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Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1322/2014 of 19 September 2014 supplementing and amending Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to vehicle construction and general requirements for the approval of agricultural and forestry vehicles Text with EEA relevance
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OJ L 364, 18.12.2014, p. 1–315 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)

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18.12.2014   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 364/1


COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 1322/2014

of 19 September 2014

supplementing and amending Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to vehicle construction and general requirements for the approval of agricultural and forestry vehicles

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Having regard to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 February 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of agricultural and forestry vehicles (1), and in particular Articles 18(4), 20(8), 27(6), 28(6), 49(3), 53(12) and 60(1) and Articles 61 and 70 thereto,

Whereas:

(1)

This Regulation aims to set out the technical requirements and test methods required for the construction of agricultural and forestry vehicles in order to minimise the risk of injury to persons working on or with the vehicle.

(2)

By Council Decision 97/836/EC (2), the Union has acceded to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (Revised 1958 Agreement). In its Communication CARS 2020: Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable automotive industry in Europe, the Commission highlighted that the acceptance of international regulations under the 1958 UNECE Agreement is the best way to remove non-tariff barriers to trade.

(3)

The possibility to apply UNECE regulations for the purposes of EU vehicle type-approval is provided for in Regulation (EU) No 167/2013. UNECE regulations being part of the requirements for the EU type-approval of a vehicle help avoid duplication not only of technical requirements but also of certification and administrative procedures. In addition, type-approval that is directly based on internationally agreed standards should improve market access in third countries, in particular in those which are contracting parties to the Revised 1958 Agreement, thus enhancing the Union industry’s competitiveness.

(4)

In the interest of clarity, predictability, rationality and simplification and in order to reduce the burden on vehicle manufacturers, technical services and type-approval authorities, Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 provides for the recognition of test reports drawn up under the Codes established by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for the purposes of EU type-approval as an alternative to the test reports drawn up under that Regulation or the delegated acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation. It is therefore appropriate to establish a list of OECD Codes the subject-matter of which falls within the scope of this Regulation and which can be the bases for test reports recognised for the purposes of EU type-approval.

(5)

With the aim to adapt the provisions on the construction of agricultural and forestry vehicles to technical progress, latest versions of CEN/Cenelec or ISO standards which are accessible by the public should be made applicable as regards certain requirements.

(6)

In view of reducing manufacturers’ costs by no longer obliging them to build prototypes for the purposes of obtaining EU type-approval, this Regulation sets out detailed conditions with respect to virtual testing and self-testing carried out by the manufacturers. Manufacturers not wishing to take advantage of virtual testing methods should be allowed to continue to use the existing physical test methods.

(7)

The virtual testing method should guarantee the same level of confidence in the results as the physical test. Therefore, it is appropriate to lay down relevant conditions to ensure that the manufacturer or the technical service can properly validate the mathematical models used.

(8)

Checks on the conformity of vehicles, components or separate technical units throughout the production process are an essential part of the EU type-approval process. The conformity of production procedures for agricultural and forestry vehicles should be further improved and aligned with similar procedures applicable to passenger cars.

(9)

Virtual methods should not be permissible for the purposes of conformity of production testing, even if they have been used for type-approval purposes, because at this stage, a physical test of the existing vehicle does not imply unnecessary burden for the manufacturer.

(10)

The provisions of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 on the access to repair and maintenance information are largely based on Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 (3) of the European Parliament and of the Council. In order to adopt the harmonized approach for access to repair and maintenance information provided for in this Regulation, it is appropriate to carry over to this Regulation the provisions on access to repair and maintenance information set out in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 582/2011 (4) and adapt it to the specificities of the agricultural and forestry vehicles sector.

(11)

In particular, it is appropriate to adopt specific requirements and procedures for access to vehicle repair and maintenance information in the case of small volume production in order to avoid unproportionate burden. It is also appropriate to lay down specific procedures for access to vehicle repair and maintenance information in the case of multi-stage type-approval to take account of the fact that there is more than one manufacturer involved.

(12)

With regard to vehicle types of categories R and S, the figures introduced to categorise small volume manufacturers should take account of the fact that Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 does not provide for the national type-approval of small series for such vehicle types and such vehicle categories cannot be fully exempted from the obligation to provide vehicle repair and maintenance information under that Regulation. Should Annex II to that Regulation be modified in order to expand the possibility to grant national type approval of small series to categories R and S, the Commission should consider reducing these figures.

(13)

Harmonised provisions on the access to vehicle on-board diagnostic (OBD) and vehicle repair and maintenance information are necessary to improve the effective competition within and the functioning of the internal market, particularly as regards the free movement of goods, freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services for independent vehicle repair and maintenance operators. A great proportion of such information relates to the OBD system and its interaction with other vehicle systems. It is appropriate to lay down the technical specifications that manufacturers’ websites should follow, along with targeted measures to ensure reasonable access for small and medium-sized enterprises.

(14)

Common standards for the reprogramming of the electronic control units agreed with the stakeholders concerned can facilitate the exchange of information between manufacturers and service providers. It is therefore appropriate that manufacturers use those common standards. Nevertheless, to reduce the burden on vehicle manufacturers, an appropriate lead time for their implementation should be provided for in this Regulation.

(15)

In order to keep aligned the technical requirements carried over to this Commission Delegated Regulation with the requirements of the separate directives repealed by Regulation (EU) 167/2013 and with the requirements of the OECD standard Codes, the seat reference point (S) and the seat index point (SIP) should be maintained unmodified.

(16)

To be able to EU type-approve the same types of tractors according to each of the Annexes listed in Annex II as those approved under the corresponding OECD Codes and to be effectively able to recognise the OECD test reports for the purposes of EU type-approval, the technical field of application of the EU requirements should be aligned with the field of application of the OECD standard Codes.

(17)

To make clear that certain requirements of Union legislation are fully aligned with the requirements set out in the OECD standard Codes, the text of the requirements and the numbering set out in certain annexes should be identical with the text and numbering of the corresponding OECD standard Code.

(18)

To reduce the number of injuries and fatal accidents caused by the failure to raise the front-mounted foldable ROPS for narrow-track tractors in potentially dangerous situations, new requirements based on an ergonomic approach should be included in Annex IX to facilitate and encourage the raising of the ROPS when needed.

(19)

As in forestry applications tractors are confronted with higher energy levels from falling and penetrating objects than in agricultural applications, stricter requirements for protection structures against these objects should be required for tractors equipped for forestry applications.

(20)

While large parts of the requirements laid down in this Regulation have been carried over from repealed directives, important modifications should be introduced where necessary to update to technical progress, extent the scope to further vehicle categories or to increase the level of safety as regards, for example: access to driving position, emergency exits, control devices and their position, operator’s manual, warnings, symbols and pictograms, protection against hot surfaces, greasing points, jacking points, engine hood, burning rate of cab material, battery isolators, etc.

(21)

As the scope of Council Directive 80/720/EEC (5) did not include tractors of category T2 and tractors of category T.4.3 with an offset of the cabin of more than 100 mm, the requirements for operating space and the number of emergency exits should be adapted to cover all tractor categories.

(22)

As many of the requirements and test methods carried over from repealed Directives apply only to tractors equipped with pneumatic tyres, specific requirements and test methods should be established for track-laying tractors. This is the case for: driver’s perceived noise level, access to the driving position, control devices, etc.

(23)

The same applies to R- and S-category vehicles, for which requirements and test methods should be prescribed for guards and protective devices, operators manual Information, warnings and markings and protection against other mechanical hazards, as tipping operation of trailers.

(24)

In addition, vehicles of categories R and S should comply with the requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (6), where applicable.

(25)

As far as the level of safety is maintained, alternative requirements and test procedures should be permitted for tractors equipped with a straddle seat and a handlebar to take into account their specific technical characteristics. This is the case of some of the requirements and test procedures for: driver’s seat, control devices and protection of drive components.

(26)

The reference to the requirements in passenger cars’ legislation for seat-belt anchorages and safety belts set out in repealed Directive 2003/37/EC (7) should be substituted by requirements adapted to the specificities of agricultural and forestry tractors.

(27)

In order to allow the type-approval authorities to assess the compliance with the requirements for protection against hazardous substances set out in this regulation, these requirements should be based on the level of protection provided by the type of tractor instead of the possible use of a given vehicle. The level of protection required for each particular use of each hazardous substance should be determined in accordance with the relevant EU and/or national legislation.

(28)

In order to ensure that technical services meet the same high level of performance standards in all Member States, this Regulation should set out the standards with which technical services have to comply, as well as the procedure for the assessment of that compliance and for the accreditation of those services.

(29)

For the purposes of national type-approval granted in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, Member States should be free to set construction requirements which differ from those provided for in this Regulation. However, they should have the obligation to approve types of vehicles, systems, components and separate technical units compliant with the requirements provided for this Regulation.

(30)

Several entries of Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 should be amended to permit laying down requirements for additional vehicle categories where it is necessary.

(31)

This Regulation should apply from the date of application of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

CHAPTER I

SUBJECT MATTER AND DEFINITIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

This Regulation establishes the detailed technical requirements and test procedures regarding vehicle design, construction and assembly for the approval of agricultural and forestry vehicles and their systems, components and separate technical units, the detailed arrangements and requirements with regard to type-approval procedures, virtual testing and conformity of production, the technical specifications with regard to access to repair and maintenance information and the performance standards and criteria for the assessment of technical services in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

Article 2

Definitions

The following definitions shall apply:

(1)

‘seat reference point (S)’ means the point of intersection in the median longitudinal plane of the seat between the tangential plane at the base of the padded backrest and a horizontal plane. This horizontal plane intersects the lower surface of the seat 150 mm in front of the seat reference point (S) as determined in Appendix 8 to Annex XIV.

(2)

‘control device’ means any device whose direct actuation enables the state or operation of the tractor or of any equipment linked to it to be altered.

(3)

‘shield’ means a protective device located immediately in front of a dangerous part and which, either on its own or with other parts of the machine, protects on all sides against contact with the dangerous part.

(4)

‘guard’ means a protective device which, by means of a rail, grille or similar device, provides the necessary safety distance preventing contact with the dangerous part.

(5)

‘hood’ means a protective device located in front of the dangerous part and which protects against contact with it on the covered side.

(6)

‘firmly attached’ means that removal of such devices should be possible only with the aid of tools.

(7)

‘hot surface’ means any metal surface of the tractor that reaches, during the normal use envisaged by the Manufacturer, a temperature higher than 85 °C or any plastic surface that reaches a temperature higher than 100 °C.

CHAPTER II

VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL TYPE-APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS

Article 3

Manufacturer’s general obligations regarding vehicle construction

1.   Manufacturers shall equip agricultural and forestry vehicles with systems, components and separate technical units affecting occupational safety that are designed, constructed and assembled so as to enable the vehicle in normal use and maintained according to the prescriptions of the manufacturer to comply with the detailed technical requirements and testing procedures set out in Articles 4 to 32.

2.   Manufacturers shall demonstrate by means of physical demonstration testing to the approval authority that the agricultural and forestry vehicles made available on the market, registered or entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures laid down in Articles 4 to 32.

3.   Manufacturers shall ensure that spare parts and equipment that are made available on the market or are entering into service in the Union comply with the detailed technical requirements and test procedures referred to in this Regulation. An approved agricultural and forestry vehicle equipped with such a spare part or equipment shall meet the same test requirements and performance limit values as a vehicle equipped with an original part.

4.   Manufacturers shall ensure that type-approval procedures for verifying conformity of production are followed as regards the detailed vehicle construction requirements laid down in this Regulation.

Article 4

Application of UNECE regulations

The UNECE regulations and amendments thereto set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply to type-approval of agricultural and forestry vehicles subject to the conditions laid down in this Regulation.

Article 5

Recognition of test reports issued on the basis of OECD Codes for the purposes of EU type-approval

In accordance with Article 50 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, the test reports issued on the basis of OECD Codes set out in Annex II to this Regulation shall be recognised for the purpose of EU type approval as an alternative to the test report issued on the basis of this Regulation.

Article 6

Arrangements with regard to type-approval procedures, including the requirements relating to virtual testing

The arrangements with regard to type-approval procedures referred to in Article 20 (8) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the requirements relating to virtual testing referred to in Article 27(6) of that Regulation shall be laid down in Annex III to this Regulation.

Article 7

Arrangements with regard to conformity of production

The arrangements with regard to conformity of production referred to in Article 28(6) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be laid down in Annex IV to this Regulation.

Article 8

Requirements with regard to access to repair and maintenance information

The requirements with regard to access to repair and maintenance information referred to in Article 53(12) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be laid down in Annex V to this Regulation.

Article 9

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (dynamic testing)

The test procedures and requirements applying to roll-over protection structures as regards dynamic testing for vehicles of categories T1, T4.2 and T4.3 referred to in Article 18(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VI to this Regulation.

Article 10

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (track-laying tractors)

The test procedures and requirements applying to roll-over protection structures as regards track-laying tractors for vehicles of categories C1, C2, C4.2 and C4.3 referred to in Article 18(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VII to this Regulation.

Article 11

Requirements applying to roll- over protection structures (static testing)

As an alternative to the requirements laid down in Article 9 and Article 10, manufacturers may choose to comply with the requirements of this Article, where the type of vehicle falls within the field of application set out in Annex VIII to this Regulation. The test procedures and requirements applying to roll-over protection structures as regards static testing for vehicles of categories T1/C1, T4.2/C4.2 and T4.3/C4.3 referred to in Article 18(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex VIII to this Regulation.

Article 12

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (front mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors)

The test procedures and requirements applying to front mounted roll-over protective structures as regards narrow- track tractors for vehicles of categories T2, T3 and T4.3 referred to in Article 18(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex IX to this Regulation.

Article 13

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (rear mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors)

The test procedures and requirements applying to rear mounted roll-over protective structures as regards narrow-track tractors for vehicles of categories T2/C2, T3/C3 and T4.3/C4.3 referred to in Article 18(2)(a) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex X to this Regulation.

Article 14

Requirements applying to falling objects protection structures

The test procedures and requirements applying to falling objects protection structures for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XI to this Regulation.

Article 15

Requirements applying to passenger seats

The test procedures and requirements applying to passenger seats for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(c) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XII to this Regulation.

Article 16

Requirements applying to the driver’s exposure to noise level

The test procedures and requirements applying to the driver’s exposure to noise level for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(d) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XIII to this Regulation.

Article 17

Requirements applying to the driving seat

The test procedures and requirements applying to the driving seat for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(e) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XIV to this Regulation.

Article 18

Requirements applying to operating space and to access to the driving position

The test procedures and requirements applying to operating space and to access to the driving position for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(f) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XV to this Regulation.

Article 19

Requirements applying to power take-offs

The test procedures and requirements applying to power take-offs for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(g) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XVI to this Regulation.

Article 20

Requirements applying to the protection of drive components

The test procedures and requirements applying to protection of drive components for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(h) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XVII to this Regulation.

Article 21

Requirements applying to seat-belt anchorages

The test procedures and requirements applying to seat-belt anchorages for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(i) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XVIII to this Regulation.

Article 22

Requirements applying to safety belts

The test procedures and requirements applying to safety belts for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(j) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XIX to this Regulation.

Article 23

Requirements applying to the protection against penetrating objects

The test procedures and requirements applying to the protection against penetrating objects for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(k) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XX to this Regulation.

