section. If the applicant fails only 1 section, he/she shall repeat only that section. Failure in more than 1 section will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.

▼B

(3) When the test needs to be repeated in accordance with (2), failure in any section, including those that have been passed on a previous attempt, will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.

(4) Failure to achieve a pass in all sections of the test in 2 attempts will require further training.

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the PPL aeroplanes — PPL(A)

FCL.205.A    PPL(A) — Privileges

▼M11

(a)

The privileges of the holders of a PPL(A) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilots of aeroplanes or TMGs engaged in non-commercial operations and to exercise all privileges of holders of an LAPL(A).

▼B

(b)

Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(A) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(A) or PPL(A);

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;

▼M3

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings or certificates attached to this licence.

▼B

FCL.210.A    PPL(A) — Experience requirements and crediting

▼M4

(a)

Applicants for a PPL(A) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or TMGs, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:

(1) 25 hours of dual flight instruction; and

(2) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

▼M7

(b)

Specific requirements for applicants holding an LAPL(A). Applicants for a PPL(A) holding an LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 15 hours of flight time on aeroplanes after the issue of the LAPL(A), of which at least 10 shall be flight instruction completed in a training course at a DTO or at an ATO. That training course shall include at least four hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least two hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least one cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

(c)

Specific requirements for applicants holding an LAPL(S) or an SPL with a TMG extension. Applicants for a PPL(A) holding an LAPL(S) or an SPL with a TMG extension shall have completed:

(1) at least 24 hours of flight time on TMG after the endorsement of the TMG extension; and

(2) at least 15 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes in a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including at least the requirements of point (a)(2).

▼B

(d)

Crediting. Applicants holding a pilot licence for another category of aircraft, with the exception of balloons, shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such aircraft up to a maximum of 10 hours. The amount of credit given shall in any case not include the requirements in (a)(2).

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for the PPL helicopters — PPL(H)

FCL.205.H    PPL(H) — Privileges

▼M11

(a)

The privileges of the holder of a PPL(H) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilot of helicopters engaged in non-commercial operations and to exercise all privileges of holders of an LAPL(H).

▼B

(b)

Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(H) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(H) or the PPL(H);

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;

▼M3

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings and certificates attached to this licence.

▼B

FCL.210.H    PPL(H) — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for a PPL(H) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction on helicopters, 5 of which may have been completed in an FNPT or FFS, including at least:

(1) 25 hours of dual flight instruction; and

(2) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM), with full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure.

(3) 35 of the 45 hours of flight instruction have to be completed on the same type of helicopter as the one used for the skill test.

▼M7

(b)

Specific requirements for an applicant holding an LAPL(H). Applicants for a PPL(H) holding an LAPL(H) shall complete a training course at a DTO or at an ATO. That training course shall include at least five hours of dual flight instruction time and at least one supervised solo cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM), with full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure.

▼B

(c)

Applicants holding a pilot licence for another category of aircraft, with the exception of balloons, shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such aircraft up to a maximum of 6 hours. The amount of credit given shall in any case not include the requirements in (a)(2).

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for the PPL airships — PPL(As)

FCL.205.As    PPL(As) — Privileges

(a)

The privileges of the holder of a PPL(As) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilot on airships engaged in non-commercial operations.

(b)

Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(As) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the PPL(As);

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for this licence;

▼M3

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings or certificates attached to this licence.

▼B

FCL.210.As    PPL(As) — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for a PPL(As) shall have completed at least 35 hours of flight instruction in airships, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:

(1) 25 hours of dual flight instruction, including:

(i) 3 hours of cross-country flight training, including 1 cross-country flight of at least 65 km (35 NM);

(ii) 3 hours of instrument instruction;

(2) 8 take-offs and landings at an aerodrome, including masting and unmasting procedures;

(3) 8 hours of supervised solo flight time.

(b)

Applicants holding a BPL and qualified to fly hot-air airships shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such airships up to a maximum of 5 hours.

SECTION 5

Specific requirements for the sailplane pilot licence (SPL)

FCL.205.S    SPL — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of the holder of an SPL are to act as PIC on sailplanes and powered sailplanes. In order to exercise the privileges on a TMG, the holder shall have to comply with the requirements in FCL.135.S.

(b)

Holders of an SPL shall:

(1) carry passengers only when having completed, after the issuance of the licence, at least 10 hours of flight time or 30 launches as PIC on sailplanes or powered sailplanes;

(2) be restricted to act without remuneration in non-commercial operations until they have:

(i) attained the age of 18 years;

(ii) completed, after the issuance of the licence, 75 hours of flight time or 200 launches as PIC on sailplanes or powered sailplanes;

(iii) passed a proficiency check with an examiner.

▼M3

(c)

Notwithstanding (b)(2), the holder of an SPL with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(S) or the SPL;

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings and certificates attached to these licences.

▼B

FCL.210.S    SPL — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for an SPL shall have completed at least 15 hours of flight instruction on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, including at least the requirements specified in FCL.110.S.

(b)

Applicants for an SPL holding an LAPL(S) shall be fully credited towards the requirements for the issue of an SPL.

Applicants for an SPL who held an LAPL(S) within the period of 2 years before the application shall be fully credited towards the requirements of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction.

Crediting. Applicants holding a pilot licence for another category of aircraft, with the exception of balloons, shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such aircraft up to a maximum of 7 hours. The amount of credit given shall in any case not include the requirements in of FCL.110.S(a)(2) to (a)(4).

FCL.220.S    SPL — Launch methods

The privileges of the SPL shall be limited to the launch method included in the skill test. This limitation may be removed and the new privileges exercised when the pilot complies with the requirements in FCL.130.S.

FCL.230.S    SPL — Recency requirements

Holders of an SPL shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when complying with the recency requirements in FCL.140.S.

SECTION 6

Specific requirements for the balloon pilot licence (BPL)

FCL.205.B    BPL — Privileges and conditions

▼M3

(a)

The privileges of the holder of a BPL are to act as PIC on balloons.

▼B

(b)

Holders of a BPL shall be restricted to act without remuneration in non-commercial operations until they have:

(1) attained the age of 18 years;

(2) completed 50 hours of flight time and 50 take-offs and landings as PIC on balloons;

(3) passed a proficiency check with an examiner on a balloon in the specific class.

(c)

Notwithstanding paragraph (b), the holder of a BPL with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(B) or the BPL;

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;

▼M3

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings and certificates attached to these licences.

▼B

FCL.210.B    BPL — Experience requirements and crediting

(a)

Applicants for a BPL shall have completed on balloons in the same class and group at least 16 hours of flight instruction, including at least:

(1) 12 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 10 inflations and 20 take-offs and landings; and

(3) 1 supervised solo flight with a minimum flight time of at least 30 minutes.

(b)

Applicants for a BPL holding an LAPL(B) shall be fully credited towards the requirements for the issue of a BPL.

Applicants for a BPL who held an LAPL(B) within the period of 2 years before the application shall be fully credited towards the requirements of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction.

FCL.220.B    BPL — Extension of privileges to tethered flights

The privileges of the BPL shall be limited to non-tethered flights. This limitation may be removed when the pilot complies with the requirements in FCL.130.B.

FCL.225.B    BPL — Extension of privileges to another balloon class or group

The privileges of the BPL shall be limited to the class and group of balloons in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has:

(a) in the case of an extension to another class within the same group, complied with the requirements in FCL.135.B;

(b) in the case of an extension to another group within the same class of balloons, completed at least:

(1) 2 instruction flights on a balloon of the relevant group; and

(2) the following hours of flight time as PIC on balloons:

(i) for balloons with an envelope capacity between 3 401 m3 and 6 000 m3, at least 100 hours;

(ii) for balloons with an envelope capacity between 6 001 m3 and 10 500 m3, at least 200 hours;

(iii) for balloons with an envelope capacity of more than 10 500 m3, at least 300 hours;

(iv) for gas balloons with an envelope capacity of more than 1 260 m3, at least 50 hours.

▼M4

FCL.230.B    BPL — Recency requirements

(a)

Holders of a BPL shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when they have completed in one class of balloons in the last 24 months at least:

(1) 6 hours of flight time as PIC, including 10 take-offs and landings; and

(2) 1 training flight with an instructor in a balloon within the appropriate class;

(3) in addition, in the case of pilots qualified to fly more than one class of balloons, in order to exercise their privileges in the other class, they shall have completed at least 3 hours of flight time on that class within the last 24 months, including 3 take-offs and landings.

(b)

Holders of a BPL shall only operate a balloon of the same a group of the balloon in which the training flight is completed or a balloon of a group with a smaller envelope size:

(c)

Holders of a BPL who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) pass a proficiency check with an examiner in a balloon within the appropriate class; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a).

(d)

In the case of (c)(1) the holder of the BPL shall only operate a balloon of the same group of the balloon in which the proficiency check is completed or a balloon of a group with a smaller envelope size.

▼B

SUBPART D

COMMERCIAL PILOT LICENCE — CPL

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.300    CPL — Minimum age

An applicant for a CPL shall be at least 18 years of age.

FCL.305    CPL — Privileges and conditions

(a)

Privileges. The privileges of the holder of a CPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to:

(1) exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL and a PPL;

(2) act as PIC or co-pilot of any aircraft engaged in operations other than commercial air transport;

(3) act as PIC in commercial air transport of any single-pilot aircraft subject to the restrictions specified in FCL.060 and in this Subpart;

(4) act as co-pilot in commercial air transport subject to the restrictions specified in FCL.060.

(b)

Conditions. An applicant for the issue of a CPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type rating of the aircraft used in the skill test.

FCL.310    CPL — Theoretical knowledge examinations

An applicant for a CPL shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted in the following subjects:

 Air Law,

 Aircraft General Knowledge — Airframe/Systems/Powerplant,

 Aircraft General Knowledge — Instrumentation,

 Mass and Balance,

 Performance,

 Flight Planning and Monitoring,

 Human Performance,

 Meteorology,

 General Navigation,

 Radio Navigation,

 Operational Procedures,

 Principles of Flight,

 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Communications.

FCL.315    CPL — Training course

An applicant for a CPL shall have completed theoretical knowledge instruction and flight instruction at an ATO, in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Part.

FCL.320    CPL — Skill test

An applicant for a CPL shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 4 to this Part to demonstrate the ability to perform, as PIC of the appropriate aircraft category, the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the aeroplane category — CPL(A)

▼M4

FCL.315.A    CPL — Training course

Theoretical knowledge and flight instruction for the issue of a CPL(A) shall include upset prevention and recovery training.

▼B

FCL.325.A    CPL(A) — Specific conditions for MPL holders

Before exercising the privileges of a CPL(A), the holder of an MPL shall have completed in aeroplanes:

(a) 70 hours of flight time:

(1) as PIC; or

(2) made up of at least 10 hours as PIC and the additional flight time as PIC under supervision (PICUS).

Of these 70 hours, 20 shall be of VFR cross-country flight time as PIC, or cross-country flight time made up of at least 10 hours as PIC and 10 hours as PICUS. This shall include a VFR cross-country flight of at least 540 km (300 NM) in the course of which full-stop landings at two different aerodromes shall be flown as PIC;

(b) the elements of the CPL(A) modular course as specified in paragraphs 10(a) and 11 of Appendix 3, E to this Part; and

(c) the CPL(A) skill test, in accordance with FCL.320.

SUBPART E

MULTI-CREW PILOT LICENCE — MPL

FCL.400.A    MPL — Minimum age

An applicant for an MPL shall be at least 18 years of age.

FCL.405.A    MPL — Privileges

(a)

The privileges of the holder of an MPL are to act as co-pilot in an aeroplane required to be operated with a co-pilot.

(b)

The holder of an MPL may obtain the extra privileges of:

(1) the holder of a PPL(A), provided that the requirements for the PPL(A) specified in Subpart C are met;

(2) a CPL(A), provided that the requirements specified in FCL.325.A are met.

(c)

The holder of an MPL shall have the privileges of his/her IR(A) limited to aeroplanes required to be operated with a co-pilot. The privileges of the IR(A) may be extended to single-pilot operations in aeroplanes, provided that the licence holder has completed the training necessary to act as PIC in single-pilot operations exercised solely by reference to instruments and passed the skill test of the IR(A) as a single-pilot.

▼M8

FCL.410.A    MPL – Training course and theoretical knowledge examinations

(a)   Course

Applicants for the issue of an MPL shall have completed a training course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at an ATO in accordance with Appendix 5 to this Annex (Part-FCL).

(b)   Examination

Applicants for the issue of an MPL shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the holders of an ATPL(A), in accordance with FCL.515, and to a multi-pilot type rating.

▼B

FCL.415.A    MPL — Practical skill

(a)

An applicant for an MPL shall have demonstrated through continuous assessment the skills required for fulfilling all the competency units specified in Appendix 5 to this Part, as pilot flying and pilot not flying, in a multi-engine turbine-powered multi-pilot aeroplane, under VFR and IFR.

(b)

On completion of the training course, the applicant shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part, to demonstrate the ability to perform the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted. The skill test shall be taken in the type of aeroplane used on the advanced phase of the MPL integrated training course or in an FFS representing the same type.

SUBPART F

AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT LICENCE — ATPL

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.500    ATPL — Minimum age

Applicants for an ATPL shall be at least 21 years of age.

FCL.505    ATPL — Privileges

(a)

The privileges of the holder of an ATPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to:

(1) exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL, a PPL and a CPL;

(2) act as PIC of aircraft engaged in commercial air transport.

(b)

Applicants for the issue of an ATPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the type rating of the aircraft used in the skill test.

FCL.515    ATPL — Training course and theoretical knowledge examinations

(a)

Course. Applicants for an ATPL shall have completed a training course at an ATO. The course shall be either an integrated training course or a modular course, in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Part.

(b)

Examination. Applicants for an ATPL shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted in the following subjects:

 Air Law,

 Aircraft General Knowledge — Airframe/Systems/Power plant,

 Aircraft General Knowledge — Instrumentation,

 Mass and Balance,

 Performance,

 Flight Planning and Monitoring,

 Human Performance,

 Meteorology,

 General Navigation,

 Radio Navigation,

 Operational Procedures,

 Principles of Flight,

 VFR Communications,

 IFR Communications.

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the aeroplane category — ATPL(A)

FCL.505.A    ATPL(A) — Restriction of privileges for pilots previously holding an MPL

When the holder of an ATPL(A) has previously held only an MPL, the privileges of the licence shall be restricted to multi-pilot operations, unless the holder has complied with FCL.405.A(b)(2) and (c) for single-pilot operations.

FCL.510.A    ATPL(A) — Prerequisites, experience and crediting

(a)

Prerequisites. Applicants for an ATPL(A) shall hold:

(1) an MPL; or

(2) a CPL(A) and a multi-engine IR for aeroplanes. In this case, the applicant shall also have received instruction in MCC.

(b)

Experience. Applicants for an ATPL(A) shall have completed a minimum of 1 500 hours of flight time in aeroplanes, including at least:

(1) 500 hours in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes;

(2)

 

(i) 500 hours as PIC under supervision; or

(ii) 250 hours as PIC; or

(iii) 250 hours, including at least 70 hours as PIC, and the remaining as PIC under supervision;

(3) 200 hours of cross-country flight time of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as PIC under supervision;

(4) 75 hours of instrument time of which not more than 30 hours may be instrument ground time; and

(5) 100 hours of night flight as PIC or co-pilot.

Of the 1 500 hours of flight time, up to 100 hours of flight time may have been completed in an FFS and FNPT. Of these 100 hours, only a maximum of 25 hours may be completed in an FNPT.

(c)

Crediting.

(1) Holders of a pilot licence for other categories of aircraft shall be credited with flight time up to a maximum of:

(i) for TMG or sailplanes, 30 hours flown as PIC;

(ii) for helicopters, 50 % of all the flight time requirements of paragraph (b).

▼M3

(2) Holders of a flight engineer licence issued in accordance with applicable national rules shall be credited with 50 % of the flight engineer time up to a maximum credit of 250 hours. These 250 hours may be credited against the 1 500 hours requirement of paragraph (b), and the 500 hours requirement of paragraph (b)(1), provided that the total credit given against any of these paragraphs does not exceed 250 hours.

▼B

(d)

The experience required in (b) shall be completed before the skill test for the ATPL(A) is taken.

FCL.520.A    ATPL(A) — Skill test

Applicants for an ATPL(A) shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the ability to perform, as PIC of a multi-pilot aeroplane under IFR, the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

The skill test shall be taken in the aeroplane or an adequately qualified FFS representing the same type.

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for the helicopter category — ATPL(H)

FCL.510.H    ATPL(H) — Prerequisites, experience and crediting

Applicants for an ATPL(H) shall:

(a) hold a CPL(H) and a multi-pilot helicopter type rating and have received instruction in MCC;

(b) have completed as a pilot of helicopters a minimum of 1 000 hours of flight time including at least:

(1) 350 hours in multi-pilot helicopters;

(2)

 

(i) 250 hours as PIC; or

(ii) 100 hours as PIC and 150 hours as PIC under supervision; or

(iii) 250 hours as PIC under supervision in multi-pilot helicopters. In this case, the ATPL(H) privileges shall be limited to multi-pilot operations only, until 100 hours as PIC have been completed;

(3) 200 hours of cross-country flight time of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as PIC under supervision;

(4) 30 hours of instrument time of which not more than 10 hours may be instrument ground time; and

(5) 100 hours of night flight as PIC or as co-pilot.

Of the 1 000 hours, a maximum of 100 hours may have been completed in an FSTD, of which not more than 25 hours may be completed in an FNPT.

(c) Flight time in aeroplanes shall be credited up to 50 % against the flight time requirements of paragraph (b).

(d) The experience required in (b) shall be completed before the skill test for the ATPL(H) is taken.

FCL.520.H    ATPL(H) — Skill test

Applicants for an ATPL(H) shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the ability to perform as PIC of a multi-pilot helicopter the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

The skill test shall be taken in the helicopter or an adequately qualified FFS representing the same type.

SUBPART G

INSTRUMENT RATING — IR

SECTION 1

Common requirements

▼M3

FCL.600    IR — General

▼M5

Except as provided in FCL.825, operations under IFR on an aeroplane, helicopter, airship or powered-lift aircraft shall only be conducted by holders of:

(a) a PPL, CPL, MPL and ATPL, and

(b) except when undergoing skill tests, proficiency checks or when receiving dual instruction, an IR with privileges appropriate to the applicable airspace requirements and to the category of aircraft.

▼B

FCL.605    IR — Privileges

▼M5

(a)

The privileges of a holder of an IR are to fly aircraft under IFR, including PBN operations, with a minimum decision height of no less than 200 feet (60 m).

▼B

(b)

In the case of a multi-engine IR, these privileges may be extended to decision heights lower than 200 feet (60 m) when the applicant has undergone specific training at an ATO and has passed section 6 of the skill test prescribed in Appendix 9 to this Part in multi-pilot aircraft.

(c)

Holders of an IR shall exercise their privileges in accordance with the conditions established in Appendix 8 to this Part.

(d)

Helicopters only. To exercise privileges as PIC under IFR in multi-pilot helicopters, the holder of an IR(H) shall have at least 70 hours of instrument time of which up to 30 hours may be instrument ground time.

FCL.610    IR — Prerequisites and crediting

Applicants for an IR shall:

(a) hold:

(1) at least a PPL in the appropriate aircraft category, and:

▼M3

(i) the privileges to fly at night in accordance with FCL.810, if the IR privileges will be used at night; or

▼B

(ii) an ATPL in another category of aircraft; or

(2) a CPL, in the appropriate aircraft category;

▼M3

(b) have completed at least 50 hours of cross-country flight time as PIC in aeroplanes, TMGs, helicopters or airships, of which at least 10 or, in the case of airships, 20 hours shall be in the relevant aircraft category;

▼B

(c) Helicopters only. Applicants who have completed an ATP(H)/IR, ATP(H), CPL(H)/IR or CPL(H) integrated training course shall be exempted from the requirement in (b).

FCL.615    IR — Theoretical knowledge and flight instruction

(a)

Course. Applicants for an IR shall have received a course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at an ATO. The course shall be:

(1) an integrated training course which includes training for the IR, in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Part; or

(2) a modular course in accordance with Appendix 6 to this Part.

▼M3

(b)

Examination. Applicants shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted in the following subjects:

 Air Law,

 Aircraft General Knowledge - Instrumentation,

 Flight Planning and Monitoring,

 Human Performance,

 Meteorology,

 Radio Navigation,

 IFR Communications.

▼B

FCL.620    IR — Skill test

(a)

Applicants for an IR shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 7 to this Part to demonstrate the ability to perform the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with a degree of competency appropriate to the privileges granted.

(b)

For a multi-engine IR, the skill test shall be taken in a multi-engine aircraft. For a single-engine IR, the test shall be taken in a single-engine aircraft. A multi-engine centreline thrust aeroplane shall be considered a single-engine aeroplane for the purposes of this paragraph.

▼M11

FCL.625    IR — Validity, revalidation and renewal

(a) Validity

An IR shall be valid for 1 year.

(b) Revalidation

(1) An IR shall be revalidated within the 3 months immediately preceding its expiry date by complying with the revalidation criteria for the relevant aircraft category.

(2) If applicants choose to fulfil the revalidation requirements earlier than prescribed in point (1), the new validity period shall commence from the date of the proficiency check.

(3) Applicants who fail to pass the relevant section of an IR proficiency check before the expiry date of the IR shall exercise the IR privileges only if they have passed the IR proficiency check.

(c) Renewal

If an IR has expired, in order to renew their privileges, applicants shall comply with all of the following:

(1) complete a refresher training at an ATO, if deemed necessary by the ATO to reach the level of proficiency needed to pass the instrument element of the skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex;

(2) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex in the relevant aircraft category;

(3) hold the relevant class or type rating unless otherwise specified in this Annex.

(d) If the IR has not been revalidated or renewed in the preceding 7 years, applicants for the IR shall pass again the IR theoretical knowledge examination and skill test.

