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Comunicación de la Comisión al Consejo y al Parlamento Europeo sobre los resultados de la evaluación final de la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas y del Plan de acción sobre drogas (2000-2004)

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Comunicación de la Comisión al Consejo y al Parlamento Europeo sobre los resultados de la evaluación final de la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas y del Plan de acción sobre drogas (2000-2004) /* COM/2004/0707 final */


Bruselas, 22.10.2004

COM(2004)707 final

COMUNICACIÓN DE LA COMISIÓN AL CONSEJO Y AL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO

sobre los resultados de la evaluación final de la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas y del Plan de acción sobre drogas (2000-2004)

1. LA ESTRATEGIA DE LA UE EN MATERIA DE DROGAS Y EL PLAN DE ACCIÓN SOBRE DROGAS (2000-2004)

En 1999, la Comisión presentó una Comunicación sobre un plan de acción de la Unión Europea en materia de lucha contra las drogas (2000-2004)[1]. Sobre esta base, el Consejo Europeo de Helsinki aprobó la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas para 2000-2004[2]. La Estrategia propone un planteamiento multidisciplinar e integrado de las drogas en el que la reducción de la demanda y el suministro de droga se consideran como partes igualmente importantes de una estrategia equilibrada que se refuerzan mutuamente.

En junio de 2000, el Consejo Europeo de Feira adoptó el Plan de acción de la UE sobre drogas 2000-2004[3]. Este Plan de acción tradujo la Estrategia en materia de drogas de la UE en aproximadamente cien medidas concretas que debían ser adoptadas por los Estados miembros, la Comisión, el Observatorio Europeo de la Droga y las Toxicomanías (OEDT) y Europol.

El Plan de acción declara que la Comisión debe realizar una evaluación intermedia y otra tras la conclusión de la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas 2000-2004. En noviembre de 2002 la Comisión presentó una Comunicación sobre la evaluación intermedia[4].

La presente Comunicación presenta los resultados de la evaluación final y sienta las bases para la evolución futura de la política en materia de drogas de la UE a la luz de las lecciones aprendidas durante la ejecución de la política actual.

2. OBJETIVO Y PROCESO DE EVALUACIÓN FINAL

2.1. Objetivo

El objetivo de la evaluación final es evaluar el nivel de realización de las actividades previstas en el Plan de acción, evaluar en qué medida esto resuelve los objetivos de la estrategia en materia de drogas y evaluar el impacto tanto de la Estrategia como del Plan de acción sobre la situación de las drogas en la Unión Europea.

Aún se está llevando a cabo la evaluación del impacto de la política en materia de drogas, y la falta de objetivos operativos exactos y cuantificables en la actual estrategia en materia de drogas y el Plan de acción no simplifica la tarea. Sin embargo, ya ha empezado el proceso de evaluación del impacto y la definición de los indicadores y de las herramientas clave que pueden servir en el futuro como normas de calidad para adoptar nuevas estrategias y políticas.

2.2. Proceso

Esta evaluación se inició en abril de 2003 con el establecimiento de un Grupo de dirección (comprendido por representantes de la Comisión, los cuatro Estados miembros que tienen la Presidencia durante 2003-2004, el OEDT y Europol) para supervisar y establecer unas directrices en relación con la evaluación final. Este grupo se ha reunido en cuatro ocasiones para determinar las herramientas y los métodos de evaluación y para supervisar el proceso.

En noviembre de 2003 se envió un cuestionario a los que eran Estados miembros entonces[5] para conocer detalles de acciones en el Plan de acción aplicado por ellas (anexo 1). Se envió un cuadro similar de seguimiento a los servicios de la Comisión pertinentes, al OEDT y a Europol (anexo 2).

El OEDT y la Comisión prepararon una serie de documentos temáticos centrados en aspectos particulares del problema de las drogas[6]. El OEDT así como Europol elaboraron una foto fija estadística que contiene datos clave sobre la situación de las drogas en 1999 y en 2002-2003[7].

En abril/mayo de 2004 se llevó a cabo una encuesta del Eurobarómetro sobre las actitudes/opiniones de los jóvenes respecto a las drogas[8]. Los resultados principales obtenidos son comparables a los resultados de una encuesta similar llevada a cabo en 2002. Además, se tuvieron en cuenta el informe final sobre la represión policial y su papel en la lucha contra el tráfico de droga[9], los planes de aplicación relativos al suministro de drogas sintéticas[10] y sobre la reducción de la demanda y el suministro[11], el informe aprobado por el Consejo sobre los avances en la aplicación[12] así como otras iniciativas tomadas (anexo 3).

Los datos obtenidos de las diversas fuentes se analizaron para resaltar los logros principales durante el período y las áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos progresos. También se utilizó para evaluar el nivel de cumplimiento de las actividades establecidas en el Plan de acción y evaluar en qué medida la realización del Plan de acción resolvió los objetivos de la Estrategia en materia de drogas. La foto fija estadística proporciona la base para la evaluación del impacto de la estrategia en materia de drogas y del Plan de acción sobre la situación de las drogas. Los datos proporcionados para la evaluación final se extienden desde 1999 a junio de 2004.

3. PRINCIPALES LOGROS Y ÁREAS EN LAS QUE SON NECESARIOS NUEVOS AVANCES

3.1. Coordinación

Logros a nivel nacional

- Desde 1999, los Estados miembros han adoptado estrategias nacionales reforzadas en el ámbito de las drogas. La mayoría de ellas cubren toda la gama de actividades relacionadas con las drogas.

- La concienciación de los Estados miembros sobre la necesidad de una coordinación multidisciplinar en el campo de drogas ha aumentado. Todos los Estados miembros reconocen que es un elemento esencial de la política de drogas, incluso si no existe ninguna definición del término "coordinación".

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel nacional

- La coordinación nacional en el ámbito de las drogas debe extenderse a todas las áreas de la política en esta materia, incluida la consulta regular a la sociedad civil.

- Sería útil una mayor coordinación previa a nivel nacional (por ejemplo, entre los sectores de la salud pública, justicia e interior, relaciones exteriores y autoridades presupuestarias) para que las delegaciones pudieran articular sus posiciones en el Consejo.

Logros a nivel de la UE

- Desde la adopción del Plan de acción, las reuniones de los coordinadores nacionales en materia de drogas han tenido lugar dos veces al año.

- La Comisión publicó una Comunicación sobre la coordinación en materia de drogas en 2003. Se ha debatido un documento con los puntos de vista del Grupo horizontal "Drogas" en la Comunicación.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel de la UE

- Debe llevarse a cabo un seguimiento adecuado de la Comunicación de la Comisión sobre la coordinación en materia de drogas. Las reuniones de los coordinadores nacionales deberían centrarse más en problemas específicos.

- La Comisión debería consolidar y racionalizar sus mecanismos internos de coordinación: se requiere una coordinación más visible y operativa de todos los servicios implicados en el ámbito de las drogas. Deben continuarse sus vínculos estructurales con el OEDT.

- No hay ninguna división clara de responsabilidades entre los grupos de trabajo del Consejo que se ocupan de los problemas en materia de drogas. El Grupo horizontal "Drogas" debería tener una responsabilidad global en la coordinación del trabajo de los diversos grupos que se ocupan del problema de las drogas.

- No se ha consultado regularmente a la sociedad civil en la formulación de la política de la UE sobre drogas y tal consulta debe hacerse con regularidad. Éste será el tema de una Comunicación de la Comisión en 2005.

3.2. Información y evaluación

Logros a nivel nacional

- La disponibilidad y la calidad de los datos sobre la situación de las drogas ha mejorado en la mayor parte de los Estados miembros, así como el apoyo político necesario para actividades específicas de información y evaluación.

- Todos los Estados miembros han acordado aplicar los cinco indicadores epidemiológicos clave[13] y proporcionar datos comparables y consolidados.

- Algunos Estados miembros han progresado en el desarrollo de herramientas para la evaluación regular de la eficacia de sus acciones en el campo de las drogas.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel nacional

- La supervisión sistemática de la aplicación de estrategias /planes de acción nacionales en materia de drogas debería mejorarse. Debe avanzarse asimismo en garantizar la evaluación regular de su aplicación.

- Los Estados miembros deberían llevar a cabo esfuerzos con vistas a la aplicación completa de los indicadores epidemiológicos.