Article 24

Requirements applying to exhaust systems

The test procedures and requirements applying to exhaust systems for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(l) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXI to this Regulation.

Article 25

Requirements applying to the operator’s manual

The requirements applying to the operator’s manual, including aspects relating to the protection against hazardous substances and operation and maintenance of the vehicle, for vehicles of categories T, C, R and S referred to in points (l), (n) and (q) of Article 18(2) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be laid down in Annex XXII to this Regulation.

Article 26

Requirements applying to control devices, including safety and reliability of control systems and emergency and automatic stop devices

The test procedures and requirements applying to control devices, including safety and reliability of control systems and emergency and automatic stop devices for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(o) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXIII to this Regulation.

Article 27

Requirements applying to the protection against other mechanical hazards

The test procedures and requirements applying to the protection against mechanical hazards, including aspects relating to the protection against rough surfaces, sharp edges and angles, rupture of pipes carrying fluids and uncontrolled movement of the vehicle, other than those mentioned in Articles 9 to 14, 19 and 23 for vehicles of categories T, C, R and S referred to in Article 18(2)(p) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXIV to this Regulation.

Article 28

Requirements applying to guards and protective devices

The test procedures and requirements applying to guards and protective devices for vehicles of categories T, C, R and S referred to in Article 18(2)(r) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXV to this Regulation.

Article 29

Requirements applying to information, warnings and markings

The test procedures and requirements applying to information, warnings and markings, including aspects relating to the warning signals with regard to braking and the operation and maintenance of the vehicle, for vehicles of categories T, C, R and S referred to in Article 18(2)(s) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXVI to this Regulation.

Article 30

Requirements applying to materials and products

The test procedures and requirements applying to materials and products for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(t) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXVII to this Regulation.

Article 31

Requirements applying to batteries

The test procedures and requirements applying to batteries for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(u) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXVIII to this Regulation.

Article 32

Requirements applying to protection against hazardous substances

The test procedures and requirements applying to protection against hazardous substances for vehicles of categories T and C referred to in Article 18(2)(l) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall be conducted and verified in accordance with Annex XXIX to this Regulation.

CHAPTER III

REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO TECHNICAL SERVICES

Article 33

Performance standards and assessment of technical services

Technical services have to comply with the performance standards and the procedure for their assessment referred to in Article 61 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, which shall be verified in accordance with Annex XXX to this Regulation.

Article 34

Permissibility of self-testing

Self-testing by in-house technical services referred to in Article 60(1) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 may only be conducted where permitted in Annex III to this Regulation.

CHAPTER IV

NATIONAL TYPE-APPROVAL OF VEHICLES, SYSTEMS, COMPONENTS OR SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNITS

Article 35

National type-approval of vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units

National authorities shall not refuse to grant national type-approval to a type of vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit on grounds relating to the construction requirements where the vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit complies with the requirements set out in this Regulation.

CHAPTER V

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 36

Amendments to Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013

Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 is amended as follows:

(1)

in row No 39, the entries corresponding to vehicle categories Ca and Cb are replaced by ‘X’;

(2)

in row No 41, the entries corresponding to vehicle categories T2a and T2b are replaced by ‘X’;

(3)

in row No 43, the entries corresponding to vehicle categories Ca and Cb are replaced by ‘X’;

(4)

in row No 44, the entries corresponding to vehicle categories Ca and Cb are replaced by ‘X’.

Article 37

Entry into force and application

This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It shall apply from 1 January 2016.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 19 September 2014.

For the Commission

The President

José Manuel BARROSO


(1)  OJ L 60, 2.3.2013, p. 1.

(2)  Council Decision 97/836/EC of 27 November 1997 with a view to accession by the European Community to the Agreement of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted to and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (Revised 1958 Agreement) (OJ L 346, 17.12.1997, p. 78).

(3)  Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 and Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC (OJ L 188, 18.7.2009, p. 1).

(4)  Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 of 25 May 2011 implementing and amending Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and amending Annexes I and III to Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 167, 25.6.2011, p. 1).

(5)  Council Directive 80/720/EEC of 24 June 1980 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the operating space, access to the driving position and the doors and windows of wheeled agricultural or forestry tractors (OJ L 194, 28.7.1980, p. 1).

(6)  Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (OJ L 157, 9.6.2006, p. 24).

(7)  Directive 2003/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on type-approval of agricultural or forestry tractors, their trailers and interchangeable towed machinery, together with their systems, components and separate technical units and repealing Directive 74/150/EEC (OJ L 171, 9.7.2003, p. 1).


SUMMARY

Annex Number

Annex title

Page

Vehicle construction and general type-approval requirements

I

Application of UNECE regulations

12

II

Recognition of test reports issued on the basis of OECD Codes for the purposes of EU type-approval

13

III

Arrangements with regard to type-approval procedures, including the requirements relating to virtual testing

14

IV

Arrangements with regard to conformity of production

18

V

Requirements with regard to access to repair and maintenance information

22

VI

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (dynamic testing)

30

VII

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (track-laying tractors)

51

VIII

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (static testing)

78

IX

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (front mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors)

105

X

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (rear mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors)

182

XI

Requirements applying to falling objects protection structures

214

XII

Requirements applying to passenger seats

223

XIII

Requirements applying to the driver’s exposure to noise level

224

XIV

Requirements applying to the driving seat

228

XV

Requirements applying to operating space and to access to the driving position

265

XVI

Requirements applying to power take-offs

275

XVII

Requirements applying to the protection of drive components

276

XVIII

Requirements applying to seat-belt anchorages

288

XIX

Requirements applying to safety belts

292

XX

Requirements applying to the protection against penetrating objects

293

XXI

Requirements applying to exhaust systems

294

XXII

Requirements applying to the operator’s manual

295

XXIII

Requirements applying to control devices, including safety and reliability of control systems and emergency and automatic stop devices

300

XXIV

Requirements applying to the protection against other mechanical hazards

308

XXV

Requirements applying to guards and protective devices

310

XXVI

Requirements applying to information, warnings and markings

311

XXVII

Requirements applying to materials and products

312

XXVIII

Requirements applying to batteries

313

XXIX

Requirements applying to protection against hazardous substances

314

Requirements relating to technical services

XXX

Performance standards and assessment of technical services

315

ANNEX I

Application of UNECE regulations

UNECE regulation No

Subject

Series of amendments

OJ Reference

Applicability

14

Safety-belt anchorages, ISOFIX anchorages systems and ISOFIX top tether anchorages

Supplement 1 to the 07 series of amendments

OJ L 109, 28.4.2011, p. 1

T and C

16

Safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint systems

Supplement 1 to the 06 series of amendments

OJ L 233, 9.9.2011, p. 1

T and C

43

Safety glazing

Supplement 12 to the 00 series of amendments

OJ L 230, 31.8.2010, p. 119

T and C

60

Driver operated controls — identification of controls, tell-tales and indicators (moped/motorcycles)

 

OJ L 95, 31.3.2004, p. 10

T and C

79

Steering equipment

Supplement 3 to the 01 series of amendments and Corrigendum 20 January 2006

OJ L 137, 27.5.2008, p. 25

T and C

Explanatory note:

The fact that a component is included in this list does not make its installation mandatory. For certain components, however, mandatory installation requirements are laid down in other Annexes to this Regulation.

ANNEX II

Recognition of test reports issued on the basis of OECD Codes for the purposes of EU type-approval

Test report on the basis of OECD Code No

Subject

Edition

Applicability

Alternative to the EU test report on the basis of

3

Official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (dynamic test)

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T1, T4.2 and T4.3

Annex VI and Annex XVIII (if the seat-belt anchorages have been tested)

4

Official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test)

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T1/C1, T4.2/C4.2 and T4.3/C4.3

Annex VIII and Annex XVIII (if the seat-belt anchorages have been tested)

5

Official measurement of noise at the driving position(s) on agricultural and forestry tractors

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T and C

Annex XIII

6

Official testing of front mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track wheeled agricultural and forestry tractors

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T2, T3 and T4.3

Annex IX and Annex XVIII (if the seat-belt anchorages have been tested)

7

Official testing of rear mounted roll-over protective structure on narrow-track wheeled agricultural and forestry tractors

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T2/C2, T3/C3 and T4.3/C4.3

Annex X and Annex XVIII (if the seat-belt anchorages have been tested)

8

Official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry track-laying tractors

Edition 2015-July 2014-

C1, C2, C4.2 and C4.3

Annex VII and Annex XVIII (if the seat-belt anchorages have been tested)

10

Official testing of falling object protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors

Edition 2015-July 2014-

T and C

Annex XI

Part C

ANNEX III

Arrangements with regard to type-approval procedures, including the requirements relating to virtual testing

1.   Type-approval process

When receiving an application for vehicle type-approval, the approval authority shall:

1.1.

verify that all EU type-approval certificates issued and test reports granted pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation which are applicable for vehicle type-approval cover the vehicle type and correspond to the prescribed requirements;

1.2.

by reference to the documentation make sure that the vehicle specifications and data contained in the vehicle information document are included in the data in the information packages and in the EU type-approval certificates issued in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation;

1.3.

on a selected sample of vehicles from the type to be approved carry out or arrange to be carried out inspections of vehicle parts and systems to verify that the vehicle(s) is/are built in accordance with the relevant data contained in the authenticated information package in respect of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation;

1.4.

carry out or arrange to be carried out relevant installation checks in respect of separate technical units where applicable;

1.5.

carry out or arrange to be carried out necessary checks in respect of the presence of the subjects provided for in Annex I of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013;

2.   Combination of technical specifications

The number of vehicles to be submitted shall be sufficient to permit the proper check of the various combinations to be type-approved according to the following criteria:

2.1.

propulsion unit;

2.2.

transmission;

2.3.

powered axles (number, position and interconnection);

2.4.

steered axles (number and position);

2.5.

braking system and braked axles (number);

2.6.

roll-over protection structure;

2.7.

protection against hazardous substances.

3.   Specific provisions

Where no approval certificates or test reports in respect of the subjects covered by Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 or the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation are available, the approval authority shall:

3.1.

arrange for the necessary tests and checks as required by Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation;

3.2.

verify that the vehicle conforms to the particulars in the vehicle information folder and that it meets the technical requirements of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation;

3.3.

carry out or arrange to be carried out relevant installation checks in respect of components and separate technical units where applicable.

4.   Procedures to be followed during multi-stage EU type-approval

4.1.   General

4.1.1.

The satisfactory operation of the process of multi-stage EU type-approval requires joint action by all the manufacturers concerned. To this end type-approval authorities shall ensure, before granting first and subsequent stage approval, that suitable arrangements exist between the relevant manufacturers for the supply and interchange of documents and information such that the completed vehicle type meets the technical requirements of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation. Such information shall include details of relevant system, component and separate technical unit approvals and of vehicle parts which form part of the incomplete vehicle but are not yet approved.

4.1.2.

EU Type-approvals in accordance with point 4 are granted on the basis of the current state of completion of the vehicle type and shall incorporate all approvals granted at earlier stages.

4.1.3.

Each manufacturer in a multi-stage EU type-approval process is responsible for the approval and conformity of production of all systems, components or separate technical units manufactured by him or added by him to the previously built stage. He is not responsible for subjects which have been approved in an earlier stage except in those cases where he modifies relevant parts to an extent that the previously granted approval becomes invalid.

4.2.   Procedures

The approval authority shall:

4.2.1.

verify that all EU type-approval certificates issued and test reports granted pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation which are applicable for vehicle type-approval cover the vehicle type at its state of completion and correspond to the prescribed requirements;

4.2.2.

ensure that all the relevant data, taking account of the state of completion of the vehicle, is included in the information folder;

4.2.3.

by reference to the documentation make sure that the vehicle specification(s) and data contained in the vehicle information folder are included in the data in the information packages and in the EU type-approval certificates, in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 or the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation; and in the case of a completed vehicle, where an item number in the information folder is not included in any of the information packages, confirm that the relevant part of characteristic conforms to the particulars in the information folder;

4.2.4.

on a selected sample of vehicles from the type to be approved carry out or arrange to be carried out inspections of vehicle parts and systems to verify that the vehicle(s) is/are built in accordance with the relevant data contained in the authenticated information package in respect of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation;

4.2.5.

Carry out or arrange to be carried out relevant installation checks in respect of separate technical units where applicable.

4.3.   The number of vehicles to be inspected for the purposes of point 4.2.4 shall be sufficient to permit the proper control of the various combinations to be EU type-approved according to the state of completion of the vehicle and the criteria set-out in point 2.

5.   Conditions under which virtual testing has to be performed and requirements which can be subject to virtual testing

5.1.   Objectives and scope

Point 5 lays down appropriate provisions concerning virtual testing in accordance with Article 27(6) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013. It shall not apply to the second subparagraph of Article 27(3) of that Regulation.

5.2.   List of requirements which may be subject to virtual testing

Table 1

List of requirements which may be subject to virtual testing

Delegated act reference

Annex No

Requirement

Restrictions/Comments

RVCR

IX

continuous or interrupted roll over behaviour in case of a laterally overturning narrow track tractor with a protective frame mounted in front of the driver’s seat

Section B4

6.   Conditions under which virtual testing has to be performed

6.1.   Virtual test pattern

The following scheme shall be used as a basic structure for describing and conducting virtual testing:

6.1.1.

purpose;

6.1.2.

structure model;

6.1.3.

boundary conditions;

6.1.4.

load assumptions;

6.1.5.

calculation;

6.1.6.

assessment;

6.1.7.

Documentation.

6.2.   Fundamentals of computer simulation and calculation

6.2.1.   Mathematical model

The mathematical model shall be supplied by the manufacturer. It shall reflect the complexity of the structure of the vehicle, system and components to be tested in relation to the requirements. The same provisions shall apply mutatis mutandis for testing components or technical units independently from the vehicle.

6.2.2.   Validation process of the mathematical model

The mathematical model shall be validated in comparison with the actual test conditions. A physical test shall be conducted for the purposes of comparing the results obtained when using the mathematical model with the results of a physical test. Comparability of the test results shall be proven. A validation report shall be drafted by the manufacturer or by the technical service and submitted to the approval authority. Any change made to the mathematical model or to the software likely to invalidate the validation report shall be brought to the attention of the approval authority, which may require that a new validation process is conducted. The flow chart of the validation process is shown in Figure 1 of point 7.

6.2.3.   Documentation

The data and auxiliary tools used for the simulation and calculation shall be made available by the manufacturer and be documented in a suitable way.

6.2.4.   Tools and support

At the request of the technical service, the manufacturer shall supply or provide access to the necessary tools, including appropriate software.

6.2.5.   In addition, the manufacturer shall provide appropriate support to the technical service.

6.2.6.   Providing access and support to a technical service does not detract from any obligation of the technical service regarding the skills of its personnel, the payment of licence rights and respect of confidentiality.

7.   Validation process virtual testing

Figure 1

Virtual testing validation process flow chart

Image

ANNEX IV

Arrangements with regard to conformity of production

1.   Definitions

For the purposes of this Annex the following definitions shall apply:

1.1.

‘quality management system’ means a set of interrelated or interacting elements that organisations use to direct and control how quality policies are implemented and quality objectives are achieved;

1.2.

‘audit’ means an evidence-gathering process used to evaluate how well audit criteria are being applied; it should be objective, impartial and independent, and the audit process should be both systematic and documented;

1.3.

