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Specialised courts

Specialised courts are responsible for examining at first instance claims lodged in certain specific areas. They are part of the Court of Justice of the European Union and are attached to the Court.

The creation of specialised courts may be decided by the Council acting by qualified majority under the co-decision procedure with the Parliament at the request of either the Commission or the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Members of specialised courts are selected from among persons whose independence is beyond doubt and who possess the ability required for appointment to judicial office. They are appointed by the Council, acting unanimously.

The only specialised court to have been created so far is the Civil Service Tribunal. Between 2005 and 2016, this court dealt with cases involving the EU institutions and its employees. In 2016, this court was dissolved and its competences transferred back to the General Court as part of the reform of the judicial architecture of the EU.