- Debe mejorarse el suministro de información sobre el gasto público en el ámbito de las drogas y el análisis del nivel de rentabilidad de las políticas.

Logros a nivel de la UE

- La disponibilidad y calidad de los datos y la información sobre la situación de las droga se ha mejorado principalmente gracias al trabajo del OEDT y de los centros nacionales de coordinación.

- El proceso de evaluación final ha supuesto el desarrollo de herramientas metodológicas clave y la creación de un grupo de dirección que podría proporcionar un marco para evaluaciones futuras en el ámbito de la política en materia de drogas de la UE.

- El intercambio de información sobre tendencias emergentes en el consumo de drogas ha mejorado, en parte, gracias al establecimiento de un sistema de detección temprana en el marco de la Acción conjunta en materia de drogas sintéticas[14].

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel de la UE

- Existe una carencia de información sobre la delincuencia relacionada con las drogas y debe trabajarse más en los indicadores apropiados teniendo en cuenta el trabajo del OEDT y de Europol en este ámbito.

- Deberían mejorarse los mecanismos para supervisar las tendencias emergentes en el consumo de drogas y continuar la investigación sobre tales tendencias.

3.3. Reducción de la demanda

Logros a nivel nacional

- La convicción de la necesidad de tomar medidas preventivas desde una fase temprana es clara en todos los Estados miembros. Se han creado programas globales de prevención que implican a expertos en la materia y a la sociedad civil.

- Cada vez se ejecutan más proyectos específicos de prevención dirigidos a abordar la toxicomanía múltiple y el abuso de sustancias lícitas e ilícitas. Las campañas de información se dirigen cada vez más a los grupos destinatarios y se centran en conductas de riesgo y adicción en general.

- La mayor parte de los Estados miembros han aumentado la financiación y la disponibilidad de servicios de tratamiento y han diversificado la gama de opciones de tratamiento.

- En todos los Estados miembros se está prestando más atención a delincuentes toxicómanos como se demuestra en el aumento en las alternativas de tipo comunitario al encarcelamiento y a mayores intervenciones de carácter psicosocial y sanitario en las prisiones.

- Todos los Estados miembros han emprendido la investigación de los efectos de la conducción bajo la influencia de las drogas y de la medicación ilícita y algunos de ellos han introducido medidas de control más estrictas.

Áreas en la que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel nacional

- Debería llevarse a cabo una evaluación más regular de la eficacia de las medidas para reducir el daño relativo a la salud asociado con la dependencia de las drogas y las medidas de tratamiento.

- Los Estados miembros deberían crear cualificaciones reconocidas para profesionales en las áreas de la prevención de las drogas y la reducción del daño en la salud asociadas con la dependencia de las drogas.

Realizaciones a nivel de UE

- El Consejo adoptó varias resoluciones sobre problemas relativos a la prevención en el consumo de drogas (cf. anexo 3).

- El programa de acción comunitario relativo a la prevención de la toxicomanía en el marco de la acción en el ámbito de la salud pública (1996-2002)[15] y el nuevo programa en el ámbito de la salud pública (2003-2008)[16] han ofrecido cofinanciación para proyectos de prevención en materia de drogas. El tratamiento constituye un aspecto de creciente relevancia.

- En 2003 se adoptó una Recomendación del Consejo relativa a la prevención y la reducción de los daños para la salud asociados a la drogodependencia[17].

- Se han adoptado un Programa de acción europeo de seguridad vial de la Comunidad Europea[18] y una Resolución del Consejo relativa a la lucha contra el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas asociado a los accidentes viales[19]. Ambos tienen en cuenta los efectos del alcohol, las drogas y las medicinas en la conducción.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel de la UE

- La UE debería promover la investigación complementaria de los factores biomédicos, psicosociales y otros que se encuentran detrás del consumo de drogas y la toxicomanía, especialmente en las áreas en las que tal investigación es aún limitada (por ejemplo, el uso a largo plazo de cannabis o drogas sintéticas).

- Debería mejorarse la difusión de información fiable y de calidad así como de las buenas prácticas.

- La Comisión hará un seguimiento de los puntos claves de la Recomendación del Consejo de 2003 antes mencionada.

3.4. Reducción del suministro

Logros a nivel nacional

- En la mayor parte de los Estados miembros la cooperación entre los organismos responsables de la aplicación de ley se ha mejorado a través del establecimiento/refuerzo de las estructuras y de actividades tales como equipos de policía/aduaneros conjuntos, operaciones conjuntas y memorándums de acuerdo.

- Actualmente son más los Estados miembros que parecen estar en condiciones de actuar de conformidad con lo previsto en el artículo 17 (tráfico ilícito por mar) de la Convención de la ONU de 1988 contra el Tráfico Ilícito de Narcóticos y Sustancias Psicotrópicas.

- Todos los Estados miembros han transpuesto al derecho nacional la primera Directiva sobre blanqueo de capitales[20] y 11 de ellos han transpuesto la Directiva por la que se modifica la misma[21]. Además los Estados miembros han introducido nuevas medidas para reducir el blanqueo de capitales tales como poderes para bloquear transacciones y poderes cada vez mayores para el control de los viajeros que importan grandes sumas de dinero.

- 10 Estados miembros han transpuesto las disposiciones de la Decisión marco del Consejo sobre equipos conjuntos de investigación[22] y/o han ratificado el Convenio relativo a la asistencia judicial en materia penal entre los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea[23] o han indicado que la legislación en vigor ya permite la creación de tales equipos.

- 10 Estados miembros han ratificado el Convenio relativo a la asistencia mutua y la cooperación entre las administraciones aduaneras (Nápoles II)[24]. 14 Estados miembros han ratificado el Convenio relativo a la utilización de la tecnología de la información a efectos aduaneros (SIA, sistema de información aduanero)[25].

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel nacional

- Los Estados miembros que no han demostrado disponer de estructuras formales para la cooperación entre sus organismos de aplicación del derecho nacional deberían estudiar el establecimiento de tales estructuras formales según convenga.

- Los Estados miembros deberían garantizar que disponen de los procedimientos necesarios para actuar de conformidad con lo previsto en el artículo 17 del Convenio de la ONU de 1988 y deberían considerar la adopción de una guía relativa a su aplicación.

- Los Estados miembros que no han actuado así deberían transponer la segunda Directiva sobre blanqueo de capitales[26], la Decisión marco del Consejo sobre equipos conjuntos de investigación y/o ratificar el Convenio de la UE sobre la asistencia judicial mutua en materia penal y ratificar el Convenio de Nápoles II y el Convenio SIA.

Logros a nivel de la UE

- La cooperación entre los organismos encargados de la aplicación de la ley a nivel de la UE ha mejorado a través del establecimiento/refuerzo de las estructuras, las actividades de Europol y Eurojust y actividades tales como investigaciones conjuntas, operaciones aduaneras conjuntas, cooperación marítima, equipos conjuntos, y centros de cooperación aduanera y policial.

- Ya se han formulado y están en fase de ejecución varios Proyectos de la UE (por ejemplo CASE, EELS y EILCS) dirigidos a la identificación de la producción y del tráfico de las drogas sintéticas.

- Desde 2000, cinco sustancias son objeto de medidas de control a escala comunitaria sobre la base de la acción conjunta en materia de drogas sintéticas.

- Programas de financiación de la UE tales como AGIS[27] han desempeñado un papel significativo en la facilitación de la cooperación entre las autoridades encargadas de la aplicación de la ley de los Estados miembros.

- Se ha alcanzado un acuerdo político sobre la Decisión marco del Consejo relativa al establecimiento de las disposiciones mínimas de los elementos constitutivos de delitos y penas aplicables en el ámbito del tráfico ilícito de drogas[28]. Se espera que su adopción formal se produzca pronto.

- Se ha adoptado un Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo sobre precursores de droga (comercio intracomunitario)[29]. La Comisión ha presentado una propuesta de Reglamento del Consejo relativo al comercio exterior de precursores de droga[30].

- La OLAF ha facilitado un intercambio importante de información relativa al riesgo de desvío de precursores y continúa apoyando los sistemas Yachtinfo y Marinfo.

- Se está estudiando actualmente el desarrollo futuro de una unidad operativa permanente de coordinación para apoyar operaciones aduaneras conjuntas.

- La Comisión ha adoptado una propuesta de tercera Directiva sobre blanqueo de capitales[31].

