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EU restrictive measures in view of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine

 

SUMMARY OF:

Decision 2014/512/CFSP concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine

Regulation (EU) No 833/2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine

Decision 2014/386/CFSP concerning restrictions on goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol, in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol

Regulation (EU) No 692/2014 concerning restrictions on the import into the EU of goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol, in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol

Decision 2014/145/CFSP concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine

Regulation (EU) No 269/2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine

Decision 2014/119/CFSP concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Ukraine

Regulation (EU) No 208/2014 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Ukraine

Decision (CFSP) 2022/266 – restrictive measures in response to the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine and the ordering of Russian armed forces into those areas

Regulation (EU) 2022/263 – restrictive measures in response to the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine and the ordering of Russian armed forces into those areas

WHAT IS THE AIM OF THE DECISIONS AND THE REGULATIONS?

  • These measures, which were adopted by the Council of the European Union, collectively put in place European Union (EU) restrictive measures such as travel bans and asset freezes in response to the Russian war of aggression against Ukraine.
  • The original measures, which date from 2014, have each been amended multiple times, for example to update lists of persons or to prolong sanctions. This is done either by the Council adopting legislative acts (in this case, decisions and regulations) or by means of Council implementing acts.
  • Following Russia’s decision on 23 February 2022 to recognise the non-government-controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities, the EU adopted the first package of sanctions. These came into effect on 24 February 2022.
  • A second package of sanctions was adopted on 25 February 2022 following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. These cover the financial sector, the energy and transport sectors, dual-use goods, export control and export financing, visa policy, additional sanctions against Russian individuals and new listing criteria. They have applied since 26 February 2022.
  • On 2 March 2022, the Council adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/354 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/353 imposing sanctions on Belarus (see summary) in view of its participation in Russia’s actions in Ukraine.
  • On 9 March 2022, the Council adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/399 amending Decision 2012/642/CFSP, and Regulation (EU) 2022/398 amending Regulation (EC) No 765/2006, which both concern restrictive measures in view of the situation in Belarus and the involvement of Belarus in the Russian aggression against Ukraine.
  • On 15 March 2022, the EU adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/430 and Regulation 2022/428, which impose a fourth package of sanctions that introduces further restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine, targeting a number of sectors:
    • prohibiting all transactions with certain state-owned companies;
    • prohibiting the provision of any credit-rating services;
    • tightening the export restrictions regarding certain goods and technology;
    • expanding the list of persons connected to Russia’s defence and industrial base;
    • prohibiting new investments in the Russian energy sector;
    • introducing a comprehensive export restriction on equipment, technology and services for the energy industry in Russia (with some exceptions);
    • introducing further trade restrictions concerning iron, steel and luxury goods.
  • On the same day, the Council adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/429 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/427, adding 15 individuals and nine entities to the list of persons, entities and bodies subject to restrictive measures set out in the Annex to Decision 2014/145/CFSP concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine.
  • On 8 April 2022, the EU adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/582, Regulation (EU) 2022/580, Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/581, Regulation (EU) 2022/576, Decision (CFSP) 2022/578, Regulation (EU) 2022/577 and Decision (CFSP) 2022/579, which imposed a fifth package of sanctions as Russia continued its war of aggression against Ukraine and as atrocities were reported to be committed by the Russian armed forces in several Ukrainian towns.
  • Decision (CFSP) 2022/582 and Regulation (EU) 2022/580 add 217 individuals and 18 entities to the list of persons, entities and bodies subject to restrictive measures set out in the Annex, with certain exceptions for diplomatic missions, including a full transaction ban on four key Russian banks that together represent a 23% market share in the Russian banking sector.
  • Additionally, Regulation (EU) 2022/576 and Decision (CFSP) 2022/578 include a ban on:
    • imports from Russia of coal and other solid fossil fuels;
    • all Russian vessels accessing EU ports;
    • Russian and Belarusian road transport operators entering the EU;
    • imports of other goods such as wood, cement, seafood and liquor;
    • exports to Russia of jet fuel and other goods;
    • deposits to crypto wallets;
    • the export of euro-denominated banknotes and the sale of euro-denominated transferable securities;
    • providing support to Russian publicly owned and controlled entities;
    • being a beneficiary, acting as trustee or in similar capacities for Russian persons and entities and providing certain services to trusts.
  • Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/581 includes targeted individual sanctions for 217 individuals and 18 entities.
  • On the same day, the Council adopted Regulation (EU) 2022/577 and Decision (CFSP) 2022/579, introducing new sanctions against Belarus in response to its involvement in the invasion of Ukraine. The measures include new economic sanctions to curb Russia’s ability to continue the aggression.
  • On 3 June 2022, the EU adopted Decisions (CFSP) 2022/883, (CFSP) 2022/884 and (CFSP) 2022/885, along with Regulations (EU) 2022/879 and (EU) 2022/880 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/878, which imposed the sixth package of sanctions in response to Russia’s military attack against Ukraine and the reported atrocities and serious human rights violations committed by the Russian armed forces.
  • The measures are designed to:
    • cut massive sources of revenue, in order to diminish Russia’s ability to finance and continue the war; and
    • impose relevant economic and political costs on Russia’s political establishment, which is responsible for the invasion.
  • The measures include the following.
    • Individual sanctions (Decision (CFSP) 2022/883 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/878) adding 65 individuals and 18 entities to the list of natural and legal persons, entities and bodies, namely individuals responsible for the atrocities committed in Bucha and Mariupol.
    • Economic sanctions (Decision (CFSP) 2022/884 and Regulation (EU) 2022/879) imposing a ban on the import, purchase and transfer from Russia of crude oil and refined petroleum products, with limited temporary exceptions for imports into those EU Member States that, due to their geographic situation, suffer from a specific dependence on Russian (oil and gas) supplies and have no alternative opportunities. They also plan to put a Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) ban in place relating to three more Russian banks. Furthermore, they expand the list of persons connected to Russia’s defence and industrial base on whom tighter export restrictions are imposed relating to dual-use goods and technology, along with goods and technology that might contribute to the technological enhancement of Russia’s defence and security sector. The list of controlled items that might contribute to Russia’s military and technological enhancement or the development of its defence and security sector has also been extended.
    • Restrictions on media (Decision (CFSP) 2022/884 and Regulation (EU) 2022/879) suspending broadcasting in the EU for three more Russian state-owned entities in order to curb the systematic propaganda, media manipulation and disinformation carried out to destabilise Russia’s neighbouring countries, the EU and its Member States.
    • Diplomatic measures (Decision (CFSP) 2022/884 and Regulation (EU) 2022/879) prohibiting the provision to Russia of accounting, public relations and consultancy services.
  • On the same day, the Council adopted Regulation (EU) 2022/877 and Decision (CFSP) 2022/882, Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/876 and Implementing Decision (CFSP) 2022/881, thus expanding the scope of the sanctions (see summary), following the continued involvement of Belarus in Russian military aggression against Ukraine. Further amendments have been introduced on the 18th July with Implementing Decision (CFSP) 2022/1243 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1231.
  • On 21 July 2022, the EU adopted Decision (CFSP) 2022/1271 and Regulation (EU) 2022/1269, a new package of measures defined as the ‘maintenance and alignment’ package, to strengthen the existing economic sanctions targeting Russia and their implementation and efficacy, and to prevent sanctions circumvention. These measures aim to:
    • introduce a new prohibition on purchasing, importing or transferring Russian-origin gold, including jewellery, which constitutes Russia’s most significant export after energy, directly into the EU or through other countries;
    • extend the existing port access ban to locks, to prevent any bypassing of sanctions;
    • further extend the list of controlled items contributing to Russia’s military and technological enhancement or the development of its defence and security sector, thereby reinforcing export controls on dual-use and advanced technology;
    • clarify existing measures, for instance in the field of public procurement, aviation and justice.
  • New measures, just like earlier sanctions, do not target Russia’s exports of agricultural and food products, including wheat and fertilisers, or supply of oil and petroleum products to non-EU countries, to avoid any potential negative consequences for food and energy security around the world. Similarly, EU measures do not prevent non-EU countries and their nationals outside of the EU from purchasing pharmaceutical or medical products from Russia.
  • On the same day, the Council included new persons and entities in the targeted individual sanctions:
    • a further 48 Russian individuals, and nine entities and major financial institutions, responsible for actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine (Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1270); and
    • six individuals and one entity involved in the recruitment of Syrian mercenaries to fight in Ukraine alongside Russian troops (Decision (CFSP) 2022/1276 and Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1274).
  • On 6 October 2022, the Council adopted the eighth package of sanctions against Russia in response to its escalating war of aggression against Ukraine and the illegal annexation of the Ukrainian Donetsk, Luhansk, Zaporizhzhia and Kherson regions based on the results of illegal ‘referenda’. Council Regulation (EU) 2022/1903 and Council Decision (CFSP) 2022/1908 extend the geographical scope of the restrictions introduced on 23 February – including the import ban on goods from the non-government-controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts – to also cover the non-government-controlled areas of the oblasts of Zaporizhzhia and Kherson.