‘corrective actions’ means a problem-solving process with subsequent steps taken to remove the causes of a nonconformity or undesirable situation and designed to prevent their recurrence;

2.   Purpose

2.1.

The conformity of production procedure aims to ensure that each vehicle, system, component, separate technical unit, part or equipment produced is in conformity with the specification, performance and marking requirements of the approved type.

2.2.

Procedures include inseparably the assessment of quality management systems, referred as ‘initial assessment’ and set out in section 3. and verification and production-related controls, referred to as ‘product conformity arrangements’ and set out in section 4.

3.   Initial assessment

3.1.

Before granting type-approval, the approval authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements and procedures established by the manufacturer for ensuring effective control so that vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units when in production conform to the approved type.

3.2.

Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing set out in the EN ISO 19011:2011 standard shall apply to the initial assessment.

3.3.

The requirements referred to in point 3.1 shall be verified to the satisfaction of the approval authority granting type-approval. The approval authority shall be satisfied with the initial assessment and the product conformity arrangements in section 4. taking account as necessary of one of the arrangements described in points 3.3.1 to 3.3.3 or a combination of those arrangements in full or in part as appropriate.

3.3.1.

The initial assessment and/or verification of product conformity arrangements shall be carried out by the approval authority granting the approval or an appointed body acting on behalf of the approval authority.

3.3.1.1.

When considering the extent of the initial assessment to be carried out, the approval authority may take account of available information relating to:

3.3.1.1.1.

the manufacturer’s certification described in point 3.3.3, which has not been qualified or recognised under that point;

3.3.1.1.2.

in the case of components or separate technical units type-approvals, quality system assessments performed in the component or separate technical unit manufacturer’s premises by vehicle manufacturer(s), according to one or more of the industry sector specifications satisfying the requirements in harmonised standard EN ISO 9001:2008.

3.3.2.

The initial assessment and/or verification of product conformity arrangements may also be carried out by the approval authority of another Member State, or the appointed body designated for this purpose by the approval authority.

3.3.2.1.

In such a case, the approval authority of the other Member State shall prepare a statement of compliance outlining the areas and production facilities it has covered as relevant to the vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units to be type-approved.

3.3.2.2.

On receiving an application for a compliance statement from the approval authority of a Member State granting type-approval, the approval authority of another Member State shall send forthwith the statement of compliance or advise that it is not in a position to provide such a statement.

3.3.2.3.

The statement of compliance shall include at least the following:

3.3.2.3.1.

group or company (e.g. XYZ automotive);

3.3.2.3.2.

particular organisation (e.g. European division);

3.3.2.3.3.

plants/sites (e.g. Engine plant 1 (United Kingdom) — vehicle plant 2 (Germany));

3.3.2.3.4.

vehicle/component range (e.g. All category T1 models);

3.3.2.3.5.

areas assessed (e.g. Engine assembly, body pressing and assembly, vehicle assembly);

3.3.2.3.6.

documents examined (e.g. Company and site quality manual and procedures);

3.3.2.3.7.

date of the assessment (e.g. Audit conducted from 18 to 30.5.2013);

3.3.2.3.8.

planned monitoring visit (e.g. October 2014).

3.3.3.

The approval authority shall also accept the manufacturer’s suitable certification to harmonised standard EN ISO 9001:2008 or an equivalent harmonised standard as satisfying the initial assessment requirements of point 3.3. The manufacturer shall provide details of the certification and undertake to inform the approval authority of any revisions to its validity or scope.

3.4.

For the purpose of vehicle type-approval, the initial assessments carried out for granting approvals for systems, components and separate technical units of the vehicle need not be repeated but shall be complemented by an assessment covering the locations and activities relating to the assembly of the whole vehicle not covered by the former assessments.

4.   Product conformity arrangements

4.1.

Every vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit approved pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation, pursuant to a UNECE regulation annexed to the Revised 1958 Agreement, or pursuant to a complete test report issued on the basis of OECD Codes listed in Annex II to this Regulation, shall be so manufactured as to conform to the approved type by meeting the requirements of this Annex, Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation, as well as the relevant UNECE regulation(s) and OECD Code(s).

4.2.

Before granting a type-approval pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation, a UNECE regulation annexed to the Revised 1958 Agreement or an OECD Code, the approval authority of a Member State shall verify the existence of adequate arrangements and documented control plans, to be agreed with the manufacturer for each approval, to carry out at specified intervals those tests or associated checks necessary to verify continued conformity with the approved type, including, where applicable, tests specified in Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, the UNECE regulation and the OECD Code.

4.3.

The holder of the type-approval shall, in particular:

4.3.1.

ensure the existence and application of procedures for effective control of the conformity of products (vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units) to the approved type;

4.3.2.

have access to the testing or other appropriate equipment necessary for checking conformity to each approved type;

4.3.3.

ensure that test or check result data are recorded and that annexed documents remain available for a period of up to 10 years to be determined in agreement with the approval authority;

4.3.4.

analyse the results of each type of test or check, in order to verify and ensure the stability of the product characteristics, making allowance for variation in industrial production;

4.3.5.

ensure that for each type of product, at least the checks and the tests prescribed in Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 and the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation as well as those set out in the relevant UNECE Regulation or OECD Code are carried out;

4.3.6.

ensure that any set of samples or test pieces giving evidence of non-conformity in the type of test in question gives rise to a further sampling and test or check. All the necessary steps shall be taken to restore the production process to ensure conformity with the approved type;

4.3.7.

in the case of vehicle type-approval, the checks referred to in point 4.3.5 shall at least consist in verifying the correct built specifications in relation to the approval and the information required for certificates of conformity.

4.4.

In the case of step-by-step, mixed or multi-stage type-approvals, the approval authority granting whole vehicle type-approval may request specific details regarding compliance with the conformity of production requirements set out in this Annex from any approval authority that granted type-approval of any relevant system, component or separate technical unit.

4.5.

If the approval authority granting whole vehicle type-approval is not satisfied with the reported information referred to in point 4.4 and has communicated this in writing to the manufacturer in question and the approval authority granting type-approval for the system, component or separate technical unit, the approval authority granting whole vehicle type-approval shall demand additional conformity of production audits or checks to be performed at the site of the manufacturer(s) of those systems, components or separate technical units and the results shall immediately be made available to the approval authority concerned.

4.6.

If points 4.4 and 4.5 apply and the further audit or check results are deemed not to be satisfactory in the opinion of the approval authority granting whole vehicle type-approval, the manufacturer shall ensure that conformity of production is restored as soon as possible by corrective actions to the satisfaction of the approval authority granting whole vehicle type-approval and to the satisfaction of the approval authority granting type-approval of the system, component or separate technical unit.

5.   Continued verification arrangements

5.1.

The authority which has granted type-approval may at any time verify the conformity of production control methods applied in each production facility by means of periodic audits. The manufacturer shall for that purpose allow access to the manufacture, inspection, testing, storage and distribution sites and shall provide all necessary information with regard to the quality management system documentation and records.

5.1.1.

The normal approach for such periodic audits shall be to monitor the continued effectiveness of the procedures laid down in sections 3 and 4 (initial assessment and product conformity arrangements) of this Annex.

5.1.1.1.

Surveillance activities carried out by the technical services (qualified or recognised as required in point 3.3.3) shall be accepted as satisfying the requirements of point 5.1.1 with regard to the procedures established at initial assessment.

5.1.1.2.

The normal frequency of these verifications by the approval authority (other than those referred to in point 5.1.1.1) shall be such as to ensure that the relevant conformity of production controls applied in accordance with sections 3 and 4 are reviewed over a period consistent with the climate of trust established by the approval authority.

5.2.

At every review, the records of tests, checks and production records, and in particular the records of those tests or checks documented as required in point 4.2, shall be available to the inspector.

5.3.

The inspector may select random samples to be tested in the manufacturer’s laboratory or in the facilities of the technical service, in which case only physical tests shall be carried out. The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer’s own verification.

5.4.

Where the level of control appears unsatisfactory, or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests carried out in application of point 5.2, the inspector shall select samples to be sent to the technical service to perform physical tests in accordance with the requirements set out in section 4 and in Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, the delegated and implementing acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation, the relevant UNECE Regulation or OECD Code.

5.5.

Where unsatisfactory results are found during an inspection or a monitoring review, the approval authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to restore conformity of production as rapidly as possible.

5.6.

Where Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 requires compliance with UNECE regulations or allows to use complete test reports issued on the basis of OECD standard Codes as an alternative to the requirements set out in the delegated acts adopted pursuant to that Regulation, the manufacturer may choose to apply the provisions of this Annex as an alternative to the conformity of production requirements in the respective UNECE regulations or OECD Codes. However, if point 4.5 or 4.6 apply, all separate conformity of production requirements in UNECE Regulations or OECD Codes have to be complied with to the satisfaction of the approval authority until it decides that conformity of production has been restored.

ANNEX V

Requirements with regard to access to repair and maintenance information

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Number

Appendix title

Page

1

Access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information

26

2

Information to enable the development of generic diagnostic tools

28

1.   Definition

For the purposes of this Annex the following definition shall apply: ‘access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information’ means the availability of all OBD and repair and maintenance information required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of the vehicle.

2.   Compliance with access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information requirements in the type-approval procedure

2.1.

The manufacturer shall ensure compliance with the technical requirements in this Annex regarding access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information.

2.2.

Approval authorities shall grant type-approval only after receiving from the manufacturer a Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information.

2.3.

The Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information shall serve as the proof of compliance with Chapter XV of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

2.4.

The Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information shall be drawn up in accordance with the model referred to in Article 53(8)(3) to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

3.   Fees for access

In addition to time-based access under Article 55 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, manufacturers may offer transaction-based access for which fees are charged per transaction and not based on the time for which access is granted. Where manufacturers offer both time-based and transaction-based access systems, independent repairers shall choose a preferred access system, either time-based or transaction based.

4.   Service parts, diagnostic tools and test equipment

4.1.

In the context of Article 53 (6) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, the manufacturer shall make the following information available to interested parties on the basis of individual arrangements to which the principle of Article 55 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 apply and to provide contact details on its website:

4.1.1.

relevant information to enable the development of replacement components which are critical to the correct functioning of the OBD system;

4.1.2.

information to enable the development of generic diagnostic tools as listed in Appendix 2.

4.2.

For the purposes of point 4.1.1, the development of replacement components shall not be restricted by any of the following:

4.2.1.

the unavailability of pertinent information;

4.2.2.

the technical requirements relating to malfunction indication strategies if the OBD thresholds are exceeded or if the OBD system is unable to fulfil the basic OBD monitoring requirements of this Regulation;

4.2.3.

specific modifications to the handling of OBD information to deal independently with vehicle operation on liquid or gaseous fuels;

4.2.4.

the type-approval of gaseous-fuelled vehicles that contain a limited number of minor deficiencies.

4.3.

For the purposes of point 4.1.2, where manufacturers use diagnostic and test tools in accordance with ISO 22900-2:2009 regarding Modular Vehicle Communication Interface (MVCI) and ISO 22901-2:2011 on Open Diagnostic Data Exchange (ODX) in their franchised networks, the ODX files shall be accessible to independent operators via the manufacturer’s website.

5.   Multi-stage type-approval

5.1.

In the case of multi-stage type-approval, as defined in Article 20 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, the final manufacturer shall be responsible for providing access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information regarding its own manufacturing stage(s) and the link to the previous stage(s).

5.2.

In addition, the final manufacturer shall on its website provide independent operators with the following information:

5.2.1.

website address of the manufacturer(s) responsible for the previous stage(s);

5.2.2.

name and address of all the manufacturers responsible for the previous stage(s);

5.2.3.

type-approval number(s) of the previous stage(s);

5.2.4.

the engine number.

5.3.

Manufacturers responsible for a particular stage or stages of type-approval shall be responsible for providing through their website access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information regarding the stage(s) of type-approval for which they are responsible and the link to the previous stage(s).

5.4.

The manufacturer responsible for a particular stage or stages of type-approval shall provide the following information to the manufacturer responsible for the next stage:

5.4.1.

the Certificate of Conformity relating to the stage(s) for which it is responsible;

5.4.2.

the Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information, including its appendices;

5.4.3.

the type-approval number corresponding to the stage(s) for which it is responsible;

5.4.4.

the documents referred to in points 5.4.1, 5.4.2 and 5.4.3 as provided by the manufacturer(s) involved in the previous stage(s).

5.5.

Each manufacturer shall authorise the manufacturer responsible for the next stage to pass the documents to the manufacturers responsible for subsequent and final stages.

5.6.

In addition, on a contractual basis, the manufacturer responsible for a particular stage or stages of type-approval shall:

5.6.1.

provide the manufacturer responsible for the next stage with access to OBD and repair and maintenance information and interface information corresponding to the particular stage(s) for which it is responsible;

5.6.2.

provide, at the request of a manufacturer responsible for a subsequent stage of type-approval, with access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information and interface information corresponding to the particular stage(s) for which he is responsible.

5.7.

A manufacturer, including a final manufacturer, may charge fees in accordance with Article 55 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 only in respect of the particular stage(s) for which he is responsible.

5.8.

A manufacturer, including a final manufacturer, shall not charge fees for providing information relating to the website address or contact details of any other manufacturer.

6.   Small volume manufacturers

6.1.

Manufacturers shall provide access to repair and maintenance information in a readily accessible and prompt manner, and in a manner which is non-discriminatory as compared with the provisions given or access granted to authorised dealers and repairers in accordance with Article 53(13) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, if their annual worldwide production of a type of vehicle covered by that regulation is less than:

(a)

for T-category: 200 vehicles;

(b)

for C-category: 80 vehicles;

(c)

for R-category: 400 vehicles;

(d)

for S-category: 200 vehicles.

For a type of system, component or separate technical unit covered by that Regulation, the relevant figure in the meaning of this provision is 250 units.

6.2.

Vehicles, systems, components and separate technical units covered by paragraph 1 shall be listed on the manufacturer’s repair and maintenance information website.

6.3.

The approval authority shall inform the Commission of all type-approvals granted to small-volume manufacturers.

7.   Compliance with the obligations regarding access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information

7.1.

An approval authority may, at any time, on their own initiative, or on the basis of a complaint or of an assessment by a technical service, check a manufacturer’s compliance with its obligations under Regulation (EU) No 167/2013, this Regulation and the terms of the Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information.

7.2.

Where an approval authority finds that a manufacturer has failed to comply with its obligations regarding access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information, the approval authority which granted the relevant type-approval shall take appropriate measures to remedy the situation.

7.3.

Such measures may include withdrawal or suspension of type-approval, fines or other measures adopted in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

7.4.

If an independent operator or a trade association representing independent operators files a complaint to the approval authority, the authority shall carry out an audit to verify the manufacturer’s compliance with obligations concerning access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information.

7.5.

When carrying out the audit, the approval authority may ask a technical service or any other independent expert to carry out an assessment to verify whether these obligations are met.

7.6.

If the vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information is not available when the application for type-approval is made, the manufacturer shall provide that information within six months of the date of type-approval.

7.7.

Where the vehicle is placed on the market more than six months after type-approval, the information shall be provided on the date on which the vehicle is placed on the market.

7.8.

The approval authority may presume on the basis of a completed Certificate on Access to Vehicle OBD and Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information that the manufacturer has put in place satisfactory arrangements and procedures with regard to access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information, provided that no complaint was made and that the manufacturer provides the certificate within the periods referred to in paragraph 7.7.