(e) Holders of a valid IR on a pilot licence issued by a third country in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention shall be exempted from complying with the requirements in points (c)(1) and (d) when renewing the IR privileges contained in licences issued in accordance with this Annex.

(f) The proficiency check mentioned in points (c)(2) and (e) may be combined with a proficiency check performed for the renewal of the relevant class or type rating.

▼B

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the aeroplane category

FCL.625.A    IR(A) — Revalidation

▼M11

(a)

Revalidation.

To revalidate an IR(A), applicants shall:

(1) hold the relevant class or type rating, unless the IR revalidation is combined with the renewal of the relevant class or type rating;

(2) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex if the IR revalidation is combined with the revalidation of a class or type rating;

(3) if the IR revalidation is not combined with the revalidation of a class or type rating:

(i) for single-pilot aeroplanes, complete section 3b and those parts of section 1 which are relevant to the intended flight of the proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex;

(ii) for multi-engine aeroplanes, complete section 6 of the proficiency check for single-pilot aeroplanes in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex by sole reference to instruments.

(4) An FNPT II or an FFS representing the relevant class or type of aeroplane may be used for the revalidation pursuant to point (2), provided that at least each alternate proficiency check for the revalidation of an IR(A) is performed in an aeroplane.

▼B

(b)

Cross-credit shall be given in accordance with Appendix 8 to this Part.

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for the helicopter category

▼M11

FCL.625.H    IR(H) — Revalidation

(a) To revalidate an IR(H), applicants shall:

(1) hold the relevant type rating, unless the IR revalidation is combined with the renewal of the relevant type rating;

(2) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex for the relevant type of helicopter if the IR revalidation is combined with the revalidation of a type rating;

(3) if the IR revalidation is not combined with the revalidation of a type rating, complete Section 5 and the relevant parts of Section 1 of the proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex for the relevant type of helicopter.

(b) An FTD 2/3 or an FFS representing the relevant type of helicopter may be used for the proficiency check pursuant to point (a)(3), provided that at least each alternate proficiency check for the revalidation of an IR(H) is performed in a helicopter.

(c) Cross-credit shall be given in accordance with Appendix 8 to this Annex.

▼B

FCL.630.H    IR(H) — Extension of privileges from single-engine to multi-engine helicopters

Holders of an IR(H) valid for single-engine helicopters wishing to extend for the first time the IR(H) to multi-engine helicopters shall complete:

(a) a training course at an ATO comprising at least 5 hours dual instrument instruction time, of which 3 hours may be in an FFS or FTD 2/3 or FNPT II/III; and

(b) section 5 of the skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part on multi-engine helicopters.

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for the airship category

FCL.625.As    IR(As) — Revalidation

Applicants for the revalidation of an IR(As):

(a) when combined with the revalidation of a type rating, shall complete a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part, for the relevant type of airship;

(b) when not combined with the revalidation of a type rating, shall complete section 5 and those parts of section 1 relevant to the intended flight of the proficiency check for airships in accordance with Appendix 9 of this part. In this case, an FTD 2/3 or FFS representing the relevant type may be used, but at least each alternate proficiency check for the revalidation of an IR(As) in these circumstances shall be performed in an airship.

SUBPART H

CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.700    Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required

▼M5

(a)

Holders of a pilot licence shall not act in any capacity as pilots of an aircraft unless they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, except in any of the following cases:

(i) for LAPL, SPL and BPL;

(ii) when undergoing skill tests, or proficiency checks for renewal of class or type ratings;

(iii) when receiving flight instruction;

(iv) when they hold a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820.

▼B

(b)

Notwithstanding (a), in the case of flights related to the introduction or modification of aircraft types, pilots may hold a special certificate given by the competent authority, authorising them to perform the flights. This authorisation shall have its validity limited to the specific flights.

▼M5 —————

▼B

FCL.705    Privileges of the holder of a class or type rating

The privileges of the holder of a class or type rating are to act as pilot on the class or type of aircraft specified in the rating.

▼M11

FCL.710    Class and type ratings — variants

(a) Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating. In the case of variants within a class or type rating, the differences training or familiarisation shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, where applicable.

(b) The differences training shall be conducted at any of the following:

(1) an ATO;

(2) a DTO in the case of aircraft referred to in points (a)(1)(c) and (a)(2)(c) of point DTO.GEN.110 of Annex VIII;

(3) an AOC holder having an approved differences training programme for the relevant class or type.

(c) Notwithstanding the requirement in point (b), differences training for TMG, single-engine piston (SEP), single-engine turbine (SET) and multi-engine piston (MEP) aeroplanes may be conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor unless otherwise provided in the OSD.

(d) If pilots have not flown the variant within 2 years following the training listed in point (b), a further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be completed, except for types or variants within the SEP and TMG class ratings.

(e) The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.

▼B

FCL.725    Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings

▼M7

(a)

Training course. An applicant for a class or type rating shall complete a training course at an ATO. An applicant for a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII (Part-DTO) may complete the training course at a DTO. The type rating training course shall include the mandatory training elements for the relevant type as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.

▼B

(b)

Theoretical knowledge examination. The applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a theoretical knowledge examination organised by the ATO to demonstrate the level of theoretical knowledge required for the safe operation of the applicable aircraft class or type.

(1) For multi-pilot aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the main subjects of the syllabus.

(2) For single-pilot multi-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and the number of multiple-choice questions shall depend on the complexity of the aircraft.

(3) For single-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the examiner during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved.

▼M3

(4) For single-pilot aeroplanes that are classified as high performance aeroplanes, the examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the subjects of the syllabus.

▼M11

(5) For single-pilot single-engine and single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes (sea), the examination shall be in a written form and shall comprise at least 30 multiple-choice questions.

▼B

(c)

Skill test. An applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the skill required for the safe operation of the applicable class or type of aircraft.

The applicant shall pass the skill test within a period of 6 months after commencement of the class or type rating training course and within a period of 6 months preceding the application for the issue of the class or type rating.

▼M8

(d)

An applicant who already holds a type rating for an aircraft type, with the privilege for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, shall be considered to have already fulfilled the theoretical requirements when applying to add the privilege for the other form of operation on the same aircraft type. Such an applicant shall complete additional flight training for the other form of operation at an ATO or an AOC holder specifically authorised for such training by the competent authority. The form of operation shall be entered in the licence.

▼B

(e)

Notwithstanding the paragraphs above, pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820 who were involved in development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type, and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC on test flights in that type, shall be entitled to apply for the issue of the relevant type rating, provided that they comply with the experience requirements and the prerequisites for the issue of that type rating, as established in this Subpart for the relevant aircraft category.

▼M11

FCL.740    Validity and renewal of class and type ratings

(a) Validity

The validity period of class and type ratings shall be 1 year, except for single-pilot single-engine class ratings for which the validity period shall be 2 years, unless otherwise determined in the OSD. If pilots choose to fulfil the revalidation requirements earlier than prescribed in FCL.740.A, FCL.740.H, FCL.740.PL and FCL.740.As, the new validity period shall commence from the date of the proficiency check.

(b) Renewal

For the renewal of a class or type rating the applicant shall comply with all of the following:

(1) complete a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex

(2) prior to the proficiency check referred to in point (1), complete a refresher training at an ATO if deemed necessary by the ATO to reach the level of proficiency to safely operate the relevant class or type of aircraft, except if it holds a valid rating for the same class or type of aircraft on a pilot licence issued by a third country in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention and if it is entitled to exercise the privileges of that rating. The applicant may take the training:

(i) at a DTO or at an ATO, if the expired rating concerned a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII;

(ii) at a DTO, at an ATO or with an instructor, if the rating expired no more than three years before and the rating concerned a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating or a TMG class rating.

(3) Notwithstanding the points (b)(1) and (b)(2), pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with point FCL.820 who were involved in the development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC in test flights in that type during the year prior to the date of their application, shall be entitled to apply for the revalidation or renewal of the relevant type rating.

▼B

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the aeroplane category

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FCL.720.A    Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or type ratings — aeroplanes

Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 (OSD), applicants for the issue of a class or type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of the relevant rating:

(a)   Single-pilot aeroplanes

Applicants for the issue of a first class or type rating on a single-pilot aeroplane seeking the privilege to operate the aeroplane in multi-pilot operations shall meet the requirements in points (b)(4) and (b)(5).

Additionally, for:

(1)   Single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes

Applicants for the issue of a first class or type rating on a single-pilot multi-engine aeroplane shall have completed at least 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes.

(2)   Single-pilot high-performance non-complex aeroplanes

Before starting flight training, applicants for the issue of a class or type rating for a single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high-performance aeroplane shall:

(i) have at least 200 hours of total flying experience, of which 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes; and

(ii) comply with one of the following requirements:

(A) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of a course for additional theoretical knowledge undertaken at an ATO; or

(B) have passed the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL); or

(C) hold, in addition to a licence issued in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL), an ATPL(A) or CPL(A)/IR with theoretical knowledge credit for ATPL(A), issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention.

(3)   Single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes

Applicants for the issue of a type rating for a complex single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high-performance aeroplane shall, in addition to meeting the requirements in point (2), hold or have held a single- or multi-engine IR(A), as appropriate and as established in Subpart G and shall meet the requirements in point (b)(5).

(b)   Multi-pilot aeroplanes

Applicants for the issue of the first type rating course for a multi-pilot aeroplane shall be student pilots currently undergoing training on an MPL training course or comply with the following requirements:

(1) have at least 70 hours of flight experience as PIC in aeroplanes;

(2) hold or have held a multi-engine IR(A);

(3) have passed the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL);

(4) except when the type rating course is combined with an MCC course:

(i) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of an MCC course in aeroplanes; or

(ii) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of MCC in helicopters and have more than 100 hours of flight experience as pilots of multi-pilot helicopters; or

(iii) have at least 500 hours as pilots of multi-pilot helicopters; or

(iv) have at least 500 hours as pilots in multi-pilot operations on single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes, in commercial air transport in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements; and

(5) have completed the training course specified in FCL.745.A.

(c)

Notwithstanding point (b), a Member State may issue a type rating with restricted privileges for a multi-pilot aeroplane that allows holders of such a rating to act as cruise relief co-pilots above Flight Level 200, provided that two other members of the crew have a type rating in accordance with point (b).

(d)

When so determined in the OSD, the exercise of the privileges of a type rating may be initially limited to flight under the supervision of an instructor. The flight hours under supervision shall be entered in the pilots' logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor. The limitation shall be removed when pilots demonstrate that the hours of flight under supervision required in the OSD have been completed.

FCL.725.A    Theoretical knowledge and flight instruction for the issue of class and type ratings — aeroplanes

Unless otherwise determined in in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012:

(a) for single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes:

(1) the theoretical knowledge course for a single-pilot multi-engine class rating shall include at least 7 hours of instruction in multi-engine aeroplane operations; and

(2) the flight training course for a single-pilot multi-engine class or type rating shall include at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of dual flight instruction under normal conditions of multi-engine aeroplane operations, and not less than 3 hours 30 minutes of dual flight instruction in engine failure procedures and asymmetric flight techniques.

(b) for single-pilot aeroplanes (sea):

(1) the training course for single-pilot aeroplane (sea) ratings shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction; and

(2) the flight training for a class or type rating (sea) for single-pilot aeroplanes (sea) shall include at least 8 hours of dual flight instruction if applicants hold the land version of the relevant class or type rating, or 10 hours if applicants do not hold such a rating; and

(c) for single-pilot non-high-performance complex aeroplanes, single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes and multi-pilot aeroplanes, the training courses shall include UPRT theoretical knowledge and flight instruction related to the specificities of the relevant class or type.

▼B

FCL.730.A    Specific requirements for pilots undertaking a zero flight time type rating (ZFTT) course — aeroplanes

(a)

A pilot undertaking instruction at a ZFTT course shall have completed, on a multi-pilot turbo-jet aeroplane certificated to the standards of CS-25 or equivalent airworthiness code or on a multi-pilot turbo-prop aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off mass of not less than 10 tonnes or a certificated passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers, at least:

(1) if an FFS qualified to level CG, C or interim C is used during the course, 1 500 hours flight time or 250 route sectors;

(2) if an FFS qualified to level DG or D is used during the course, 500 hours flight time or 100 route sectors.

(b)

When a pilot is changing from a turbo-prop to a turbo-jet aeroplane or from a turbo-jet to a turbo-prop aeroplane, additional simulator training shall be required.

FCL.735.A    Multi-crew cooperation training course — aeroplanes

(a)

The MCC training course shall comprise at least:

(1) 25 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction and exercises; and

(2) 20 hours of practical MCC training, or 15 hours in the case of student pilots attending an ATP integrated course.

An FNPT II MCC or an FFS shall be used. When the MCC training is combined with initial type rating training, the practical MCC training may be reduced to no less than 10 hours if the same FFS is used for both the MCC and type rating training.

(b)

The MCC training course shall be completed within 6 months at an ATO.

(c)

Unless the MCC course has been combined with a type rating course, on completion of the MCC training course the applicant shall be given a certificate of completion.

(d)

An applicant having completed MCC training for any other category of aircraft shall be exempted from the requirement in (a)(1).

FCL.740.A    Revalidation of class and type ratings — aeroplanes

(a)

Revalidation of multi-engine class ratings and type ratings. For revalidation of multi-engine class ratings and type ratings, the applicant shall:

(1) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part in the relevant class or type of aeroplane or an FSTD representing that class or type, within the 3 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the rating; and

(2) complete during the period of validity of the rating, at least:

(i) 10 route sectors as pilot of the relevant class or type of aeroplane; or

(ii) 1 route sector as pilot of the relevant class or type of aeroplane or FFS, flown with an examiner. This route sector may be flown during the proficiency check.

(3) A pilot working for a commercial air transport operator approved in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements who has passed the operators proficiency check combined with the proficiency check for the revalidation of the class or type rating shall be exempted from complying with the requirement in (2).

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(4) The revalidation of an en route instrument rating (EIR) or an IR(A), if held, may be combined with a proficiency check for the revalidation of a class or type rating.

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(b)

Revalidation of single-pilot single-engine class ratings.

(1) Single-engine piston aeroplane class ratings and TMG ratings. For revalidation of single-pilot single-engine piston aeroplane class ratings or TMG class ratings the applicant shall:

(i) within the 3 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, pass a proficiency check in the relevant class in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part with an examiner; or

(ii) within the 12 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, complete 12 hours of flight time in the relevant class, including:

 6 hours as PIC,

 12 take-offs and 12 landings, and

 refresher training of at least 1 hour of total flight time with a flight instructor (FI) or a class rating instructor (CRI). Applicants shall be exempted from this refresher training if they have passed a class or type rating proficiency check, skill test or assessment of competence in any other class or type of aeroplane.

(2) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and a TMG rating, they may complete the requirements of (1) in either class or a combination thereof, and achieve revalidation of both ratings.

(3) Single-pilot single-engine turbo-prop aeroplanes. For revalidation of single-engine turbo-prop class ratings applicants shall pass a proficiency check on the relevant class in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part with an examiner, within the 3 months preceding the expiry date of the rating.

(4) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and a single-engine piston aeroplane-sea class rating, they may complete the requirements of (1)(ii) in either class or a combination thereof, and achieve the fulfilment of these requirements for both ratings. At least 1 hour of required PIC time and 6 of the required 12 take-offs and landings shall be completed in each class.

▼B

(c)

Applicants who fail to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the expiry date of a class or type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved.

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FCL.745.A Advanced UPRT course — aeroplanes

(a) The advanced UPRT course shall be completed at an ATO and shall comprise at least:

(1) 5 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction;

(2) preflight briefings and postflight debriefings; and

(3) 3 hours of dual flight instruction with a flight instructor for aeroplanes FI(A) qualified in accordance with point FCL.915 (e) and consisting of advanced UPRT in an aeroplane qualified for the training task.

(b) Upon completion of the UPRT course, applicants shall be issued with a certificate of completion by the ATO.

▼B

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for the helicopter category

FCL.720.H    Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of type ratings — helicopters

Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, an applicant for the issue of the first helicopter type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of the relevant rating:

(a) Multi-pilot helicopters. An applicant for the first type rating course for a multi-pilot helicopter type shall:

(1) have at least 70 hours as PIC on helicopters;

(2) except when the type rating course is combined with an MCC course:

(i) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of an MCC course in helicopters; or

(ii) have at least 500 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes; or

(iii) have at least 500 hours as a pilot in multi-pilot operations on multi-engine helicopters;

(3) have passed the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge examinations.

(b) An applicant for the first type rating course for a multi-pilot helicopter type who is a graduate from an ATP(H)/IR, ATP(H), CPL(H)/IR or CPL(H) integrated course and who does not comply with the requirement of (a)(1), shall have the type rating issued with the privileges limited to exercising functions as co-pilot only. The limitation shall be removed once the pilot has:

(1) completed 70 hours as PIC or pilot-in-command under supervision of helicopters;

(2) passed the multi-pilot skill test on the applicable helicopter type as PIC.

(c) Single-pilot multi-engine helicopters. An applicant for the issue of a first type rating for a single-pilot multi-engine helicopter shall:

(1) before starting flight training:

(i) have passed the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge examinations; or

(ii) hold a certificate of completion of a pre-entry course conducted by an ATO. The course shall cover the following subjects of the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge course:

 Aircraft General Knowledge: airframe/systems/power plant, and instrument/electronics,

 Flight Performance and Planning: mass and balance, performance;

(2) in the case of applicants who have not completed an ATP(H)/IR, ATP(H), or CPL(H)/IR integrated training course, have completed at least 70 hours as PIC on helicopters.

FCL.735.H    Multi-crew cooperation training course — helicopters

(a)

The MCC training course shall comprise at least:

(1) for MCC/IR:

(i) 25 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction and exercises; and

(ii) 20 hours of practical MCC training or 15 hours, in the case of student pilots attending an ATP(H)/IR integrated course. When the MCC training is combined with the initial type rating training for a multi-pilot helicopter, the practical MCC training may be reduced to not less than 10 hours if the same FSTD is used for both MCC and type rating;

(2) for MCC/VFR:

(i) 25 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction and exercises; and

(ii) 15 hours of practical MCC training or 10 hours, in the case of student pilots attending an ATP(H)/IR integrated course. When the MCC training is combined with the initial type rating training for a multi-pilot helicopter, the practical MCC training may be reduced to not less than 7 hours if the same FSTD is used for both MCC and type rating.

(b)

The MCC training course shall be completed within 6 months at an ATO.

An FNPT II or III qualified for MCC, an FTD 2/3 or an FFS shall be used.

(c)

Unless the MCC course has been combined with a multi-pilot type rating course, on completion of the MCC training course the applicant shall be given a certificate of completion.

(d)

An applicant having completed MCC training for any other category of aircraft shall be exempted from the requirement in (a)(1)(i) or (a)(2)(i), as applicable.

(e)

An applicant for MCC/IR training who has completed MCC/VFR training shall be exempted from the requirement in (a)(1)(i), and shall complete 5 hours of practical MCC/IR training.

FCL.740.H    Revalidation of type ratings — helicopters

(a)

Revalidation. For revalidation of type ratings for helicopters, the applicant shall:

(1) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part in the relevant type of helicopter or an FSTD representing that type within the 3 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the rating; and

(2) complete at least 2 hours as a pilot of the relevant helicopter type within the validity period of the rating. The duration of the proficiency check may be counted towards the 2 hours.

(3) When applicants hold more than 1 type rating for single-engine piston helicopters, they may achieve revalidation of all the relevant type ratings by completing the proficiency check in only 1 of the relevant types held, provided that they have completed at least 2 hours of flight time as PIC on the other types during the validity period.

The proficiency check shall be performed each time on a different type.

(4) When applicants hold more than 1 type rating for single-engine turbine helicopters with a maximum certificated take-off mass up to 3 175 kg, they may achieve revalidation of all the relevant type ratings by completing the proficiency check in only 1 of the relevant types held, provided that they have completed:

(i) 300 hours as PIC on helicopters;

(ii) 15 hours on each of the types held; and

(iii) at least 2 hours of PIC flight time on each of the other types during the validity period.

The proficiency check shall be performed each time on a different type.

(5) A pilot who successfully completes a skill test for the issue of an additional type rating shall achieve revalidation for the relevant type ratings in the common groups, in accordance with (3) and (4).

(6) The revalidation of an IR(H), if held, may be combined with a proficiency check for a type rating.

(b)

An applicant who fails to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the expiry date of a type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved. In the case of (a)(3) and (4), the applicant shall not exercise his/her privileges in any of the types.

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for the powered-lift aircraft category

FCL.720.PL    Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of type ratings — powered-lift aircraft

Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, an applicant for the first issue of a powered-lift type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites:

(a) for pilots of aeroplanes:

(1) hold a CPL/IR(A) with ATPL theoretical knowledge or an ATPL(A);

(2) hold a certificate of completion of an MCC course;

(3) have completed more than 100 hours as pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(4) have completed 40 hours of flight instruction in helicopters;

(b) for pilots of helicopters:

(1) hold a CPL/IR(H) with ATPL theoretical knowledge or an ATPL/IR(H);

(2) hold a certificate of completion of an MCC course;

(3) have completed more than 100 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot helicopters;

(4) have completed 40 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes;

(c) for pilots qualified to fly both aeroplanes and helicopters:

(1) hold at least a CPL(H);

(2) hold an IR and ATPL theoretical knowledge or an ATPL in either aeroplanes or helicopters;

(3) hold a certificate of completion of an MCC course in either helicopters or aeroplanes;

(4) have completed at least 100 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot helicopters or aeroplanes;

(5) have completed 40 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or helicopters, as applicable, if the pilot has no experience as ATPL or on multi-pilot aircraft.

FCL.725.PL    Flight instruction for the issue of type ratings — powered-lift aircraft

The flight instruction part of the training course for a powered-lift type rating shall be completed in both the aircraft and an FSTD representing the aircraft and adequately qualified for this purpose.

FCL.740.PL    Revalidation of type ratings — powered-lift aircraft

(a)

Revalidation. For revalidation of powered-lift type ratings, the applicant shall:

(1) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part in the relevant type of powered-lift within the 3 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the rating;

(2) complete during the period of validity of the rating, at least:

(i) 10 route sectors as pilot of the relevant type of powered-lift aircraft; or

(ii) 1 route sector as pilot of the relevant type of powered-lift aircraft or FFS, flown with an examiner. This route sector may be flown during the proficiency check.

