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Anti-dumping measures

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Anti-dumping measures

This regulation transposes the anti-dumping rules contained in the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 into European Union (EU) law. It sets out the rules, including those relating to the calculation of dumping, procedures for initiating and pursuing an investigation, the imposition of provisional and definitive measures, and the duration and review of anti-dumping measures.


Council Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009 on protection against dumped imports from countries not members of the European Community.


Dumping must be distinguished from simple practices of low-price sales resulting from lower costs or greater productivity. The key criterion in this respect is not, in fact, the relationship between the price of the exported product and that on the market of the country of import, but the relationship between the price of the exported product and its normal value. A product is therefore considered to be dumped if its export price to the European Union (EU) is less than the comparable price for a like product established in the ordinary course of trade within the exporting country.

The normal value to be taken into account to determine if there is dumping is usually based on the prices paid or payable, in the ordinary course of trade, by independent customers in the exporting country.

However, where the exporter in the exporting country does not produce or does not sell a like product, the normal value may be established on the basis of prices of other sellers or producers. In addition, when there are no or insufficient sales of the like product in the ordinary course of trade (for example, sales by a company with a monopoly) or where because of the particular market situation such sales do not permit a proper comparison, the normal value may be calculated on the basis of the cost of production in the country of origin.

In the case of imports from non-market economy countries, the normal value is determined on the basis of the price or constructed value in a market economy third country, or the price from this country to other countries, or where those are not possible, on any other reasonable basis.

The second basis of comparison, the relationship with the normal value in the country of origin which determines the dumping margin, is the export price. This is the price actually paid or payable for the product when sold for export to the EU.

In cases where there is no export price or where the price is set under an association or a compensatory arrangement between the exporter and the importer or a third party, any reference to the export price becomes impossible. It may therefore be constructed on the basis of the price at which the imported products are first resold to an independent buyer, or, if the products are not resold to an independent buyer, or are not resold in the condition in which they were imported, on any reasonable basis. In these cases, adjustments are made to take account of all costs incurred between importation and resale as well as for profits accruing.

Dumping margin

The dumping margin is the amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price. The comparison is made between sales at the same commercial stage and on dates which are as close to each other as possible. The necessary adjustments are made to take account of differences in sales conditions, taxation and other differences which affect price comparability.


The application of any anti-dumping duty presupposes the presence of a second key element: significant material injury to an EU industry, be it injury caused to an industry established in the EU, the threat of injury or substantial retardation of the establishment of such an industry.

The determination of injury must be based on positive evidence and involve an objective examination of the following elements:

  • the volume of the dumped imports, particularly where there has been a significant increase, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the EU;
  • the price of dumped imports, in particular to determine whether there has been significant price undercutting as compared with the price of a like product of the EU industry, or whether the effect has been to depress prices or prevent price increases;
  • the consequent impact on the EU industry concerned, particularly in relation to production and utilisation of capacity, stocks, sales, market share, price changes, profits, return on investments, cash flow and employment.

Moreover, the effect of the dumping must be assessed in relation to the production of the like product by the EU industry, taking into account the narrowest production sector.

The term EU industry covers EU producers as a whole or those of them whose collective output constitutes a major proportion of the total EU production. However, when producers are themselves importers of a dumped product, EU industry may be interpreted as referring to the other producers in this sector.

For the adoption of measures, such as provisional or definitive duties or the termination of an investigation, the Commission is assisted by a trade defence committee. This committee comprises representatives of the Member States and is chaired by the Commission. The committee serves as a forum of discussion between the Commission and Member States and the most satisfactory solution is always sought. When the Commission wants to take a decision, the committee is always asked to deliver an opinion. In case of most important decisions, such as imposition of duties, the committee may even block the Commission's proposal.

Initiation of proceedings

Proceedings are initiated upon a written complaint by any natural or legal person, or any association not having legal personality, acting on behalf of an EU industry. Where, in the absence of any complaint, an EU country is in possession of sufficient evidence of dumping and of resultant injury to the EU industry, it shall immediately communicate such evidence to the Commission.

The complaint must include evidence of dumping, injury and a causal link between these two elements. It shall contain such information on the following:

  • the identity of the complainant and a description of the volume and value of the EU production concerned;
  • a complete description of the allegedly dumped product, the country of origin, the identity of each known producer/exporter and importer;
  • information on prices at which the product in question is sold when destined for consumption in the domestic markets of the country of origin or export, export price of the product;
  • information on changes in the volume of imports of the product concerned and effect of those imports on prices of the like product in the EU.

The complaint is considered to have been made by or on behalf of the EU industry if it is supported by those EU producers whose collective output constitutes more than 25 % of the total EU production.

When there appears to be sufficient evidence to justify the opening of an investigation, the Commission must initiate the proceeding within 45 days of the complaint being lodged. It publishes a notice in the Official Journal of the EU indicating the product and the country in question, summarising the information received and setting a deadline by which the parties should communicate information and apply to be heard.