7.9.

If the certificate of compliance is not provided within that period, the approval authority shall take appropriate measures to ensure compliance.

8.   Information requirements for granting access to independent operators to non-secure areas

8.1.

For access to any OBD and repair and maintenance information other than that relating to secure areas of the vehicle, registration requirements for use of the manufacturer’s website by an independent operator shall require only such information as is necessary to confirm how payment for the information is to be made.

9.   Information requirements for granting access to independent operators to secure areas

9.1.

For access to any OBD and repair and maintenance information concerning access to secure areas of the vehicle, the independent operator shall be approved and authorised for this purpose on the basis of documents demonstrating that it pursues a legitimate business activity and has not been convicted of relevant criminal activity.

9.2.

Independent operators shall be given access to vehicle security features used by authorised dealers and repair shops under protection of security technology concerning the exchange of data to ensure confidentiality, integrity and protection against replay.

9.3.

The Forum on Access to Vehicle Information provided for by Article 56 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 will specify state-of-the-art parameters for fulfilling these requirements.

9.4.

For information concerning access to secure areas of the vehicle, the independent operator shall present a certificate in accordance with ISO 20828:2006 to identify itself and the organisation to which it belongs. The manufacturer shall respond with its own certificate in accordance with ISO 20828:2006 to confirm to the independent operator that it is accessing a legitimate site of the manufacturer in question. Both parties shall keep a log of any such transactions indicating the vehicles and changes made to them under this provision.

Appendix 1

Access to vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information

1.   Introduction

1.1.

This Appendix lays down technical requirements for the accessibility of vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information.

2.   Requirements

2.1.

The manufacturer shall provide vehicle repair and maintenance information using only open text and graphic formats or formats which can be viewed and printed using only standard software plug-ins that are freely available, easy to install, and which run with computer operating systems commonly in use.

2.1.1.

Vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information available through websites shall follow the common standard referred to in Article 53(2) of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

2.1.2.

Where possible, keywords in the metadata shall conform to ISO 15031-2:2010. Such information shall be always available, except as required for website maintenance purposes.

2.1.3.

Those requiring the right to duplicate or re-publish the information should negotiate directly with the manufacturer concerned.

2.1.4.

Information for training material shall also be available, but may be presented through media other than websites.

2.2.

Information on all parts of the vehicle, with which the vehicle, as identified by the model and serial number, or by VIN number of the vehicle and any additional criteria such as wheelbase, engine output, trim level or options, is equipped by the vehicle manufacturer and which can be replaced by spare parts offered by the vehicle manufacturer to its authorised repairers or dealers or third parties by means of reference to original equipment (OE) parts numbers, shall be made available in a database easily accessible to independent operators.

2.3.

This database or alternative accessible format shall comprise the VIN, OE parts numbers, OE naming of the parts, validity attributes (valid-from and valid-to dates), fitting attributes and, where applicable, structuring characteristics.

2.4.

The information on the database or available in another accessible format shall be regularly updated. In particular, the updates shall include all modifications to individual vehicles after their production if this information is available to authorised dealers.

2.5.

Reprogramming of control units for the purposes of, e.g. recalibration after a repair or loading software to a replacement ECU or recoding or reinitialising replacement parts or components, must allow the use of non-proprietary hardware.

2.5.1.

Reprogramming shall be conducted in accordance with either ISO 22900-2, SAE J2534 or TMC RP1210 at the latest as from 1.1.2018;

this date is set to 1.1.2020

for manufacturers of vehicles of R- and S-category,

for manufacturers of vehicles of T- and C-category whose production is below the limits set out in point 6.1 of this Annex,

for manufacturers of systems, components or separate technical units whose production is below the limits set out in point 6.1 of this Annex.

2.5.2.

Ethernet, serial cable or Local Area Network (LAN) interface and alternative media like Compact Disc (CD), Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) or solid state memory device for infotainment systems (e.g. navigation systems, telephone) may also be used, but on the condition that no proprietary communication software (e.g. drivers or plug-ins) and hardware is required. For the validation of the compatibility of the manufacturer-specific application and the vehicle communication interfaces (VCI) complying to ISO 22900-2, SAE J2534 or TMC RP1210, the manufacturer shall offer either a validation of independently developed VCIs or the information, and loan of any special hardware, required for a VCI manufacturer to conduct such validation himself. The conditions of Article 55 of Regulation (EU) No 167/2013 shall apply to fees for such validation or information and hardware.

2.5.3.

Until a vehicle manufacturer has implemented these standards, he shall make available proprietary information (e.g. protocol information, process method, identity coding) on how to reprogram a control unit.

2.5.4.

To ensure in-vehicle communication and communication between ECUs and diagnostic service tools, the following standards shall apply: SAE J1939, ISO 11783, ISO 14229 or ISO 27145. ISO 27145 shall be applied in combination with either ISO 15765-4 or ISO 13400.

2.5.5.

When a manufacturer recommends a combination of a type of tractor with a type of R or S category vehicle or vice versa, he shall provide the vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance information related to the interconnectivity of both vehicles to independent operators. This information may also be provided through a website set up jointly by several manufacturers or a consortium of manufacturers if this website is compliant with the provisions of this Regulation, as indicated by recital 23 to Regulation (EU) No 167/2013.

2.6.

Manufacturers’ repair information websites shall indicate type-approval numbers by model.

2.7.

Manufacturers shall establish reasonable and proportionate fees for hourly, daily, monthly, annual and if applicable per-transaction access to their repair and maintenance information websites.

Appendix 2

Information to enable the development of generic diagnostic tools

1.   Information required for the manufacture of diagnostic tools

In order to facilitate the provision of generic diagnostic tools for multi-make repairers, vehicle manufacturers shall make available the information referred to in points 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 through their repair information websites. That information shall include all diagnostic tool functions and all the links to repair information and troubleshooting instructions. The access to the information may be subject to the payment of a reasonable fee.

1.1.   Communication protocol information

The following information shall be required indexed against vehicle make, model and variant, or other workable definition such as VIN or vehicle and systems identification:

(a)

Any additional protocol information system necessary to enable complete diagnostics in addition to the standards prescribed in point 4.7.3 of Annex 9B to UNECE Regulation No 49, including any additional hardware or software protocol information, parameter identification, transfer functions, ‘keep alive’ requirements, or error conditions;

(b)

Details of how to obtain and interpret all fault codes which are not in accordance with the standards prescribed in point 4.7.3 of Annex 9B to UNECE Regulation No 49;

(c)

A list of all available live data parameters, including scaling and access information;

(d)

A list of all available functional tests, including device activation or control and the means to implement them;

(e)

Details of how to obtain all component and status information, time stamps, pending DTC and freeze frames,

(f)

Resetting adaptive learning parameters, variant coding and replacement component setup, and customer preferences,

(g)

ECU identification and variant coding,

(h)

Details of how to reset service lights;

(i)

Location of diagnostic connector and connector details;

(j)

Engine code identification.

1.2.   Test and diagnosis of OBD monitored components

The following information shall be required:

(a)

A description of tests to confirm its functionality, at the component or in the harness;

(b)

Test procedure including test parameters and component information;

(c)

Connection details including minimum and maximum input and output and driving and loading values;

(d)

Values expected under certain driving conditions including idling;

(e)

Electrical values for the component in its static and dynamic states;

(f)

Failure mode values for each of the above scenarios;

(g)

Failure mode diagnostic sequences including fault trees and guided diagnostics elimination;

1.3.   Data required to perform the repair

The following information shall be required:

(a)

ECU and component initialisation (in the event of replacements being fitted);

(b)

Initialisation of new or replacement ECU’s where relevant using pass-through (re-) programming techniques.

ANNEX VI

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (dynamic testing)

A.   GENERAL PROVISION

1.

The Union requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (dynamic testing) are set out in point B.

B.   REQUIREMENTS APPLYING TO ROLL-OVER PROTECTION STRUCTURES (DYNAMIC TESTING) (1)

1.   Definitions

1.1.   [Not applicable]

1.2.   Rolling Over Protective Structure (ROPS)

Roll-over protective structure (protective cab or frame), hereinafter called ‘protective structure’, means the structure on a tractor the essential purpose of which is to avoid or limit risks to the driver resulting from roll-over of the tractor during normal use.

The roll-over protective structure is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the driver when seated either inside the envelope of the structure or within a space bounded by a series of straight lines from the outer edges of the structure to any part of the tractor that might come into contact with flat ground and that is capable of supporting the tractor in that position if the tractor overturns.

1.3.   Track

1.3.1.   Preliminary definition: median plane of the wheel

The median plane of the wheel is equidistant from the two planes containing the periphery of the rims at their outer edges.

1.3.2.   Definition of track

The vertical plane through the wheel axis intersects its median plane along a straight line which meets the supporting surface at one point. If A and B are the two points thus defined for the wheels on the same axle of the tractor, then the track width is the distance between points A and B. The track may be thus defined for both front and rear wheels. Where there are twin wheels, the track is the distance between two planes each being the median plane of the pairs of wheels.

For track-laying tractors, the track is the distance between the median planes of the tracks.

1.3.3.   Additional definition: median plane of the tractor

Take the extreme positions of points A and B for the tractor rear axle, which gives the maximum possible value for the track. The vertical plane at right angles to the line AB at its centre point is the median plane of the tractor.

1.4.   Wheelbase

The distance between the vertical planes passing through the two lines AB as defined above, one for the front wheels and one for the rear-wheels.

1.5.   Determination of seat index point; Seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.1.   Seat Index Point (SIP) (2)

The seat index point shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5353:1995.

1.5.2.   Seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.2.1.

Where the inclination of the backrest and seat pan is adjustable, these must be adjusted so that the Seat Index Point is in its rear uppermost position;

1.5.2.2.

Where the seat is equipped with suspension, the latter must be blocked at mid-travel, unless this is contrary to the instructions clearly laid down by the seat manufacturer;

1.5.2.3.

Where the position of the seat is adjustable only lengthwise and vertically, the longitudinal axis passing through the Seat Index Point shall be parallel with the vertical longitudinal plane of the tractor passing through the centre of the steering wheel and not more than 100 mm from that plane.

1.6.   Clearance zone

1.6.1.   Reference plane

The clearance zone is illustrated in Figures 3.8 to 3.10 and Table 3.3. The zone is defined in relation to the reference plane and the Seat Index Point. The reference plane is a vertical plane, generally longitudinal to the tractor and passing through the Seat Index Point and the centre of the steering wheel. Normally the reference plane coincides with the longitudinal median plane of the tractor. This reference plane shall be assumed to move horizontally with the seat and steering wheel during loading but to remain perpendicular to the tractor or the floor of the roll-over protective structure. The clearance zone shall be defined on the basis of sub clauses 1.6.2 and 1.6.3.

1.6.2.   Determination of clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat

The clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat is defined in 1.6.2.1 to 1.6.2.10 below and is bounded by the following planes, the tractor being on a horizontal surface, the seat, where adjustable, adjusted to its rear uppermost position (2), and the steering wheel, where adjustable, adjusted to the mid position for seated driving:

1.6.2.1.

a horizontal plane A1 B1 B2 A2, (810 + av) mm above the seat index point (SIP) with line B1B2 located (ah – 10) mm behind the SIP;

1.6.2.2.

an inclined plane G1 G2 I2 I1, perpendicular to the reference plane, including both a point 150 mm behind line B1B2 and the rearmost point of the seat backrest;

1.6.2.3.

a cylindrical surface A1 A2 I2 I1 perpendicular to the reference plane, having a radius of 120 mm, tangential to the planes defined in 1.6.2.1 and 1.6.2.2 above;

1.6.2.4.

a cylindrical surface B1 C1 C2 B2, perpendicular to the reference plane, having a radius of 900 mm extending forward for 400 mm and tangential to the plane defined in 1.6.2.1 above along line B1B2;

1.6.2.5.

an inclined plane C1 D1 D2 C2, perpendicular to the reference plane, joining the surface defined in 1.6.2.4 above and passing 40 mm from the forward external edge of the steering wheel. In the case of a high steering wheel position, this plane extends forward from line B1B2 tangentially to the surface defined in 1.6.2.4 above;

1.6.2.6.

a vertical plane D1 E1 E2 D2 perpendicular to the reference plane 40 mm forward of the external edge of the steering wheel;

1.6.2.7.

a horizontal plane E1 F1 F2 E2 passing through a point (90 – av) mm below the seat index point (SIP);

1.6.2.8.

a surface G1 F1 F2 G2, if necessary curved from the bottom limit of the plane defined in 1.6.2.2 above to the horizontal plane defined in 1.6.2.7 above, perpendicular to the reference plane, and in contact with the seat backrest throughout its length;

1.6.2.9.

vertical planes J1 E1 F1 G1 H1 and J2 E2 F2 G2 H2. These vertical planes shall extend upwards from plane E1 F1 F2 E2 for 300 mm; the distances E1 E0 and E2 E0 shall be 250 mm;

1.6.2.10.

parallel planes A1 B1 C1 D1 J1 H1 I1 and A2 B2 C2 D2 J2 H2 I2 inclined so that the upper edge of the plane on the side on which the force is applied is at least 100 mm from the vertical reference plane.

1.6.3.   Determination of clearance zone for tractors with a reversible driver’s position

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the clearance zone is the envelope of the two clearance zones defined by the two different positions of the steering wheel and the seat.

1.6.4.   Optional seats

1.6.4.1.

In case of tractors that could be fitted with optional seats, the envelope comprising the seat index points of all options offered shall be used during the tests. The protective structure shall not enter the larger clearance zone which takes account of these different seat index points.

1.6.4.2.

In the case where a new seat option is offered after the test has been performed, a determination shall be made to see whether the clearance zone around the new SIP falls within the envelope previously established. If it does not, a new test must be performed.

1.6.4.3.

Optional seat does not include a seat for a person in addition to the driver and from where the tractor cannot be controlled. The SIP shall not be determined because the definition of the clearance zone is in relation to the driver seat.

1.7.   Unballasted mass

The mass of the tractor without ballasting devices and, in the case of tractors with pneumatic tyres, without liquid ballast in the tyres. The tractor shall be in running order with tanks, circuits and radiator full, protective structure with cladding and any track equipment or additional front wheel drive components required for normal use. The operator is not included.

1.8.   Permissible measurement tolerances

Distance

± 0,5 mm

Force

± 0,1 % (of the sensor full scale)

Mass

± 0,2 % (of the sensor full scale)

Tyre pressure

± 5,0 %

Angle

± 0,1°

1.9.   Symbols

ah

(mm)

Half of the horizontal seat adjustment

av

(mm)

Half of the vertical seat adjustment

E

(J)

Energy input during test

F

(N)

Static load force

H

(mm)

Height of lift of the centre of gravity of the pendulum block

I

(kg.m2)

Moment of inertia about rear axle, excluding wheels used for calculating rear impact energy

L

(mm)

Wheelbase used for calculating rear impact energy

M

(kg)

Mass used for calculating energy and crushing forces

2.   Field of application

2.1.   This Annex is applicable to tractors having at least two axles for pneumatic tyred wheels with or without track attachments and with an unballasted tractor mass greater than 600 kg but generally less than 6 000 kg.