(3) A pilot working for a commercial air transport operator approved in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements who has passed the operators proficiency check combined with the proficiency check for the revalidation of the type rating shall be exempted from complying with the requirement in (2).

(b)

An applicant who fails to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the expiry date of a type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until the a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved.

SECTION 5

Specific requirements for the airship category

FCL.720.As    Prerequisites for the issue of type ratings — airships

Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, an applicant for the first issue of an airship type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites:

(a) for multi-pilot airships:

(1) have completed 70 hours of flight time as PIC on airships;

(2) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of MCC on airships.

(3) An applicant who does not comply with the requirement in (2) shall have the type rating issued with the privileges limited to exercising functions as co-pilot only. The limitation shall be removed once the pilot has completed 100 hours of flight time as PIC or pilot-in-command under supervision of airships.

FCL.735.As    Multi-crew cooperation training course — airships

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(a)

The MCC training course shall comprise at least:

(1) 12 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction and exercises; and

(2) 5 hours of practical MCC training;

An FNPT II, or III qualified for MCC, an FTD 2/3 or an FFS shall be used.

▼B

(b)

The MCC training course shall be completed within 6 months at an ATO.

(c)

Unless the MCC course has been combined with a multi-pilot type rating course, on completion of the MCC training course the applicant shall be given a certificate of completion.

(d)

An applicant having completed MCC training for any other category of aircraft shall be exempted from the requirements in (a).

FCL.740.As    Revalidation of type ratings — airships

(a)

Revalidation. For revalidation of type ratings for airships, the applicant shall:

(1) pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part in the relevant type of airship within the 3 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the rating; and

(2) complete at least 2 hours as a pilot of the relevant airship type within the validity period of the rating. The duration of the proficiency check may be counted towards the 2 hours.

(3) The revalidation of an IR(As), if held, may be combined with a proficiency check for the revalidation of a class or type rating.

(b)

An applicant who fails to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the expiry date of a type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved.

SUBPART I

ADDITIONAL RATINGS

FCL.800    Aerobatic rating

(a)

Holders of a pilot licence for aeroplanes, TMG or sailplanes shall only undertake aerobatic flights when they hold the appropriate rating.

(b)

Applicants for an aerobatic rating shall have completed:

(1) at least 40 hours of flight time or, in the case of sailplanes, 120 launches as PIC in the appropriate aircraft category, completed after the issue of the licence;

(2) a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including:

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▼B

(i) theoretical knowledge instruction appropriate for the rating;

(ii) at least 5 hours or 20 flights of aerobatic instruction in the appropriate aircraft category.

(c)

The privileges of the aerobatic rating shall be limited to the aircraft category in which the flight instruction was completed. The privileges will be extended to another category of aircraft if the pilot holds a licence for that aircraft category and has successfully completed at least 3 dual training flights covering the full aerobatic training syllabus in that category of aircraft.

FCL.805    Sailplane towing and banner towing ratings

(a)

Holders of a pilot licence with privileges to fly aeroplanes or TMGs shall only tow sailplanes or banners when they hold the appropriate sailplane towing or banner towing rating.

(b)

Applicants for a sailplane towing rating shall have completed:

(1) at least 30 hours of flight time as PIC and 60 take-offs and landings in aeroplanes, if the activity is to be carried out in aeroplanes, or in TMGs, if the activity is to be carried out in TMGs, completed after the issue of the licence;

(2) a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including:

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▼B

(i) theoretical knowledge instruction on towing operations and procedures;

(ii) at least 10 instruction flights towing a sailplane, including at least 5 dual instruction flights; and

(iii) except for holders of an LAPL(S) or an SPL, 5 familiarisation flights in a sailplane which is launched by an aircraft.

(c)

Applicants for a banner towing rating shall have completed:

(1) at least 100 hours of flight time and 200 take-offs and landings as PIC on aeroplanes or TMG, after the issue of the licence. At least 30 of these hours shall be in aeroplanes, if the activity is to be carried out in aeroplanes, or in TMG, if the activity is to be carried out in TMGs;

(2) a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including:

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▼B

(i) theoretical knowledge instruction on towing operations and procedures;

(ii) at least 10 instruction flights towing a banner, including at least 5 dual flights.

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(d)

The privileges of the sailplane and banner towing ratings shall be limited to aeroplanes or TMGs appropriately to aircraft on which the flight instruction was completed. For banner towing, the privileges shall be limited to the towing method used for flight instruction. The privileges shall be extended if pilots have successfully completed at least three dual training flights covering the full towing training syllabus in either aircraft and towing method for banner towing.

▼B

(e)

In order to exercise the privileges of the sailplane or banner towing ratings, the holder of the rating shall have completed a minimum of 5 tows during the last 24 months.

(f)

When the pilot does not comply with the requirement in (e), before resuming the exercise of his/her privileges, the pilot shall complete the missing tows with or under the supervision of an instructor.

FCL.810    Night rating

(a)

Aeroplanes, TMGs, airships.

(1) Applicants shall have completed a training course within a period of up to 6 months at a DTO or at an ATO to exercise the privileges of an LAPL, an SPL or a PPL for aeroplanes, TMGs or airships in VFR conditions at night. The course shall comprise:

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▼B

(i) theoretical knowledge instruction;

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(ii) at least 5 hours of flight time in the appropriate aircraft category at night, including at least 3 hours of dual instruction, including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation with at least one dual cross-country flight of at least 50 km (27 NM) and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full-stop landings.

▼B

(2) Before completing the training at night, LAPL holders shall have completed the basic instrument flight training required for the issue of the PPL.

(3) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane (land) and a TMG class rating, they may complete the requirements in (1) above in either class or both classes.

(b)

Helicopters. If the privileges of a PPL for helicopters are to be exercised in VFR conditions at night, the applicant shall have:

(1) completed at least 100 hours of flight time as pilot in helicopters after the issue of the licence, including at least 60 hours as PIC on helicopters and 20 hours of cross-country flight;

(2) completed a training course at a DTO or at an ATO. The course shall be completed within a period of six months and comprise:

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▼B

(i) 5 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction;

(ii) 10 hours of helicopter dual instrument instruction time; and

(iii) 5 hours of flight time at night, including at least 3 hours of dual instruction, including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing.

(3) An applicant who holds or has held an IR in an aeroplane or TMG, shall be credited with 5 hours towards the requirement in (2)(ii) above.

(c)

Balloons. If the privileges of an LAPL for balloons or a BPL are to be exercised in VFR conditions at night, applicants shall complete at least 2 instruction flights at night of at least 1 hour each.

FCL.815    Mountain rating

(a)

Privileges. The privileges of the holder of a mountain rating are to conduct flights with aeroplanes or TMG to and from surfaces designated as requiring such a rating by the appropriate authorities designated by the Member States.

The initial mountain rating may be obtained either on:

(1) wheels, to grant the privilege to fly to and from such surfaces when they are not covered by snow; or

(2) skis, to grant the privilege to fly to and from such surfaces when they are covered by snow.

(3) The privileges of the initial rating may be extended to either wheel or ski privileges when the pilot has undertaken an appropriate additional familiarisation course, including theoretical knowledge instruction and flight training, with a mountain flight instructor.

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(b)

Training course. Applicants for a mountain rating shall have completed, within a period of 24 months, a course of theoretical knowledge instruction and flight training at a DTO or at an ATO. The content of the course shall be appropriate to the privileges of the mountain rating applied for.

▼B

(c)

Skill test. After the completion of the training, the applicant shall pass a skill test with an FE qualified for this purpose. The skill test shall contain:

(1) a verbal examination of theoretical knowledge;

(2) 6 landings on at least 2 different surfaces designated as requiring a mountain rating other than the surface of departure.

(d)

Validity. A mountain rating shall be valid for a period of 24 months.

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(e)

Revalidation

To revalidate a mountain rating applicants shall either:

(1) complete at least six landings, on a surface designated as requiring a mountain rating, in the preceding two 2 years;

(2) pass a proficiency check complying with the requirements in point (c).

▼B

(f)

Renewal. If the rating has lapsed, the applicant shall comply with the requirement in (e)(2).

FCL.820    Flight test rating

(a)

Holders of a pilot licence for aeroplanes or helicopters shall only act as PIC in category 1 or 2 flight tests, as defined in Part-21, when they hold a flight test rating.

(b)

The obligation to hold a flight test rating established in (a) shall only apply to flight tests conducted on:

(1) helicopters certificated or to be certificated in accordance with the standards of CS-27 or CS-29 or equivalent airworthiness codes; or

(2) aeroplanes certificated or to be certificated in accordance with:

(i) the standards of CS-25 or equivalent airworthiness codes; or

(ii) the standards of CS-23 or equivalent airworthiness codes, except for aeroplanes with an maximum take-off mass of less than 2 000 kg.

(c)

The privileges of the holder of a flight test rating are to, within the relevant aircraft category:

(1) in the case of a category 1 flight test rating, conduct all categories of flight tests, as defined in Part-21, either as PIC or co-pilot;

(2) in the case of a category 2 flight test rating:

(i) conduct category 1 flight tests, as defined in Part-21:

 as a co-pilot, or

 as PIC, in the case of aeroplanes referred to in (b)(2)(ii), except for those within the commuter category or having a design diving speed above 0,6 mach or a maximum ceiling above 25 000 feet;

(ii) conduct all other categories of flight tests, as defined in Part-21, either as PIC or co-pilot;

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(3) conduct flights without a type or class rating as defined in Subpart H, except that the flight test rating shall not be used for commercial air transport operations.

▼B

(d)

Applicants for the first issue of a flight test rating shall:

(1) hold at least a CPL and an IR in the appropriate aircraft category;

(2) have completed at least 1 000 hours of flight time in the appropriate aircraft category, of which at least 400 hours as PIC;

(3) have completed a training course at an ATO appropriate to the intended aircraft and category of flights. The training shall cover at least the following subjects:

 Performance,

 Stability and control/Handling qualities,

 Systems,

 Test management,

 Risk/Safety management.

(e)

The privileges of holders of a flight test rating may be extended to another category of flight test and another category of aircraft when they have completed an additional course of training at an ATO.

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FCL.825    En route instrument rating (EIR)

(a) Privileges and conditions

(1) The privileges of the holder of an en route instrument rating (EIR) are to conduct flights by day under IFR in the en route phase of flight, with an aeroplane for which a class or type rating is held. The privilege may be extended to conduct flights by night under IFR in the en route phase of flight if the pilot holds a night rating in accordance with FCL.810.

(2) The holder of the EIR shall only commence or continue a flight on which he/she intends to exercise the privileges of his/her rating if the latest available meteorological information indicates that:

(i) the weather conditions on departure are such as to enable the segment of the flight from take-off to a planned VFR-to-IFR transition to be conducted in compliance with VFR; and

(ii) at the estimated time of arrival at the planned destination aerodrome, the weather conditions will be such as to enable the segment of the flight from an IFR-to-VFR transition to landing to be conducted in compliance with VFR.

(b) Prerequisites. Applicants for the EIR shall hold at least a PPL(A) and shall have completed at least 20 hours of cross-country flight time as PIC in aeroplanes.

(c) Training course. Applicants for an EIR shall have completed, within a period of 36 months at an ATO:

(1) at least 80 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction in accordance with FCL.615; and

(2) instrument flight instruction, during which:

(i) the flying training for a single-engine EIR shall include at least 15 hours of instrument flight time under instruction; and

(ii) the flying training for a multi-engine EIR shall include at least 16 hours of instrument flight time under instruction, of which at least 4 hours shall be in multi-engine aeroplanes.

(d) Theoretical knowledge. Prior to taking the skill test, the applicant shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted, in the subjects referred to in FCL.615(b).

(e) Skill test. After the completion of the training, the applicant shall pass a skill test in an aeroplane with an IRE. For a multi-engine EIR, the skill test shall be taken in a multi-engine aeroplane. For a single-engine EIR, the test shall be taken in a single-engine aeroplane.

(f) By way of derogation from points (c) and (d), the holder of a single-engine EIR who also holds a multi-engine class or type rating wishing to obtain a multi-engine EIR for the first time, shall complete a course at an ATO comprising at least 2 hours instrument flight time under instruction in the en route phase of flight in multi-engine aeroplanes and shall pass the skill test referred to in point (e).

(g) Validity, revalidation, and renewal.

(1) An EIR shall be valid for 1 year.

(2) Applicants for the revalidation of an EIR shall:

(i) pass a proficiency check in an aeroplane within a period of 3 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the rating; or

(ii) within 12 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, complete 6 hours as PIC under IFR and a training flight of at least 1 hour with an instructor holding privileges to provide training for the IR(A) or EIR.

(3) For each alternate subsequent revalidation, the holder of the EIR shall pass a proficiency check in accordance with point (g)(2)(i).

(4) If an EIR has expired, in order to renew their privileges applicants shall:

(i) complete refresher training provided by an instructor holding privileges to provide training for the IR(A) or EIR to reach the level of proficiency needed; and

(ii) complete a proficiency check.

(5) If the EIR has not been revalidated or renewed within 7 years from the last validity date, the holder will also be required to pass again the EIR theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with FCL.615(b).

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(6) For a multi-engine EIR, the proficiency check for the revalidation or renewal, and the training flight required in point (g)(2)(ii) have to be completed in a multi-engine aeroplane. If the pilot also holds a single-engine EIR, this proficiency check shall also achieve revalidation or renewal of the single-engine EIR. The training flight completed in a multi-engine aeroplane shall also fulfil the training flight requirement for the single-engine EIR.

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(h) When the applicant for the EIR has completed instrument flight time under instruction with an IRI(A) or an FI(A) holding the privilege to provide training for the IR or EIR, these hours may be credited towards the hours required in point (c)(2)(i) and (ii) up to a maximum of 5 or 6 hours respectively. The 4 hours of instrument flight instruction in multi-engine aeroplanes required in point (c)(2)(ii) shall not be subject to this credit.

(1) To determine the amount of hours to be credited and to establish the training needs, the applicant shall complete a pre-entry assessment at the ATO.

(2) The completion of the instrument flight instruction provided by an IRI(A) or FI(A) shall be documented in a specific training record and signed by the instructor.

(i) Applicants for the EIR, holding a Part-FCL PPL or CPL and a valid IR(A) issued in accordance with the requirements of Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention by a third country, may be credited in full towards the training course requirements mentioned in point (c). In order to be issued the EIR, the applicant shall:

(1) successfully complete the skill test for the EIR;

(2) by way of derogation from point (d), demonstrate during the skill test towards the examiner that he/she has acquired an adequate level of theoretical knowledge of air law, meteorology and flight planning and performance (IR);

(3) have a minimum experience of at least 25 hours of flight time under IFR as PIC on aeroplanes.

FCL.830    Sailplane Cloud Flying Rating

(a) Holders of a pilot licence with privileges to fly sailplanes shall only operate a sailplane or a powered sailplane, excluding TMG, within cloud when they hold a sailplane cloud flying rating.

(b) Applicants for a sailplane cloud flying rating shall have completed at least:

(1) 30 hours as PIC in sailplanes or powered sailplanes after the issue of the licence;

(2) a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including:

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(i) theoretical knowledge instruction; and

(ii) at least 2 hours of dual flight instruction in sailplanes or powered sailplanes, controlling the sailplane solely by reference to instruments, of which a maximum of one hour may be completed on TMGs; and

(3) a skill test with an FE qualified for this purpose.

(c) Holders of an EIR or an IR(A) shall be credited against the requirement of (b)(2)(i). By way of derogation from point (b)(2)(ii), at least one hour of dual flight instruction in a sailplane or powered sailplane, excluding TMG, controlling the sailplane solely by reference to instruments shall be completed.

(d) Holders of a cloud flying rating shall only exercise their privileges when they have completed in the last 24 months at least 1 hour of flight time, or 5 flights as PIC exercising the privileges of the cloud flying rating, in sailplanes or powered sailplanes, excluding TMGs.

(e) Holders of a cloud flying rating who do not comply with the requirements in point (d) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) undertake a proficiency check with an FE qualified for this purpose; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or flights required in point (d) with a qualified instructor.

(f) Holders of a valid EIR or an IR(A) shall be credited in full against the requirements in point (d).

▼B

SUBPART J

INSTRUCTORS

SECTION 1

Common requirements

FCL.900    Instructor certificates

(a)

General. A person shall only carry out:

(1) flight instruction in aircraft when he/she holds:

(i) a pilot licence issued or accepted in accordance with this Regulation;

(ii) an instructor certificate appropriate to the instruction given, issued in accordance with this Subpart;

(2) synthetic flight instruction or MCC instruction when he/she holds an instructor certificate appropriate to the instruction given, issued in accordance with this Subpart.

(b)

Special conditions:

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(1) The competent authority may issue a specific certificate granting privileges for flight instruction when compliance with the requirements established in this Subpart is not possible in the case of the introduction of:

(i) new aircraft in the Member States or in an operator's fleet; or

(ii) new training courses in this Annex (Part-FCL).

Such a certificate shall be limited to the training flights necessary for the introduction of the new type of aircraft or the new training course and its validity shall not, in any case, exceed 1 year.

▼B

(2) Holders of a certificate issued in accordance with (b)(1) who wish to apply for the issue of an instructor certificate shall comply with the prerequisites and revalidation requirements established for that category of instructor. Notwithstanding FCL.905.TRI(b), a TRI certificate issued in accordance with this (sub)paragraph will include the privilege to instruct for the issue of a TRI or SFI certificate for the relevant type.

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(c)

Instruction provided outside the territory of the Member States:

(1) By way of derogation from point (a), in the case of flight instruction provided during a training course approved in accordance with this Annex outside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention, the competent authority shall issue an instructor certificate to applicants who:

(i) holds a pilot licence that meets all of the following criteria:

(A) it complies with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention;

(B) in any case, it is at least a CPL in the relevant aircraft category with a relevant rating or certificate;

(ii) complies with the requirements established in this Subpart for the issue of the relevant instructor certificate;

(iii) demonstrates to the competent authority an adequate level of knowledge of European aviation safety rules to be able to exercise instructional privileges in accordance with this Annex.

(2) The certificate shall be limited to providing flight instruction during a training course approved in accordance with this Annex which meets all of the following conditions:

(i) it is provided outside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention;

(ii) it is provided to student pilots who have sufficient knowledge of the language in which flight instruction is provided.

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FCL.915    General prerequisites and requirements for instructors

(a)   General

Applicants for the issue of an instructor certificate shall be at least 18 years of age.

(b)   Additional requirements for instructors providing flight instruction in aircraft

Applicants for the issue of or holders of an instructor certificate with privileges to conduct flight instruction in an aircraft shall:

(1) for licence training, hold at least the licence or, in the case of point FCL.900(c), the equivalent licence, for which flight instruction is to be given;

(2) for a rating training, hold the relevant rating or, in the case of point FCL.900(c), the equivalent rating, for which flight instruction is to be given;

(3) except in the case of flight test instructors (FTIs), have:

(i) completed at least 15 hours of flight time as pilots of the class or type of aircraft on which flight instruction is to be given, of which a maximum of 7 hours may be in an FSTD representing the class or type of aircraft, if applicable; or

(ii) passed an assessment of competence for the relevant category of instructor on that class or type of aircraft; and

(4) be entitled to act as PIC in the aircraft during such flight instruction.

(c)   Credit towards further ratings and for the purpose of revalidation

(1) Applicants for further instructor certificates may be credited with the teaching and learning skills already demonstrated for the instructor certificate held.

(2) Hours flown as an examiner during skill tests or proficiency checks shall be credited in full towards revalidation requirements for all instructor certificates held.

(d)

Credit for extension to further types shall take into account the relevant elements as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 (OSD).

(e)

Additional requirements for instructing in a training course in accordance with FCL.745.A:

(1) In addition to (b), before acting as instructors for a training course according to FCL.745.A, holders of an instructor certificate shall:

(i) have at least 500 hours of flight time as pilots of aeroplanes, including 200 hours of flight instruction;

(ii) after complying with the experience requirements in point (e)(1)(i), have completed a UPRT instructor training course at an ATO, during which the competence of applicants shall have been assessed continuously; and

(iii) upon completion of the course, have been issued with a certificate of course completion by the ATO, whose Head of Training (HT) shall have entered the privileges specified in point (e)(1) in the logbook of the applicants.

(2) The privileges referred to in point (e)(1) shall only be exercised if instructors have, during the last year, received refresher training at an ATO during which the competence required to instruct on a course in accordance with point FCL.745.A is assessed to the satisfaction of the HT.

(3) Instructors holding the privileges specified in point (e)(1) may act as instructors for a course as specified in point (e)(1)(ii), provided that they:

(i) have 25 hours of flight instruction experience during training according to FCL745.A;

(ii) have completed an assessment of competence for this privilege; and

(iii) comply with the recency requirements in point (e)(2).

(4) These privileges shall be entered in the logbook of the instructors and signed by the examiner.

▼B

FCL.920    Instructor competencies and assessment

All instructors shall be trained to achieve the following competences:

 Prepare resources,

 Create a climate conducive to learning,

 Present knowledge,

 Integrate Threat and Error Management (TEM) and crew resource management,

 Manage time to achieve training objectives,

 Facilitate learning,

 Assess trainee performance,

 Monitor and review progress,

 Evaluate training sessions,

 Report outcome.

FCL.925    Additional requirements for instructors for the MPL

(a)

Instructors conducting training for the MPL shall:

(1) have successfully completed an MPL instructor training course at an ATO; and

(2) additionally, for the basic, intermediate and advanced phases of the MPL integrated training course:

(i) be experienced in multi-pilot operations; and

(ii) have completed initial crew resource management training with a commercial air transport operator approved in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements.

(b)

MPL instructors training course

(1) The MPL instructor training course shall comprise at least 14 hours of training.

Upon completion of the training course, the applicant shall undertake an assessment of instructor competencies and of knowledge of the competency-based approach to training.