- La adopción de la Decisión del Consejo[32] sobre el intercambio de información entre Unidades de inteligencia financiera (UIF) ha proporcionado un mejor marco para la cooperación.

- Varios Estados miembros participan en los debates en torno a la formación de equipos conjuntos y sobre la conveniencia de conferir a sus autoridades de policía y judiciales poderes adicionales y de gran alcance para actuar en los territorios de cada uno de ellos.

Áreas en los que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel de la UE

- Los Estados miembros deberían establecer equipos conjuntos de investigación para tratar entre ellos sobre el problema del tráfico de droga como está previsto en la Decisión marco del Consejo y el Convenio.

- Los organismos encargados de la aplicación de ley de los Estados miembros deberían tratar sobre la posibilidad de nuevas operaciones conjuntas. Se debe informar al Consejo y a la Comisión sobre la ejecución y los resultados de estas operaciones.

- Deberían explorarse asimismo nuevas operaciones para abordar la producción y el tráfico de drogas sintéticas. Las sugerencias para trazar las redes de distribución presentadas por la Comisión podrían ser un punto de partida útil en este proceso.

- Debe aplicarse en su integridad la Recomendación del Consejo sobre la armonización de las estadísticas policiales en materia de drogas y desvío de precursores[33].

- La tercera Directiva sobre blanqueo de capitales debería ser adoptada por el Parlamento Europeo y el Consejo cuanto antes.

3.5. Ampliación

Aunque la ampliación no tuviera lugar hasta ocho meses antes del fin del período cubierto por la Estrategia en materia de drogas, las iniciativas sobre esta cuestión forman parte del acervo de la UE. Todos los nuevos Estados miembros y dos de los países candidatos han respondido de forma voluntaria al cuestionario de la Comisión[34]. Un resumen de estos datos se incluirá en un informe separado.

Logros

- El programa PHARE y otros programas comunitarios pertinentes han sido especialmente útiles en la familiaridad de los nuevos Estados miembros y países candidatos con los aspectos relativos a las drogas del acervo.

- Casi todos los Estados miembros han proporcionado ayuda a los nuevos Estados miembros en sus esfuerzos por hacer frente a la tenencia ilícita y el tráfico de drogas. Los Estados miembros han proporcionado ayuda similar a los países candidatos.

- Todos los nuevos Estados miembros han transpuesto los aspectos relativos a las drogas del acervo a su legislación nacional y lo mismo están haciendo los países candidatos.

- El capítulo JAI del acervo se ha cerrado provisionalmente para Bulgaria y las negociaciones con Rumania van en la buena dirección.

- Se han rubricado los acuerdos con Bulgaria, Rumania y Turquía para la participación en el trabajo del OEDT.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances

- Debería haber una estrecha colaboración con los nuevos Estados miembros y países candidatos en la aplicación de los temas relativos a las drogas en el acervo.

- Los nuevos Estados miembros deberían hacer un uso completo de AGIS y de otros programas pertinentes para facilitar la cooperación con otros Estados miembros.

- Los acuerdos con tres países candidatos para permitir que participen en los trabajos del OEDT deberían entrar en vigor cuanto antes.

- El programa PHARE y otros programas comunitarios deberían continuar proporcionando ayuda a los países candidatos en el campo de las drogas.

3.6. Cooperación internacional

Logros a nivel nacional

- Los Estados miembros proporcionan ayuda relacionada con las drogas a los terceros países con carácter bilateral y/o a través de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito (ONUDD).

- Varios Estados miembros cooperan con terceros países para desarrollar y mejorar sistemas contra el blanqueo de capitales.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel nacional

- Todos los Estados miembros deberían alimentar sistemáticamente la base de datos creada por la Comisión sobre los proyectos de asistencia técnica en los países candidatos y terceros países en el ámbito de las drogas.

- Los Estados miembros deberían informar regularmente al Consejo y a la Comisión de sus actividades bilaterales en terceros países y regiones.

Logros a nivel de la UE

- La Comisión está concentrando sus esfuerzos en las dos rutas principales de tráfico a la UE.

- La Comisión ha mantenido al Consejo regularmente informado de su asistencia en materia de drogas en terceros países/regiones y del proceso integrado reforzado a través del cual financia proyectos de droga en terceros países/ regiones.

- En el contexto de la política europea de vecindad, se están estudiando planes de acción con varios países. Estos planes incluyen normalmente una sección referida a las drogas.

- Todos los acuerdos exteriores relevantes de la Comunidad y de la UE contienen disposiciones específicas sobre drogas.

Áreas en las que son necesarios nuevos avances a nivel de la UE

- Los Estados miembros y la Comisión deberían continuar manteniendo las posiciones coordinadas de la UE en foros internacionales que tratan el problema de las drogas, en especial la Comisión de la ONU sobre narcóticos.

- Los Estados miembros y la Comisión deberían continuar ligando la ayuda relacionada con la droga que proporcionan a Asia Central, América Latina y los Caribes y los países balcánicos occidentales a los planes de acción en materia de drogas adoptados a estas regiones. A este respecto, podría estudiarse un mecanismo apropiado de financiación.

- Es necesario establecer un vínculo entre la adopción de nuevos planes de acción de la UE en materia de drogas para diversas regiones del mundo y la asignación de recursos para su aplicación.

- Los expertos en materia de drogas de los Estados miembros deberían continuar participando activamente en poner de relieve los problemas que plantean las drogas durante la elaboración / revisión de documentos de programación regionales/ nacionales. Debería existir una mejor coordinación entre los grupos de trabajo geográficos y el Grupo horizontal "Drogas".

- Deberían supervisarse y tomarse en consideración las nuevas emergencias y tendencias en el uso y la producción de droga en países/regiones específicas.

- Deberían emplearse a fondo los mecanismos existentes de coordinación internacional en el campo de las drogas, tales como el grupo de Dublín.

4. CONCLUSIONES

I. Evaluación del nivel de realización de las actividades establecidas en el Plan de acción

- Alrededor del 95 por ciento de las acciones establecidas en el Plan de acción de la UE en materia de drogas se ha ejecutado o está en vías de ejecución.

- La Estrategia en materia de drogas de la UE y el Plan de acción han sido considerados como punto de referencia central para la acción y han proporcionado un marco para actividades e iniciativas relacionadas con la droga a nivel nacional y de la UE.

- Casi todos los Estados miembros han adoptado una Estrategia nacional en materia de drogas o un Plan de acción. Entre los elementos definitorios de en estas Estrategias nacionales en materia de drogas y Planes de acción, hay modelos comunes con el planteamiento de la UE como se señala en la Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas y el Plan de acción.

II. Evaluación sobre en qué medida la realización del Plan de acción ha resuelto los objetivos de la Estrategia en materia de drogas

- Existen pocas dudas de que la ejecución de las acciones en el Plan de acción ha contribuido a la realización, en mayor o menor medida, de los 11 objetivos de la Estrategia en materia de drogas de la UE.

III. Evaluación del impacto en la situación de las drogas

- Al menos hasta cierto punto, se han hecho progresos en la realización de una parte de los objetivos de la Estrategia en materia de drogas de la UE (objetivo 2 y, en especial, objetivo 3)[35].

- De acuerdo con las herramientas de evaluación, no existe ninguna prueba clara que permita concluir que se ha logrado el objetivo 1 de reducir perceptiblemente el nivel de consumo de drogas o que un número menor de jóvenes están consumiendo drogas. Sin embargo, los datos de la foto fija indican que, en conjunto, se ha conseguido estabilizar la tendencia al alza en el nivel de consumo de drogas, aunque actualmente nos encontremos en unos niveles históricamente altos.

- Del mismo modo, la información disponible no sugiere que se haya reducido sustancialmente la disponibilidad de las drogas (objetivo 4). Paralelamente, los objetivos 4 y 5 considerados conjuntamente han sido un catalizador para varias iniciativas a nivel de la UE que han consolidado medidas policiales contra el tráfico y el suministro de drogas.

- Se han tomado asimismo varias iniciativas importantes para combatir el blanqueo de capitales (objetivo 6.1). Por lo que se refiere al objetivo 6.2, los Estados miembros participan en varias iniciativas importantes para combatir el desvío de precursores, tales como la Unidad conjunta europea en materia de precursores. Se han presentado varias propuestas importantes que modifican la legislación comunitaria en el campo del control del comercio de precursores.