2.2.   The minimum track width of the rear-wheels should generally be greater than 1 150 mm. It is recognised that there may be designs of tractors, for example, lawn mowers, narrow vineyard tractors, low profile tractors used in buildings with limited overhead clearance or in orchards, high-clearance tractors and special forestry machines, such as forwarders and skidders, for which this Annex is not applicable.

3.   Rules and directions

3.1.   General regulations

3.1.1.   The protective structure may be manufactured either by the tractor manufacturer or by an independent firm. In either case a test is only valid for the model of tractor on which it is carried out. The protective structure must be retested for each model of tractor to which it is to be fitted. However, testing stations may certify that the strength tests are also valid for tractor models derived from the original model by modifications to the engine, transmission and steering and front suspension (see below 3.6: Extension to other tractor models). On the other hand, more than one protective structure may be tested for any one model of tractor.

3.1.2.   The protective structure submitted for dynamic test must be supplied attached in the normal manner to the tractor model in connection with which it is being tested. The tractor submitted shall be complete and in running order.

3.1.3.   Where a ‘tandem’ tractor is concerned, the mass of the standard version of that part to which the protective structure is fitted is to be used.

3.1.4.   A protective structure may be designed solely to protect the driver in the event of the tractor overturning. Onto this structure it may be possible to fit weather protection for the driver, of a more or less temporary nature. The driver will usually remove this in warm weather. There are protective structures however, in which the cladding is permanent and warm weather ventilation provided by windows or flaps. As the cladding may add to the strength of the structure and if removable may well be absent when an accident occurs, all parts that can be so taken away by the driver will be removed for the purpose of the test. Doors, roof hatch and windows that can be opened shall be either removed or fixed in the open position for the test, so that they do not add to the strength of the protective structure. It shall be noted whether, in this position, they would create a hazard for the driver in the event of overturning.

Throughout the remainder of these rules, reference will only be made to testing the protective structure. It must be understood that this includes cladding not of a temporary nature.

A description of any temporary cladding supplied is to be included in the specifications. All glass or similar brittle material shall be removed prior to the test. Tractor and protective structure components which might sustain needless damage during the test and which do not affect the strength of the protective structure or its dimensions may be removed prior to the test if the manufacturer wishes. No repairs or adjustment may be carried out during the test.

3.1.5.   Any component of the tractor contributing to the strength of the protective structure such as mud-guards, which has been reinforced by the manufacturer, should be described and its measurements given in the test report.

3.2.   Apparatus and test conditions

3.2.1.   The structure shall be struck by a block acting as a pendulum and submit to a front and a rear crushing test.

3.2.2.   The mass of the pendulum bloc (Figure 3.1) shall be 2 000 kg. Its impact face shall have dimensions 680 × 680 mm ± 20. It shall be made in such a way that the position of its centre of gravity is constant (for example with iron bars bound in concrete). It shall be suspended from a pivot point about 6 m above the floor in such a way that the height of the pendulum may be conveniently and safely adjusted.

3.2.3.   For tractors with less than 50 % of their mass on the front wheels, the first blow shall be at the rear of the structure. This shall be followed by a crushing test also at the rear of the structure. The second blow shall be at the front and the third at the side. Finally, there shall be a second crushing test at the front.

For tractors with 50 % or more of their mass on the front wheels, the first blow shall be at the front and the second blow at the side. This shall be followed by the two crushing tests, firstly at the rear and secondly at the front.

3.2.4.   For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the first blow shall be longitudinal at the heavier end (with more than 50 % of the mass of the tractor). This shall be followed by a crushing test on the same end. The second blow shall be at the other end, and the third at the side. Finally, there shall be a second crushing test at the lighter end.

3.2.5.   A track width setting for the rear-wheels shall be chosen such that the structure is in no way supported by the tyres during the test. This provision may be disregarded if such support is given when the wheels are in their widest alternative track setting.

3.2.6.   The side of the tractor from which the side blow is struck shall be that which, in the opinion of the testing station, is likely to give the greatest distortion. The rear blow shall be on the corner opposite the side blow and the front blow on the corner nearer the side blow. The rear blow shall be administered at two-thirds the distance from the median plane of the tractor to the vertical plane touching the outside extremity of the structure. However, if a curve in the back of the structure starts at less than two-thirds of the distance from the centre, the blow shall be struck at the beginning of the curve, i.e. at the point where this curve is tangential to a line at right angles to the median plane of the tractor.

3.2.7.   If, during the test, any lashings, props or blocks move or break, the test must be repeated.

3.3.   Impact tests

3.3.1.   Impact at the rear (Figures 3.2.a and 3.2.b)

3.3.1.1.   The rear impact is not required on tractors having 50 % or more of their mass (as defined above) on the front wheels.

3.3.1.2.   The tractor shall be placed in relation to the pendulum so that this will strike the structure when the striking face and the supporting chains are at an angle of 20° to the vertical unless the structure at the point of contact has, during deflection, a greater angle with the vertical. In this case the striking face shall be adjusted parallel to the side of the structure at the point of contact at the moment of maximum deflection by an additional support, the supporting chains remaining at an angle of 20° to the vertical. The point of impact shall be that part of the structure likely to hit the ground first in a rearward overturning accident, normally the upper edge. The height of the pendulum will be so adjusted that it has no tendency to turn about the point of contact.

3.3.1.3.   The tractor will be lashed down. The points of attachment of the lashings shall be approximately 2 m behind the rear axle and 1,5 m in front of the front axle. There shall be two lashings on each axle, one on each side of the median plane of the tractor. The lashings shall be steel cable of 12,5 to 15 mm diameter, tensile strength 1 100-1 260 MPa. The tyres of the tractor shall be inflated, and the lashings tightened to give tyre pressures and deflections, as shown in the Table 3.1, below.

After the lashings have been tightened a wood beam 150 × 150 mm shall be clamped in front of the rear-wheels, driven tight against them.

3.3.1.4.   The pendulum shall be pulled back so that the height H of its centre of gravity above that at the point of impact is given by one of the following formulae at the option of the manufacturer:

Formula or Formula

3.3.1.5.   The pendulum shall be released and allowed to crash against the structure. The quick release mechanism must be so positioned that it does not tilt the weight in relation to the chains supporting it at the moment of release.

Table 3.1

Tyre Pressures

 

Tyre pressures

kPa (3)

Deflection

mm

Four-wheel drive tractors with front and rear wheels of the same size:

Front

100

25

Rear

100

25

Four-wheel drive tractors with front wheels smaller than rear wheels:

Front

150

20

Rear

100

25

Two-wheel drive tractors:

Front

200

15

Rear

100

25

3.3.2.   Impact at the front (Figures 3.3.a and 3.3.b)

3.3.2.1.   This shall be carried out in the same way as the impact at the rear. The lashings shall be the same but the wooden beam shall be behind the rear-wheels. The height of fall of the centre of gravity of the pendulum shall be given by the following formula:

Formula

3.3.2.2.   The point of impact shall be that part of the structure that would hit the ground first when turning over sideways while travelling forward, normally the top of the front corner.

3.3.3.   Impact at the side (Figure 3.4)

3.3.3.1.   The tractor shall be placed in relation to the pendulum so that this will strike the structure when the striking face and the supporting chains are vertical unless the structure at the point of contact is, during deflection, other than vertical. In this case the striking face shall be adjusted so that it is approximately parallel to the structure at the point of contact at the moment of maximum deflection. This adjustment shall be made by an additional support, the supporting chains remaining vertical at the moment of impact. The point of impact shall be that part of the structure likely to hit the ground first in a sideways overturning accident, normally the upper edge.

3.3.3.2.   Unless it is certain that any other part of this edge would hit the ground first, the point of impact shall be in the plane at right angles to the median plane of the tractor and passing 60 mm in front of the seat index point, the seat being at its mid-point of longitudinal adjustment. The height of the pendulum will be so adjusted that it has no tendency to turn about the point of contact.

3.3.3.3.   For tractors with a reversible driver’s position, the point of impact shall be in the plane at right angles to the median plane of the tractor and at the mid-point between the two seat index points.

3.3.3.4.   The rear-wheel of the tractor on the side to be struck shall be lashed down. The tension in the lashings shall be determined as for the impact at the rear. After lashing, a beam 150 × 150 mm shall be clamped against the side of the rear-wheel opposite the blow, and driven hard against the tyre. A beam shall be placed as a prop against this wheel and secured on the floor so that it is held tight against the wheel during impact. The length of this beam shall be chosen so that when in position against the wheel it makes an angle of 25 to 40° with the horizontal. Furthermore its length shall be 20 to 25 times its thickness and its width 2 to 3 times its thickness.

3.3.3.5.   The pendulum shall be pulled back as in the previous tests so that the height H of its centre of gravity above that at the moment of impact is determined by the following formula:

Formula

3.3.3.6.   During the side impact test the difference between the maximum momentary deflection and the permanent deflection at a height of (810 + av) mm above the seat index point shall be recorded. This may be done with a device on which a moving friction collar shall be fitted on a horizontal rod. One end of the rod shall be attached to the top member of the structure and the other will pass through a hole in a vertical bar attached to tractor chassis. The collar will be positioned against the vertical bar attached to tractor chassis before the blow and its distance from it after the blow will give the difference between the maximum momentary deflection and the permanent deflection.

3.4.   Crushing tests

It may be necessary to hold down the front of the tractor when carrying out the test at the rear. Blocks will be placed under the axles so that the tyres do not bear crushing force. The cross beam used shall have a width of approximately 250 mm and shall be connected to the load applying mechanism by universal joints (Figure 3.5).

3.4.1.   Crushing at the rear (Figures 3.6.a and 3.6.b)

3.4.1.1.   The crushing beam shall be positioned across the rear uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane of the tractor. The crushing force (F) shall be applied where:

F = 20 M

This force shall be maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.4.1.2.   Where the rear part of the protective structure roof will not sustain the full crushing force (Figures 3.7.a and 3.7.b), the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the rear of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned.

The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force F shall be applied.

3.4.2.   Crushing at the front (Figures 3.6.a and 3.6.b)

3.4.2.1.   The crushing beam shall be positioned across the front uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane of the tractor. The crushing force (F) shall be applied where:

F = 20 M

This force shall be maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.4.2.2.   When the front part of the roof of the protective structure will not sustain the full crushing force (Figures 3.7.a and 3.7.b), the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the front of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned.

The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force F shall then be applied.

3.5.   Conditions for acceptance

3.5.1.   The structure and tractor shall be visually examined for cracks and tears after each part of the test. For the structure to pass the test the following conditions shall be complied with:

3.5.1.1.

there shall be no cracks in structural members, mounting components or tractor parts contributing to the strength of the protective structure (except as covered by 3.5.1.3 below);

3.5.1.2.

there shall be no cracks in welds contributing to the strength of the protective structure or its mounting components. Spot or tack welding used for the attachment of cladding panels shall normally be excluded from this condition;

3.5.1.3.

energy-absorbing tears in sheet metal structures are acceptable, providing that they are judged by the testing station to have not significantly reduced the resistance to deflection of the protective structure. Tears in sheet metal components caused by edges of the pendulum weight shall be ignored;

3.5.1.4.

the required force must be sustained in both crushing tests;

3.5.1.5.

the difference between the maximum momentary deflection and the permanent deflection in the side impact test must not exceed 250 mm (Figure 3.11);

3.5.1.6.

no part shall enter the clearance zone during any part of the tests. No part may strike the seat during the tests. Furthermore, the clearance zone shall not be outside the protection of the protective structure. For this purpose, it shall be considered to be outside the protection of the structure if any part of it would come in contact with flat ground if the tractor overturned towards the direction from which the test load is applied. For estimating this, the tyres and track width setting shall be the smallest standard fitting specified by the manufacturer.

3.5.1.7.

for the articulated tractors, the median planes of the two parts shall be assumed to be in line.

3.5.2.   After the final crushing test, the permanent deformation of the protective structure shall be recorded. For this purpose, before the start of the test, the position of the main members in relation to the seat index point must be recorded. Then any movement of the members struck in the tests and any change of the height of the front and back members of the roof shall be recorded.

3.6.   Extension to other tractor models

3.6.1.   [Not applicable]

3.6.2.   Technical extension

When technical modifications occur on the tractor, the protective structure or the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor, the testing station that has carried out the original test can issue a ‘technical extension report’ in the following cases:

3.6.2.1.   Extension of the structural test results to other models of tractors

The impact and crushing tests need not be carried out on each model of tractor, provided that the protective structure and tractor comply with the conditions referred to hereunder 3.6.2.1.1 to 3.6.2.1.5.

3.6.2.1.1.

The structure shall be identical to the one tested;

3.6.2.1.2.

The required energy shall not exceed the energy calculated for the original test by more than 5 %. The 5 % limit shall also apply to extensions in the case of substituting tracks for wheels on the same tractor;

3.6.2.1.3.

The method of attachment and the tractor components to which the attachment is made shall be identical;

3.6.2.1.4.

Any components such as mud-guards and bonnet that may provide support for the protective structure shall be identical;

3.6.2.1.5.

The position and critical dimensions of the seat in the protective structure and the relative position of the protective structure on the tractor shall be such that the clearance zone would have remained within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests (this shall be checked by using the same reference of clearance zone as in the original test report, respectively Seat Reference Point [SRP] or Seat Index Point [SIP]).

3.6.2.2.   Extension of the structural test results to modified models of the protective structure

This procedure has to be followed when the provisions of paragraph 3.6.2.1 are not fulfilled, it may not be used when the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor does not remain of the same principle (e.g. rubber supports replaced by a suspension device):

3.6.2.2.1.

Modifications having no impact on the results of the initial test (e.g. weld attachment of the mounting plate of an accessory in a non-critical location on the structure), addition of seats with different SIP location in the protective structure (subject to checking that the new clearance zone(s) remain(s) within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests);

3.6.2.2.2.

Modifications having a possible impact on the results of the original test without calling into question the acceptability of the protective structure (e.g. modification of a structural component, modification of the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor). A validation test can be carried out and the test results will be drafted in the extension report.

The following limits for this type extension are fixed:

3.6.2.2.2.1.

No more than 5 extensions may be accepted without a validation test;

3.6.2.2.2.2.

The results of the validation test will be accepted for extension if all the acceptance conditions of this Annex are fulfilled and if the deflection measured after each impact test does not deviate from the deflection measured after each impact test in the original test report by more than ± 7 %;

3.6.2.2.2.3.

More than one protective structure modifications may be included in a single extension report if they represent different options of the same protective structure, but only one validation test can be accepted in a single extension report. The options not tested shall be described in a specific section of the extension report.

3.6.2.2.3.

Increase of the reference mass declared by the manufacturer for a protective structure already tested. If the manufacturer wants to keep the same approval number it is possible to issue an extension report after having carried out a validation test (the limits of ± 7 % specified in 3.6.2.2.2.2 are not applicable in such a case).

3.7.   [Not applicable]

3.8.   Cold weather performance of protective structures

3.8.1.   If the protective structure is claimed to have properties resistant to cold weather embrittlement, the manufacturer shall give details that shall be included in the report.

3.8.2.   The following requirements and procedures are intended to provide strength and resistance to brittle fracture at reduced temperatures. It is suggested that the following minimum material requirements shall be met in judging the protective structure’s suitability at reduced operating temperatures in those countries requiring this additional operating protection.