(2) The assessment shall consist of a practical demonstration of flight instruction in the appropriate phase of the MPL training course. This assessment shall be conducted by an examiner qualified in accordance with Subpart K.

(3) Upon successful completion of the MPL training course, the ATO shall issue an MPL instructor qualification certificate to the applicant.

(c)

In order to maintain the privileges, the instructor shall have, within the preceding 12 months, conducted within an MPL training course:

(1) 1 simulator session of at least 3 hours; or

(2) 1 air exercise of at least 1 hour comprising at least 2 take-offs and landings.

(d)

If the instructor has not fulfilled the requirements of (c), before exercising the privileges to conduct flight instruction for the MPL he/she shall:

(1) receive refresher training at an ATO to reach the level of competence necessary to pass the assessment of instructor competencies; and

(2) pass the assessment of instructor competencies as set out in (b)(2).

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FCL.930    Training course

(a) An applicant for an instructor certificate shall have completed a course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at an ATO. An applicant for an instructor certificate for sailplanes or balloons may have completed a course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at a DTO.

(b) In addition to the specific elements set out in this Annex (Part-FCL) for each category of instructor, the training course shall contain the elements required in point FCL.920.

▼B

FCL.935    Assessment of competence

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(a)

Except for the multi-crew cooperation instructor (MCCI), the synthetic training instructor (STI), the mountain rating instructor (MI) and the flight test instructor (FTI), an applicant for an instructor certificate shall pass an assessment of competence in the appropriate aircraft category, in the relevant class or type or in the appropriate FSTD, to demonstrate to an examiner qualified in accordance with Subpart K of this Annex the ability to instruct a student pilot to the level required for the issue of the relevant licence, rating or certificate.

▼B

(b)

This assessment shall include:

(1) the demonstration of the competencies described in FCL.920, during pre-flight, post-flight and theoretical knowledge instruction;

(2) oral theoretical examinations on the ground, pre-flight and post-flight briefings and in-flight demonstrations in the appropriate aircraft class, type or FSTD;

(3) exercises adequate to evaluate the instructor’s competencies.

(c)

The assessment shall be performed on the same class or type of aircraft or FSTD used for the flight instruction.

(d)

When an assessment of competence is required for revalidation of an instructor certificate, an applicant who fails to achieve a pass in the assessment before the expiry date of an instructor certificate shall not exercise the privileges of that certificate until the assessment has successfully been completed.

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FCL.940    Validity of instructor certificates

With the exception of the MI, and without prejudice to points FCL.900 (b)(1) and FCL.915 (e)(2), instructor certificates shall be valid for a period of 3 years.

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FCL.945    Obligations for instructors

Upon completion of the training flight for the revalidation of an SEP or TMG class rating in accordance with FCL.740.A (b)(1) and only in the event of fulfilment of all the other revalidation criteria required by FCL.740.A (b)(1) the instructor shall endorse the applicant's licence with the new expiry date of the rating or certificate, if specifically authorised for that purpose by the competent authority responsible for the applicant's licence.

▼B

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for the flight instructor — FI

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FCL.905.FI    FI — Privileges and conditions

The privileges of FIs are to conduct flight instruction for the issue, revalidation or renewal of:

(a) a PPL, an SPL, a BPL and a LAPL in the appropriate aircraft category;

(b) class and type ratings for single-pilot aircraft, except for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes; class and group extensions for balloons and class recencies for sailplanes;

(c) class and type ratings for single-pilot aeroplanes, except for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes, in multi-pilot operations, provided that FIs meet any of the following conditions:

(1) hold or have held a TRI certificate for multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(2) have completed all of the following:

(i) at least 500 hours as pilots in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes;

(ii) the training course for an MCCI in accordance with point FCL.930.MCCI;

(d) type ratings for single or multi-pilot airships;

(e) a CPL in the appropriate aircraft category, provided that FIs have completed at least 200 hours of flight instruction in that aircraft category;

(f) the night rating, provided that FIs meet all of the following conditions:

(1) are qualified to fly at night in the appropriate aircraft category;

(2) have demonstrated the ability to instruct at night to an FI qualified in accordance with point (j);

(3) comply with the night experience requirement laid down in point FCL.060(b)(2);

(g) a towing, aerobatic or, in the case of FIs(S), a cloud flying rating, provided that such privileges are held and the FIs have demonstrated the ability to instruct for that rating to an FI qualified in accordance with point (j);

(h) an EIR or IR in the appropriate aircraft category, provided that FIs meet all of the following conditions:

(1) have completed at least 200 hours of flight time under IFR, of which a maximum of 50 hours may be instrument ground time in an FFS, an FTD 2/3 or an FNPT II;

(2) completed as student pilots the IRI training course and have passed an assessment of competence for the IRI certificate;

(3) comply with points FCL.915.CRI(a), FCL.930.CRI and FCL.935 in the case of multi-engine aeroplanes and with points FCL.910.TRI(c)(1) and FCL.915.TRI(d)(2) in the case of multi-engine helicopters;

(i) single-pilot multi-engine class or type ratings, except for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes, provided that they meet the following conditions:

(1) in the case of aeroplanes, comply with points FCL.915.CRI(a), FCL.930.CRI and FCL.935;

(2) in the case of helicopters, comply with points FCL.910.TRI(c)(1) and FCL.915.TRI(d)(2);

(j) an FI, an IRI, a CRI, an STI or an MI certificate provided that they meet all of the following conditions:

(1) they have completed at least 50 hours or 150 launches of flight instruction in sailplanes in the case of FI(S), at least 50 hours or 50 take-offs of flight instruction in balloons in the case of FI(B) and 500 hours of flight instruction in the appropriate aircraft category in all other cases;

(2) they have passed an assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 in the appropriate aircraft category to demonstrate to a flight instructor examiner (FIE) the ability to instruct for the relevant certificate;

(k) an MPL, provided that the FIs meet all of the following conditions:

(1) for the core flying phase of the training, have completed at least 500 hours of flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes, including at least 200 hours of flight instruction;

(2) for the basic phase of the training:

(i) hold a multi-engine aeroplane IR and the privilege to instruct for an IR;

(ii) have completed at least 1 500 hours of flight time in multi-crew operations;

(3) in the case of FIs already qualified to instruct on ATP(A) or CPL(A)/IR integrated courses, the requirement in point (2)(ii) may be replaced by the completion of a structured course of training consisting of:

(i) MCC qualification;

(ii) observation of five sessions of flight instruction in Phase 3 of an MPL course;

(iii) observation of five sessions of flight instruction in Phase 4 of an MPL course;

(iv) observation of five operator recurrent line-oriented flight training sessions;

(v) the content of the MCCI course.

In this case, FIs shall conduct their first five instructor sessions under the supervision of a TRI(A), an MCCI(A) or an SFI(A) qualified for MPL flight instruction.

▼B

FCL.910.FI    FI — Restricted privileges

(a)

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An FI shall have his or her privileges limited to conducting flight instruction under the supervision of an FI for the same category of aircraft nominated by the DTO or the ATO for this purpose, in the following cases:

▼B

(1) for the issue of the PPL, SPL, BPL and LAPL;

(2) in all integrated courses at PPL level, in case of aeroplanes and helicopters;

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(3) for class and type ratings for single-pilot, single-engine aircraft, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, class and group extensions in the case of balloons and class extensions in the case of sailplanes;

▼B

(4) for the night, towing or aerobatic ratings.

(b)

While conducting training under supervision, in accordance with (a), the FI shall not have the privilege to authorise student pilots to conduct first solo flights and first solo cross-country flights.

(c)

The limitations in (a) and (b) shall be removed from the FI certificate when the FI has completed at least:

(1) for the FI(A), 100 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or TMGs and, in addition has supervised at least 25 student solo flights;

(2) for the FI(H) 100 hours of flight instruction in helicopters and, in addition has supervised at least 25 student solo flight air exercises;

(3) for the FI(As), FI(S) and FI(B), 15 hours or 50 take-offs of flight instruction covering the full training syllabus for the issue of a PPL(As), SPL or BPL in the appropriate aircraft category.

FCL.915.FI    FI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an FI certificate shall:

(a) in the case of the FI(A) and FI(H):

(1) have received at least 10 hours of instrument flight instruction on the appropriate aircraft category, of which not more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time in an FSTD;

(2) have completed 20 hours of VFR cross-country flight on the appropriate aircraft category as PIC; and

(b) additionally, for the FI(A):

(1) hold at least a CPL(A); or

(2) hold at least a PPL(A) and have:

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(i) except for an FI(A) providing training for the LAPL(A) only, passed the CPL theoretical knowledge examination, which may be taken without completing a CPL theoretical knowledge training course and which shall not be valid for the issue of a CPL; and

▼B

(ii) completed at least 200 hours of flight time on aeroplanes or TMGs, of which 150 hours as PIC;

(3) have completed at least 30 hours on single-engine piston powered aeroplanes of which at least 5 hours shall have been completed during the 6 months preceding the pre-entry flight test set out in FCL.930.FI(a);

(4) have completed a VFR cross-country flight as PIC, including a flight of at least 540 km (300 NM) in the course of which full stop landings at 2 different aerodromes shall be made;

(c) additionally, for the FI(H), have completed 250 hours total flight time as pilot on helicopters of which:

(1) at least 100 hours shall be as PIC, if the applicant holds at least a CPL(H); or

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(2) at least 200 hours as PIC if the applicant holds at least a PPL(H) and has passed the CPL theoretical knowledge examination, which may be taken without completing a CPL theoretical knowledge training course and which shall not be valid for the issue of a CPL;

▼B

(d) for an FI(As), have completed 500 hours of flight time on airships as PIC, of which 400 hours shall be as PIC holding a CPL(As);

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(e) for an FI(S), have completed 100 hours of flight time and 200 launches as PIC on sailplanes. Additionally, where the applicant wishes to give flight instruction on TMGs, he/she shall have completed 30 hours of flight time as PIC on TMGs and an additional assessment of competence on a TMG in accordance with FCL.935 with an FI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FI(i);

▼B

(f) for an FI(B), have completed 75 hours of balloon flight time as PIC, of which at least 15 hours have to be in the class for which flight instruction will be given.

FCL.930.FI    FI — Training course

(a)

Applicants for the FI certificate shall have passed a specific pre-entry flight test with an FI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FI(i) within the 6 months preceding the start of the course, to assess their ability to undertake the course. This pre-entry flight test shall be based on the proficiency check for class and type ratings as set out in Appendix 9 to this Part.

(b)

The FI training course shall include:

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning;

(2)

 

(i) in the case of an FI(A), (H) and (As), at least 100 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction, including progress tests;

(ii) in the case of an FI(B) or FI(S), at least 30 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction, including progress tests;

(3)

 

(i) in the case of an FI(A) and (H), at least 30 hours of flight instruction, of which 25 hours shall be dual flight instruction, of which 5 hours may be conducted in an FFS, an FNPT I or II or an FTD 2/3;

(ii) in the case of an FI(As), at least 20 hours of flight instruction, of which 15 hours shall be dual flight instruction;

(iii) in the case of an FI(S), at least 6 hours or 20 take-offs of flight instruction;

(iv) in the case of an FI(S) providing training on TMGs, at least 6 hours of dual flight instruction on TMGs;

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(v) in the case of an FI(B), at least 3 hours of flight instruction, including 3 take-offs.

(4) When applying for an FI certificate in another category of aircraft, pilots holding or having held an FI(A), (H) or (As) shall be credited with 55 hours towards the requirement in point (b)(2)(i) or with 18 hours towards the requirements in point (b)(2)(ii).

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(c)

Applicants for the FI certificate who hold or have held any other instructor certificate issued in accordance with this Annex shall be deemed to meet the requirements in point (b)(1).

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FCL.940.FI    FI — Revalidation and renewal

(a) Revalidation

(1) To revalidate an FI certificate, holders shall fulfil at least two out of the three following requirements before the expiry date of the FI certificate:

(i) they have completed:

(A) in the case of an FI(A) and an FI(H), at least 50 hours of flight instruction in the appropriate aircraft category as FIs, TRIs, CRIs, IRIs, MIs or examiners. If the privileges to instruct for the IR are to be revalidated, at least 10 of those hours shall be flight instruction for an IR and shall have been completed in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the FI certificate;

(B) in the case of an FI(As), at least 20 hours of flight instruction in airships as FIs, IRIs or as examiners. If the privileges to instruct for the IR are to be revalidated, 10 of those hours shall be flight instruction for an IR and shall have been completed in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the FI certificate;

(C) in the case of an FI(S), at least 60 take-offs on or 30 hours of flight instruction in sailplanes, powered sailplanes or TMG as FIs or as examiners;

(D) in the case of an FI(B), at least 6 hours of flight instruction in balloons as FIs or as examiners;

(ii) they have completed instructor refresher training as an FI at an ATO or at the competent authority. FI(B)s and FI(S)s may complete this instructor refresher training at a DTO;

(iii) they have passed an assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the FI certificate.

(2) For at least each alternate revalidation in the case of FI(A) or FI(H), or each third revalidation, in the case of FI(As), FI(S) and FI(B), holders of the relevant FI certificate shall pass an assessment of competence in accordance with FCL.935.

(b) Renewal.

If the FI certificate has expired, applicants shall, within a period of 12 months before the application date for the renewal complete instructor refresher training as an FI at an ATO or at a competent authority or in the case of an FI(B) or FI(S) at an ATO, at a DTO or at a competent authority and complete an assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935.

▼B

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for the type rating instructor — TRI

FCL.905.TRI    TRI — Privileges and conditions

The privileges of a TRI are to instruct for:

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(a) the revalidation and renewal of an EIR or an IR, provided the TRI holds a valid IR;

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(b) the issue of a TRI or SFI certificate, provided that the holder meets all of the following conditions:

(1) it has at least 50 hours of instructional experience as a TRI or SFI in accordance with this Regulation or Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012;

(2) it has conducted the flight instruction syllabus of the relevant part of the TRI training course according to point FCL.930.TRI(a)(3) to the satisfaction of the head of training of an ATO; and

(c) in the case of the TRI for single-pilot aeroplanes:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of type ratings for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes provided that the applicant seeks privileges to operate in single-pilot operations.

The privileges of the TRI(SPA) may be extended to flight instruction for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes type ratings in multi-pilot operations, provided that the TRI meets any of the following conditions:

(i) holds or has held a TRI certificate for multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(ii) has at least 500 hours on aeroplanes in multi-pilot operations and completed an MCCI training course in accordance with point FCL.930.MCCI.

(2) the MPL course on the basic phase, provided that he or she has the privileges extended to multi-pilot operations and holds or has held an FI(A) or an IRI(A) certificate;

▼B

(d) in the case of the TRI for multi-pilot aeroplanes:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of type ratings for:

(i) multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(ii) single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes when the applicant seeks privileges to operate in multi-pilot operations;

(2) MCC training;

(3) the MPL course on the basic, intermediate and advanced phases, provided that, for the basic phase, they hold or have held an FI(A) or IRI(A) certificate;

(e) in the case of the TRI for helicopters:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of helicopter type ratings;

(2) MCC training, provided he/she holds a multi-pilot helicopter type rating;

(3) the extension of the single-engine IR(H) to multi-engine IR(H);

(f) in the case of the TRI for powered-lift aircraft:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of powered-lift type ratings;

(2) MCC training.

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FCL.910.TRI    TRI — Restricted privileges

(a) General. If the TRI training is carried out in FSTDs only, the privileges of TRIs shall be restricted to training in FSTDs. This restriction shall however include the following privileges for conducting, in the aircraft:

(1) LIFUS, provided that the TRI training course has included the training specified in point FCL.930.TRI(a)(4)(i);

(2) landing training, provided that the TRI training course has included the training specified in point FCL.930.TRI(a)(4)(ii); or

(3) the training flight specified in point FCL.060(c)(2), provided that the TRI training course has included the training referred to in points (a)(1) or (a)(2).

The restriction to FSTD shall be removed if TRIs have completed an assessment of competence in the aircraft.

(b) TRIs for aeroplanes and for powered-lift aircraft — TRI(A) and TRI(PL). The privileges of TRIs are restricted to the type of aeroplane or powered-lift aircraft in which the training and the assessment of competence were conducted. Unless otherwise determined in the OSD, to extend the privileges of TRIs to further types, TRIs shall have:

(1) completed within the 12 months preceding the application, at least 15 route sectors, including take-offs and landings on the applicable aircraft type, of which of maximum of 7 sectors may be completed in an FSTD;

(2) completed the relevant parts of the technical training and the flight instruction parts of the applicable TRI course;

(3) passed the relevant sections of the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 in order to demonstrate to an FIE or a TRE qualified in accordance with Subpart K to this Annex their ability to instruct a pilot to the level required for the issue of a type rating, including pre-flight, post-flight and theoretical knowledge instruction.

The privileges of TRIs shall be extended to further variants in accordance with the OSD if TRIs have completed the relevant parts of the technical training and flight instruction parts of the applicable TRI course.

(c) TRIs for helicopters — TRI(H).

(1) The privileges of TRIs(H) are restricted to the type of helicopter in which the assessment of competence for the issue of the TRI certificate was taken. Unless otherwise determined in the OSD, the privileges of the TRIs shall be extended to further types if TRIs have:

(i) completed the relevant parts of the technical training and flight instruction parts of the TRI course;

(ii) completed within the 12 months preceding the date of application, at least 10 hours on the applicable helicopter type, of which a maximum of 5 hours may be completed in an FFS or FTD 2/3; and

(iii) passed the relevant sections of the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 in order to demonstrate to an FIE or a TRE qualified in accordance with Subpart K of this Annex their ability to instruct a pilot to the level required for the issue of a type rating, including pre-flight, post-flight and theoretical knowledge instruction.

The privileges of TRIs shall be extended to further variants in accordance with the OSD if TRIs have competed the relevant parts of the technical training and flight instruction parts of the applicable TRI course.

(2) Before the privileges of a TRI(H) are extended from single-pilot to multi-pilot privileges on the same type of helicopters, the holder shall have completed at least 100 hours of multi-pilot operations on this type.

(d) Notwithstanding the points above, holders of a TRI certificate who received a type rating in accordance with point FCL.725(e) shall be entitled to have their TRI privileges extended to that new type of aircraft.

▼B

FCL.915.TRI    TRI — Prerequisites

An applicant for a TRI certificate shall:

(a) hold a CPL, MPL or ATPL pilot licence on the applicable aircraft category;

(b) for a TRI(MPA) certificate:

(1) have completed 1 500 hours flight time as a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes; and

(2) have completed, within the 12 months preceding the date of application, 30 route sectors, including take-offs and landings, as PIC or co-pilot on the applicable aeroplane type, of which 15 sectors may be completed in an FFS representing that type;

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(c) for a TRI(SPA) certificate:

(1) have completed, within the 12 months preceding the date of the application, at least 30 route sectors, including take-offs and landings, as PIC on the applicable aeroplane type, of which a maximum of 15 sectors may be completed in an FSTD representing that type; and

▼B

(d) for TRI(H):

(1) for a TRI(H) certificate for single-pilot single-engine helicopters, have completed 250 hours as a pilot on helicopters;

(2) for a TRI(H) certificate for single-pilot multi-engine helicopters, have completed 500 hours as pilot of helicopters, including 100 hours as PIC on single-pilot multi-engine helicopters;

(3) for a TRI(H) certificate for multi-pilot helicopters, have completed 1 000 hours of flight time as a pilot on helicopters, including:

(i) 350 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot helicopters; or

(ii) for applicants already holding a TRI(H) certificate for single-pilot multi-engine helicopters, 100 hours as pilot of that type in multi-pilot operations.

(4) Holders of an FI(H) certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirements of (1) and (2) in the relevant single-pilot helicopter;

(e) for TRI(PL):

(1) have completed 1 500 hours flight time as a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes, powered-lift, or multi-pilot helicopters; and

(2) have completed, within the 12 months preceding the application, 30 route sectors, including take-offs and landings, as PIC or co-pilot on the applicable powered-lift type, of which 15 sectors may be completed in an FFS representing that type.

FCL.930.TRI    TRI — Training course

(a)

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The TRI training course shall be conducted in the aircraft only if no FSTD is available and accessible and shall include:

▼B

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning;

(2) 10 hours of technical training, including revision of technical knowledge, the preparation of lesson plans and the development of classroom/simulator instructional skills;

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(3) 5 hours of flight instruction on the appropriate aircraft or an FSTD representing that aircraft for single-pilot aircraft and 10 hours for multi-pilot aircraft or an FSTD representing that aircraft;

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(4) the following training, as applicable:

(i) additional specific training before conducting LIFUS;

(ii) additional specific training before conducting landing training. That training in the FSTD shall include training for emergency procedures related to the aircraft.

▼B

(b)

Applicants holding or having held an instructor certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirement of (a)(1).

(c)

An applicant for a TRI certificate who holds an SFI certificate for the relevant type shall be fully credited towards the requirements of this paragraph for the issue of a TRI certificate restricted to flight instruction in simulators.

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FCL.935.TRI    TRI — Assessment of competence

(a) The assessment of competence for a TRI for MPA and PL shall be conducted in an FFS. If no FFS is available or accessible, an aircraft shall be used.

(b) The assessment of competence for a TRI for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes and helicopters shall be conducted in any of the following:

(1) an available and accessible FFS;

(2) if no FFS is available or accessible, in a combination of FSTD(s) and an aircraft;

(3) if no FSTD is available or accessible, in an aircraft.