5. PROPUESTAS

- La estrategia futura de la UE en materia de drogas debería contener unos objetivos y prioridades claros y precisos que puedan traducirse en indicadores y acciones operativas en los planes de acción futuros, con unas responsabilidades y plazos para su aplicación definidos claramente. Los sistemas de información y las herramientas de evaluación deberían tomarse en consideración al establecer estos objetivos y prioridades.

- Debería avanzarse en la disponibilidad, calidad y comparabilidad de la información sobre la supervisión de la situación de las drogas.

- La Comisión presentará una propuesta a principios de 2005 para un Plan de acción sobre las drogas 2005-2008. Además, la Comisión elaborará un estudio anual sobre la aplicación de este Plan de acción y organizará una evaluación del impacto en 2008 con objeto de proponer un segundo Plan de acción durante el período 2009-2012. Durante 2009-2012, continuarán siendo elaborados por la Comisión los estudios anuales sobre la situación. En 2012, la Comisión organizará una evaluación global de la Estrategia en materia de drogas de la UE y de los Planes de acción que se presentarán al Consejo y al Parlamento Europeo.

- Los objetivos de la nueva Estrategia en materia de drogas y los Planes de acción deberían reflejarse en el programa plurianual, que persigue consolidar el espacio de libertad, seguridad y justicia.

- La prioridad del Grupo horizontal "Drogas" del Consejo debería estar en hacer avanzar y supervisar la ejecución de las acciones establecidas en los Planes de acción futuros de la UE sobre drogas, así como tener un papel importante en la coordinación del trabajo de los otros grupos del Consejo que se ocupan de los problemas de la droga.

- Se están ejecutado muchas actividades interesantes y útiles en el campo de las drogas. Los resultados de estas actividades deben compartirse más ampliamente para promover actividades similares en otras partes. En este contexto, debería prestarse mayor consideración a la posibilidad de celebrar un seminario anual sobre un aspecto de la política de drogas ligado a estas actividades.

- Esta evaluación final debería tenerse en cuenta en el desarrollo de la nueva Estrategia de la UE en materia de drogas 2005-2012.

ANNEX 1

Summary of 15 Member States responses to the questionnaire on the implementation of the EU Action Plan on Drugs (2000-2004)

1. Co-ordination

1.2.2 What steps has your country taken towards the establishment or the strengthening of the national co-ordination mechanisms since 1999? Has your country appointed a National Drugs Co-ordinator in the related period? Does your country envisage carrying out or has your country carried out an evaluation of the co-ordination mechanisms?

All Member States recognise the importance of coordinating the activities of the multiple actors involved in the drugs issue. They report to have mechanisms in place for coordinating their national drugs policies. Member States have adopted different models of coordination, depending on their national administrative structures and on the aspects of the fight against drugs they intend to focus on; some have interdepartmental committees, some have appointed national drug coordinators (e.g. France, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, Italy, Spain and Sweden) and/or established dedicated coordination units or bodies (e.g. Austria, Greece, Ireland, Finland). Some, however, lack coordination mechanisms that cover all aspects. Few Member States provide for evaluation of their coordination mechanisms.

1.2.4 In what way has your country ensured a balanced and multidisciplinary approach in national drugs programmes and policies and their implementation?

The importance of maintaining a multidisciplinary and balanced approach is clearly recognised by all Member States. Most have adopted a national plan or strategy on drugs (Belgium Denmark, Greece, Finland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain and the UK).

1.3.2 Has your country developed a specific strategy for co-operation with civil society regarding drug abuse? Please give details.

Most Member States make provisions for involving civil society in the fields of prevention, health care and treatment, mainly at local level. Most of them also consult civil society on an ad hoc basis, e.g. for specific projects. Many Member States mention financial support for community groups and organisations as a way of cooperating with civil society.

Some countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, and Sweden) have more regular contacts with the networks of NGOs, the voluntary sector, associations, etc. These countries recognise the importance of linking policy making and practice through dialogue with civil society, but also refer to the supporting work done by these organisations to influence public opinion.

1.4.2. In which way has your country encouraged the provision of funding for the prevention of drug use, the prevention of drug related crime, the reduction of the negative health and social consequences of drugs and other proactive measures?

Public expenditure on prevention and risk reduction programmes and measures are different from one country to another depending on the national administrative structure, ministerial budgets and social security systems. Some Member States (Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, and United Kingdom) indicate an increase of funding for drug-demand reduction.

1.5 In which way has your country shared information with other Member States on national strategies and action plans? Has your country made use of the EMCDDA database on drug laws, the Falcone and OISIN programmes or any other tools for information exchange and operational co-operation? Please describe.

Member States consider other national measures, strategies and action plans as useful examples for orienting their own national debate. Very often information exchange is made via bilateral contacts and visits. The Horizontal Drugs Group and the meetings of the national coordinators are recognised as important occasions to share information and views.

All Member States acknowledge the importance of learning from the others and quote internet as an important source of information. Most of them report regular input and consultation of the EMCDDA databases (EDDRA, ELDD).

As far as law enforcement information sharing is concerned, most Member States mention the Europol national liaison officers. All Member States were able to take part in joint projects co-financed by the Commission's OISIN and/or the Falcone programmes. Since 2003 XXX (can we give a figure??) have received funding under the new AGIS programme[36].

2. Information and Evaluation

2.1.1 and 2.1.4 Does your country fully or partly provide information on the 5 key epidemiological indicators of the EMCDDA? If your country does not fully provide information on the 5 key epidemiological indicators when do you believe you will be in a position to do so? Please give brief description of the evolution of political and financial support to implement the 5 harmonised key indicators.

All Member States have established systems for the gathering and treatment of data which will provide comparable and reliable data on the 5 key epidemiologic indicators, and most Member States are able to provide (partial) information on all indicators. In order to improve the data quality of the used sources and to alleviate the lack of information on some indicators, Member States have introduced the necessary amendments in their legislative systems, organised special workgroups composed of representatives from various Ministries, services, and NGOs specialised in the fight against drugs and actively participated in EMCDDA workshops In most Member States, political and financial support provided by the government for establishing the five indicators (particularly through the national budget to the REITOX Network) is considered sufficient.

2.2.6 and 2.2.7 Which measures are used in your country to assess the effectiveness of preventing and combating organised drug related crime? What kind of crime and policy indicators has your country developed? Has your country drafted an annual assessment on the role of organised crime groups involved in drug trafficking?

No unanimity exists among member States on the methodology used to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions and measures to fight organised crime related to drug-trafficking, but all annual reports include statistics which illustrate the number of confiscations and their quantities, the share of dismantled clandestine laboratories, the number of arrests, the number of drug-related deaths and other indicators of repressive actions by the relevant agencies. Member States contribute to the annual EU Organised Crime report, which includes a section on drugs, in accordance with the criteria set out in Enfopol 35 Rev 2 (21.4.1997).

Some Member States undertake further research on the linkage between drug phenomena and criminal activities, e.g. Ireland's public surveys on the nature of the policing, the visibility and perception of crime, including drug related crime.

3. Reduction of Demand, Prevention of Drug Use and of Drug Related Crime

3.1.1.1 Does your country have general programmes for the prevention of both licit and illicit drug use, including poly-drug use? In which way, if any, does your country encourage the inclusion of drug use prevention in school curricula? Are there programmes set-up to assist parents? If yes, please describe briefly.

Member States underline the importance of prevention, and the need for better and accurate information campaigns and prevention programmes focused on the promotion of health as well as on the personal and social development of the young people.

Prevention programmes can involve, among many other measures, the creation of prevention centres, specific training for experts and civil society (teachers, parents, support organisations...), health professionals and even representatives of the law enforcement services, working in the school environment and among young people. The importance of regular cooperation with young people's associations, sports clubs, as well as taking preventive actions in nightclubs and major music and dance events are also stressed, in a way to promote healthy initiatives. Frequently decentralised, organised at local level in collaboration with the local autorities and the civil society, whit a short duration, they address to youngsters and other target groups.

Specific prevention projects aimed at tackling the poly-drug use and the abuse of licit substances (alcohol, tobacco, doping substances and medicinal products) are more and more implemented in all Member States.

Member States agree on the effectiveness of school based drug education programme, but only a few countries (France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, and UK) have clear references to illicit substances and their effects inscribed on the schools curriculum.

3.1.1.3 Could you describe the way your country allocated resources for positive alternatives to drugs for youngsters, in particular in socially deprived urban areas?