The complaint may be withdrawn prior to initiation of the investigation.


The investigation carried out by the Commission, in cooperation with the EU countries, covers both dumping and injury simultaneously. An investigation period is selected which normally constitutes a period of not less than six months immediately prior to the initiation of the proceeding. The Commission sends questionnaires to the parties involved, who are given at least 30 days to reply.

The Commission may request EU countries to supply information, carry out checks and inspections, particularly amongst importers, traders and EU producers, as well as carry out investigations in third countries (provided that the firms concerned give their consent and that the government of the country in question raises no objection). Officials from the Commission may be authorised to assist the officials of EU countries in carrying out their duties. More commonly, the Commission may carry out visits to examine the records of the parties concerned; it may also carry out investigations in third countries involved.

The Commission may meet with interested parties who request such a meeting. It may also organise meetings between these parties so that opposing views may be presented. The interested parties may examine all information provided to the Commission, with the exception of confidential documents.

An investigation is concluded with termination of the proceeding or with the adoption of a definitive measure. It should normally be concluded within 15 months of the initiation of the proceeding.

Market economy treatment

Following a ruling of the Court of Justice of the EU (Case C-249/10 P Brosmann and others v. Council) that the sampling technique provided for in Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009 may not be applied to determine claims of market economy treatment, the regulation was amended by Regulation (EU) No 1168/2012.

The ruling would have required the Commission to examine all applications for market economy treatment filed by cooperating exporting producers who are not part of the sample, irrespective of whether the number of cooperating producers is large and would have imposed a disproportionate administrative burden on the EU's investigating authorities.

Regulation (EU) No 1168/2012 also clarifies that the anti-dumping duty to be applied to imports from exporters or producers which have made themselves known but were not included in the examination is not to exceed the weighted average margin of dumping established for the parties in the sample, irrespective of whether the normal value established for such parties was determined on the basis of that Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009.

Lastly, Regulation (EU) No 1168/2012 extends from 3 to 7 months the time-limit for the Commission to decide on applications for market economy treatment.

Termination of the proceeding without measures

The final outcome of the proceeding may be negative, i.e. where no measure is justified and the investigation or procedure is terminated. The Commission may only terminate an investigation if the committee is not against.

A proceeding is terminated where the dumping and injury are considered to be negligible. A proceeding may also be terminated when undertakings are offered and considered acceptable by the Commission. These commitments may take the form of a minimum import price such as is required to eliminate the injurious effects of the dumping.

Imposition of provisional anti-dumping duties

Provisional duties may be imposed if a provisional affirmative determination has been made of dumping and injury, and if the EU interest calls for intervention to prevent such injury. The amount of the duty must not exceed the margin of dumping, and it should be less than the margin if such lesser duty would be sufficient to remove the injury to the EU industry.

The duties must be imposed no later than nine months after the initiation of the proceeding. These duties are imposed by the Commission, after consultation with the committee or, in cases of extreme urgency, after informing the EU countries.

Imposition of definitive anti-dumping duties

Where it is established that there is dumping and resulting injury and the EU interest calls for intervention, the Commission imposes a definitive anti-dumping duty unless the Committee is opposed. As with the provisional measures, the definitive duty may not exceed the dumping margin and should be less than the margin if it would be adequate to remove the injury.

The duty must be imposed on a non-discriminatory basis on imports of a product found to be dumped and causing injury. The regulation imposing the duty specifies the amount of duty applied to each supplier or, if that is impracticable, to the supplying country concerned.

Provisional and definitive duties may not be applied retroactively. However, a definitive duty may be levied on products which were entered for consumption not more than 90 days prior to the date of application of the provisional measures.

EU interest

Anti-dumping measures may not be applied if it is concluded that their imposition is not in the EU interest. To this end, all the various interests are taken into account as a whole, including the interests of the EU industry and of the users and consumers. All the parties concerned are given the opportunity to make their views known.

Duration and Review

An anti-dumping measure only remains in force as long as is necessary to counteract the dumping which is causing injury. The duties expire five years after their date of imposition or five years after the conclusion of the most recent review of the measures concerned. This review is carried out on the initiative of the Commission or at the request of the EU producers. The duties shall remain in force during the period of the review.

Refund of duties

Duties collected may be refunded where the importer can show that the dumping margin has been eliminated or reduced to a level below the anti-dumping duty. The importer must request a refund within six months of the date on which the amount of the definitive duties to be levied was duly determined or within six months of the date on which a decision was made definitively to collect the provisional duties. The application must be submitted via the EU country in which the product was released for free circulation. The EU country shall forward the application to the Commission, which comes to a decision after consultation of the Committee.



Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009



OJ L 343, 22.12.2009

Amending act(s)

Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal




OJ L 344 of 14.12.2012

Regulation (EU) No 37/2014



OJ L 18 of 21.1.2014

Last updated: 19.06.2014