FCL.940.TRI    TRI — Revalidation and renewal

(a) Revalidation

(1) Aeroplanes

To revalidate a TRI(A) certificate, applicants shall, within the 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the certificate fulfil at least two out of the three following requirements:

(i) conduct one of the following parts of a complete type rating or recurrent training course: simulator session of at least 3 hours or one air exercise of at least 1 hour comprising a minimum of two take-offs and landings;

(ii) complete instructor refresher training as a TRI(A) at an ATO;

(iii) pass the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935. Applicants who have complied with point FCL.910.TRI(b)(3) shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(2) Helicopters and powered lift

To revalidate a TRI (H) or TRI(PL) certificate, applicants shall, within the validity period of the TRI certificate fulfil at least two out of the three following requirements:

(i) completed at least 50 hours of flight instruction in each of the types of aircraft for which instructional privileges are held or in an FSTD representing those types, of which at least 15 hours shall be completed in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the TRI certificate. In the case of a TRI(PL), those hours shall be completed as a TRI or a type rating examiner (TRE), or as an SFI or a synthetic flight examiner (SFE). In the case of a TRI(H), the time flown as FIs, instrument rating instructors (IRIs), synthetic training instructors (STIs) or as any kind of examiners shall be accounted for this purpose;

(ii) complete instructor refresher training as a TRI(H) or TRI(PL), as relevant, at an ATO;

(iii) in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the certificate, passed an assessment of competence in accordance with points FCL.935, FCL.910.TRI(b)(3) or FCL.910.TRI(c)(3), as applicable.

(3) For at least each alternate revalidation of a TRI certificate, holders shall pass the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935.

(4) If TRIs hold a certificate for more than one type of aircraft within the same category, the assessment of competence taken on one of those types of aircraft shall revalidate the TRI certificate for the other types held within the same category of aircraft, unless it is otherwise determined in the OSD.

(5) Specific requirements for the revalidation of a TRI(H) certificate

TRIs(H) holding an FI(H) certificate in the relevant type shall be deemed to comply with the requirements in point (a). In that case, the TRI(H) certificate shall be valid until the expiry date of the FI(H) certificate.

(b) Renewal

To renew a TRI certificate, applicants shall, within the 12 months immediately preceding the date of the application, have passed the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 and shall have completed the following:

(1) for aeroplanes:

(i) at least 30 route sectors, including take-offs and landings on the applicable aeroplane type, of which maximum 15 sectors may be completed in an FFS;

(ii) instructor refresher training as a TRI at an ATO which shall cover the relevant elements of the TRI training course;

(2) for helicopters and powered lift:

(i) at least 10 hours of flight time, including take-offs and landings on the applicable aircraft type, of which maximum 5 hours may be completed in an FFS or FTD 2/3;

(ii) instructor refresher training as a TRI at an ATO, which shall cover the relevant elements of the TRI training course.

(3) If applicants held a certificate for more than one type of aircraft within the same category, the assessment of competence taken on one of those types of aircraft shall renew the TRI certificate for the other types held within the same category of aircraft, unless it is otherwise determined in the OSD.

▼B

SECTION 5

Specific requirements for the class rating instructor — CRI

FCL.905.CRI    CRI — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of a CRI are to instruct for:

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(1) the issue, revalidation or renewal of a class or type rating for single-pilot aeroplanes, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, when the privileges sought by the applicant are to fly in single-pilot operations;

▼B

(2) a towing or aerobatic rating for the aeroplane category, provided the CRI holds the relevant rating and has demonstrated the ability to instruct for that rating to an FI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FI(i);

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(3) extension of LAPL(A) privileges to another class or variant of aeroplane.

▼B

(b)

The privileges of a CRI are restricted to the class or type of aeroplane in which the instructor assessment of competence was taken. The privileges of the CRI shall be extended to further classes or types when the CRI has completed, within the last 12 months:

(1) 15 hours flight time as PIC on aeroplanes of the applicable class or type of aeroplane;

(2) one training flight from the right hand seat under the supervision of another CRI or FI qualified for that class or type occupying the other pilot’s seat.

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(ba)

The privileges of CRIs are to instruct for class and type ratings for single-pilot aeroplanes, except for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes, in multi-pilot operations, provided that CRIs meet any of the following conditions:

(1) hold or have held a TRI certificate for multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(2) have at least 500 hours on aeroplanes in multi-pilot operations and completed an MCCI training course in accordance with point FCL.930.MCCI.

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(c)

Applicants for a CRI for multi-engine aeroplanes holding a CRI certificate for single-engine aeroplanes shall have fulfilled the prerequisites for a CRI established in FCL.915.CRI(a) and the requirements of FCL.930.CRI(a)(3) and FCL.935.

▼B

FCL.915.CRI    CRI — Prerequisites

An applicant for a CRI certificate shall have completed at least:

(a) for multi-engine aeroplanes:

(1) 500 hours flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes;

(2) 30 hours as PIC on the applicable class or type of aeroplane;

(b) for single-engine aeroplanes:

(1) 300 hours flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes;

(2) 30 hours as PIC on the applicable class or type of aeroplane.

FCL.930.CRI    CRI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the CRI shall include, at least:

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning instruction;

(2) 10 hours of technical training, including revision of technical knowledge, the preparation of lesson plans and the development of classroom/simulator instructional skills;

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(3) 5 hours of flight instruction on multi-engine aeroplanes or an FSTD representing that class or type of aeroplane, including at least 3 hours on the aeroplane, or at least 3 hours of flight instruction on single-engine aeroplanes, given by an FI(A) qualified in accordance with point FCL.905.FI(j).

▼B

(b)

Applicants holding or having held an instructor certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirement of (a)(1).

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FCL.940.CRI    CRI — Revalidation and renewal

(a) To revalidate a CRI certificate, applicants shall fulfil, within the validity period of the CRI certificate, at least two out of the following three requirements:

(1) conduct at least 10 hours of flight instruction as a CRI. If applicants have CRI privileges on both single-engine and multi-engine aeroplanes, those hours of flight instruction shall be equally divided between single-engine and multi-engine aeroplanes;

(2) complete a refresher training as a CRI at an ATO or at a competent authority;

(3) pass the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935 for multi-engine or single-engine aeroplanes, as relevant.

(b) For at least each alternate revalidation of a CRI certificate, holders shall have complied with the requirement in point (a)(3).

(c) Renewal

If the CRI certificate has expired, it shall be renewed if the applicants in the period of 12 months before the application for the renewal:

(1) have completed a refresher training as a CRI at an ATO or at a competent authority;

(2) have completed the assessment of competence as required by point FCL.935.

▼B

SECTION 6

Specific requirements for the instrument rating instructor — IRI

FCL.905.IRI    IRI — Privileges and conditions

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(a)

The privileges of an IRI are to instruct for the issue, revalidation and renewal of an EIR or an IR on the appropriate aircraft category.

▼B

(b)

Specific requirements for the MPL course. To instruct for the basic phase of training on an MPL course, the IRI(A) shall:

(1) hold an IR for multi-engine aeroplanes; and

(2) have completed at least 1 500 hours of flight time in multi-crew operations.

(3) In the case of IRI already qualified to instruct on ATP(A) or CPL(A)/IR integrated courses, the requirement of (b)(2) may be replaced by the completion of the course provided for in paragraph FCL.905.FI(j)(3).

FCL.915.IRI    IRI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an IRI certificate shall:

(a) for an IRI(A):

(1) have completed at least 800 hours of flight time under IFR, of which at least 400 hours shall be in aeroplanes; and

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(2) in the case of applicants of an IRI(A) for multi-engine aeroplanes, meet the requirements of paragraphs FCL.915.CRI(a), FCL.930.CRI and FCL.935;

▼B

(b) for an IRI(H):

(1) have completed at least 500 hours of flight time under IFR, of which at least 250 hours shall be instrument flight time in helicopters; and

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(2) in the case of applicants for an IR(H) for multi-engine helicopters, meet the requirements of point FCL.905.FI(h)(3)(ii);

▼B

(c) for an IRI(As), have completed at least 300 hours of flight time under IFR, of which at least 100 hours shall be instrument flight time in airships.

FCL.930.IRI    IRI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the IRI shall include, at least:

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning instruction;

(2) 10 hours of technical training, including revision of instrument theoretical knowledge, the preparation of lesson plans and the development of classroom instructional skills;

(3)

 

(i) for the IRI(A), at least 10 hours of flight instruction on an aeroplane, FFS, FTD 2/3 or FPNT II. In the case of applicants holding an FI(A) certificate, these hours are reduced to 5;

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(ii) for the IRI(H), at least 10 hours of flight instruction on a helicopter, FFS, FTD 2/3 or FNPT II/III. In the case of applicants holding an FI(H) certificate, those hours are reduced to at least 5;

▼B

(iii) for the IRI(As), at least 10 hours of flight instruction on an airship, FFS, FTD 2/3 or FNPT II.

(b)

Flight instruction shall be given by an FI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FI(i).

(c)

Applicants holding or having held an instructor certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirement of (a)(1).

FCL.940.IRI    IRI — Revalidation and renewal

For revalidation and renewal of an IRI certificate, the holder shall meet the requirements for revalidation and renewal of an FI certificate, in accordance with FCL.940.FI.

SECTION 7

Specific requirements for the synthetic flight instructor — SFI

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FCL.905.SFI    SFI — Privileges and conditions

(a) The privileges of SFIs are to carry out synthetic flight instruction, within the relevant aircraft category, for:

(1) the revalidation and renewal of an IR, provided that they hold or have held an IR in the relevant aircraft category;

(2) the issue of an IR, provided that they hold or have held an IR in the relevant aircraft category and have completed an IRI training course.

(b) The privileges of SFIs for single-pilot aeroplanes are to carry out synthetic flight instruction for:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of type ratings for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, if applicants seek privileges to operate in single-pilot operations.

The privileges of SFIs for single-pilot aeroplanes may be extended to flight instruction for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes type ratings in multi-pilot operations, provided that they meet any of the following conditions:

(i) hold or have held a TRI certificate for multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(ii) have at least 500 hours on aeroplanes in multi-pilot operations and have completed an MCCI training course in accordance with point FCL.930.MCCI;

(2) the MCC and the MPL training courses on the basic phase, provided that the privileges of SFIs(SPA) have been extended to multi-pilot operations in accordance with point (1).

(c) The privileges of SFIs for multi-pilot aeroplanes are to carry out synthetic flight instruction for:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of type ratings for multi-pilot aeroplanes and if applicants seek privileges to operate in multi-pilot operations, for single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes;

(2) the MCC training course;

(3) the MPL course on the basic, intermediate and advanced phases, provided that, for the basic phase, they hold or have held an FI(A) or an IRI(A) certificate;

(d) The privileges of SFIs for helicopters are to carry out synthetic flight instruction for:

(1) the issue, revalidation and renewal of helicopter type ratings;

(2) MCC training, if SFIs have privileges to instruct for multi-pilot helicopters.

FCL.910.SFI    SFI — Restricted privileges

The privileges of SFIs shall be restricted to the FTD 2/3 or FFS of the aircraft type in which the SFI training course was taken.

The privileges may be extended to other FSTDs representing further types of the same category of aircraft if the holders have:

(a) completed the simulator content of the relevant type rating course;

(b) completed the relevant parts of the technical training and the FSTD content of the flight instruction syllabus of the applicable TRI course;

(c) conducted on a complete type rating course at least 3 hours of flight instruction related to the duties of an SFI on the applicable type under the supervision and to the satisfaction of a TRE or an SFE qualified for this purpose.

The privileges of the SFI shall be extended to further variants in accordance with the OSD if the SFI has completed the type relevant parts of the technical training and the FSTD content of the flight instruction syllabus of the applicable TRI course.

▼B

FCL.915.SFI    SFI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an SFI certificate shall:

(a) hold or have held a CPL, MPL or ATPL in the appropriate aircraft category;

(b) have completed the proficiency check for the issue of the specific aircraft type rating in an FFS representing the applicable type, within the 12 months preceding the application; and

(c) additionally, for an SFI(A) for multi-pilot aeroplanes or SFI(PL), have:

(1) at least 1 500 hours flight time as a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes or powered-lift, as applicable;

(2) completed, as a pilot or as an observer, within the 12 months preceding the application, at least:

(i) 3 route sectors on the flight deck of the applicable aircraft type; or

(ii) 2 line-orientated flight training-based simulator sessions conducted by qualified flight crew on the flight deck of the applicable type. These simulator sessions shall include 2 flights of at least 2 hours each between 2 different aerodromes, and the associated pre-flight planning and de-briefing;

(d) additionally, for an SFI(A) for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes:

(1) have completed at least 500 hours of flight time as PIC on single-pilot aeroplanes;

(2) hold or have held a multi-engine IR(A) rating; and

(3) have met the requirements in (c)(2);

(e) additionally, for an SFI(H), have:

(1) completed, as a pilot or as an observer, at least 1 hour of flight time on the flight deck of the applicable type, within the 12 months preceding the application; and

(2) in the case of multi-pilot helicopters, at least 1 000 hours of flying experience as a pilot on helicopters, including at least 350 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot helicopters;

(3) in the case of single-pilot multi-engine helicopters, completed 500 hours as pilot of helicopters, including 100 hours as PIC on single-pilot multi-engine helicopters;

(4) in the case of single-pilot single-engine helicopters, completed 250 hours as a pilot on helicopters.

FCL.930.SFI    SFI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the SFI shall include:

(1) the FSTD content of the applicable type rating course;

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(2) the relevant parts of the technical training and the FSTD content of the flight instruction syllabus of the applicable TRI training course.

▼B

(b)

An applicant for an SFI certificate who holds a TRI certificate for the relevant type shall be fully credited towards the requirements of this paragraph.

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FCL.940.SFI    SFI — Revalidation and renewal

(a) Revalidation

To revalidate an SFI certificate, applicants shall fulfil, before the expiry date of the SFI certificate, at least two out of the following three requirements:

(1) have completed at least 50 hours as instructors or examiners in FSTDs, of which at least 15 hours in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the SFI certificate;

(2) have completed instructor refresher training as an SFI at an ATO;

(3) have passed the relevant sections of the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935.

(b) Additionally, applicants shall have completed, on an FFS, the proficiency checks for the issue of the specific aircraft type ratings representing the types for which privileges are held.

(c) For at least each alternate revalidation of an SFI certificate, holders shall comply with the requirement in point (a)(3).

(d) If an SFI holds a certificate in more than one type of aircraft within the same category, the assessment of competence taken on one of those types shall revalidate the SFI certificate for the other types held within the same category of aircraft, unless otherwise is determined in the OSD.

(e) Renewal

To renew the SFI certificate, applicants shall, within the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application for the renewal, comply with all of the following conditions:

(1) have completed instructor refresher training as an SFI at an ATO;

(2) have passed the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.935;

(3) have completed, on an FSTD, the skill test for the issue of the specific aircraft type ratings representing the types for which privileges are to be renewed.

▼B

SECTION 8

Specific requirements for the multi-crew cooperation instructor — MCCI

FCL.905.MCCI    MCCI — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of an MCCI are to carry out flight instruction during:

(1) the practical part of MCC courses when not combined with type rating training; and

(2) in the case of MCCI(A), the basic phase of the MPL integrated training course, provided he/she holds or has held an FI(A) or an IRI(A) certificate.

FCL.910.MCCI    MCCI — Restricted privileges

The privileges of the holder of an MCCI certificate shall be restricted to the FNPT II/III MCC, FTD 2/3 or FFS in which the MCCI training course was taken.

The privileges may be extended to other FSTDs representing further types of aircraft when the holder has completed the practical training of the MCCI course on that type of FNPT II/III MCC, FTD 2/3 or FFS.

FCL.915.MCCI    MCCI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an MCCI certificate shall:

(a) hold or have held a CPL, MPL or ATPL in the appropriate aircraft category;

(b) have at least:

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(1) in the case of aeroplanes, airships and powered-lift aircraft, 1 500 hours of flying experience as a pilot in multi-pilot operations;

▼B

(2) in the case of helicopters, 1 000 hours of flying experience as a pilot in multi-crew operations, of which at least 350 hours in multi-pilot helicopters.

FCL.930.MCCI    MCCI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the MCCI shall include, at least:

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning instruction;

(2) technical training related to the type of FSTD where the applicant wishes to instruct;

(3) 3 hours of practical instruction, which may be flight instruction or MCC instruction on the relevant FNPT II/III MCC, FTD 2/3 or FFS, under the supervision of a TRI, SFI or MCCI nominated by the ATO for that purpose. These hours of flight instruction under supervision shall include the assessment of the applicant’s competence as described in FCL.920.

(b)

Applicants holding or having held an FI, TRI, CRI, IRI or SFI certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirement of (a)(1).

FCL.940.MCCI    MCCI — Revalidation and renewal

(a)

For revalidation of an MCCI certificate the applicant shall have completed the requirements of FCL.930.MCCI(a)(3) on the relevant type of FNPT II/III, FTD 2/3 or FFS, within the last 12 months of the validity period of the MCCI certificate.

(b)

Renewal. If the MCCI certificate has lapsed, the applicant shall complete the requirements of FCL.930.MCCI(a)(2) and (3) on the relevant type of FNPT II/III MCC, FTD 2/3 or FFS.

SECTION 9

Specific requirements for the synthetic training instructor — STI

FCL.905.STI    STI — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of an STI are to carry out synthetic flight instruction in the appropriate aircraft category for:

(1) the issue of a licence;

(2) the issue, revalidation or renewal of an IR and a class or type rating for single-pilot aircraft, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes.

(b)

Additional privileges for the STI(A). The privileges of an STI(A) shall include synthetic flight instruction during the core flying skills training of the MPL integrated training course.

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FCL.910.STI    STI — Restricted privileges

The privileges of STIs shall be restricted to the FSTD in which the STI training course was taken.

The privileges may be extended to other FSTDs representing further types of aircraft if in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application the holders have:

(a) completed the FSTD content of the CRI or TRI course on the class or type of aircraft for which instructional privileges are sought;

(b) passed in the FSTD on which flight instruction is to be conducted, the applicable section of the proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex for the appropriate class or type of aircraft.

For STIs(A) instructing on BITD only, the proficiency check shall include only the exercises appropriate for the skill test for the issue of a PPL(A);

(c) conducted, on a CPL, an IR, a PPL or a class or type rating course, at least 3 hours of flight instruction under the supervision of an FI, a CRI(A), an IRI or a TRI nominated by the ATO for this purpose, including at least 1 hour of flight instruction that is supervised by an FIE in the appropriate aircraft category.

FCL.915.STI    STI — Prerequisites

(a) Applicants for the issue of an STI certificate shall:

(1) hold, or have held within the 3 years prior to the application, a pilot licence and instructional privileges appropriate to the courses on which instruction is intended;

(2) have completed in an FSTD the relevant proficiency check for the class or type rating, in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application.

Applicants for the issue of an STI(A) wishing to instruct on BITDs only, shall complete the exercises appropriate for a skill test for the issue of a PPL(A) only;

(b) Additionally to the requirements laid down in point (a), applicants for the issue of an STI(H) certificate shall have completed at least 1 hour of flight time as an observer on the flight deck of the applicable type of helicopter, in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application.

▼B

FCL.930.STI    STI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the STI shall comprise at least 3 hours of flight instruction related to the duties of an STI in an FFS, FTD 2/3 or FNPT II/III, under the supervision of an FIE. These hours of flight instruction under supervision shall include the assessment of the applicant’s competence as described in FCL.920.

Applicants for an STI(A) wishing to instruct on a BITD only, shall complete the flight instruction on a BITD.

(b)

For applicants for an STI(H), the course shall also include the FFS content of the applicable TRI course.

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FCL.940.STI    STI — Revalidation and renewal of the STI certificate

(a) Revalidation

To revalidate an STI certificate, applicants shall, within the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the STI certificate, comply with all of the following conditions:

(1) have conducted at least 3 hours of flight instruction in an FSTD, as part of a complete CPL, IR, PPL or class or type rating course;

(2) have passed in the FSTD on which flight instruction is conducted, the applicable sections of the proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex for the appropriate class or type of aircraft.

For STIs(A) instructing on BITDs only, the proficiency check shall include the exercises appropriate for a skill test for the issue of a PPL(A) only.

(b) Renewal

To renew STI certificate, the applicants shall within the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application for the renewal:

(1) complete a refresher training as an STI at an ATO;

(2) pass in the FSTD on which flight instruction is conducted, the applicable sections of the proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Annex for the appropriate class or type of aircraft.

For an STI(A) instructing on BITDs only, the proficiency check shall include the exercises appropriate for a skill test for the issue of a PPL(A) only;

(3) conduct, in the relevant aircraft category, on a complete CPL, IR, PPL or class or type rating course, at least 3 hours of flight instruction under the supervision of an FI, a CRI, an IRI or a TRI nominated by the ATO for this purpose, including at least 1 hour of flight instruction supervised by a flight instructor examiner (FIE).

▼B

SECTION 10

Mountain rating instructor — MI

FCL.905.MI    MI — Privileges and conditions

The privileges of an MI are to carry out flight instruction for the issue of a mountain rating.

FCL.915.MI    MI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an MI certificate shall:

(a) hold a, FI, CRI, or TRI certificate, with privileges for single-pilot aeroplanes;

(b) hold a mountain rating.

FCL.930.MI    MI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the MI shall include the assessment of the applicant’s competence as described in FCL.920.

(b)

Before attending the course, applicants shall have passed a pre-entry flight test with an MI holding an FI certificate to assess their experience and ability to undertake the training course.

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FCL.940.MI    Validity of the MI certificate

The MI certificate is valid as long as the FI, TRI or CRI certificate is valid.

▼B

SECTION 11

Specific requirements for the flight test instructor — FTI

FCL.905.FTI    FTI — Privileges and conditions

(a)

The privileges of a flight test instructor (FTI) are to instruct, within the appropriate aircraft category, for:

(1) the issue of category 1 or 2 flight test ratings, provided he/she holds the relevant category of flight test rating;

(2) the issue of an FTI certificate, within the relevant category of flight test rating, provided that the instructor has at least 2 years of experience instructing for the issue of flight test ratings.

(b)

The privileges of an FTI holding a category 1 flight test rating include the provision of flight instruction also in relation to category 2 flight test ratings.

FCL.915.FTI    FTI — Prerequisites

An applicant for an FTI certificate shall:

(a) hold a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820;

(b) have completed at least 200 hours of category 1 or 2 flight tests.

FCL.930.FTI    FTI — Training course

(a)

The training course for the FTI shall include, at least:

(1) 25 hours of teaching and learning;

(2) 10 hours of technical training, including revision of technical knowledge, the preparation of lesson plans and the development of classroom/simulator instructional skills;

(3) 5 hours of practical flight instruction under the supervision of an FTI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FTI(b). These hours of flight instruction shall include the assessment of the applicant’s competence as described in FCL.920.