    This package also introduces the following.

    • Further EU import bans on steel products, wood pulp and paper, cigarettes, plastics, cosmetics, and stones and precious metals used in the jewellery industry. The new import ban, worth €7 billion, aims to curb more of Russia’s revenues.
    • Further export restrictions (on civilian firearms and their components and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts) to hit Russia’s industry and military sector, depriving them of key components, equipment and technologies.
    • An oil price cap taking effect after 5 December 2022 for crude oil and 5 February 2023 for refined petroleum products, after a further decision by the Council, which is related to the maritime transport of Russian oil for non-EU countries by EU operators. The price cap exception would allow the provision of transport and related services only if the oil or petroleum products are purchased at or below a pre-established price cap. This measure will help to further reduce Russia’s revenues while stabilising global energy markets through continued supplies. The entry into force of the price cap, and the prohibition on maritime transport, are conditional on the Council introducing (by unanimous vote) the cap agreed by the Price Cap Coalition. There is permission to ship crude oil and petroleum products purchased at or below the price cap for another 90 days after that price has been amended by the Council.
    • The ban on EU nationals holding any posts on the governing bodies of certain Russian state-owned or controlled legal persons, entities or bodies.

      The measures were introduced by Council Regulation (EU) 2022/1904.

      On the same day, the Council introduced the following measures.

      • Extending the list of restricted items which may contribute to Russia’s military and technological, defence and security sectors. The list now includes certain electronic components, additional chemicals and goods that can be used for capital punishment, torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
      • Tightening the existing prohibitions by banning all crypto-asset wallets, accounts or custody services to Russian persons and residents, regardless of the total value of those crypto-assets.
      • Extending the ban on providing European services and expertise, to include architectural and engineering services, IT consultancy services and legal advisory.

        These three measures have been included in Council Decision (CFSP) 2022/1909.

      • Broadening the listing criteria to deter sanctions circumvention and including new persons and entities in the targeted individual sanctions (Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1906 and Council Decision (CFSP) 2022/1907), to target:
        • those who have played a role in the organisation of illegalreferenda’ – decision-makers, oligarchs, high-ranking and military officials, companies supporting the Russian armed forces, and well-known persons spreading disinformation about the war;
        • those who facilitate the circumvention of EU sanctions.

KEY POINTS

The documents address five different aspects of the situation in Ukraine. They put in place restrictive measures covering the following areas.

  • 1.

    Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine.