Member States have many projects on positive alternatives to drug use specifically targeted on older children and adolescents in disadvantaged urban areas, namely through the creation of youth consultation centres that provide recreational, sports and educational activities with job counselling.

The budget allocated to these prevention projects came from different sources: health, youth or social services, youth organisations as well as local projects supported by local authorities. Sweden gives precise details on amounts allocated.

3.1.1.4 Could you mention and describe briefly a particularly innovative approach to the prevention of the abuse of synthetic drugs developed in your country?

Member States are stressing their concern for the increasing popularity of synthetic drugs in the European Union and underline the importance of school-based programmes and information campaigns aimed at young people, but also on the internet, in all media, as well as dance clubs and music festivals. The distribution of informative material, the implementation of risk reduction measures at parties, pill testing and cooperation with owners of night clubs, medical staff and police are also mentioned.

3.1.2.1, 3.1.2.6, 3.1.2.7 Has your country developed outreach work and/or easy accessible services for drug users? Which steps were taken to increase access and availability of services designed to reach drug abusers who were not integrated or covered by mainstream services? Please describe these briefly. Which were the strategies for vaccinating drug users against hepatitis A and B?

Several Member States have adopted integrated policies for risk reduction which propose « low-threshold » services, such as programmes for syringe exchange, condom distribution, access to substitution treatments and drug consumption rooms. Certain high risk groups such as addicted pregnant women, homeless people, prostitutes and prison inmates can benefit from specific programmes. Vaccination against Hepatitis B, prevention and treatment of contagious diseases linked to intravenous drug abuse has been recognised as priorities by all Member States.

3.1.2.2, 3.1.2.3, 3.3.1 Please report briefly on any awareness raising campaigns carried out on the dangers related to drug use as well as on major programmes on the reduction of risks and consequences related to use. Do the actions target all age groups, in particular children and young people? In what sense have these campaigns been innovative and have made use of new means of communication such as, for example, the Internet?

All Member states underline the importance of information/awareness campaigns on drug related risks and organise regular campaigns in the media for the general public, as well as specific ones directed at target groups. Campaigns aimed at specific substances (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy...) are also mentioned. The spread of hotlines on drugs and the use of internet in the field of demand reduction seem to be increasing in all countries.

Sweden gives a number of examples of messages aimed at young at young people in different campaign contexts. Finland mentionnes a specific emphasis in the use of internet in drug demand reduction.

3.1.2.4 In which way does your country ensure that enough attention is paid to drug related issues in training and education of doctors, social workers and other professionals in the health and social sector? Are they included in the curricula of the education of these professionals?

Training of teachers, social workers, health professionals, and law enforcement representatives is a priority in all Member States and budgets have been allocated for this purpose. In several countries (Ireland, France, Germany, Portugal), specialisations in addiction, alcoholism, , and new substitution treatments are organised within the context of university courses.

3.1.2.5 Has any research been carried out in your country about the effects of driving under the influence of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals? If yes, could you please summarize the results which could be relevant for policy decisions?

Several Member States (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Finland and UK) announced having undertaken research on driving under the influence of illegal substances, or in association with alcohol and/or medicines. In many cases legislation was reviewed and controls and sanctions reinforced. On the other hand, even though testing for alcohol is compulsory, testing drivers involved in accidents for narcotics is not yet systematic.

3.1.3.1 Which are the types of treatment services for drugs users, and measures to assist severely dependent individuals, including measures to reduce the health related damages provided in your country? Please describe briefly

In accordance with their national situation and legislation, Member States have diversified drug care systems, which can include day-care centres, detoxification units, therapeutic communities, substitution centres, aftercare programmes and special units in prisons. Frequently carried out at local level and in collaboration with NGO's, they are directed towards different age groups, gender specific needs and drug dependent people in different stages of dependence.

Some Member States have also underlined the existence of drug consumption rooms and programmes of medical heroin delivery (Belgium, Germany).

3.1.3.2 Which are the average waiting periods for accessing treatment in your country?

Member States indicate that, after investments in treatment services mainly at local level, there are no waiting periods for accessing treatment other than for residential treatment and substitution treatment.

3.1.3.3 Has your country defined guidelines for the standards and goals of treatment services, and ensured the evidence-based evaluation of these treatments? If yes, please briefly describe the outcome. Does your country have a national protocol on treatment assessment?

The majority of Member States has not developed models for the systematic and global evaluation of drug treatment. However, scientific research on the effectiveness of the proposed measures is undertaken using the monitoring of drug-addicts under treatment (among other indicators).

3.1.3.4 In which way does your country ensure that adequate attention is paid to the social and professional integration of former addicts? Please describe briefly the most relevant measures adopted in this area, including any projects implemented under the Community Programmes between 1999 and 2003

The professional and social integration of drug addicts, considered very important by all Member States, is promoted in co-operation with NGO's, local authorities and the business community, to provide for educational programmes, vocational training and special employment opportunities for ex-addicts. The Netherlands and UK underline the programmes aimed at tackling this issue within the criminal justice system and the measures to prepare the drug misusing offender reintegration into the labour market.

3.2.2 Have the resources for research into the biomedical and social causes of addiction, prevention and behavioural patterns of drug consumption been modified during the reference period?

Several Member States indicate that they do not have exact figures for functions allocated to drug research, by the government departments, universities, NGOs, and research institutes. Nevertheless, they stress the importance of studies on epidemiology, public health and social sciences in achieving a better definition of public policies.

3.2.3 Has your country identified new areas where it is considered useful to implement actions at the European level to contribute to reduce drug-related harm?

New consumption trends, international and trans-border cooperation are areas generally identified as deserving greater attention within the EU.

3.3.2 How has your country addressed risk behaviour and addiction in general, including aspects of alcohol, medicine, substances used for doping in sport and tobacco use?

Member States' strategies and policies are increasingly geared towards addictions in general, linking licit and illicit drugs, with special measures concerning alcohol, tobacco, doping substances and abuse of medicinal products. Belgium also takes into account gambling and food dependency.

3.4.1.1 What programmes have been set-up in your country to promote best practices in the prevention of criminal activities linked with drugs, juvenile and urban delinquency?

The prevention of drug related crime, juvenile and urban delinquency is a priority for Member States which have allocated funds for programmes based on in-service training of police and other prevention agents, information campaigns on drugs and measures for the development of a healthy lifestyle through sports, leisure and educational activities, acquisition of specific skills, implementation of peer groups, counselling/follow up, cultural activities, and treatment/counselling activities.

In the Netherlands, the project "Communities that care", which involves civil society, aims to create a safe and liveable environment for young people.

3.4.2 and 3.4.3 Could you describe the mechanisms in place to provide alternatives to Prison (in particular for young offenders). Which measures have been foreseen to provide drug prevention and treatment services and, where appropriate, measures to reduce health damages in prisons and upon release from prison?

In several Member States(Portugal, Denmark...), depending the penal system and on the basis of the voluntary acceptance of treatment, a large spectrum of alternative measures is proposed to drug addicts in order to avoid incarceration: financial penalties and administrative sanctions, community work, vocational training and follow-up, etc.

In view of the high level of drug consumption in prisons, some countries have introduced risk reduction measures, such as vaccination programmes, needles exchange, drug free rooms, substitution treatments by methadone, etc.

3.4.4 Please mention the main examples of sharing with other Member States best practices on the handling of drugs addicts in the justice system. In what way were the results of the study prepared by the EMCDDA in this field considered by your country

Some Member States refer to sharing best practices in the treatment of drug addicts in the justice system through active participation in the European Union Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) and the European Network Drugs Services in Prison (ENDSP), as well as cooperation with other Member States within the EMCDDA and the Pompidou Group.

The study of the EMCDDA is referred to by only few countries.

3.5.1, 3.5.2, 3.5.3 In view of the need to develop expertise in the prevention of drug use, has your country promoted the creation of co-ordinated qualification skills in this area? What has been done in order to encourage the development and implementation of a network of trainers and other professionals in the health and social sector? How have the best practices been promoted and brought to the attention of other Member States and the Commission?

Training of prevention agents is deemed paramount in all Member States, although efforts must still be made to create formal qualifications.

In the context of health promotion strategies, expert networks and specialised training centres have been established to ensure permanent training of the various prevention agents.