Table 3.2

Minimum Charpy V-notch impact energies

Specimen size

Energy at

Energy at

 

– 30 °C

– 20 °C

mm

J

J (5)

10 × 10 (4)

11

27,5

10 × 9

10

25

10 × 8

9,5

24

10 × 7,5 (4)

9,5

24

10 × 7

9

22,5

10 × 6,7

8,5

21

10 × 6

8

20

10 × 5 (4)

7,5

19

10 × 4

7

17,5

10 × 3,5

6

15

10 × 3

6

15

10 × 2,5 (4)

5,5

14

3.8.2.1.   Bolts and nuts used to attach the protective structure to the tractor and used to connect structural parts of the protective structure shall exhibit suitable controlled reduced temperature toughness properties.

3.8.2.2.   All welding electrodes used in the fabrication of structural members and mounts shall be compatible with the protective structure material as given in 3.8.2.3 below.

3.8.2.3.   Steel materials for structural members of the protective structure shall be of controlled toughness material exhibiting minimum Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements as shown in Table 3.2. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003.

Steel with an as-rolled thickness less than 2,5 mm and with a carbon content less than 0,2 % is considered to meet this requirement. Structural members of the protective structure made from materials other than steel shall have equivalent low temperature impact resistance.

3.8.2.4.   When testing the Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements, the specimen size shall be no less than the largest of the sizes stated in Table 3.2 that the material will permit.

3.8.2.5.   The Charpy V-Notch tests shall be made in accordance with the procedure in ASTM A 370-1979, except for specimen sizes that shall be in accordance with the dimensions given in Table 3.2.

3.8.2.6.   Alternatives to this procedure are the use of killed or semi-killed steel for which an adequate specification shall be provided. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003.

3.8.2.7.   Specimens are to be longitudinal and taken from flat stock, tubular or structural sections before forming or welding for use in the protective structure. Specimens from tubular or structural sections are to be taken from the middle of the side of greatest dimension and shall not include welds.

3.9.   [Not applicable]

Figure 3.1

Pendulum block and its suspending chains or wire ropes

(Dimensions in mm)

Image

Figure 3.2

Method of impact from rear

Figure 3.2.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 3.2.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 3.3

Method of impact from front

Figure 3.3.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 3.3.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 3.4

Method of impact from side

Image

Figure 3.5

Example of an arrangement for crushing tests

Image

Figure 3.6

Position of beam for front and rear crushing tests

Figure 3.6.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 3.6.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 3.7

Position of beam for front crushing test when full crushing force not sustained in front

Figure 3.7.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 3.7.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Table 3.3

Dimensions of the clearance zone

Dimensions

mm

Remarks

A1 A0

100

minimum

B1 B0

100

minimum

F1 F0

250

minimum

F2 F0

250

minimum

G1 G0

250

minimum

G2 G0

250

minimum

H1 H0

250

minimum

H2 H0

250

minimum

J1 J0

250

minimum

J2 J0

250

minimum

E1 E0

250

minimum

E2 E0

250

minimum

D0 E0

300

minimum

J0 E0

300

minimum

A1 A2

500

minimum

B1 B2

500

minimum

C1 C2

500

minimum

D1 D2

500

minimum

I1 I2

500

minimum

F0 G0

 

I0 G0

depending on

C0 D0

the tractor

E0 F0

 

Figure 3.8

Clearance zone

Note:

for dimensions, see Table 3.3 above;

Image

Figure 3.9

Clearance zone

Figure 3.9.a

Side view section in reference plane

Figure 3.9.b

Rear or front view

Image

Image

1

Seat index point

2

Force

3

Vertical reference plane

Figure 3.10

Clearance zone for tractor with reversible seat and steering wheel

Figure 3.10.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 3.10.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 3.11

Example of apparatus for measuring elastic deflection

Image

Explanatory notes to Annex VI


(1)  Unless otherwise stated, the text of the requirements and the numbering set out in point B are identical with the text and numbering of the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (dynamic test), OECD Code 3, Edition 2015 of July 2014.

(2)  Users are reminded that the seat index point is determined according to ISO 5353 and is a fixed point with respect to the tractor that does not move as the seat is adjusted away from the mid-position. For purposes of determining the clearance zone, the seat shall be placed in the rear and uppermost position.

(3)  No water ballast is to be used.

(4)  Indicates preferred size. Specimen size shall be no less than largest preferred size that the material permits.

(5)  The energy requirement at – 20 °C is 2,5 times the value specified for – 30 °C. Other factors affect impact energy strength, i.e. direction of rolling, yield strength, grain orientation and welding. These factors shall be considered when selecting and using steel.

ANNEX VII

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (track-laying tractors)

A.   GENERAL PROVISION

1.

The Union requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (track-laying tractors) are set out in point B.

B.   REQUIREMENTS APPLYING TO ROLL-OVER PROTECTION STRUCTURES (TRACK-LAYING TRACTORS)(1)

1.   Definitions

1.1.   [Not applicable]

1.2.   Rolling Over Protective Structure (ROPS)

Roll-over protective structure (protective cab or frame), hereinafter called ‘protective structure’, means the structure on a tractor the essential purpose of which is to avoid or limit risks to the driver resulting from roll-over of the tractor during normal use.

The roll-over protective structure is characterised by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the driver when seated either inside the envelope of the structure or within a space bounded by a series of straight lines from the outer edges of the structure to any part of the tractor that might come into contact with flat ground and that is capable of supporting the tractor in that position if the tractor overturns.

1.3.   Track

1.3.1.   Preliminary definition: median plane of the track

The median plane of the track is equidistant from the two planes containing its periphery at their outer edges.

1.3.2.   Definition of track width

Track width is the distance between the median planes of the tracks

1.3.3.   Additional definition: median plane of the tractor

The vertical plane at right angles to the axle at its centre point is the median plane of the tractor.

1.4.   Protective structure

System of structural members arranged on a tractor in such a way as to accomplish its primary purpose of reducing the likelihood of an operator being crushed should his tractor roll-over. Structural members include any sub-frame, bracket, mounting, socket, bolt, pin, suspension or flexible shock absorber used to secure the system to the tractor frame but exclude mounting provisions which are integral with the tractor frame.

1.5.   Tractor frame

The main chassis or main load-bearing member(s) of the tractor which extend(s) over a major part of the tractor and upon which the protective structure is directly mounted.

1.6.   Protective structure-tractor frame assembly

System consisting of the protective structure attached to the tractor frame.

1.7.   Bedplate

A substantially rigid part of the test structure to which the tractor frame is attached for the purpose of the test.

1.8.   Seat index point (SIP)

1.8.1.   The seat index point (SIP) is located in the central longitudinal plane of the apparatus for determination when installed in the operator seat. The SIP is fixed with respect to the tractor and does not move with the seat through its range of adjustment and/or oscillation.

1.8.2.   When determining the SIP, the seat shall be adjusted with all fore, aft, vertical and angular seat adjustments placed in their centre position. The suspension systems shall be set so that the seat is at the mid-point of its oscillation range with the weighted apparatus for determination of SIP in place.

1.8.3.   The SIP must be established by means of the apparatus illustrated in Figure 8.1. The apparatus is placed on the seat. A 20 kg mass is added 40 mm in front of the SIP mark on the horizontal section of the apparatus. A horizontal force of about 100 N shall then be applied to the apparatus at the SIP (see Fo in Figure 8.1). Finally, a further 39 kg mass shall be placed 40 mm in front of the SIP mark on the horizontal section of the apparatus.

1.9.   Deflection-limiting volume (DLV)

That volume, related to the operator, which serves to set limits and deflections permissible when performing laboratory evaluations of the protective structure (Figure 8.2). It is an orthogonal approximation of the dimensions of a large, seated operator.

1.10.   Vertical reference plane

A vertical plane, generally longitudinal to the tractor and passing through the seat index point and the centre of the steering wheel or of the control hand levers. Normally, the vertical reference plane coincides with the median plane of the tractor.

1.11.   Lateral simulated ground plane

Surface on which a tractor, after rolling over, is assumed to come to a standstill with the tractor lying on its side. The simulated ground plane is determined as follows (see 3.5.1.2):

(a)

upper member to which the force is applied;

(b)

outermost point in end view of member as defined in (a) above;

(c)

vertical line through point defined in (b) above;

(d)

vertical plane parallel to vehicle's longitudinal centreline through the line defined in (c) above;

(e)

rotate plane described in (d) above, 15o away from the DLV about an axis which is perpendicular to the vertical line given in (c) above and also passes through the point described in (b) above; this establishes the simulated ground plane;

The simulated ground plane shall be established on an unloaded protective structure and shall move with the member to which the load is applied.

1.12.   Vertical simulated ground plane

For a machine coming to rest in an upside-down position, the plane is defined by the top cross-member of the protective structure and that front (rear) part of the tractor likely to come in contact with flat ground at the same time as the protective structure and capable of supporting the upside-down tractor. The vertical simulated ground plane moves with the deformed protective structure.

Note:

The vertical simulated ground plane applies only to two-post protective structures.

1.13.   Unballasted mass

The mass of the tractor without ballasting devices. The tractor shall be in running order with tanks, circuits and radiator full, protective structure with cladding and any track equipment or additional front wheel drive components required for normal use. The operator is not included.

1.14.   Permissible measurement tolerances

Time:

± 0,1 s

Distance:

± 0,5 mm

Force:

± 0,1 % (of the sensor full scale)

Angle

± 0,1°

Mass:

± 0,2 % (of the sensor full scale)

1.15.   Symbols

D

(mm)

Deflection of the structure;

F

(N)

Force;

M

(kg)

Maximum tractor mass recommended by the tractor manufacturer. It shall be equal or superior to the unballasted mass as defined in paragraph 1.13;

U

(J)

Energy absorbed by the structure related to the tractor mass.

2.   Field of application

This Annex is applicable to tractors, propelled and steered by endless tracks, having at least two axles with track attachments, and with following features:

2.1.

an unballasted tractor mass not less than 600 kg;

2.2.

the ground clearance not more than 600 mm beneath the lowest point of the front and rear axles.

3.   Rules and directions

3.1.   General regulations

3.1.1.   The protective structure may be manufactured either by the tractor manufacturer or by an independent firm. In either case a test is only valid for the model of tractor on which it is carried out. The protective structure must be retested for each model of tractor to which it is to be fitted. However, testing stations may certify that the strength tests are also valid for tractor models derived from the original model by modifications to the engine, transmission and steering and front suspension (see below 3.6: Extension to other tractor models). On the other hand, more than one protective structure may be tested for any one model of tractor.

3.1.2.   The protective structure submitted for test must be supplied attached in the normal manner to the tractor or tractor chassis on which it is used. The tractor chassis shall be complete including attaching brackets and other parts of the tractor that may be affected by loads imposed on the protective structure.

3.1.3.   A protective structure may be designed solely to protect the driver in the event of the tractor overturning. Onto this structure it may be possible to fit weather protective for the driver, of a more or less temporary nature. This will usually be removed by the driver in warm weather. There are protective structures however, in which the cladding is permanent and warm weather ventilation provided by windows or flaps. As the cladding may add to the strength of the structure and if removable may well be absent when an accident occurs, all parts that can be so taken away by the driver will be removed for the purpose of the test. Doors, roof hatch and windows which can be opened shall be either removed or fixed in the open position for the test, so that they do not add to the strength of the protective structure. It shall be noted whether, in this position, they would create a hazard for the driver in the event of overturning.

Throughout the remainder of these rules, reference will only be made to testing the protective structure. It must be understood that this includes cladding not of a temporary nature.

A description of any temporary cladding supplied is to be included in the specifications. All glass or similar brittle material shall be removed prior to the test. Tractor and protective structure components which might sustain needless damage during the test and which do not affect the strength of the protective structure or its dimensions may be removed prior to the test if the manufacturer wishes. No repairs or adjustment may be carried out during the test.

3.1.4.   Any component of the tractor contributing to the strength of the protective structure such as mud-guards, which has been reinforced by the manufacturer, should be described and its measurements given in the test report.

3.2.   Apparatus

3.2.1.   Deflection-limiting volume

The DLV and its location shall be in accordance with ISO 3164:1995 (see Figure 8.3). The DLV shall be fixed firmly to the same part of the machine to which the operator's seat is secured, and shall remain there during the entire formal test period.

For track-laying tractors with an unballasted mass of less than 5 000 kg, fitted with a two-post front mounted protective structure, the DLV corresponds to Figures 8.4 and 8.5.

3.2.2.   Zone of clearance and safeguard plane

The zone of clearance, as defined in Annex VIII (Definitions Chapter, Section 1.6), must remain covered by the safeguard plane, S, as shown in Figures 8.2 and 8.4. The safeguard plane is defined as an oblique plane, perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal plane of the tractor, forming a tangent at the front with the protective structure and at the back with whichever of the following hard fixtures of the tractor prevents the aforementioned plane S from entering the zone of clearance, via:

a housing or rigid part of the rear of the tractor,

the tracks,

an additional hard structure firmly mounted on the rear of the tractor.

3.2.3.   Rear hard fixture test

If the tractor is fitted with a rigid section, a housing or other hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat, this fixture shall be regarded as a protective point, in the event of sideways or rear overturning. This hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat shall be capable of withstanding, without breaking or entering the zone of clearance, a downward force Fi where:

Formula

applied perpendicularly to the top of the frame in the central plane of the tractor. The initial angle of application of force shall be 40° calculated from a parallel to the ground as shown in Figure 8.4. The minimum width of this rigid section shall be 500 mm (see Figure 8.5).

In addition, it shall be sufficiently rigid and firmly attached to the rear of the tractor.

3.2.4.   Lashings

Facilities for securing the protective structure-tractor frame assembly to the bedplate, as described above, and for applying the horizontal and vertical loads shall be provided (see Figures 8.6 to 8.9).

3.2.5.   Measuring instruments

The test apparatus shall be equipped with instruments for measuring the force applied to the protective structure and the deflection (deformation) of the structure.

The percentages below are nominal ratings of the accuracy of the instrumentation and shall not be taken to indicate that compensating tests are required.

Measure

Accuracy

Deflection of the protective structure

± 5 % of maximum deflection measured

Force applied to the protective structure

± 5 % of maximum force measured

3.2.6.   Arrangements for load application

Loading arrangements for load application are shown in Figures 8.7, 8.10 to 8.13 (side loading), in Figures 8.8 and 8.9 (vertical loading) and Figure 8.14 (longitudinal loading).

3.3.   Test conditions

3.3.1.   The protective structure shall comply with production specifications and shall be fitted to the appropriate tractor model chassis in accordance with the manufacturer's declared method of attachment.

3.3.2.   The protective structure - tractor frame assembly shall be secured to the bedplate so that the members connecting the assembly and the bedplate experience minimal deflection when the protective structure is side loaded. During side loading, the protective structure - tractor frame assembly shall not receive any support from the bedplate, other than that due to the initial attachment.

3.3.3.   The protective structure shall be instrumented with the necessary equipment to obtain the required force-deflection data.

3.3.4.   All tests shall be performed on the same protective structure. No repair or straightening of any protective structure - tractor member shall be carried out during or between the side and vertical loadings.

3.3.5.   For side and longitudinal loading, connection to the bedplate shall be through the main housing or track frames (see Figures 8.6 to 8.8).

3.3.6.   For vertical loading, there is no limitation on securing or supporting the protective structure-tractor frame assembly.