(b)

Crediting:

(1) Applicants holding or having held an instructor certificate shall be fully credited towards the requirement of (a)(1).

(2) In addition, applicants holding or having held an FI or TRI certificate in the relevant aircraft category shall be fully credited towards the requirements of (a)(2).

FCL.940.FTI    FTI — Revalidation and renewal

(a)

Revalidation. For revalidation of an FTI certificate, the applicant shall, within the validity period of the FTI certificate, fulfil one of the following requirements:

(1) complete at least:

(i) 50 hours of flight tests, of which at least 15 hours shall be within the 12 months preceding the expiry date of the FTI certificate; and

(ii) 5 hours of flight test flight instruction within the 12 months preceding the expiry date of the FTI certificate; or

(2) receive refresher training as an FTI at an ATO. The refresher training shall be based on the practical flight instruction element of the FTI training course, in accordance with FCL.930.FTI(a)(3), and include at least 1 instruction flight under the supervision of an FTI qualified in accordance with FCL.905.FTI(b).

(b)

Renewal. If the FTI certificate has lapsed, the applicant shall receive refresher training as an FTI at an ATO. The refresher training shall comply at least with the requirements of FCL.930.FTI(a)(3).

SUBPART K

EXAMINERS

SECTION 1

Common requirements

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FCL.1000    Examiner certificates

(a) General

Holders of an examiner certificate shall:

(1) hold, unless otherwise determined in this Annex, an equivalent licence, rating or certificate to the ones for which they are authorised to conduct skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence and the privilege to instruct for them;

(2) be qualified to act as PIC in the aircraft during a skill test, proficiency check or assessment of competence if conducted on the aircraft.

(b) Special conditions:

(1) The competent authority may issue a specific certificate granting privileges for the conduct of skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence if compliance with the requirements established in this Subpart is not possible because of the introduction of any of the following:

(i) new aircraft in the Member States or in an operator’s fleet;

(ii) new training courses in this Annex.

Such a certificate shall be limited to the skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence necessary for the introduction of the new type of aircraft or the new training course and its validity shall not, in any case, exceed 1 year.

(2) Holders of a certificate issued in accordance with point (b)(1) who wish to apply for an examiner certificate shall comply with the prerequisites and revalidation requirements for that category of examiner certificate.

(3) Where no qualified examiner is available, competent authorities may, on a case-by -case basis, authorise inspectors or examiners who do not meet the relevant instructor, type or class rating requirements as specified in (a), to perform skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence.

(c) Examination provided outside the territory of the Member States:

(1) By way of derogation from point (a), in the case of skill tests and proficiency checks provided outside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention, the competent authority shall issue an examiner certificate to applicants holding a pilot licence that is compliant with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, provided that those applicants:

(i) hold at least an equivalent licence, rating, or certificate to the one for which they are authorised to conduct skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence, and in any case at least a CPL;

(ii) are qualified to act as PIC in the aircraft during a skill test or proficiency check that is conducted in the aircraft;

(iii) comply with the requirements established in this Subpart for the issue of the relevant examiner certificate; and

(iv) demonstrate to the competent authority an adequate level of knowledge of European aviation safety rules to be able to exercise examiner privileges in accordance with this Annex.

(2) The certificate referred to in point (1) shall be limited to performing skill tests and proficiency checks:

(i) outside the territories for which the Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention; and

(ii) to pilots who have sufficient knowledge of the language in which the test/check is given.

FCL.1005    Limitation of privileges in case of vested interests

Examiners shall not conduct:

(a) skill tests or assessments of competence of applicants for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate to whom they have provided more than 25 % of the required flight instruction for the licence, rating or certificate for which the skill test or assessment of competence is being taken; and

(b) skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence whenever they feel that their objectivity may be affected.

▼B

FCL.1010    Prerequisites for examiners

Applicants for an examiner certificate shall demonstrate:

(a) relevant knowledge, background and appropriate experience related to the privileges of an examiner;

(b) that they have not been subject to any sanctions, including the suspension, limitation or revocation of any of their licences, ratings or certificates issued in accordance with this Part, for non-compliance with the Basic Regulation and its Implementing Rules during the last 3 years.

FCL.1015    Examiner standardisation

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(a)

An applicant for an examiner certificate shall undertake a standardisation course which is provided by the competent authority or which is provided by an ATO and approved by the competent authority. An applicant for an examiner certificate for sailplanes or balloons may undertake a standardisation course which is provided by a DTO and approved by the competent authority.

▼B

(b)

The standardisation course shall consist of theoretical and practical instruction and shall include, at least:

(1) the conduct of 2 skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competences for the licences, ratings or certificates for which the applicant seeks the privilege to conduct tests and checks;

(2) instruction on the applicable requirements in this part and the applicable air operations requirements, the conduct of skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence, and their documentation and reporting;

(3) a briefing on the national administrative procedures, requirements for protection of personal data, liability, accident insurance and fees;

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(4) a briefing on the need to review and apply the items in (3) when conducting skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence of an applicant for which the competent authority is not the same that issued the examiner's certificate; and

(5) an instruction on how to get access to these national procedures and requirements of other competent authorities when needed;

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(c)

Holders of an examiners certificate shall not conduct skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence of an applicant for which the competent authority is not the same that issued the examiner's certificate, unless they have reviewed the latest available information containing the relevant national procedures of the applicant's competent authority.

▼B

FCL.1020    Examiners assessment of competence

Applicants for an examiner certificate shall demonstrate their competence to an inspector from the competent authority or a senior examiner specifically authorised to do so by the competent authority responsible for the examiner’s certificate through the conduct of a skill test, proficiency check or assessment of competence in the examiner role for which privileges are sought, including briefing, conduct of the skill test, proficiency check or assessment of competence, and assessment of the person to whom the test, check or assessment is given, debriefing and recording documentation.

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FCL.1025    Validity, revalidation and renewal of examiner certificates

(a) Validity

An examiner certificate shall be valid for 3 years.

(b) Revalidation

To revalidate an examiner certificate, holders shall comply with all of the following conditions:

(1) before the expiry date of the certificate, have conducted at least six skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence;

(2) in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the certificate, have completed an examiner refresher course which is provided by the competent authority or which is provided by an ATO and approved by the competent authority. An examiner holding a certificate for sailplanes or balloons may have completed, in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the certificate, an examiner refresher course which is provided by a DTO and approved by the competent authority;

(3) one of the skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence conducted in accordance with point (1) shall take place in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the expiry date of the examiner certificate and shall:

(i) have been assessed by an inspector from the competent authority or by a senior examiner specifically authorised to do so by the competent authority responsible for the examiner certificate; or

(ii) comply with the requirements in point FCL.1020.

If applicants for the revalidation hold privileges for more than one category of examiner, all examiner privileges may be revalidated if applicants comply with the requirements laid down in points (b)(1) and (2) and point FCL.1020 for one of the categories of examiner certificates held, in agreement with the competent authority.

(c) Renewal

If the certificate has expired, before resuming the exercise of the privileges, the applicants shall comply with the requirements in point (b)(2) and point FCL.1020 in the period of 12 months immediately preceding the application for the renewal.

(d) An examiner certificate shall only be revalidated or renewed if applicants demonstrate continued compliance with the requirements laid down in points FCL.1010 and FCL.1030.

▼B

FCL.1030    Conduct of skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence

(a)

When conducting skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence, examiners shall:

(1) ensure that communication with the applicant can be established without language barriers;

(2) verify that the applicant complies with all the qualification, training and experience requirements in this Part for the issue, revalidation or renewal of the licence, rating or certificate for which the skill test, proficiency check or assessment of competence is taken;

(3) make the applicant aware of the consequences of providing incomplete, inaccurate or false information related to their training and flight experience.

(b)

After completion of the skill test or proficiency check, the examiner shall:

(1) inform the applicant of the result of the test. In the event of a partial pass or fail, the examiner shall inform the applicant that he/she may not exercise the privileges of the rating until a full pass has been obtained. The examiner shall detail any further training requirement and explain the applicant’s right of appeal;

(2) in the event of a pass in a proficiency check or assessment of competence for revalidation or renewal, endorse the applicant’s licence or certificate with the new expiry date of the rating or certificate, if specifically authorised for that purpose by the competent authority responsible for the applicant’s licence;

(3) provide the applicant with a signed report of the skill test or proficiency check and submit without delay copies of the report to the competent authority responsible for the applicant’s licence, and to the competent authority that issued the examiner certificate. The report shall include:

(i) a declaration that the examiner has received information from the applicant regarding his/her experience and instruction, and found that experience and instruction complying with the applicable requirements in this Part;

(ii) confirmation that all the required manoeuvres and exercises have been completed, as well as information on the verbal theoretical knowledge examination, when applicable. If an item has been failed, the examiner shall record the reasons for this assessment;

(iii) the result of the test, check or assessment of competence;

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(iv) a declaration that the examiner has reviewed and applied the national procedures and requirements of the applicant’s competent authority if the competent authority responsible for the applicant’s licence is not the same that issued the examiner’s certificate;

(v) a copy of the examiner certificate containing the scope of his/her privileges as examiner in the case of skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence of an applicant for which the competent authority is not the same that issued the examiner’s certificate.

▼B

(c)

Examiners shall maintain records for 5 years with details of all skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence performed and their results.

(d)

Upon request by the competent authority responsible for the examiner certificate, or the competent authority responsible for the applicant’s licence, examiners shall submit all records and reports, and any other information, as required for oversight activities.

SECTION 2

Specific requirements for flight examiners — FE

FCL.1005.FE    FE — Privileges and conditions

(a)

FE(A). The privileges of an FE for aeroplanes are to conduct:

(1) skill tests for the issue of the PPL(A) and skill tests and proficiency checks for associated single-pilot class and type ratings, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, provided that the examiner has completed at least 1 000 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least 250 hours of flight instruction;

(2) skill tests for the issue of the CPL(A) and skill tests and proficiency checks for the associated single-pilot class and type ratings, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, provided that the examiner has completed at least 2 000 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least 250 hours of flight instruction;

(3) skill tests and proficiency checks for the LAPL(A), provided that the examiner has completed at least 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least 100 hours of flight instruction;

(4) skill tests for the issue of a mountain rating, provided that the examiner has completed at least 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least 500 take-offs and landings of flight instruction for the mountain rating;

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(5) proficiency checks for the revalidation and renewal of EIRs, provided that the FE has completed at least 1 500 hours as a pilot on aeroplanes and complies with the requirements in FCL.1010.IRE(a)(2).

▼B

(b)

FE(H). The privileges of an FE for helicopters are to conduct:

(1) skill tests for the issue of the PPL(H) and skill tests and proficiency checks for single-pilot single-engine helicopter type ratings entered in a PPL(H), provided that the examiner has completed 1 000 hours of flight time as a pilot on helicopters, including at least 250 hours of flight instruction;

(2) skill tests for the issue of the CPL(H) and skill tests and proficiency checks for single-pilot single-engine helicopter type ratings entered in a CPL(H), provided the examiner has completed 2 000 hours of flight time as pilot on helicopters, including at least 250 hours of flight instruction;

(3) skill tests and proficiency checks for single-pilot multi-engine helicopter type ratings entered in a PPL(H) or a CPL(H), provided the examiner has completed the requirements in (1) or (2), as applicable, and holds a CPL(H) or ATPL(H) and, when applicable, an IR(H);

(4) skill tests and proficiency checks for the LAPL(H), provided that the examiner has completed at least 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on helicopters, including at least 150 hours of flight instruction.

(c)

FE(As). The privileges of an FE for airships are to conduct skill tests for the issue of the PPL(As) and CPL(As) and skill tests and proficiency checks for the associated airship type ratings, provided that the examiner has completed 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on airships, including 100 hours of flight instruction.

(d)

FE(S). The privileges of an FE for sailplanes are to conduct:

(1) skill tests and proficiency checks for the SPL and the LAPL(S), provided that the examiner has completed 300 hours of flight time as a pilot on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, including 150 hours or 300 launches of flight instruction;

(2) proficiency checks for the extension of the SPL privileges to commercial operations, provided that the examiner has completed 300 hours of flight time as a pilot on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, including 90 hours of flight instruction;

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(3) skill tests for the extension of the SPL or LAPL(S) privileges to TMG, provided that the examiner has completed 300 hours of flight time as a pilot on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, including 50 hours of flight instruction on TMG;

(4) skill tests and proficiency checks for the cloud flying rating, provided that the examiner has completed at least 200 hours of flight time as pilot on sailplanes or powered sailplanes, including at least 5 hours or 25 flights of flight instruction for the cloud flying rating or at least 10 hours of flight instruction for the EIR or IR(A).

▼B

(e)

FE(B). The privileges of an FE for balloons are to conduct:

(1) skill tests for the issue of the BPL and the LAPL(B) and skill tests and proficiency checks for the extension of the privileges to another balloon class or group, provided that the examiner has completed 250 hours of flight time as a pilot on balloons, including 50 hours of flight instruction;

(2) proficiency checks for the extension of the BPL privileges to commercial operations, provided that the examiner has completed 300 hours of flight time as a pilot on balloons, of which 50 hours in the same group of balloons for which the extension is sought. The 300 hours of flight time shall include 50 hours of flight instruction.

FCL.1010.FE    FE — Prerequisites

An applicant for an FE certificate shall hold:

an FI certificate in the appropriate aircraft category.

SECTION 3

Specific requirements for type rating examiners — TRE

FCL.1005.TRE    TRE — Privileges and conditions

(a)

TRE(A) and TRE(PL). The privileges of a TRE for aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft are to conduct:

(1) skill tests for the initial issue of type ratings for aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft, as applicable;

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(2) proficiency checks for revalidation or renewal of type ratings, EIRs and IRs;

▼B

(3) skill tests for ATPL(A) issue;

(4) skill tests for MPL issue, provided that the examiner has complied with the requirements in FCL.925;

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(5) assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of a TRI or SFI certificates in the applicable aircraft category, provided that they have completed at least 3 years as a TRE and have undergone specific training for the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.1015 (b).

▼B

(b)

TRE(H). The privileges of a TRE(H) are to conduct:

(1) skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue, revalidation or renewal of helicopter type ratings;

(2) proficiency checks for the revalidation or renewal of IRs, or for the extension of the IR(H) from single-engine helicopters to multi-engine helicopters, provided the TRE(H) holds a valid IR(H);

(3) skill tests for ATPL(H) issue;

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(4) assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of a TRI(H) or SFI(H) certificates, provided that they have completed at least 3 years as a TRE and have undergone specific training for the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.1015 (b).

▼B

FCL.1010.TRE    TRE — Prerequisites

(a)

TRE(A) and TRE(PL). Applicants for a TRE certificate for aeroplanes and powered-lift aircraft shall:

(1) in the case of multi-pilot aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft, have completed 1 500 hours of flight time as a pilot of multi-pilot aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft, as applicable, of which at least 500 hours shall be as PIC;

(2) in the case of single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes, have completed 500 hours of flight time as a pilot of single-pilot aeroplanes, of which at least 200 hours shall be as PIC;

(3) hold a CPL or ATPL and a TRI certificate for the applicable type;

(4) for the initial issue of an TRE certificate, have completed at least 50 hours of flight instruction as a TRI, FI or SFI in the applicable type or an FSTD representing that type.

(b)

TRE(H). Applicants for a TRE (H) certificate for helicopters shall:

(1) hold a TRI(H) certificate or, in the case of single-pilot single-engine helicopters, a valid FI(H) certificate, for the applicable type;

(2) for the initial issue of a TRE certificate, have completed 50 hours of flight instruction as a TRI, FI or SFI in the applicable type or an FSTD representing that type;

(3) in the case of multi-pilot helicopters, hold a CPL(H) or ATPL(H) and have completed 1 500 hours of flight as a pilot on multi-pilot helicopters, of which at least 500 hours shall be as PIC;

(4) in the case of single-pilot multi-engine helicopters:

(i) have completed 1 000 hours of flight as pilot on helicopters, of which at least 500 hours shall be as PIC;

(ii) hold a CPL(H) or ATPL(H) and, when applicable, a valid IR(H);

(5) in the case of single-pilot single-engine helicopters:

(i) have completed 750 hours of flight as a pilot on helicopters, of which at least 500 hours shall be as PIC;

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(ii) hold a CPL(H) or ATPL(H).

▼B

(6) Before the privileges of a TRE(H) are extended from single-pilot multi-engine to multi-pilot multi-engine privileges on the same type of helicopter, the holder shall have at least 100 hours in multi-pilot operations on this type.

(7) In the case of applicants for the first multi-pilot multi-engine TRE certificate, the 1 500 hours of flight experience on multi-pilot helicopters required in (b)(3) may be considered to have been met if they have completed the 500 hours of flight time as PIC on a multi-pilot helicopter of the same type.

SECTION 4

Specific requirements for Class Rating Examiner — CRE

FCL.1005.CRE    CRE — Privileges

The privileges of a CRE are to conduct, for single-pilot aeroplanes, except for single-pilot high performance complex aeroplanes:

(a) skill tests for the issue of class and type ratings;

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(b) proficiency checks for:

(1) revalidation or renewal of class and type ratings;

(2) revalidation of IRs, provided that they have completed at least 1500 hours as pilots of aeroplanes and have competed at least 450 hours of flight time under IFR;

(3) renewal of IRs, provided that they comply with the requirements laid down in point FCL.1010.IRE(a); and

(4) revalidation and renewal of EIRs, provided that they have completed at least 1 500 hours as a pilot on aeroplanes and comply with the requirements laid down in point FCL.1010.IRE(a)(2).

▼M4

(c) skill tests for the extension of LAPL(A) privileges to another class or variant of aeroplane.

▼B

FCL.1010.CRE    CRE — Prerequisites

Applicants for a CRE certificate shall:

(a) hold a CPL(A), MPL(A) or ATPL(A) with single-pilot privileges or have held it and hold a PPL(A);

▼M11

(b) hold a CRI or FI certificate with instructional privileges for the applicable class or type;

▼B

(c) have completed 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes.

SECTION 5

Specific requirements for Instrument Rating Examiner — IRE

▼M3

FCL.1005.IRE    IRE — Privileges

The privileges of the holder of an IRE certificate are to conduct skill tests for the issue, and proficiency checks for the revalidation or renewal of EIRs or IRs.

▼M11

FCL.1010.IRE    IRE — Prerequisites

(a) IRE(A)

Applicants for an IRE certificate for aeroplanes shall hold an IRI(A) or an FI(A) certificate with the privilege to instruct for the IR(A) and shall have completed:

(1) 2000 hours of flight time as pilots of aeroplanes; and

(2) 450 hours of flight time under IFR, of which 250 hours shall be as an instructor.

(b) IRE(H)

Applicants for an IRE certificate for helicopters shall hold an IRI(H) or an FI(H) certificate with the privilege to instruct for the IR(H) and shall have completed:

(1) 2000 hours of flight time as pilots of helicopters; and

(2) 300 hours of instrument flight time in helicopters, of which 200 hours shall be as an instructor.

(c) IRE(As)

Applicants for an IRE certificate for airships shall hold an IRI(As) or an FI(As) certificate with the privilege to instruct for the IR(As) and shall have completed:

(1) 500 hours of flight time as pilots on airships; and

(2) 100 hours of instrument flight time on airships, of which 50 hours shall be as an instructor.

▼B

SECTION 6

Specific requirements for Synthetic Flight Examiner — SFE

▼M11

FCL.1005.SFE    SFE — Privileges and conditions

(a) SFE for aeroplanes (SFE(A)) and SFE for powered-lift aircraft (SFE(PL))

The privileges of SFEs for aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft are to conduct in an FFS, or for the assessments in point (5) on the applicable FSTD:

(1) skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue, revalidation or renewal of type ratings for aeroplanes or powered-lift aircraft, as applicable;

(2) proficiency checks for the revalidation or renewal of IRs if combined with the revalidation or renewal of a type rating, provided that they have passed a proficiency check for the aircraft type including the instrument rating within the last year;

(3) skill tests for ATPL(A) issue;

(4) skill tests for MPL issue, provided that they have complied with the requirements laid down in point FCL.925; and

(5) assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of an SFI certificate in the relevant aircraft category, provided that they have completed at least 3 years as an SFE(A) and have undergone specific training for the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.1015 (b).

(b) SFE for helicopters (SFE(H))

The privileges of an SFEs(H) are to conduct in an FFS or for the assessments in point (4) on the applicable FSTD:

(1) skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue, revalidation and renewal of type ratings;

(2) proficiency checks for the revalidation and renewal of IRs if those checks are combined with the revalidation or renewal of a type rating, provided that the SFEs have passed a proficiency check for the aircraft type including the instrument rating within the last year preceding the proficiency check;

(3) skill tests for ATPL(H) issue; and

(4) assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of an SFI(H) certificate, provided that they have completed at least 3 years as an SFE(H) and have undergone specific training for the assessment of competence in accordance with point FCL.1015 (b).

FCL.1010.SFE    SFE — Prerequisites

(a) SFE(A)

Applicants for an SFE(A) certificate shall comply with all of the following conditions:

(1) in the case of multi-pilot aeroplanes:

(i) hold or have held an ATPL(A) and a type rating for the applicable type of aeroplane;

(ii) an SFI(A) certificate for the applicable type of aeroplane; and

(iii) have at least 1500 hours of flight time as pilots of multi-pilot aeroplanes;

(2) in the case of single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes:

(i) hold or have held a CPL(A) or an ATPL(A) and a type rating for the applicable type of aeroplane;

(ii) hold an SFI(A) certificate for the applicable class or type of aeroplane;

(iii) have at least 500 hours of flight time as pilots of single-pilot aeroplanes;

(3) for the initial issue of an SFE certificate, have completed at least 50 hours of synthetic flight instruction as a TRI(A) or an SFI(A) on the applicable type.