Several Member States underline the role of the EDDRA and EMCDDA networks, of the Pompidou Group and of the HDG in the exchange of information on prevention.

4. Supply Reduction

4.1.1.1 Please indicate which measures your country has applied to ensure a high and uniform level of security at the external borders of the EU in relation to drugs.

Within Member States the law enforcement services involved in combating drug trafficking are involved in close co-operation. This co-operation can take the form of joint groups of risk analysis, a network of "contact points" between the relevant services, special teams of police and customs officers, a "coastal-watch" programme involving police, customs and the maritime rescue service, memoranda of understanding and operational protocols between the relevant services.

In order to ensure a high level of security at the EU's external borders, Member State law enforcement services use a range of equipment such as drug detection scanners, patrol vessels, and drug detector dogs. Member States also refer to the training provided to law enforcement personnel in combating drug trafficking.

Co-operation also takes place between the law enforcement services of different Member States. For example, there are police/customs co-operation centres, joint customs operations, and participation in training courses by one Member State in those hosted by another Member State. The Convention on mutual assistance and co-operation between customs administrations (Naples II) is also seen to have potential as a tool for cross-border co-operation.

4.1.1.3 Has your country, taking into account the existing EU systems for exchange of information and working with other Member States in the relevant Council bodies, reinforced its efforts against maritime drug trafficking? Has your country organised training courses on the identification and surveillance of suspicious vessels, and have you established procedures for boarding and searching vessels? Has your country implemented the principles laid down in Article 17 of the UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances? If so, please describe briefly how this has been done.

A number of Member States have indicated that they are in a position to operate in accordance with the provisions of Article 17 of the 1988 UN Convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances or have incorporated Article 17 or parts of Article 17 into national law (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, and the Netherlands).

Member States refer to a number of techniques used for combating maritime drug trafficking such as risk profiling, ship surveillance and vessel search techniques. Use is made of the maritime information systems such as MAR-INFO and YACHTINFO in order to exchange information on suspected drug trafficking and on drug seizures. Maritime co-operation between Member States has led to the capture of ships which were used for drug smuggling and the seizure of illicit drugs.

Some Member States indicate that they have training courses in the field of combating maritime drug trafficking or such training is included as a part of the training provided to the relevant personnel (France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands). One Member State (France) indicates that it has established a guide regarding the implementation of Article 17 of the 1988 UN Convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

4.1.1.4 Has your country, with the support of Europol, examined the means to combine forensic and law enforcement information in order to identify the production and trafficking of synthetic drugs and those involved in their production and trafficking? What are the results of this analysis?

At national level, Member States combine forensic and law enforcement information in order to identify the production and trafficking of synthetic drugs. In, at least, one Member State (France) a sharing of databases between the relevant law enforcement agencies containing scientific information on synthetic drugs is to be developed.

Many Member States emphasise the importance of the various EU projects aimed at identifying the production and trafficking of synthetic drugs such as CASE, Synthes-lab, EELS, EILCS, and CHEDDAR

4.1.1.5 Has the co-operation between police, customs and judicial authorities been improved in your country in the drugs field? Has your country participated in EU Third Pillar Programmes in the field of co-operation between these authorities? Please give details, in particular of the results and benefits of such programmes for your country.

Member State police and customs services participate in joint enforcement operations and investigations against drug traffickers, joint training courses and have appointed police/custom liaison officers. Some Member States have permanent joint police/customs teams (France, Germany, the Netherlands). Greece refers to its Central Anti-Drug Coordination Body with police and customs representation and the UK refers to its Concerted Inter-Agency Drugs Action Group.

Training courses and seminars aimed at improving police, customs and judicial co-operation at EU level have received funding from the European Commission under various programmes. In the Nordic Member States police and customs collaboration takes place within a specific framework PTN (Police and Customs Co-operation in the Nordic Countries).

4.1.1.6 Has your country implemented the project-based EU law enforcement strategy against transnational organised crime to combat drug trafficking? Please describe briefly.

Techniques used to combat organised crime include surveillance, infiltration and phone-taping. Investigations into the activities of trans-national organised crime groups involved in the distribution of drugs have taken place. These investigations have involved the law enforcement authorities of several Member States. Member States also participate in relevant Europol Analysis Work Files (AWFs) such as Mustard, Cola and Genesis.

4.1.2.2 and 4.1.2.3 What measures has your country taken against money laundering? How does the analysis and exchange of information between your Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) and other FIUs work?

All MS have transposed into national law Directive 91/308/CEE of the Council of 10 June 1991 on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and 11 (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the UK) have transposed Directive 2001/97/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2001 amending Council Directive 91/308/EEC. In addition, Member States have introduced new measures to reduce money laundering such as powers to oppose the execution of a transaction and increased powers for the control of travellers who import large sums of money.

Council Decision of 17 December 2000 relative to the exchange of information between the Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) of the Member States provides a primary framework for the exchange of information between the FIUs of the Member States. 8 Member States utilise the FIU-Net as a means of exchanging information between FIUs. Individual Member States also exchange information with third country FIUs. This exchange of information often takes place under the auspices of signed Memoranda of Understanding which generally are developed in accordance with the principles of the Egmont Group. The Egmont Secure Web is also utilised as a secure communication network.

Some Member States also refer to the 40 Recommendations of the FATF (Financial Action Task Force), the Council Framework Decision on money laundering, identifying, tracing, freezing and confiscation of criminal assets and the proceeds of crime and the Council of Europe Convention on laundering, search, seizure and confiscation of the proceeds of crime.

4.1.2.6 What type of training for customs and police does your country provide in view of combating the diversion of chemical precursors, including possibly the assistance of the Commission and EUROPOL?

Law enforcement officers receive training in combating the diversion of precursors through stand alone courses or through courses related to combating synthetic drugs production and trafficking. Some Member States refer to the assistance provided by Europol in this regard.

4.2.1 Please describe the joint investigative units which have been established in your country between police, customs and other law enforcement agencies specifically responsible for tackling drug trafficking.

Some Member States have permanent joint police/customs teams. Other law enforcement authorities may be represented on these teams. In other Member States joint police/customs investigations take place as the need arises.

4.2.2 Please describe the measures your country has taken, with the assistance of Europol where appropriate, to reinforce co-operation with other Member States against drug trafficking. In particular, please mention if any joint teams with other Member States have been established when dealing with drug trafficking between Member States. If no such teams have been established, please explain why this is the case.

Co-operation between Member States against drug trafficking generally takes place through exchanges of information, joint investigations or law enforcement co-operation in border areas. Some Member States have established a joint police/customs team to combat drug trafficking on road and rail routes between them. 6 Member States (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) together with Europol are involved in a European Joint Unit to combat serious criminal activity in the field of precursor chemical diversion.

A number of Member States have transposed into national law the provisions of the Council Framework Decision on joint investigation teams and/or have ratified the EU Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters or have indicated that legislation in place already enables the setting up of such teams (Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). However, joint investigation teams, as provided for in the Framework Decision or the Convention, dealing with drug trafficking between Member States have not been established. Some Member States are involved in discussions with regard to forming joint investigation teams and giving their police and judicial authorities additional, more far-reaching powers to operate on each other's territories.

4.2.3 Please describe the measures your country has taken to promote regional co-operation with other Member States affected by similar drug problems.

A number of Member States (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Spain) have created police and custom co-operation centres on their common borders. Regional systems of exchange of information have been established by, for example, a permanent liaison bureau and the appointment of joint superintendents. Police officers from one Member States participate in police officer meetings of another Member State (Belgium and the Netherlands). In addition, a number of Member States have adopted a co-ordinated regional approach to combating drug tourism (Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). The Nordic Member States are part of a regional law enforcement co-operation known as PTN with a significant focus on combating drug-related crime. These Member States and Germany are also part of the Task Force on Organised Crime in the Baltic Sea Region.

4.2.5 In what way does your country promote new investigation techniques, research and documentation of drug related crime?

Member States use investigation techniques such as controlled deliveries, undercover agents, simulated purchases in combating drug trafficking and drug related crime. Some Member States have at their disposal tools such as a specialist research centre, a national network of drug experts and a computerised system for the collection, development and analysis of data on operations against the illegal traffic in drugs. A number of Member States refer to research carried out or being carried out on drug-related crime.

5. International

5.1.3 During the reference period, which Candidate Countries has your country supported, with technical assistance and/or finance where necessary, in their efforts to counter drug abuse and drug trafficking?