3.3.7.   On completion of all the tests, permanent deflections of the protective structure shall be measured and recorded.

3.4.   Test procedure

3.4.1.   General

The test procedures shall consist of the operations described in 3.4.2, 3.4.3 and 3.4.4 in the order listed.

3.4.2.   Side loading

3.4.2.1.   The force-deflection characteristics shall be determined by side loading the top major longitudinal members of the protective structure.

For a protective structure having more than two posts, the side loading shall be applied through a load-distribution device having a length not greater than 80 per cent of the top member straight length L between the front and rear posts of the protective structure (see Figures 8.13 to 8.16). The initial loading shall be within the zone that is established by the vertical projection of two planes parallel to the front and rear planes of the DLV and located 80 mm outside of them.

3.4.2.2.   For a protective structure with an overhead shield, having a two-post system, the initial loading shall be dictated by the total longitudinal distance between major, upper protective structure members L and the vertical projection of the front and rear planes of the DLV. The force (load) point shall not be within L/3 distance from the posts.

Should the L/3 point be between the vertical projection of the DLV and the posts, the force (load) point shall be moved away from the post until it enters the vertical projection of the DLV (see Figures 8.13 to 8.16). Any load distribution plate used shall not impede or restrict the rotation of the protective structure around a vertical axis during the loading and shall not distribute the load over a distance greater than 80 per cent of L.

The force shall be applied to the major, upper and longitudinal members except when a post structure is used without the cantilevered overhead shield. For this type of structure, the force shall be applied in line with the upper cross-member.

3.4.2.3.   The initial direction of the force shall be horizontal and perpendicular to a vertical plane through the tractor's longitudinal centre-line

3.4.2.4.   As loading continues, the deformations of the protective structure - tractor frame assembly may cause the direction of the force to change; this is permissible.

3.4.2.5.   Should the operator's seat be off the tractor's longitudinal centre-line, the loading shall be against the outermost side nearest the seat.

3.4.2.6.   For on-centre-line seats, if mounting of the protective structure is such that different force-deflection relations are obtained from loading from left or right sides, the side loaded shall be that which will place the most severe requirements on the protective structure - tractor frame assembly.

3.4.2.7.   The rate of deflection (application of load) shall be such that it can be considered static, i.e. less than or equal to 5 mm/s.

3.4.2.8.   At deflection increments no greater than 25 mm at the point of application of the resultant load, the force and deflection shall be recorded and plotted (Figure 8.17).

3.4.2.9.   The loading shall be continued until the protective structure has achieved both the force and energy requirements. The area under the resulting force-deflection curve (Figure 8.17) equals the energy.

3.4.2.10.   The deflection used in calculating energy shall be that of the protective structure along the line of action of the force. The deflection should be measured at the mid-point of the loading.

3.4.2.11.   Any deflection of members used to support load-application devices shall not be included in deflection measurements used for calculation of energy absorption.

3.4.3.   Vertical loading

3.4.3.1.   After removal of the side load, a vertical load shall be applied to the top of the protective structure.

3.4.3.2.   The load shall be applied using a stiff beam with a width of 250 mm.

3.4.3.3.   For structures having more than two posts, the vertical load shall be applied at both the front and the rear

3.4.3.3.1.   Vertical loading at the rear (Figures 8.10, 8.11.a and 8.11.b)

3.4.3.3.1.1.

The crushing beam shall be positioned across the rear uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane. The crushing force shall be applied and maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.4.3.3.1.2.

Where the rear part of the protective structure roof will not sustain the full crushing force, the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the rear of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned. The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force shall then be applied.

3.4.3.3.2.   Vertical loading at the front (Figures 8.10 to 8.12)

3.4.3.3.2.1.

The crushing beam shall be positioned across the front uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane. The crushing force F shall be applied and maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.4.3.3.2.2.

Where the front part of the roof of the protective structure will not sustain the full crushing force (Figures 8.12.a and 8.12.b), the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the front of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned. The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force shall then be applied.

3.4.3.4.   For a protective structure having a two-post system, the vertical loading shall be dictated by the total longitudinal distance between major upper protective structure members L and the vertical projection of the front and rear planes of the DLV. The force (load) point shall be at a distance not less than L/3 distance from the posts (see Figure 8.9).

Should the L/3 point be between the vertical projection of the DLV and the posts, the force (load) point shall be moved away from the post until it enters the vertical projection of the DLV.

For front-mounted protective structures having a two-post system without an overhead shield, the vertical loading shall be applied in line with the transverse member connecting the upper members.

3.4.4.   Longitudinal loading

3.4.4.1.   After removal of the vertical load, a longitudinal load shall be applied to the protection structure.

3.4.4.2.   The longitudinal load shall be applied at the deformed location of the originally established point, since the lateral (and vertical) loading of the protection structure is likely to result in permanent deformation of the structure. The originally established point is determined by the location of the load distributor and socket prior to any test being performed on the structure.

The load distribution device may span the width in cases where no rear (front) cross-member exists. In all other cases, the device may not distribute the load over a length greater than 80 % of the width, W, of the protection structure (see Figure 8.18).

3.4.4.3.   The longitudinal load shall be applied to the upper structural members of the protection structure along the longitudinal centreline of the protection structure.

3.4.4.4.   The direction of loading shall be selected to place the most severe requirements on the protection structure/tractor frame assembly. The initial direction of loading shall be horizontal and parallel to the original longitudinal centreline of the tractor. Some additional factors to consider in deciding on the direction to apply the longitudinal load are:

(a)

location of protection structure relative to DLV and the effect that longitudinal deflection of the protection structure would have on providing crush protection for the operator;

(b)

tractor characteristics, e.g. other structural members of the tractor which may resist longitudinal deflection of the protection structure, that can limit direction of the longitudinal component of loading on the protection structure;

(c)

experience which may indicate the possibility of longitudinal tipping or the tendency of a particular classification tractor to skew as it rotates about a longitudinal axis during an actual roll-over.

3.4.4.5.   The rate of deflection shall be such that the loading may be considered static (see 3.4.2.7). This loading is to continue until the protection structure has achieved the force requirement(s)

3.5.   Conditions for acceptance

3.5.1.   General

3.5.1.1.   During each test, no part of the protective structure shall enter the deflection-limiting volume. Also, the deformation of the protective structure shall not allow the simulated ground plane (defined in paragraphs 1.11 and 1.12) to enter the DLV.

3.5.1.2.   The protective structure deflection during each test shall not cause the load side planes of the DLV to extend beyond or intersect the simulated ground plane (see Figures 8.19 and 8.20).

The protective structure shall not break away from the tractor frame due to failure of the tractor frame.

3.5.2.   Requirements for the side loading force-energy, the vertical loading force and the longitudinal loading force

3.5.2.1.   These requirements shall be met within the deflection(s) permitted in 3.5.1.1.

3.5.2.2.   The side-load force and the minimum energy absorbed shall attain at least those given in Table 8.1, where:

F is the minimum force attained during side loading,

M (kg) is the tractor manufacturer's maximum recommended mass,

U is the minimum energy absorbed during side loading.

If the required force is attained before the energy requirement is met, the force may decrease but shall again attain the required level when the minimum energy is obtained or exceeded.

3.5.2.3.   After removal of the side load, the protective structure-tractor frame assembly shall support a vertical force:

Formula

for a period of 5 min or until any deformation has ceased, whichever is shorter.

3.5.2.4.   The longitudinal-load force shall attain at least that given in Table 8.1, where F and M are defined at point 3.5.2.2.

3.6.   Extension to other tractor models

3.6.1.   [Not applicable]

3.6.2.   Technical extension

When technical modifications occur on the tractor, the protective structure or the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor, the testing station that has carried out the original test can issue a ‘technical extension report’ in the following cases:

3.6.2.1.   Extension of the structural test results to other models of tractors

The impact and crushing tests need not be carried out on each model of tractor, provided that the protective structure and tractor comply with the conditions referred to hereunder 3.6.2.1.1 to 3.6.2.1.5.

3.6.2.1.1.

The structure shall be identical to the one tested;

3.6.2.1.2.

The required energy shall not exceed the energy calculated for the original test by more than 5 per cent;

3.6.2.1.3.

The method of attachment and the tractor components to which the attachment is made shall be identical;

3.6.2.1.4.

Any components such as mud-guards and bonnet that may provide support for the protective structure shall be identical;

3.6.2.1.5.

The position and critical dimensions of the seat in the protective structure and the relative position of the protective structure on the tractor shall be such that the DLV would have remained within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests.

3.6.2.2.   Extension of the structural test results to modified models of the protective structure

This procedure has to be followed when the provisions of paragraph 3.6.2.1 are not fulfilled, it may not be used when the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor does not remain of the same principle (e.g. rubber supports replaced by a suspension device):

3.6.2.2.1.

Modifications having no impact on the results of the initial test (e.g. weld attachment of the mounting plate of an accessory in a non-critical location on the structure), addition of seats with different SIP location in the protective structure (subject to checking that the new DLV(s) remain(s) within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests);

3.6.2.2.2.

Modifications having a possible impact on the results of the original test without calling into question the acceptability of the protective structure (e.g. modification of a structural component, modification of the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor). A validation test can be carried out and the test results will be drafted in the extension report.

The following limits for this type extension are fixed:

3.6.2.2.2.1.

no more than 5 extensions may be accepted without a validation test;

3.6.2.2.2.2.

the results of the validation test will be accepted for extension if all the acceptance conditions of this Annex are fulfilled and if the force measured when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the force measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test by more than ± 7 % and the deflection measured(2) when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the deflection measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test report by more than ± 7 %.

3.6.2.2.2.3.

more than one protective structure modifications may be included in a single extension report if they represent different options of the same protective structure, but only one validation test can be accepted in a single extension report. The options not tested shall be described in a specific section of the extension report

3.6.2.2.3.

Increase of the reference mass declared by the manufacturer for a protective structure already tested. If the manufacturer wants to keep the same approval number it is possible to issue an extension report after having carried out a validation test (the limits of ± 7 % specified in 3.6.2.2.2.2 are not applicable in such a case).

3.7.   [Not applicable]

3.8.   Cold weather performance of protective structures

3.8.1.   If the protective structure is claimed to have properties resistant to cold weather embrittlement, the manufacturer shall give details which shall be included in the report.

3.8.2.   The following requirements and procedures are intended to provide strength and resistance to brittle fracture at reduced temperatures. It is suggested that the following minimum material requirements shall be met in judging the protective structure's suitability at reduced operating temperatures in those countries requiring this additional operating protective.

3.8.2.1.   Bolts and nuts used to attach the protective structure to the tractor and used to connect structural parts of the protective structure shall exhibit suitable controlled reduced temperature toughness properties.

3.8.2.2.   All welding electrodes used in the fabrication of structural members and mounts shall be compatible with the protective structure material as given in 3.8.2.3 below

3.8.2.3.   Steel materials for structural members of the protective structure shall be of controlled toughness material exhibiting minimum Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements as shown in Table 8.2. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003.

Steel with an as-rolled thickness less than 2,5 mm and with a carbon content less than 0,2 per cent is considered to meet this requirement.

Structural members of the protective structure made from materials other than steel shall have equivalent low temperature impact resistance.

3.8.2.4.   When testing the Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements, the specimen size shall be no less than the largest of the sizes stated in Table 8.2 that the material will permit

3.8.2.5.   The Charpy V-Notch tests shall be made in accordance with the procedure in ASTM A 370-1979, except for specimen sizes which shall be in accordance with the dimensions given in table 8.2.

3.8.2.6.   Alternatives to this procedure are the use of killed or semi-killed steel for which an adequate specification shall be provided. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003

3.8.2.7.   Specimens are to be longitudinal and taken from flat stock, tubular or structural sections before forming or welding for use in the protective structure. Specimens from tubular or structural sections are to be taken from the middle of the side of greatest dimension and shall not include welds

Table 8.1

Force and energy equations

Machine mass, M

Lateral load force, F

Lateral load energy, U

Vertical load force, F

Longitudinal load force, F

kg

N

J

N

N

800 < M ≤ 4 630

6 M

13 000(M/10 000)1,25

20 M

4,8 M

4 630 < M ≤ 59 500

70 000(M/10 000)1,2

13 000(M/10 000)1,25

20 M

56 000(M/10 000)1,2

M > 59 500

10 M

2,03 M

20 M

8 M


Table 8.2

Minimum Charpy V-notch impact energies

Specimen size

Energy at

Energy at

 

– 30 °C

– 20 °C

mm

J

J (2)

10 × 10 (1)

11

27,5

10 × 9

10

25

10 × 8

9,5

24

10 × 7,5 (1)

9,5

24

10 × 7

9

22,5

10 × 6,7

8,5

21

10 × 6

8

20

10 × 5 (1)

7,5

19

10 × 4

7

17,5

10 × 3,5

6

15

10 × 3

6

15

10 × 2,5 (1)

5,5

14

Figure 8.1

Apparatus for determination of seat index point (SIP)

Image

Figure 8.2

Intrusion of vertical simulated ground plane into DLV

Image

Figure 8.3

Deflection-limiting volume (DLV)

Image

Figure 8.4

Two-post front-mounted protective structure, side view

Deflection-limiting volume (DLV)

Image

Figure 8.5

Two-post front-mounted protective structure, rear view

Deflection-limiting volume (DLV)

Image

Figure 8.6

Typical arrangement for fastening the protective structure to the tractor frame

Image

Figure 8.7

Typical arrangement for protective structure side loading

Image

Figure 8.8

Typical arrangement for fixing the tractor frame and applying vertical load

Image

Figure 8.9

Typical arrangement for applying vertical load to the protective structure

Image

Figure 8.10

Example of an arrangement for crushing test

Image

Figures 8.11

Position of beam for front and rear crushing tests, protective cab and rear roll bar frame

Figure 8.11.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 8.11.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figures 8.12

Position of beam for front crushing test when full crushing force not sustained in front

Figure 8.12.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 8.12.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figures 8.13 and 8.14

Structure with four-post system Load-distribution devices, side loading

Image

Figure 8.15

Structure with more than a four-post system

Load-distribution device, side loading

Image

Figure 8.16

Structure with two-post system

Load-distribution device, side loading

Image

Figure 8.17

Force-deflection curve for loading tests

Image

Figure 8.18

Longitudinal load application point

Image

Figure 8.19

Deflection-limiting volume (DLV) application - determination of the lateral simulated ground plane (SGP)

Image

Note:

See paragraph 1.11 for the meaning of a to e.

Figure 8.20

Allowable rotation of upper DLV about locating axis (LA)

Image

Explanatory notes to Annex VII

(1)

Unless otherwise stated, the text of the requirements and the numbering set out in point B are identical with the text and numbering of the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry track-laying tractors, OECD Code 8, Edition 2015 of July 2014.

(2)

Permanent + elastic deflection measured at the point when the required energy level is obtained.


(1)  Indicates preferred size. Specimen size shall be no less than largest preferred size that the material permits.

(2)  The energy requirement at – 20 °C is 2,5 times the value specified for – 30 °C. Other factors affect impact energy strength, i.e. direction of rolling, yield strength, grain orientation and welding. These factors shall be considered when selecting and using steel.

ANNEX VIII

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (static testing)

A.   GENERAL PROVISION

1.

The Union requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (static testing) are set out in point B.