(b) SFE(H)

Applicants for an SFE(H) certificate shall comply with all of the following conditions:

(1) hold or have held an ATPL(H), and a type rating for the applicable type of helicopter;

(2) hold an SFI(H) certificate for the applicable type of helicopter;

(3) have at least 1000 hours of flight time as pilots of multi-pilot helicopters;

(4) for the initial issue of an SFE certificate, have completed at least 50 hours of synthetic flight instruction as a TRI(H) or an SFI(H) on the applicable type.

▼B

SECTION 7

Specific requirements for the flight instructor examiner — FIE

FCL.1005.FIE    FIE — Privileges and conditions

(a)

FIE(A). The privileges of an FIE on aeroplanes are to conduct assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of certificates for FI(A), CRI(A), IRI(A) and TRI(A) on single-pilot aeroplanes, provided that the relevant instructor certificate is held.

(b)

FIE(H). The privileges of an FIE on helicopters are to conduct assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of certificates for FI(H), IRI(H) and TRI(H) on single-pilot helicopters, provided that the relevant instructor certificate is held.

(c)

FIE(As), (S), (B). The privileges of an FIE on sailplanes, powered sailplanes, balloons and airships are to conduct assessments of competence for the issue, revalidation or renewal of instructor certificates on the applicable aircraft category, provided that the relevant instructor certificate is held.

FCL.1010.FIE    FIE — Prerequisites

(a)

FIE(A). Applicants for an FIE certificate for aeroplanes shall:

in case of applicants wishing to conduct assessments of competence:

(1) hold the relevant instructor certificate, as applicable;

(2) have completed 2 000 hours of flight time as a pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs; and

(3) have at least 100 hours of flight time instructing applicants for an instructor certificate.

(b)

FIE(H). Applicants for an FIE certificate for helicopters shall:

(1) hold the relevant instructor certificate, as applicable;

(2) have completed 2 000 hours of flight time as pilot on helicopters;

(3) have at least 100 hours of flight time instructing applicants for an instructor certificate.

(c)

FIE(As). Applicants for an FIE certificate for airships shall:

(1) have completed 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on airships;

(2) have at least 20 hours of flight time instructing applicants for an FI(AS) certificate;

(3) hold the relevant instructor certificate.

(d)

FIE(S). Applicants for an FIE certificate for sailplanes shall:

(1) hold the relevant instructor certificate;

(2) have completed 500 hours of flight time as a pilot on sailplanes or powered sailplanes;

(3) have completed:

(i) for applicants wishing to conduct assessments of competence on TMGs, 10 hours or 30 take-offs instructing applicants for an instructor certificate in TMGs;

(ii) in all other cases, 10 hours or 30 launches instructing applicants for an instructor certificate.

(e)

FIE(B). Applicants for an FIE certificate for balloons shall:

(1) hold the relevant instructor certificate;

(2) have completed 350 hours of flight time as a pilot on balloons;

(3) have completed 10 hours instructing applicants for an instructor certificate.




Appendix 1

Crediting of theoretical knowledge

▼M4

A.   CREDITING OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE ISSUE OF A PILOT LICENCE — BRIDGE INSTRUCTION AND EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS

▼B

1.    LAPL, PPL, BPL and SPL

▼M11

1.1. For the issue of an LAPL, the holder of an LAPL in another category of aircraft shall be fully credited with theoretical knowledge on the common subjects established in point FCL.120. However, the subject ‘navigation’ shall only be subject to such a credit in the case of an LAPL(A) holder who applies for the issue of an LAPL(H) or an LAPL(H) holder who applies for the issue of an LAPL(A).

1.2. For the issue of an LAPL(A), an LAPL(H) or a PPL, holders of a PPL, CPL or ATPL in another category of aircraft shall be fully credited with theoretical knowledge on the common subjects established in point FCL.215(a)(1).

▼M11

1.2a For the issue of an LAPL(B), an LAPL(S), a BPL or an SPL, holders of a licence in another category of aircraft shall be fully credited with theoretical knowledge on the common subjects established in point FCL.215(b)(1).

▼B

1.3. For the issue of a PPL, BPL or SPL, the holder of an LAPL in the same category of aircraft shall be credited in full towards the theoretical knowledge instruction and examination requirements.

▼M4

1.4. Notwithstanding paragraph 1.2, for the issue of an LAPL(A), the holder of an LAPL(S) with TMG extension shall demonstrate an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the single-engine piston aeroplane-land class in accordance with FCL.135.A(a)(2).

▼B

2.    CPL

2.1. An applicant for a CPL holding a CPL in another category of aircraft shall have received theoretical knowledge bridge instruction on an approved course according to the differences identified between the CPL syllabi for different aircraft categories.

2.2. The applicant shall pass theoretical knowledge examinations as defined in this Part for the following subjects in the appropriate aircraft category:

021 — Aircraft General Knowledge: Airframe and Systems, Electrics, Powerplant, Emergency Equipment,

022 — Aircraft General Knowledge: Instrumentation,

032/034 — Performance Aeroplanes or Helicopters, as applicable,

070 — Operational Procedures, and

080 — Principles of Flight.

2.3. An applicant for a CPL having passed the relevant theoretical examinations for an IR in the same category of aircraft is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in the following subjects:

 Human Performance,

 Meteorology.

3.    ATPL

3.1. An applicant for an ATPL holding an ATPL in another category of aircraft shall have received theoretical knowledge bridge instruction at an ATO according to the differences identified between the ATPL syllabi for different aircraft categories.

▼M3

3.2. The applicant shall pass theoretical knowledge examinations as defined in this Part for the following subjects in the appropriate aircraft category:

021 — Aircraft General Knowledge: Airframe and Systems, Electrics, Powerplant, Emergency Equipment,

022 — Aircraft General Knowledge: Instrumentation,

032/034 — Performance Aeroplanes or Helicopters, as applicable,

070 — Operational Procedures, and

080 — Principles of Flight

▼B

3.3. An applicant for an ATPL(A) having passed the relevant theoretical examination for a CPL(A) is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in subject VFR Communications.

3.4. An applicant for an ATPL(H), having passed the relevant theoretical examinations for a CPL(H) is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in the following subjects:

 Air Law,

 Principles of Flight (Helicopter),

 VFR Communications.

3.5. An applicant for an ATPL(A) having passed the relevant theoretical examination for an IR(A) is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in subject IFR Communications.

3.6. An applicant for an ATPL(H) with an IR(H), having passed the relevant theoretical examinations for a CPL(H) is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in the following subjects:

 Principles of Flight (Helicopter),

 VFR Communications.

4.    IR

▼M3

4.1. An applicant for an IR or an EIR having passed the relevant theoretical examinations for a CPL in the same aircraft category is credited towards the theoretical knowledge requirements in the following subjects:

 Human Performance,

 Meteorology.

▼B

4.2. An applicant for an IR(H) having passed the relevant theoretical examinations for an ATPL(H) VFR is required to pass the following examination subjects:

 Air Law,

 Flight Planning and Flight Monitoring,

 Radio Navigation,

 IFR Communications.




Appendix 2



Language Proficiency Rating Scale — Expert, extended and operational level

Level

Pronunciation

Structure

Vocabulary

Fluency

Comprehension

Interactions

Expert

(Level 6)

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though possibly influenced by the first language or regional variation, almost never interfere with ease of understanding.

Both basic and complex grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on a wide variety of familiar and unfamiliar topics. Vocabulary is idiomatic, nuanced and sensitive to register.

Able to speak at length with a natural, effortless flow. Varies speech flow for stylistic effect, e.g. to emphasise a point.

Uses appropriate discourse markers and connectors spontaneously.

Comprehension is consistently accurate in nearly all contexts and includes comprehension of linguistic and cultural subtleties.

Interacts with ease in nearly all situations. Is sensitive to verbal and non-verbal cues, and responds to them appropriately.

Extended

(Level 5)

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though influenced by the first language or regional variation, rarely interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled. Complex structures are attempted but with errors which sometimes interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Paraphrases consistently and successfully. Vocabulary is sometimes idiomatic.

Able to speak at length with relative ease on familiar topics, but may not vary speech flow as a stylistic device. Can make use of appropriate discourse markers or connectors.

Comprehension is accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics and mostly accurate when the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events.

Is able to comprehend a range of speech varieties (dialect and/or accent) or registers.

Responses are immediate, appropriate, and informative. Manages the speaker/listener relationship effectively.

Operational

(Level 4)

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics.

Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo.

There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers and connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users.

When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative.

Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Note: The initial text of Appendix 2 has been transferred to AMC, see also the Explanatory Note.




Appendix 3

Training courses for the issue of a CPL and an ATPL

1. This Appendix describes the requirements for the different types of training courses for the issue of a CPL and an ATPL, with and without an IR.

2. An applicant wishing to transfer to another ATO during a training course shall apply to the competent authority for a formal assessment of the further hours of training required.

A.    ATP integrated course — Aeroplanes

GENERAL

1. The aim of the ATP(A) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to enable them to operate as co-pilot on multi-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes in commercial air transport and to obtain the CPL(A)/IR.

2. An applicant wishing to undertake an ATP(A) integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) entrant, 50 % of the hours flown prior to the course shall be credited, up to a maximum of 40 hours flying experience, or 45 hours if an aeroplane night rating has been obtained, of which up to 20 hours may count towards the requirement for dual instruction flight time.

▼M8

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to the ATPL(A) knowledge level;

(b) visual and instrument flying training;

(c) training in MCC for the operation of multi-pilot aeroplanes; and

(d) UPRT in accordance with FCL.745.A unless applicants have already completed this training course before starting the ATP integrated course.

5. Applicants failing or being unable to complete the entire ATP(A) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges and an IR if the applicable requirements are met.

▼B

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An ATP(A) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 750 hours of instruction.

►M8  7.1. ◄  The MCC course shall comprise at least 25 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction and exercises.

▼M8

7.2. The theoretical knowledge instruction in UPRT shall be conducted in accordance with FCL.745.A.

▼B

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

8. An applicant shall demonstrate the level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an ATPL(A).

FLYING TRAINING

▼M8

9. The flying training, not including type rating training, shall comprise a total of at least 195 hours, including all progress tests, of which up to 55 hours for the entire course may be instrument ground time. Within the total of 195 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 95 hours of dual instruction, of which up to 55 hours may be instrument ground time;

(b) 70 hours as PIC including VFR flight, and instrument flight time as SPIC. The instrument flight time as SPIC shall only be counted as PIC flight time up to a maximum of 20 hours;

(c) 50 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including one VFR cross-country flight of at least 540 km (300 NM), in the course of which full-stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made; and

(d) 5 hours of flight time at night, comprising 3 hours of dual instruction, which shall include at least:

(1) 1 hour of cross-country navigation;

(2) five solo take-offs; and

(3) five solo full-stop landings;

(e) UPRT flight instruction in accordance with FCL.745.A;

(f) 115 hours of instrument time comprising, at least:

(1) 20 hours as SPIC;

(2) 15 hours of MCC, for which an FFS or an FNPT II may be used;

(3) 50 hours of instrument flight instruction, of which up to:

(i) 25 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT I; or

(ii) 40 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT II, an FTD 2 or an FFS, of which up to 10 hours may be conducted in an FNPT I.

Applicants holding a module completion certificate for the Basic Instrument Flight Module shall be credited with up to 10 hours towards the required instrument instruction time. Hours done in a BITD shall not be credited; and

(g) 5 hours in an aeroplane which:

(1) is certificated for the carriage of at least 4 persons; and

(2) has a variable pitch propeller and retractable landing gear.

▼B

SKILL TEST

10. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(A) skill test on either a single-engine or a multi-engine aeroplane and the IR skill test on a multi-engine aeroplane.

B.    ATP modular course — Aeroplanes

1. Applicants for an ATPL(A) who complete their theoretical knowledge instruction at a modular course shall:

(a) hold at least a PPL(A) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention; and

complete at least the following hours of theoretical knowledge instruction:

(1) for applicants holding a PPL(A): 650 hours;

(2) for applicants holding a CPL(A): 400 hours;

(3) for applicants holding an IR(A): 500 hours;

(4) for applicants holding a CPL(A) and an IR(A): 250 hours.

The theoretical knowledge instruction shall be completed before the skill test for the ATPL(A) is taken.

C.    CPL/IR integrated course — Aeroplanes

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(A) and IR(A) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to operate single-pilot single-engine or multi-engine aeroplanes in commercial air transport and to obtain the CPL(A)/IR.

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(A)/IR integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) entrant, 50 % of the hours flown prior to the course shall be credited, up to a maximum of 40 hours flying experience, or 45 hours if an aeroplane night rating has been obtained, of which up to 20 hours may count towards the requirement for dual instruction flight time.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(A) and IR knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL/IR(A) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges and an IR if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. A CPL(A)/IR theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 500 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(A) and an IR.

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training, not including type rating training, shall comprise a total of at least 180 hours, to include all progress tests, of which up to 40 hours for the entire course may be instrument ground time. Within the total of 180 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 80 hours of dual instruction, of which up to 40 hours may be instrument ground time;

▼M11

(b) 70 hours as PIC, of which up to 55 hours may be SPIC. The instrument flight time as SPIC shall only be counted as PIC flight time up to a maximum of 20 hours;

▼B

(c) 50 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 540 km (300 NM), in the course of which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(d) 5 hours flight time shall be completed at night, comprising 3 hours of dual instruction, which shall include at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full stop landings; and

(e) 100 hours of instrument time comprising, at least:

(1) 20 hours as SPIC; and

(2) 50 hours of instrument flight instruction, of which up to:

(i) 25 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT I; or

(ii) 40 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT II, FTD 2 or FFS, of which up to 10 hours may be conducted in an FNPT I.

An applicant holding a course completion certificate for the Basic Instrument Flight Module shall be credited with up to 10 hours towards the required instrument instruction time. Hours done in a BITD shall not be credited;

(f) 5 hours to be carried out in an aeroplane certificated for the carriage of at least 4 persons that has a variable pitch propeller and retractable landing gear.

SKILL TESTS

9. Upon completion of the related flying training the applicant shall take the CPL(A) skill test and the IR skill test on either a multi-engine aeroplane or a single-engine aeroplane.

D.    CPL integrated course — Aeroplanes

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(A) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(A).

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(A) integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of a PPL(A) or PPL(H) entrant, 50 % of the hours flown prior to the course shall be credited, up to a maximum of 40 hours flying experience, or 45 hours if an aeroplane night rating has been obtained, of which up to 20 hours may count towards the requirement for dual instruction flight time.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(A) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL(A) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. A CPL(A) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 350 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(A).

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training, not including type rating training, shall comprise a total of at least 150 hours, to include all progress tests, of which up to 5 hours for the entire course may be instrument ground time. Within the total of 150 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 80 hours of dual instruction, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time;

▼M11

(b) 70 hours as PIC, of which up to 55 hours may be as SPIC;

▼B

(c) 20 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 540 km (300 NM), in the course of which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(d) 5 hours flight time shall be completed at night, comprising 3 hours of dual instruction, which shall include at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full stop landings;

(e) 10 hours of instrument flight instruction, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT I, FTD 2, FNPT II or FFS. An applicant holding a course completion certificate for the Basic Instrument Flight Module shall be credited with up to 10 hours towards the required instrument instruction time. Hours done in a BITD shall not be credited;

(f) 5 hours to be carried out in an aeroplane certificated for the carriage of at least four persons that has a variable pitch propeller and retractable landing gear.

SKILL TEST

9. Upon completion of the flying training the applicant shall take the CPL(A) skill test on a single-engine or a multi-engine aeroplane.

E.    CPL modular course — Aeroplanes

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(A) modular course is to train PPL(A) holders to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(A).

2. Before commencing a CPL(A) modular course an applicant shall be the holder of a PPL(A) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention.

3. Before commencing the flight training the applicant shall:

▼M11

(a) have completed 150 hours flight time;

Except for the requirement of 50 hours as PIC in aeroplanes, hours as PIC in other categories of aircraft may account for the 150 hours of aeroplane flight time in any of the following cases:

(1) 20 hours in helicopters, if applicants hold a PPL(H);

(2) 50 hours in helicopters, if applicants hold a CPL(H);

(3) 10 hours in TMGs or sailplanes;

(4) 20 hours in airships, if applicants hold a PPL(As);

(5) 50 hours in airships, if applicants hold a CPL(As);

▼B

(b) have complied with the prerequisites for the issue of a class or type rating for multi-engine aeroplanes in accordance with Subpart H, if a multi-engine aeroplane is to be used on the skill test.

4. An applicant wishing to undertake a modular CPL(A) course shall complete all the flight instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO. The theoretical knowledge instruction may be given at an ATO conducting theoretical knowledge instruction only.

5. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(A) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An approved CPL(A) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 250 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(A).

FLYING TRAINING

8. Applicants without an IR shall be given at least 25 hours dual flight instruction, including 10 hours of instrument instruction of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time in a BITD, an FNPT I or II, an FTD 2 or an FFS.

9. Applicants holding a valid IR(A) shall be fully credited towards the dual instrument instruction time. Applicants holding a valid IR(H) shall be credited up to 5 hours of the dual instrument instruction time, in which case at least 5 hours dual instrument instruction time shall be given in an aeroplane. An applicant holding a Course Completion Certificate for the Basic Instrument Flight Module shall be credited with up to 10 hours towards the required instrument instruction time.

10.

 

(a) Applicants with a valid IR shall be given at least 15 hours dual visual flight instruction.

(b) Applicants without a night rating aeroplane shall be given additionally at least 5 hours night flight instruction, comprising 3 hours of dual instruction, which shall include at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full stop landings.

11. At least 5 hours of the flight instruction shall be carried out in an aeroplane certificated for the carriage of at least 4 persons and have a variable pitch propeller and retractable landing gear.

EXPERIENCE

12. The applicant for a CPL(A) shall have completed at least 200 hours flight time, including at least:

(a) 100 hours as PIC, of which 20 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, which shall include a VFR cross-country flight of at least 540 km (300 NM), in the course of which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(b) 5 hours of flight time shall be completed at night, comprising 3 hours of dual instruction, which shall include at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full stop landings; and

(c) 10 hours of instrument flight instruction, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT I, or FNPT II or FFS. An applicant holding a course completion certificate for the Basic Instrument Flight Module shall be credited with up to 10 hours towards the required instrument instruction time. Hours done in a BITD shall not be credited;

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(d) 6 hours of flight time shall be completed in a multi-engine aeroplane, if a multi-engine aeroplane is used for the skill test.

▼B

(e) Hours as PIC of other categories of aircraft may count towards the 200 hours flight time, in the following cases:

(i) 30 hours in helicopter, if the applicant holds a PPL(H); or

(ii) 100 hours in helicopters, if the applicant holds a CPL(H); or

(iii) 30 hours in TMGs or sailplanes; or

(iv) 30 hours in airships, if the applicant holds a PPL(As); or

(v) 60 hours in airships, if the applicant holds a CPL(As).

SKILL TEST

13. Upon completion of the flying training and relevant experience requirements the applicant shall take the CPL(A) skill test on either a single-engine or a multi-engine aeroplane.

F.    ATP/IR integrated course — Helicopters

GENERAL

1. The aim of the ATP(H)/IR integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to enable them to operate as co-pilot on multi-pilot multi-engine helicopters in commercial air transport and to obtain the CPL(H)/IR.

2. An applicant wishing to undertake an ATP(H)/IR integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of a PPL(H) entrant, 50 % of the relevant experience shall be credited, up to a maximum of:

(a) 40 hours, of which up to 20 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 50 hours, of which up to 25 hours may be dual instruction, if a helicopter night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to the ATPL(H) and IR knowledge level;

(b) visual and instrument flying training; and

(c) training in MCC for the operation of multi-pilot helicopters.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire ATP(H)/IR course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges and an IR, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An ATP(H)/IR theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 750 hours of instruction.

7. The MCC course shall comprise at least 25 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction exercises.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

8. An applicant shall demonstrate the level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an ATPL(H) and an IR.

FLYING TRAINING

9. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 195 hours, to include all progress tests. Within the total of 195 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 140 hours of dual instruction, of which:

(1) 75 hours visual instruction may include:

(i) 30 hours in a helicopter FFS, level C/D; or

(ii) 25 hours in a FTD 2,3; or

(iii) 20 hours in a helicopter FNPT II/III; or

(iv) 20 hours in an aeroplane or TMG;

(2) 50 hours instrument instruction may include:

(i) up to 20 hours in a helicopter FFS or FTD 2,3 or FNPT II/III; or

(ii) 10 hours in at least a helicopter FNPT 1 or an aeroplane;

(3) 15 hours MCC, for which a helicopter FFS or helicopter FTD 2,3(MCC) or FNPT II/III(MCC) may be used.

If the helicopter used for the flying training is of a different type from the helicopter FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to that allocated for the helicopter FNPT II/III;

(b) 55 hours as PIC, of which 40 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made;

(c) 50 hours of cross-country flight, including at least 10 hours of cross-country flight as SPIC including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM) in the course of which landings at two different aerodromes from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(d) 5 hours flight time in helicopters shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing;

(e) 50 hours of dual instrument time comprising:

(i) 10 hours basic instrument instruction time; and

(ii) 40 hours IR Training, which shall include at least 10 hours in a multi-engine IFR-certificated helicopter.

SKILL TESTS

10. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(H) skill test on a multi-engine helicopter and the IR skill test on an IFR certificated multi-engine helicopter and shall comply with the requirements for MCC training.

G.    ATP integrated course — Helicopters

GENERAL

1. The aim of the ATP(H) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to enable them to operate as co-pilot on multi-pilot multi-engine helicopters limited to VFR privileges in commercial air transport and to obtain the CPL(H).

2. An applicant wishing to undertake an ATP(H) integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of a PPL(H) entrant, 50 % of the relevant experience shall be credited, up to a maximum of:

(a) 40 hours, of which up to 20 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 50 hours, of which up to 25 hours may be dual instruction, if a helicopter night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to the ATPL(H) knowledge level;

(b) visual and basic instrument flying training; and

(c) training in MCC for the operation of multi-pilot helicopters.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire ATP(H) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An ATP(H) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 650 hours of instruction.