    • Decision 2014/512/CFSP.
      • The decision imposes economic sanctions, including a ban on the sale, supply, transfer or export of weapons, dual-use goods and technology and certain oil exploration and production technology, and on assistance with goods and technology included on the common military list.
      • In view of Russia’s continued war of aggression against Ukraine, the decision has been amended several times by the following decisions.
        • Decision (CFSP) 2022/1909, which extends the list of restricted items which may contribute to Russia’s military and technological, defence and security sectors, bans all crypto-asset wallets and further widens the scope of services that can no longer be provided to the government or legal persons established in Russia.
        • Decision (CFSP) 2022/1271, which introduces further restrictive measures to strengthen implementation and prevent circumvention, focusing in particular on Russian-origin gold, extending the port access ban to locks and strengthening export control on dual-use goods.
        • Decision (CFSP) 2022/884, which imposes a ban on the import, purchase or transfer from Russia of crude oil and refined petroleum products and imposes a WIFT ban on three additional Russian banks.
        • Decision (CFSP) 2022/578, which extends the prohibition on deposits to crypto wallets, the export of euro-denominated banknotes and the sale of euro-denominated transferable securities to all official currencies of the Member States; prohibits the award and continued execution of public contracts and concessions with Russian nationals and entities or bodies established in Russia; prohibits the provision of support, including financing and financial assistance, or any other benefit, to Russian publicly owned or controlled entities; prohibits being a beneficiary, acting as trustee or acting in similar capacities for Russian persons and entities and providing certain services to trusts; prohibits access to ports in the territory of the EU to vessels registered under the Russian flag; restricts exports of jet fuel and other goods to Russia; imposes additional import restrictions on certain goods exported by or originating from Russia, including coal and other solid fossil fuels; prohibits any road transport undertaking established in Russia from transporting goods by road within the territory of the EU, including in transit.
        • Decision (CFSP) 2022/430, which imposes tighter export restrictions regarding dual-use goods and technology, along with goods and technology that might contribute to the technological enhancement of Russia’s defence and security sector.
        • Decisions (CFSP) 2022/264 (which places restrictions on access to the capital market, in particular by prohibiting the financing of Russia, its government and its central bank), 2022/327 (which expands existing financial and export restrictions, introduces restrictions relating to the oil refining sector and an export ban in the field of aviation and space), 2022/335 (which bans aircraft operated by Russian air carriers, Russian-registered aircraft or any non-Russian-registered aircraft that is owned, chartered or otherwise controlled by any Russian person/entity, from landing in, taking off from or overflying EU territory), 2022/346 (which disconnects major Russian banks from SWIFT financial messaging systems and other currency-related measures), 2022/351 (which suspends the broadcasting activities of Russia Today and Sputnik in the EU) and 2022/395 (which places restrictions on maritime navigation goods and technologies and related services).
    • Regulation (EU) No 833/2014.
  • 2.

    Imports originating in Crimea or Sevastopol, in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol.

    • Decision 2014/386/CFSP.
      • The decision bans the import of goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol into the EU, along with the related financial assistance.
        • It exempts goods checked by the Ukrainian authorities and granted a certificate of origin.
        • It also bans the acquisition or extension of business dealings in the areas, including the acquisition of real estate or of shares in companies based there.
    • Regulation (EU) No 692/2014.
      • The regulation provides broader details on restrictive economic measures.
        • It includes a list of the banned goods for sale, supply, transfer or export.
  • 3.

    Actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine.

  • 4.

    Individual sanctions against certain persons, entities and bodies.

    • Decision 2014/119/CFSP.
      • The decision provides for asset freezes, with some derogations, for those responsible for misappropriating Ukrainian state funds or for human rights violations in Ukraine.
        • It also lists the individuals concerned.
        • On 3 March 2022, Decision (CFSP) 2022/376 extended the application of Decision 2014/119/CFSP until 6 March 2023.
    • Regulation (EU) No 208/2014.
      • The regulation provides broader details on asset freezes and derogations.
        • It also provides a basis for sharing information between Member States.
        • The regulation authorises Member States to set rules on penalties for infringing the bans and restrictions.
  • 5.

    Russian illegal recognition, occupation or annexation of the non-government-controlled areas of the Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia oblasts of Ukraine.

    Council Regulation (EU) 2022/1908 (amending Decision (CFSP) 2022/266) and Council Regulation (EU) 2022/1903 (amending Regulation (EU) 2022/263) widen the geographical scope in consequence of the illegal ‘referenda’ in the parts of the Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia regions that are currently occupied by Russia, the Russian mobilisation and the threat to use weapons of mass destruction.