Almost all Member States have provided assistance to the candidate countries in their efforts to combat drug abuse and trafficking. This assistance has taken a number of forms such as:

Participation in the PHARE programme and in particular in twinning projects under this programme;

Organisation of study visits and seminars and provision of training to law enforcement officers;

The signing of bilateral co-operation agreements in relation to internal security matters;

Funding to the Council of Europe's Pompidou Group in the framework of training in drug demand reduction interventions provided to Central and Eastern European countries;

Provision of financial assistance to drug related projects in candidate countries; and

Provision of technical assistance and equipment.

5.1.5 Has your country implemented the pre-accession pact on organised crime and extended it to all applicant countries?

A number of Member States refer to the utilisation of the PHARE programme in the implementation of the Pre-accession pact on organised crime and to the Council working group with responsibility for overseeing its implementation. In the context of the Pre-accession Pact contact points have been established.

5.2.2 and 5.2.3 How has your country co-ordinated its projects in third countries with other countries, multilateral and international organisations to enable their assessment? In this framework, has the co-operation with multilateral and international organisations been strengthened where this would increase the effectiveness of the actions carried out?

Member States provide drug-related assistance to third countries on a bilateral basis and/or through the UNODC. Some Member States (Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, and the UK) indicate that they co-ordinate their bilateral projects with other Member States, multilateral and international organisations. A number of Member States refer to the provision of information to the Commission on drug-related assistance to third countries. The Dublin Group and the "major donors group" of the UNODC are cited as primary mechanisms for co-ordination and for strengthening co-operation with multilateral and international institutions. In this regard Member States also refer to their membership of or observer status to the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe, CICAD and the work of the Paris Pact initiative. In the context of co-operation with Latin America and the Caribbean some Member States refer to the Co-ordination and Co-operation Mechanism on Drugs between the EU, Latin America and the Caribbean.

5.2.4 What resources have been made available for third countries for the implementation of programmes and projects for supply reduction and demand reduction? In what way have the projects undertaken been reported to the Horizontal Drugs Group of the Council?

Many Member States provide financial assistance to demand reduction and/or supply reduction projects in third countries. Most of these countries indicate that the Commission and the Council's Horizontal Drugs Group are kept informed of their drug-related assistance to third countries.

5.2.5 Please describe in what way, in relations with non-candidate and non-European countries, all relevant Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) instruments take full account of the aims of the EU-Drug Strategy.

A number of Member States (Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the UK) affirm that in their relations with non-candidate and non-European countries in the framework of the Common Foreign and Security Policy they take account of the objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy.

5.2.6 Has your country drawn up an action plan on drugs co-operation with North Africa and implemented fully the action plans on Latin America and the Caribbean and Central Asia?

No Member State has drawn up an action plan on drugs with North Africa. With regard to the implementation of the plans with Latin America and the Caribbean and Central Asia, Member States refer to the training, technical and financial assistance they provide and law enforcement operational co-operation.

5.2.7 Please describe the measures, if any, your country has taken to help non-EU countries and regions to develop their anti-money laundering systems

A number of Member States refer to co-operation with non-EU countries to develop and improve anti-money laundering systems under the auspices of the Egmont Group (Belgium, France, and Greece) and to participation in the work of the Council of Europe's anti-money laundering programme PC-R-EV recently renamed Moneyval (Belgium and the Netherlands). Member States also refer to participation in the PHARE anti-money laundering programme and in initiatives of the FATF (Financial Action Task Force). Other assistance provided by Member States include study visits by/to non-EU Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs), participation in IMF and World Bank evaluations, financial support and observer status in FATF regional bodies.

5.2.8 Please describe the tools used to support the development of a common international set of indicators in the field of demand reduction and to promote a common standard for national reporting to international organisations

Many Member States refer to their participation in the work of the EMCDDA in the development of a common international set of indicators in the demand reduction field. Member States also refer to the work of the Pompidou Group and the UN and to all of these bodies in the context of promoting a common standard for national reporting to international organisations.

5.2.9 Please describe the measures used by your country to integrate drugs as a cross-sectional issue into supranational co-operation schemes (particularly with the developing countries)

Member States affirm that they see drugs as being a cross-sectional issue and stress the importance of dialogue on this issue within bodies such as the Dublin Group and the UN.

ANNEX 2

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU ACTION PLAN ON DRUGS 2000-2004:

FOLLOW-UP TABLE FOR THE COMMISSION, THE EMCDDA AND EUROPOL [37]

+++++ TABLE +++++

ANNEX 3

Instruments of the European Union in the field of drugs (2000 - 2004).

A. Instruments of the EU adopted during the period 1 January 2000 - 31 July 2004.

- Council Resolution on cannabis. CORDROGUE 59 - 07.07.2004

- Progress report in relation to the Implementation Plans on Demand and Supply Reduction of Drugs and the Supply of Synthetic drugs - CORDROGUE 43 - 14.06.2004

- Council Recommendation regarding guidelines for taking samples of seized drugs. CORDROGUE 26 - 30.03.2004

- Regulation (EC) no 273/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on drug precursors. OJ L 47, 18.02.2004 - P.1

-Council Decision 2003/847/JHA of 27 November 2003 concerning control measures and criminal sanctions in respect of the new synthetic drugs 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7 and TMA-2,OJ L 321,06.12.2003 - P. 64

- Resolution of the Council on combating the impact of psychoactive substances use on road accidents. CORDROGUE 97 - 13.11.2003

- Council resolution on the posting of liaison officers with particular expertise in drugs to Albania. CORDROGUE 95 - 13.11.2003

- Council Resolution of 17 December 2003 on training for drug law enforcement officers. CORDROGUE 96 - 12.11.2003

- Council Resolution on the importance of the role of the families in preventing drug abuse by adolescents. CORDROGUE 94 - 12.11.2003

- Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on coordination on drugs in the European Union. COM/2003/0681 final - 12.11.2003

- Resolution of the representatives of the governments of the Member States meeting within the Council, for the development of education curricula on substance misuse disorders for medical and other care students and professionals and their inclusion in university studies. CORDROGUE 57 - 19.06.2003

- Resolution of the representatives of the governments of the Member States meeting within the Council for the integration of the effective management (diagnosis, brief intervention, referrals) and medically assisted treatment for opiate dependent patients within the national health care. CORDROGUE 56 - 19.06.2003

- Council Recommendation of 18 June 2003 on the prevention and reduction of health-related harm associated with drug dependence. OJ L 165, 03.07.2003 P.31

- Resolution of the Council on the importance of early intervention to prevent drug dependence and drug related harm among young people using drugs. CORDROGUE 58 - 13.06.2003

- Implementation paper on demand and supply reduction to deliver the EU Drugs Action Plan. CORDROGUE 40 - 27.05.2003

- Action Plan on Drugs between the EU and Countries of Western Balkans and Candidate Countries (Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey). CORDROGUE 3 REV 2 - 23.05.2003

- Agreement between the European Community and the Turkish Republic on precursors and chemical substances frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances. OJ L 064, 07.03.2003 - P.30

- Resolution of the Representatives of the Member States meeting within the Council on the treatment of drug abusers in prisons. CORDROGUE 54 REV 4 - 28.11. 2002

- Implementation plan on actions to be taken in regard to the supply of synthetic drugs. CORDROGUE 81 REV 2 - 26.11.2002

- Council Resolution on the generic classification of specific groups of new synthetic drugs. CORDROGUE 64 REV 4 - 11.11. 2002

- Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European parliament on the mid-term evaluation of the EU action plan on drugs. (2000-2004). COM(2002)599, 04.11.2002

- Council Decision of 30 September 2002 adopting a specific programme for research, technological development and demonstration: Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area (2002-2006). OJ L 232, 29.10.2002 - P.1

- Decision No 1786/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 adopting a programme of Community action in the field of public health (2003-2008). OJ L 271, 09.10.2002 - P.1

- Action plan on Drugs between the EU and Central Asian republics (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan). CORDROGUE 78 - 25.09.2002

- Council Decision of 22 July 2002 establishing a framework programme on police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (AGIS). OJ L 203, 01.08.2002 - P.5

- Commission Regulation (EC) No 1232/2002 of 9 July 2002 replacing the Annex to Council Regulation (EEC) No 3677/90 laying down measures to be taken to discourage the diversion of certain substances to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and amending Regulation (EEC) No 3769/92 . OJ L 180, 10.07.2002 - P.5

- Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on joint investigation teams. OJ L 162, 20.06.2002 - P.1

- Council Regulation (EC) No 988/2002 of 3 June 2002 amending Regulation (EEC) No 3677/90 laying down measures to be taken to discourage the diversion of certain substances to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substancesOJ L 151, 11.06.2002 - P.1

- Resolution of the Council on the incorporation of drug prevention in school curricula. CORDROGUE 4 REV 3 - 08.05. 2002

- Council Recommendation of 25 April 2002 on improving investigation methods in the fight against organised crime linked to organised drug trafficking: simultaneous investigations into drug trafficking by criminal organisations and their finances/assets. OJ C 114, 15.05.2002 - P.1

- Council Recommendation of 25 April 2002 on the need to enhance cooperation and exchanges of information between the various operational units specialising in combating trafficking in precursors in the Member States of the European Union. OJ C 114, 15.05.2002 - P.3

- Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Member States on the prevention of the recreational use of drugs. CORDROGUE 2 REV 3 - 15.04. 2002

- Council Decision of 28 February 2002 concerning control measures and criminal sanctions in respect of the new synthetic drug PMMA. OJ L 063, 06.03.2002 - P. 14

- Joint declaration on drugs of the Ministers of the European Union in association with the European Commission, and the Candidate Countries. CORDROGUE 7 REV 2 - 15.02 2002

- Council Regulation (EC) No 2501/2001 of 10 December 2001 applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences for the period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004. OJ L 346, 31.12.2001- P.1

- Directive 2001/97/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2001 amending Council Directive 91/308/EEC on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering - Commission Declaration. OJ L 344, 28.12.2001- P. 76

- Council Resolution on the implementation of the five key epidemiological indicators on drugs, developed by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). CORDROGUE 67- 15.11.2001

- Council Act of 16 October 2001 establishing, in accordance with Article 34 of the Treaty on European Union, the Protocol to the Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters between the Member States of the European Union.OJ C 326, 21.11.2001 - P.1

- Council Decision of 28 June 2001 establishing a programme of incentives and exchanges, training and cooperation for the prevention of crime (Hippokrates). OJ L 186, 07.07.2001 - P. 11

- Council Framework Decision of 26 June 2001 on money laundering, the identification, tracing, freezing, seizing and confiscation of instrumentalities and the proceeds of crime. OJ L 182, 05.07.2001 - P. 1

- Council Decision of 28 June 2001 establishing a second phase of incentives, exchanges, training and cooperation for law enforcement authorities (Oisin II) - OJ L 186, 07.07.2001 - P.4

- Council Regulation (EC) No 1116/2001 of 5 June 2001 amending Regulation (EEC) No 3677/90 laying down measures to be taken to discourage the diversion of certain substances to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.O J L 153, 08.06.2001 - P. 4

- Council Decision of 28 May 2001 setting up a European crime prevention network. OJ L 153, 08.06.2001 - P.1

- Council Decision of 28 May 2001 on the transmission of samples of controlled substances.O J L 150, 06.06.2001 - P.1

- Council recommendation on the alignment of law enforcement drug and diverted precursors statistics. STUP 26 - 30.10.2001 and STUP 29-13.11.2001

- Council conclusions on networking information on emerging trends and patterns in drug abuse and poly-drug use and the associated risks. O J C 017, 19.01.2001 - P. 2

- Initiative of the Kingdom of Sweden with a view to adopting a JHA Council Decision establishing a system of special forensic profiling analysis of synthetic drugs. OJ C 10, 12.01.2001 - P. 1

- Council Decision of 17 October 2000 concerning arrangements for cooperation between financial intelligence units of the Member States in respect of exchanging information. OJ L 271, 24.10.2000 - P. 4

- Council Regulation (EC) No 2220/2000 of 28 September 2000 amending Regulation (EEC) No 302/93 on the establishment of a European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. OJ L 253, 07.10.2000 - P.1

- Council Decision of 28 September 2000 on the conclusion of an agreement between the European Community and the Kingdom of Norway on the participation of Norway in the work of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. OJ L 257, 11.10.2000 - P.23

- Commission Regulation (EC) No 1610/2000 of 24 July 2000 amending Regulation (EEC) No 3769/92 implementing and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 3677/90 laying down measures to be taken to discourage the diversion of certain substances to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. JO L 185, 25.07.2000 - P.30

- Convention established by the Council in accordance with Article 34 of the Treaty on European Union, on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters between the Member States of the European Union. JO C 197, 12.07.2000 - P-3

B. Pending EU instruments.

- Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering, including terrorist financing. COM (2004) 448 - 30.06.2004

- Proposal for a Council Regulation laying down rules for the monitoring of trade between the Community and third countries in drug precursors". UD 81, CORDROGUE, COMER 120, 30.06.2004

- Proposal for a Council Regulation on the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (recast). COM (2003) 808 (01) - 19.12.2003

- Draft Council Recommendation on the monitoring of the chemical composition of narcotics, in order to improve investigation results in the fight against transnational drug trafficking within the European Union. CORDROGUE 82-13.11.2003

- Proposal for a Council Decision on the information exchange, risk-assessment and the control on new narcotic drugs and new synthetic drugs. COM(2003)0560 final - 03.10.2003.

- Initiative by the Kingdom of Spain for the conclusion of a Convention on the suppression by customs administrations of illicit drug trafficking on the high seas. JO C 45, 19.02.2002

- Proposal for a Council framework Decision laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties in the field of illicit drug trafficking. COM (001) 259 final 23.05.2001. OJ C 304 E, 30.10.2001 - P.172

[1] COM(1999)239 final de 26.5.1999

[2] Cordrogue 64, Rev.3, 12555/3/99, 1.12.1999

[3] Cordrogue 32, 9283/00, 7.6.2000

[4] COM (2002)599 final, 4.11.2002

[5] Salvo que se indique de otro modo, las referencias a los Estados miembros se entenderá hecha a los 15 Estados miembros anteriores.

[6] Los documentos están disponibles en www.emcdda.eu.int o en www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home y www.europa.eu.int/comm/taxation_customs

[7] Disponible en www.emcdda.eu.int

[8] Véase www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home

[9] Crimorg 43, Rev. 3, 9615/3/03

[10] Cordrogue 81, Rev. 2, 12452/2/02

[11] Cordrogue 40, Rev. 2, 8926/2/03

[12] Cordrogue 43, 10481/04

[13] 1. El alcance y las características del consumo de drogas entre el público en general 2. La prevalencia en el consumo de drogas 3. La demanda de tratamiento por los consumidores de droga 4. El número de muertes relacionadas con las drogas y la mortalidad de los consumidores de drogas y 5. Los índices de enfermedades infecciosas relacionadas con las drogas.

[14] DO L 167 de 25.06.1997, p. 1

[15] DO L 19 de 22.1.1997, p. 25

[16] DO L 271 de 9.10.2002, p. 1

[17] DO L 165 de 03.07.2003, p. 31

[18] COM(2003)311 final

[19] Cordrogue 97, 13.11.2003

[20] Directiva 91/308/CEE, 0J L166, 28.06.1991, p. 77

[21] Directiva 2001/97/CE, DO L 344 de 28.12.2001, p. 76

[22] DO L 162 de 20.06.2002, p.1

[23] DO C 197, 12.07.2000, p. 1

[24] DO C 24 de 23.01.1998, p. 2

[25] DO C 316 de 27.11.95, p. 34

[26] Véase nota a pie de página 21

[27] DO L 203 de 01.08.2002, p. 5

[28] COM (2001) 259 final

[29] DO L 47, 18.2.2004, p. 1

[30] COM(2004)244 final

[31] COM(2004)448, 30.06. 04

[32] DO L 271 de 24.10.2000, p. 4

[33] Stup 26, 30.10.2001, Stup 29, 13.11.01

[34] Véase la sección 2.2

[35] Para más información sobre la materia véase la foto fija y el documento temático "Lecciones principales de la investigación llevada a cabo sobre la evaluación en el campo de la política de drogas en la Unión Europea" en el sitio Internet del OEDT.

[36] The AGIS programme (Framework programme on police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters) started in 2003 and incorporates previous Title VI programmes, such as Falcone and OISIN.

[37] Only the actions where the Commission, the EMCDDA and EUROPOL are directly involved are analysed.

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