7. The MCC course shall comprise at least 20 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction exercises.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

8. An applicant shall demonstrate the level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an ATPL (H).

FLYING TRAINING

9. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 150 hours, to include all progress tests. Within the total of 150 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 95 hours of dual instruction, of which:

(i) 75 hours visual instruction may include:

(1) 30 hours in a helicopter FFS level C/D; or

(2) 25 hours in a helicopter FTD 2,3; or

(3) 20 hours in a helicopter FNPT II/III; or

(4) 20 hours in an aeroplane or TMG;

(ii) 10 hours basic instrument instruction may include 5 hours in at least a helicopter FNPT I or an aeroplane;

(iii) 10 hours MCC, for which a helicopter: helicopter FFS or FTD 2,3(MCC) or FNPT II/III(MCC) may be used.

If the helicopter used for the flying training is of a different type from the helicopter FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to that allocated for the helicopter FNPT II/III;

(b) 55 hours as PIC, of which 40 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made;

(c) 50 hours of cross-country flight, including at least 10 hours of cross-country flight as SPIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM) in the course of which landings at two different aerodromes from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(d) 5 hours flight time in helicopters shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing.

SKILL TESTS

10. Upon completion of the related flying training the applicant shall take the CPL(H) skill test on a multi-engine helicopter and comply with MCC requirements.

H.    ATP modular course — Helicopters

1. Applicants for an ATPL(H) who complete their theoretical knowledge instruction at a modular course shall hold at least a PPL(H) and complete at least the following hours of instruction within a period of 18 months:

(a) for applicants holding a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention: 550 hours;

(b) for applicants holding a CPL(H): 300 hours.

2. Applicants for an ATPL(H)/IR who complete their theoretical knowledge instruction at a modular course shall hold at least a PPL(H) and complete at least the following hours of instruction:

(a) for applicants holding a PPL(H): 650 hours;

(b) for applicants holding a CPL(H): 400 hours;

(c) for applicants holding an IR(H): 500 hours;

(d) for applicants holding a CPL(H) and an IR(H): 250 hours.

I.    CPL/IR integrated course — Helicopters

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(H)/IR integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to operate single-pilot multi-engine helicopters and to obtain the CPL(H)/IR multi-engine helicopter.

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(H)/IR integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of an entrant holding a PPL(H), 50 % of the relevant experience shall be credited, up to a maximum of:

(a) 40 hours, of which up to 20 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 50 hours, of which up to 25 hours may be dual instruction, if a helicopter night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(H) and IR knowledge level, and the initial multi-engine helicopter type rating; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL(H)/IR course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges and an IR, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. A CPL(H)/IR theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 500 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(H) and an IR.

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 180 hours including all progress tests. Within the 180 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 125 hours of dual instruction, of which:

(i) 75 hours visual instruction, which may include:

(1) 30 hours in a helicopter FFS level C/D; or

(2) 25 hours in a helicopter FTD 2,3; or

(3) 20 hours in a helicopter FNPT II/III; or

(4) 20 hours in an aeroplane or TMG;

(ii) 50 hours instrument instruction which may include:

(1) up to 20 hours in a helicopter FFS or FTD 2,3, or FNPT II, III; or

(2) 10 hours in at least a helicopter FNPT I or an aeroplane.

If the helicopter used for the flying training is of a different type from the FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to that allocated for the FNPT II/III;

(b) 55 hours as PIC, of which 40 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made;

(c) 10 hours dual cross-country flying;

(d) 10 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM) in the course of which full stop landings at two different aerodromes from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(e) 5 hours of flight time in helicopters shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing;

(f) 50 hours of dual instrument time comprising:

(i) 10 hours basic instrument instruction time; and

(ii) 40 hours IR Training, which shall include at least 10 hours in a multi-engine IFR-certificated helicopter.

SKILL TEST

9. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(H) skill test on either a multi-engine or a single-engine helicopter and the IR skill test on an IFR-certificated multi-engine helicopter.

J.    CPL integrated course — Helicopters

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(H) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(H).

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(H) integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of an entrant holding a PPL(H), 50 % of the relevant experience shall be credited, up to a maximum of:

(a) 40 hours, of which up to 20 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 50 hours, of which up to 25 hours may be dual instruction if a helicopter night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(H) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL(H) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An approved CPL(H) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 350 hours of instruction or 200 hours if the applicant is the holder of a PPL.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(H).

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 135 hours, to include all progress tests, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time. Within the 135 hours total, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 85 hours of dual instruction, of which:

(i) up to 75 hours may be visual instruction, and may include:

(1) 30 hours in a helicopter FFS level C/D; or

(2) 25 hours in a helicopter FTD 2,3; or

(3) 20 hours in a helicopter FNPT II/III; or

(4) 20 hours in an aeroplane or TMG;

(ii) up to 10 hours may be instrument instruction, and may include 5 hours in at least a helicopter FNPT I or an aeroplane.

If the helicopter used for the flying training is of a different type from the FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to that allocated for the FNPT II/III;

(b) 50 hours as PIC, of which 35 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made;

(c) 10 hours dual cross-country flying;

(d) 10 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM) in the course of which full stop landings at two different aerodromes from the aerodrome of departure shall be made;

(e) 5 hours flight time in helicopters shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing;

(f) 10 hours of instrument dual instruction time, including at least 5 hours in a helicopter.

SKILL TEST

9. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(H) skill test.

K.    CPL modular course — Helicopters

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(H) modular course is to train PPL(H) holders to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(H).

2. Before commencing a CPL(H) modular course an applicant shall be the holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention.

3. Before commencing the flight training the applicant shall:

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(a) have completed 155 hours flight time, including 50 hours as PIC in helicopters of which 10 hours shall be cross-country.

Except for the requirement of 50 hours as PIC in helicopters, hours as PIC in other categories of aircraft may account for the 155 hours of helicopter flight time in any of the following cases:

(1) 20 hours in aeroplanes if applicants hold a PPL(A);

(2) 50 hours in aeroplanes if applicants hold a CPL(A);

(3) 10 hours in TMGs or sailplanes;

(4) 20 hours in airships if applicants hold a PPL(As);

(5) 50 hours in airships if applicants hold a CPL(As);

▼B

(b) have complied with FCL.725 and FCL.720.H if a multi-engine helicopter is to be used on the skill test.

4. An applicant wishing to undertake a modular CPL(H) course shall complete all the flight instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO. The theoretical knowledge instruction may be given at an ATO that conducts theoretical knowledge instruction only.

5. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(H) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An approved CPL(H) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 250 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(H).

FLYING TRAINING

8. Applicants without an IR shall be given at least 30 hours dual flight instruction, of which:

(a) 20 hours visual instruction, which may include 5 hours in a helicopter FFS or FTD 2,3 or FNPT II, III; and

(b) 10 hours instrument instruction, which may include 5 hours in at least a helicopter FTD 1 or FNPT I or aeroplane.

9. Applicants holding a valid IR(H) shall be fully credited towards the dual instrument instruction time. Applicants holding a valid IR(A) shall complete at least 5 hours of the dual instrument instruction time in a helicopter.

10. Applicants without a night rating helicopter shall be given additionally at least 5 hours night flight instruction comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing.

EXPERIENCE

11. The applicant for a CPL(H) shall have completed at least 185 hours flight time, including 50 hours as PIC, of which 10 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM), in the course of which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

Hours as pilot-in-command of other categories of aircraft may count towards the 185 hours flight time, in the following cases:

(a) 20 hours in aeroplanes, if the applicant holds a PPL(A); or

(b) 50 hours in aeroplanes, if the applicant holds a CPL(A); or

(c) 10 hours in TMGs or sailplanes; or

(d) 20 hours in airships, if the applicant holds a PPL(As); or

(e) 50 hours in airships, if the applicant holds a CPL(As).

SKILL TEST

12. Upon completion of the related flying training and relevant experience, the applicant shall take the CPL(H) skill test.

L.    CPL/IR integrated course — Airships

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(As)/IR integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary to operate airships and to obtain the CPL(As)/IR.

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(As)/IR integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(As), PPL(A) or PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of an entrant holding a PPL(As), PPL(A) or PPL(H) shall be credited up to a maximum of:

(a) 10 hours, of which up to 5 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 15 hours, of which up to 7 hours may be dual instruction, if an airship night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(As) and IR knowledge level, and the initial airship type rating; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL/IR(As) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges and an IR, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. A CPL(As)/IR theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 500 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(As) and an IR.

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 80 hours including all progress tests. Within the 80 hours, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 60 hours of dual instruction, of which:

(i) 30 hours visual instruction, which may include:

(1) 12 hours in an airship FFS; or

(2) 10 hours in an airship FTD; or

(3) 8 hours in an airship FNPT II/III; or

(4) 8 hours in an aeroplane, helicopter or TMG;

(ii) 30 hours instrument instruction which may include:

(1) up to 12 hours in an airship FFS or FTD or FNPT II, III; or

(2) 6 hours in at least a airship FTD 1 or FNPT I or aeroplane.

If the airship used for the flying training is of a different type from the FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to 8 hours;

(b) 20 hours as PIC, of which 5 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made;

(c) 5 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 90 km (50 NM) in the course of which two full stop landings at the destination aerodrome shall be made;

(d) 5 hours flight time in airships shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include take-off and landing;

(e) 30 hours of dual instrument time comprising:

(i) 10 hours basic instrument instruction time; and

(ii) 20 hours IR Training, which shall include at least 10 hours in a multi-engine IFR-certificated airship.

SKILL TEST

9. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(As) skill test on either a multi-engine or a single-engine airship and the IR skill test on an IFR-certificated multi-engine airship.

M.    CPL integrated course — Airships

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(As) integrated course is to train pilots to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(AS).

2. An applicant wishing to undertake a CPL(As) integrated course shall complete all the instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO.

3. An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(As), PPL(A) or PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of an entrant holding a PPL(As), PPL(A) or PPL(H) shall be credited up to a maximum of:

(a) 10 hours, of which up to 5 hours may be dual instruction; or

(b) 15 hours, of which up to 7 hours may be dual instruction if a airship night rating has been obtained.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(As) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

5. An applicant failing or unable to complete the entire CPL(As) course may apply to the competent authority for the theoretical knowledge examination and skill test for a licence with lower privileges, if the applicable requirements are met.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

6. An approved CPL(As) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 350 hours of instruction or 200 hours if the applicant is a PPL holder.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

7. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(As).

FLYING TRAINING

8. The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 50 hours, to include all progress tests, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time. Within the 50 hours total, applicants shall complete at least:

(a) 30 hours of dual instruction, of which up to 5 hours may be instrument ground time;

(b) 20 hours as PIC;

(c) 5 hours dual cross-country flying;

(d) 5 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 90 km (50 NM) in the course of which two full stop landings at the destination aerodrome shall be made;

(e) 5 hours flight time in airships shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include take-off and landing;

(f) 10 hours of instrument dual instruction time, including at least 5 hours in an airship.

SKILL TEST

9. Upon completion of the related flying training, the applicant shall take the CPL(As) skill test.

N.    CPL modular course — Airships

GENERAL

1. The aim of the CPL(As) modular course is to train PPL(As) holders to the level of proficiency necessary for the issue of a CPL(As).

2. Before commencing a CPL(As) modular course an applicant shall:

(a) hold a PPL(As) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention;

(b) have completed 200 hours flight time as a pilot on airships, including 100 hours as PIC, of which 50 hours shall be cross-country.

3. An applicant wishing to undertake a modular CPL(As) course shall complete all the flight instructional stages in one continuous course of training as arranged by an ATO. The theoretical knowledge instruction may be given at an ATO that conducts theoretical knowledge instruction only.

4. The course shall comprise:

(a) theoretical knowledge instruction to CPL(As) knowledge level; and

(b) visual and instrument flying training.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

5. An approved CPL(As) theoretical knowledge course shall comprise at least 250 hours of instruction.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION

6. An applicant shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of a CPL(As).

FLYING TRAINING

7. Applicants without an IR shall be given at least 20 hours dual flight instruction, of which:

10 hours visual instruction, which may include 5 hours in an airship FFS or FTD 2,3 or FNPT II, III; and

10 hours instrument instruction, which may include 5 hours in at least an airship FTD 1 or FNPT I or aeroplane.

8. Applicants holding a valid IR(As) shall be fully credited towards the dual instrument instruction time. Applicants holding a valid IR in another category of aircraft shall complete at least 5 hours of the dual instrument instruction time in an airship.

9. Applicants without a night rating airship shall be given additionally at least 5 hours night flight instruction comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing.

EXPERIENCE

10. The applicant for a CPL(As) shall have completed at least 250 hours flight time in airships, including 125 hours as PIC, of which 50 hours of cross-country flight as PIC, including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 90 km (50 NM), in the course of which a full stop landing at destination aerodrome.

Hours as PIC of other categories of aircraft may count towards the 185 hours flight time, in the following cases:

(a) 30 hours in aeroplanes or helicopters, if the applicant holds a PPL(A) or PPL(H) respectively; or

(b) 60 hours in aeroplanes or helicopters, if the applicant holds a CPL(A) or CPL(H) respectively; or

(c) 10 hours in TMGs or sailplanes; or

(d) 10 hours in balloons.

SKILL TEST

11. Upon completion of the related flying training and relevant experience, the applicant shall take the CPL(As) skill test.




Appendix 4

Skill test for the issue of a CPL

A.    General

1. An applicant for a skill test for the CPL shall have received instruction on the same class or type of aircraft to be used in the test.

2. An applicant shall pass all the relevant sections of the skill test. If any item in a section is failed, that section is failed. Failure in more than one section will require the applicant to take the entire test again. An applicant failing only in one section shall only repeat the failed section. Failure in any section of the retest, including those sections that have been passed on a previous attempt, will require the applicant to take the entire test again. All relevant sections of the skill test shall be completed within 6 months. Failure to achieve a pass in all relevant sections of the test in two attempts will require further training.

3. Further training may be required following any failed skill test. There is no limit to the number of skill tests that may be attempted.

CONDUCT OF THE TEST

4. Should the applicant choose to terminate a skill test for reasons considered inadequate by the Flight Examiner (FE), the applicant shall retake the entire skill test. If the test is terminated for reasons considered adequate by the FE, only those sections not completed shall be tested in a further flight.

5. At the discretion of the FE, any manoeuvre or procedure of the test may be repeated once by the applicant. The FE may stop the test at any stage if it is considered that the applicant’s demonstration of flying skills requires a complete re-test.

6. An applicant shall be required to fly the aircraft from a position where the PIC functions can be performed and to carry out the test as if no other crew member is present. Responsibility for the flight shall be allocated in accordance with national regulations.

7. An applicant shall indicate to the FE the checks and duties carried out, including the identification of radio facilities. Checks shall be completed in accordance with the checklist for the aircraft on which the test is being taken. During pre-flight preparation for the test, the applicant is required to determine power settings and speeds. Performance data for take-off, approach and landing shall be calculated by the applicant in compliance with the operations manual or flight manual for the aircraft used.

8. The FE shall take no part in the operation of the aircraft except where intervention is necessary in the interests of safety or to avoid unacceptable delay to other traffic.

B.    Content of the skill test for the issue of a CPL — Aeroplanes

1. The aeroplane used for the skill test shall meet the requirements for training aeroplanes, and shall be certificated for the carriage of at least four persons, have a variable pitch propeller and retractable landing gear.

2. The route to be flown shall be chosen by the FE and the destination shall be a controlled aerodrome. The applicant shall be responsible for the flight planning and shall ensure that all equipment and documentation for the execution of the flight are on board. The duration of the flight shall be at least 90 minutes.

3. The applicant shall demonstrate the ability to:

(a) operate the aeroplane within its limitations;

(b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;

(c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

(d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and

(e) maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in such a manner that the successful outcome of a procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.

FLIGHT TEST TOLERANCES

4. The following limits shall apply, corrected to make allowance for turbulent conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the aeroplane used.

Height

normal flight

± 100 feet

with simulated engine failure

± 150 feet

Tracking on radio aids

± 5°

Heading

normal flight

± 10°

with simulated engine failure

± 15°

Speed

take-off and approach

± 5 knots

all other flight regimes

± 10 knots

CONTENT OF THE TEST

5. Items in section 2(c) and (e)(iv), and the whole of sections 5 and 6 may be performed in an FNPT II or an FFS.

Use of the aeroplane checklists, airmanship, control of the aeroplane by external visual reference, anti-icing/de-icing procedures and principles of threat and error management apply in all sections.



SECTION 1 —  PRE-FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND DEPARTURE

a

Pre-flight, including:

Flight planning, Documentation, Mass and balance determination, Weather brief, NOTAMS

b

Aeroplane inspection and servicing

c

Taxiing and take-off

d

Performance considerations and trim

e

Aerodrome and traffic pattern operations

f

Departure procedure, altimeter setting, collision avoidance (lookout)

g

ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures

SECTION 2 —  GENERAL AIRWORK

a

Control of the aeroplane by external visual reference, including straight and level, climb, descent, lookout

b

Flight at critically low airspeeds including recognition of and recovery from incipient and full stalls

c

Turns, including turns in landing configuration. Steep turns 45°

d

Flight at critically high airspeeds, including recognition of and recovery from spiral dives

e

Flight by reference solely to instruments, including:

(i)  level flight, cruise configuration, control of heading, altitude and airspeed

(ii)  climbing and descending turns with 10°-30° bank

(iii)  recoveries from unusual attitudes

(iv)  limited panel instruments

f

ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures

SECTION 3 —  EN-ROUTE PROCEDURES

a

Control of aeroplane by external visual reference, including cruise configuration Range/Endurance considerations

b

Orientation, map reading

c

Altitude, speed, heading control, lookout

d

Altimeter setting. ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures

e

Monitoring of flight progress, flight log, fuel usage, assessment of track error and re-establishment of correct tracking

f

Observation of weather conditions, assessment of trends, diversion planning

g

Tracking, positioning (NDB or VOR), identification of facilities (instrument flight). Implementation of diversion plan to alternate aerodrome (visual flight)

SECTION 4 —  APPROACH AND LANDING PROCEDURES

a

Arrival procedures, altimeter setting, checks, lookout

b

ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures

c

Go-around action from low height

d

Normal landing, crosswind landing (if suitable conditions)

e

Short field landing

f

Approach and landing with idle power (single-engine only)

g

Landing without use of flaps

h

Post-flight actions

SECTION 5 —  ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

This section may be combined with sections 1 through 4

a

Simulated engine failure after take-off (at a safe altitude), fire drill

b

Equipment malfunctions

including alternative landing gear extension, electrical and brake failure

c

Forced landing (simulated)

d

ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures

e

Oral questions

SECTION 6 —  SIMULATED ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT AND RELEVANT CLASS OR TYPE ITEMS

This section may be combined with sections 1 through 5

a

Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe altitude unless carried out in an FFS)

b

Asymmetric approach and go-around

c

Asymmetric approach and full stop landing

d

Engine shutdown and restart

e

ATC liaison — compliance, R/T procedures, Airmanship

f

As determined by the FE — any relevant items of the class or type rating skill test to include, if applicable:

(i)  aeroplane systems including handling of autopilot

(ii)  operation of pressurisation system

(iii)  use of de-icing and anti-icing system

g

Oral questions

C.    Content of the skill test for the issue of the CPL — Helicopters

1. The helicopter used for the skill test shall meet the requirements for training helicopters.

2. The area and route to be flown shall be chosen by the FE and all low level and hover work shall be at an approved aerodrome/site. Routes used for section 3 may end at the aerodrome of departure or at another aerodrome and one destination shall be a controlled aerodrome. The skill test may be conducted in 2 flights. The total duration of the flight(s) shall be at least 90 minutes.

3. The applicant shall demonstrate the ability to:

(a) operate the helicopter within its limitations;

(b) complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;

(c) exercise good judgement and airmanship;

(d) apply aeronautical knowledge; and

(e) maintain control of the helicopter at all times in such a manner that the successful outcome of a procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.

FLIGHT TEST TOLERANCES

4. The following limits shall apply, corrected to make allowance for turbulent conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the helicopter used.

Height

normal flight

± 100 feet

simulated major emergency

± 150 feet

Tracking on radio aids

± 10°

Heading

normal flight

± 10°

simulated major emergency

± 15°

Speed

take-off and approach multi-engine

± 5 knots

all other flight regimes

± 10 knots

Ground drift

T.O. hover I.G.E.

± 3 feet

landing no sideways or backwards movement

CONTENT OF THE TEST

5. Items in section 4 may be performed in a helicopter FNPT or a helicopter FFS. Use of helicopter checklists, airmanship, control of helicopter by external visual reference, anti-icing procedures, and principles of threat and error management apply in all sections.



SECTION 1 —  PRE-FLIGHT/POST-FLIGHT CHECKS AND PROCEDURES

a

Helicopter knowledge (e.g. technical log, fuel, mass and balance, performance), flight planning, documentation, NOTAMS, weather

b

Pre-flight inspection/action, location of parts and purpose

c

Cockpit inspection, starting procedure

d

Communication and navigation equipment checks, selecting and setting frequencies

e

Pre-take-off procedure, R/T procedure, ATC liaison-compliance

f

Parking, shutdown and post-flight procedure

SECTION 2 —  HOVER MANOEUVRES, ADVANCED HANDLING AND CONFINED AREAS

a

Take-off and landing (lift-off and touchdown)

b

Taxi, hover taxi

c

Stationary hover with head/cross/tail wind

d

Stationary hover turns, 360° left and right (spot turns)

e

Forward, sideways and backwards hover manoeuvring

f

Simulated engine failure from the hover

g

Quick stops into and downwind

h

Sloping ground/unprepared sites landings and take-offs

i

Take-offs (various profiles)

j

Crosswind, downwind take-off (if practicable)

k

Take-off at maximum take-off mass (actual or simulated)

l

Approaches (various profiles)

m

Limited power take-off and landing

n

Autorotations (FE to select two items from — Basic, range, low speed, and 360° turns)

o

Autorotative landing

p

Practice forced landing with power recovery

q

Power checks, reconnaissance technique, approach and departure technique

SECTION 3 —  NAVIGATION — EN-ROUTE PROCEDURES

a

Navigation and