    • Decision (CFSP) 2022/266.
      • The decision restricts the import of goods originating in the non-government-controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts (except goods granted a certificate of origin by the government of Ukraine).
      • It restricts the supply, whether directly or indirectly, of financing or financial assistance, and of insurance or reinsurance related to the import of these goods.
      • It also restricts trade in goods and technology for use in certain sectors in the non-government-controlled areas of these oblasts.
      • It bans services in the sectors of transport, telecommunications, energy or the prospecting, exploration and production of oil, gas and mineral resources, along with tourism-related services.
      • Derogations are provided for exclusively in the case of humanitarian assistance and activities in the specified territories.
    • Regulation (EU) 2022/263.
      • The regulation provides broader details on the restrictions.
      • It lists items to which the restrictions apply in its Annex II.
      • It also includes rules regarding partial and temporary exemptions and for contracts concluded prior to the sanctions coming into effect.
      • Derogations are provided for exclusively in the case of humanitarian assistance and activities in the specified territories.

FROM WHEN DO THE DECISIONS AND THE REGULATIONS APPLY?

Decision 2014/119/CFSP and Regulation (EU) No 208/2014 have applied since 6 March 2014.

Decision 2014/145/CFSP and Regulation (EU) No 269/2014 have applied since 17 March 2014.

Decision 2014/386/CFSP and Regulation (EU) No 692/2014 have applied since 25 June 2014.

Decision 2014/512/CFSP and Regulation (EU) No 833/2014 have applied since 1 August 2014.

Decision (CFSP) 2022/266 and Regulation (EU) 2022/263 have applied since 24 February 2022.

BACKGROUND

For further information, see:

MAIN DOCUMENTS

Council Decision 2014/512/CFSP of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine (OJ L 229, 31.7.2014, pp. 13–17).

Successive amendments to Decision 2014/512/CFSP have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.

Council Regulation (EU) No 833/2014 of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine (OJ L 229, 31.7.2014, pp. 1–11).

See consolidated version.

Council Decision 2014/386/CFSP of 23 June 2014 concerning restrictions on goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol, in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol (OJ L 183, 24.6.2014, pp. 70–71).

See consolidated version.

Council Regulation (EU) No 692/2014 of 23 June 2014 concerning restrictions on the import into the Union of goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol, in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol (OJ L 183, 24.6.2014, pp. 9–14).

See consolidated version.

Council Decision 2014/145/CFSP of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine (OJ L 78, 17.3.2014, pp. 16–21).

See consolidated version.

Council Regulation (EU) No 269/2014 of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine (OJ L 78, 17.3.2014, pp. 6–15).

See consolidated version.

Council Decision 2014/119/CFSP of 5 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Ukraine (OJ L 66, 6.3.2014, pp. 26–30).

See consolidated version.

Council Regulation (EU) No 208/2014 of 5 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Ukraine (OJ L 66, 6.3.2014, pp. 1–10).

Council Decision (CFSP) 2022/266 of 23 February 2022 concerning restrictive measures in response to the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine and the ordering of Russian armed forces into those areas (OJ L 42 I, 23.2.2022, pp. 109–113).

See consolidated version.

Council Regulation (EU) 2022/263 of 23 February 2022 concerning restrictive measures in response to the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine and the ordering of Russian armed forces into those areas (OJ L 42 I, 23.2.2022, pp. 77–94).

See consolidated version.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

Regulation (EU) 2021/821 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2021 setting up a Union regime for the control of exports, brokering, technical assistance, transit and transfer of dual-use items (OJ L 206, 11.6.2021, pp. 1–461).

See consolidated version.

Common Military List of the European Union adopted by the Council on 21 February 2022 (equipment covered by Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP defining common rules governing the control of exports of military technology and equipment) (updating and replacing the Common Military List of the European Union adopted by the Council on 17 February 2020) (CFSP) (OJ C 100, 1.3.2022, pp. 3–35).

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Part Five – The Union’s external action – Title IV – Restrictive measures – Article 215 (ex Article 301 TEC) (OJ C 202, 7.6.2016, p. 144).

Council Decision 2012/642/CFSP of 15 October 2012 concerning restrictive measures against Belarus (OJ L 285, 17.10.2012, pp. 1–52).

See consolidated version.

Council Regulation (EC) No 765/2006 of 18 May 2006 concerning restrictive measures against President Lukashenko and certain officials of Belarus (OJ L 134, 20.5.2006, pp. 1–11).

See consolidated version.

last update 07.10.2022

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