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Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and Real Driving Emissions (RDE)



Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 – supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information


  • The regulation:
  • The regulation was amended by Commission Regulation (EU) 2023/443 to adapt it to changes made to UNECE regulations (mainly the adoption of UN Regulation No 154) and to other related EU rules, including Regulation (EC) No 715/2007.
  • Since the rules on access to vehicle on-board diagnostics (OBD) information and vehicle repair and maintenance information set out in Regulation EC No 715/2007 were integrated into Regulation (EU) 2018/858 (see summary), which has applied since 1 September 2020, amending Regulation (EU) 2023/443 removes all references to this information from Regulation (EU) 2017/1151.


Requirements for EU type approval

  • To receive an EU type approval* with regard to emissions, the manufacturer must show that the vehicle complies with the requirements set out in this regulation when tested under the specified procedures.
  • All vehicles must respect the tailpipe (exhaust pipe) emission limits set out in Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 when tested in RDE and WLTP tests, along with a series of other tests that include checking for evaporative emissions (i.e. emissions originating from the fuel tank system) or checking at low ambient temperatures.
  • OBD systems must be installed on all vehicles to identify all forms of deterioration or malfunction over the lifetime of the vehicle – the regulation sets out requirements for the OBD system during normal use.
  • Manufacturers must install devices to continuously measure the quantity of fuel/energy used to operate the vehicle (on-board fuel and/or energy consumption monitoring device, OBFCM device).

Applying for EU type approval

  • Manufacturers must submit an application to the approval authority for EU type approval of a vehicle with regard to emissions, which includes:
    • the results of the regulated emission tests;
    • detailed written information fully describing the functional operation characteristics of the OBD system;
    • a description of the provisions put in place to prevent tampering with and modification of the emission-control computer and the odometer, including the recording of mileage values;
    • an extended documentation package that allows an authority to assess whether the ban on ‘defeat devices* that reduce the level of emission control is respected.
  • If the relevant requirements are met, the approval authority grants a Euro 6 emissions type approval and issues a type-approval certificate.

Conformity of production

Checks must be made by the manufacturer to ensure that all vehicles produced by the manufacturer conform to the type approval and respect the emission limits.

In-service conformity

Checks must be performed to ensure that properly maintained and used vehicles respect the emission limits during their useful life, which is set between:

  • 15,000 km or 6 months, whichever occurs later; and
  • 100,000 km or 5 years, whichever occurs sooner.

Pollution control devices

  • Pollution control devices such as catalytic converters and particulate filters must be type-approved as separate technical units.
  • The relevant requirements shall be deemed to be met if the replacement pollution control devices have been approved in accordance with UNECE Regulation No 103.

Emissions of plug-in hybrid vehicles

Since recent studies have shown a considerable difference between the average real-world carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and their CO2 emissions determined by the WLTP, to ensure that the CO2 emissions determined for such vehicles are representative of real driver behaviour, the utility factors applied for the purpose of the CO2 emission determination at type approval are revised in amending Regulation (EU) 2023/443.

The regulation specifies new utility factors* on the basis of available data applicable from September 2023. Those factors will be revised to better reflect real-world conditions, taking into account data from fuel consumption monitoring devices on board such vehicles and collected in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/392 in 2025 and again in 2027.


It has applied since 27 July 2017.


For an overview, see:


Type approval. The procedure by which a product is certified to meet a minimum set of regulatory and technical requirements.
Defeat devices. Deliberate changes to the emission control system, designed to artificially reduce its effectiveness under normal vehicle use.
Utility factors. Ratios based on driving statistics depending on the range achieved in charge-depleting conditions and used to weigh the charge-depleting and charge-sustaining exhaust emission compounds, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for off-vehicle charging hybrid electric vehicles.


Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 (OJ L 175, 7.7.2017, pp. 1–643).

Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 have been incorporated into the original document. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.


Commission Regulation (EU) 2023/443 of 8 February 2023 amending Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 as regards the emission type-approval procedures for light passenger and commercial vehicles (OJ L 66, 2.3.2023, pp. 1–237).

UN Regulation No 154 – Uniform provisions concerning the approval of light duty passenger and commercial vehicles with regards to criteria emissions, emissions of carbon dioxide and fuel consumption and/or the measurement of electric energy consumption and electric range (WLTP) (OJ L 290, 10.11.2022, pp. 1–625).

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/392 of 4 March 2021 on the monitoring and reporting of data relating to CO2 emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2019/631 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Commission Implementing Regulations (EU) No 1014/2010, (EU) No 293/2012, (EU) 2017/1152 and (EU) 2017/1153 (OJ L 77, 5.3.2021, pp. 8–25).

Regulation No 103 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) – Uniform provisions concerning the approval of replacement pollution control devices for power-driven vehicles (OJ L 207, 10.8.2017, pp. 30–42).

Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information (OJ L 171, 29.6.2007, pp. 1–16).

See consolidated version.

last update 23.02.2024