B.   REQUIREMENTS APPLYING TO ROLL-OVER PROTECTION STRUCTURES (STATIC TESTING)(1)

1.   Definitions

1.1.   [Not applicable]

1.2.   Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS)

Roll-over protective structure (protective cab or frame), hereinafter called ‘protective structure’, means the structure on a tractor the essential purpose of which is to avoid or limit risks to the driver resulting from roll-over of the tractor during normal use.

The roll-over protective structure is characterised by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the driver when seated either inside the envelope of the structure or within a space bounded by a series of straight lines from the outer edges of the structure to any part of the tractor that might come into contact with flat ground and that is capable of supporting the tractor in that position if the tractor overturns.

1.3.   Track

1.3.1.   Preliminary definition: median plane of the wheel or track

The median plane of the wheel or track is equidistant from the two planes containing the periphery of the rims or tracks at their outer edges.

1.3.2.   Definition of track

The vertical plane through the wheel axis intersects its median plane along a straight line which meets the supporting surface at one point. If A and B are the two points thus defined for the wheels on the same axle of the tractor, then the track width is the distance between points A and B. The track may be thus defined for both front and rear wheels. Where there are twin wheels, the track is the distance between two planes each being the median plane of the pairs of wheels.

For track-laying tractors, the track is the distance between the median planes of the tracks.

1.3.3.   Additional definition: median plane of the tractor

Take the extreme positions of points A and B for the tractor rear axle, which gives the maximum possible value for the track. The vertical plane at right angles to the line AB at its centre point is the median plane of the tractor.

1.4.   Wheelbase

The distance between the vertical planes passing through the two lines AB as defined above, one for the front wheels and one for the rear-wheels.

1.5.   Determination of seat index point; Seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.1.   Seat index point (SIP)(2)

The seat index point shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5353:1995

1.5.2.   Seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.2.1.

where the seat position is adjustable, the seat must be adjusted to its rear uppermost position;

1.5.2.2.

where the inclination of the backrest is adjustable, it must be adjusted to the mid position;

1.5.2.3.

where the seat is equipped with suspension, the latter must be blocked at mid-travel, unless this is contrary to the instructions clearly laid down by the seat manufacturer;

1.5.2.4.

where the position of the seat is adjustable only lengthwise and vertically, the longitudinal axis passing through the Seat Index Point shall be parallel with the vertical longitudinal plane of the tractor passing through the centre of the steering wheel and not more than 100 mm from that plane.

1.6.   Clearance zone

1.6.1.   Reference plane for seat and steering wheel

The clearance zone is illustrated in figures 4.11 to 4.13 and Table 4.2. The zone is defined in relation to the reference plane and the Seat Index Point. The reference plane is defined at the beginning of the series of loadings; it is a vertical plane, generally longitudinal to the tractor and passing through the Seat Index Point and the centre of the steering wheel. Normally the reference plane coincides with the longitudinal median plane of the tractor. This reference plane shall be assumed to move horizontally with the seat and steering wheel during loading but to remain perpendicular to the tractor or the floor of the roll-over protective structure. The clearance zone shall be defined on the basis of Sections 1.6.2 and 1.6.3 below.

1.6.2.   Determination of the clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat

The clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat is defined in 1.6.2.1 to 1.6.2.10 below and is bounded by the following planes, the tractor being on a horizontal surface, the seat adjusted and located as specified in Sections 1.5.2.1 to 1.5.2.4(2), and the steering wheel, where adjustable, adjusted to the mid position for seated driving:

1.6.2.1.

a horizontal plane A1 B1 B2 A2, (810 + a v) mm above the Seat Index Point with line B1B2 located (a h – 10) mm behind the SIP;

1.6.2.2.

an inclined plane G1 G2 I2 I1, perpendicular to the reference plane, including both a point 150 mm behind line B1B2 and the rearmost point of the seat backrest;

1.6.2.3.

a cylindrical surface A1 A2 I2 I1 perpendicular to the reference plane, having a radius of 120 mm, tangential to the planes defined in 1.6.2.1 and 1.6.2.2 above;

1.6.2.4.

a cylindrical surface B1 C1 C2 B2, perpendicular to the reference plane, having a radius of 900 mm extending forward for 400 mm and tangential to the plane defined in 1.6.2.1 above along line B1B2;

1.6.2.5.

an inclined plane C1 D1 D2 C2, perpendicular to the reference plane, joining the surface defined in 1.6.2.4 above and passing 40 mm from the forward external edge of the steering wheel. In the case of a high steering wheel position, this plane extends forward from line B1B2 tangentially to the surface defined in 1.6.2.4 above;

1.6.2.6.

a vertical plane D1 E1 E2 D2 perpendicular to the reference plane 40 mm forward of the external edge of the steering wheel;

1.6.2.7.

a horizontal plane E1 F1 F2 E2 passing through a point (90 – a v) mm below the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.8.

a surface G1 F1 F2 G2, if necessary curved from the bottom limit of the plane defined in 1.6.2.2 above to the horizontal plane defined in 1.6.2.7 above, perpendicular to the reference plane, and in contact with the seat backrest throughout its length;

1.6.2.9.

vertical planes J1 E1 F1 G1 H1 and J2 E2 F2 G2 H2. These vertical planes shall extend upwards from plane E1 F1 F2 E2 for 300 mm; the distances E1 E0 and E2 E0 shall be 250 mm;

1.6.2.10.

parallel planes A1 B1 C1 D1 J1 H1 I1 and A2 B2 C2 D2 J2 H2 I2 inclined so that the upper edge of the plane on the side on which the force is applied is at least 100 mm from the vertical reference plane.

1.6.3.   Determination of clearance zone for tractors with a reversible driver’s position

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the clearance zone is the envelope of the two clearance zones defined by the two different positions of the steering wheel and the seat.

1.6.4.   Optional seats

1.6.4.1.

In case of tractors that could be fitted with optional seats, the envelope comprising the Seat Index Points of all options offered shall be used during the tests. The protective structure shall not enter the larger clearance zone which takes account of these different Seat Index Points.

1.6.4.2.

In the case where a new seat option is offered after the test has been performed, a determination shall be made to see whether the clearance zone around the new SIP falls within the envelope previously established. If it does not, a new test must be performed.

1.6.4.3.

Optional seat does not include a seat for a person in addition to the driver and from where the tractor cannot be controlled. The SIP shall not be determined because the definition of the clearance zone is in relation to the driver seat.

1.7.   Mass

1.7.1.   Unballasted Mass

The mass of the tractor without ballasting devices and, in the case of tractors with pneumatic tyres, without liquid ballast in the tyres. The tractor shall be in running order with tanks, circuits and radiator full, protective structure with cladding and any track equipment or additional front wheel drive components required for normal use. The operator is not included.

1.7.2.   Maximum Permissible Mass

The maximum mass of the tractor stated by the manufacturer to be technically permissible and declared on the vehicle’s identification plate and/or in the Operator’s Handbook;

1.7.3.   Reference Mass

The mass selected by the manufacturer for calculation of the energy inputs and crushing forces to be used in the tests. Must not be less than the unballasted mass and must be sufficient to ensure the Mass Ratio does not exceed 1,75 (see Section 1.7.4).

1.7.4.   Mass Ratio

The ratio of Formula This must not be greater than 1,75.

1.8.   Permissible measurement tolerances

Time

± 0,1 s

Distance

± 0,5 mm

Force

± 0,1 % (of the sensor full scale)

Angle

± 0,1°

Mass

± 0,2 % (of the sensor full scale)

1.9.   Symbols

ah

(mm)

Half of the horizontal seat adjustment

av

(mm)

Half of the vertical seat adjustment

D

(mm)

Deflection of the protective structure at the point of and in line with the load application

D'

(mm)

Deflection of the protective structure for the calculated energy required

EIS

(J)

Energy input to be absorbed during side loading

EIL1

(J)

Energy input to be absorbed during longitudinal loading

EIL2

(J)

Energy input to be absorbed in case of a second longitudinal loading

F

(N)

Static load force

Fmax

(N)

Maximum static load force occurring during loading, with the exception of the overload

F'

(N)

Force for the calculated energy required

M

(kg)

Reference mass used for calculating energy inputs and crushing forces

2.   Field of application

2.1.

This Annex is applicable to tractors having at least two axles for pneumatic tyred wheels or having tracks instead of wheels and with an unballasted tractor mass not less than 600 kg. The Mass Ratio (Maximum Permissible Mass / Reference Mass) must not be greater than 1,75.

2.2.

The minimum track width of the rear-wheels should generally be greater than 1 150 mm. It is recognised that there may be designs of tractors, for example, lawn mowers, narrow vineyard tractors, low profile tractors used in buildings with limited overhead clearance or in orchards, high-clearance tractors and special forestry machines, such as forwarders and skidders, for which this Annex is not applicable.

3.   Rules and directions

3.1.   General regulations

3.1.1.

The protective structure may be manufactured either by the tractor manufacturer or by an independent firm. In either case a test is only valid for the model of tractor on which it is carried out. The protective structure must be retested for each model of tractor to which it is to be fitted. However, testing stations may certify that the strength tests are also valid for tractor models derived from the original model by modifications to the engine, transmission and steering and front suspension. On the other hand, more than one protective structure may be tested for any one model of tractor.

3.1.2.

The protective structure submitted for static test must be supplied attached in the normal manner to the tractor or tractor chassis on which it is used. The tractor chassis shall be complete including attaching brackets and other parts of the tractor that may be affected by loads imposed on the protective structure.

3.1.3.

Where a ‘tandem’ tractor is concerned, the mass of the standard version of that part to which the protective structure is fitted is to be used.

3.1.4.

A protective structure may be designed solely to protect the driver in the event of the tractor overturning. Onto this structure it may be possible to fit weather protection for the driver, of a more or less temporary nature. The driver will usually remove this in warm weather. There are protective structures however, in which the cladding is permanent and warm weather ventilation provided by windows or flaps. As the cladding may add to the strength of the structure and if removable may well be absent when an accident occurs, all parts that can be so taken away by the driver will be removed for the purpose of the test. Doors, roof hatch and windows that can be opened shall be either removed or fixed in the open position for the test, so that they do not add to the strength of the protective structure. It shall be noted whether, in this position, they would create a hazard for the driver in the event of overturning.

Throughout the remainder of these rules, reference will only be made to testing the protective structure. It must be understood that this includes cladding not of a temporary nature.

A description of any temporary cladding supplied is to be included in the specifications. All glass or similar brittle material shall be removed prior to the test. Tractor and protective structure components which might sustain needless damage during the test and which do not affect the strength of the protective structure or its dimensions may be removed prior to the test if the manufacturer wishes. No repairs or adjustment may be carried out during the test.

3.1.5.

Any component of the tractor contributing to the strength of the protective structure such as mud-guards, which has been reinforced by the manufacturer, should be described and its measurements given in the test report.

3.2.   Apparatus

For verifying that the clearance zone has not been entered during the test, means shall be used as described in point 1.6, figures 4.11 to 4.13 and Table 4.2.

3.2.1.   Horizontal loading tests (figures 4.1 to 4.5)

The following shall be used in horizontal loading tests:

3.2.1.1.

material, equipment and means of attachment to ensure that the tractor chassis is firmly fixed to the ground and supported independently of the tyres;

3.2.1.2.

device for applying a horizontal force to the protective structure; provision shall be made so that the load can be uniformly distributed normal to the direction of loading;

3.2.1.2.1.

a beam of length not less than 250 mm nor more than 700 mm in exact multiples of 50 mm between these lengths shall be used. The beam shall have a vertical dimension of 150 mm;

3.2.1.2.2.

the edges of the beam in contact with the protective structure shall be curved with a maximum radius of 50 mm;

3.2.1.2.3.

universal joints or the equivalent shall be incorporated to ensure that the loading device does not constrain the protective structure in rotation or translation in any direction other than the direction of loading;

3.2.1.2.4.

where the straight line defined by the appropriate beam on the protective structure is not normal to the direction of application of load the space shall be packed so as to distribute the load over the full length;

3.2.1.3.

equipment for measuring force and deflection in the load direction, relative to the tractor chassis. To ensure accuracy, measurements shall be taken as continuous readings. The measuring devices shall be located so as to record the force and deflection at the point of, and along the line of, loading.

3.2.2.   Crushing tests (figures 4.6 to 4.8)

The following shall be used in crushing tests:

3.2.2.1.

material, equipment and means of attachment to ensure that the tractor chassis is firmly fixed to the ground and supported independently of the tyres;

3.2.2.2.

device for applying a downward force to the protective structure, including a stiff beam with a width of 250 mm;

3.2.2.3.

equipment for measuring the total vertical force applied.

3.3.   Test conditions

3.3.1.   The protective structure shall be to production specifications and shall be fitted to the appropriate tractor model chassis in accordance with the manufacturer's declared method of attachment.

3.3.2.   The assembly shall be secured to the bedplate so that the members connecting the assembly and the bedplate do not deflect significantly in relation to the protective structure under load. The assembly shall not receive any support under load other than that due to the initial attachment.

3.3.3.   An adjustable track width setting for the wheels or tracks, if present, shall be chosen such that no interference exists with the protective structure during the tests.

3.3.4.   The protective structure shall be instrumented with the necessary equipment to obtain the required force-deflection data.

3.3.5.   All tests shall be performed on the same protective structure. No repairs or straightening of any members shall be carried out between any parts of the test

3.3.6.   On completion of all tests, permanent deflections of the protective structure shall be measured and recorded.

3.4.   Sequence of tests

Tests shall be conducted in the following sequence:

3.4.1.   Longitudinal loading

For a wheeled tractor with at least 50 % of its mass on the rear axle and for track-laying tractors, the longitudinal loading shall be applied from the rear. For other tractors the longitudinal loading shall be applied from the front.

3.4.2.   First crushing test

The first crushing test shall be applied at the same end of the protective structure as the longitudinal loading

3.4.3.   Loading from the side

In the case of an offset seat or non-symmetrical strength of the protective structure, the side loading shall be on the side most likely to lead to infringement of the clearance zone.

3.4.4.   Second crushing test

The second crushing test shall be applied at the end of the protective structure opposite from that receiving the first longitudinal loading. In the case of two-post designs, the second crush may be at the same point as the first crush.

3.4.5.   Second longitudinal loading

3.4.5.1.

A second longitudinal loading shall be applied to tractors fitted with a folding (e.g. two posts) or tiltable (e.g. non-two posts) protective structure, if one or more of the following conditions exists:

Temporary folding for special operating conditions;

Structures designed to tilt for service, unless the tilt mechanism is independent from the structural integrity of the roll-over protective structure.

3.4.5.2.

For folding protective structures, if the first longitudinal loading was applied in the folding direction then a second longitudinal loading is not required.

3.5.   Horizontal loading tests from the rear, front and side

3.5.1.   General provisions

3.5.1.1.

The load applied to the protective structure shall be distributed uniformly by means of a stiff beam, normal to the direction of load application (see 3.2.1.2). The stiff beam may be equipped with a means of preventing its sideways displacement. The rate of load application shall be such that it can be considered static. As the load is applied, force and deflection shall be recorded as a continuous record to ensure accuracy. Once the initial application has commenced, the load shall not be reduced until the test has been completed. The direction of the applied force shall be within the following limits:

at start of test (no load): ± 2°,

during test (under load): 10° above and 20° below the horizontal.

The rate of load application shall be considered static if the rate of deflection under loading is not greater than 5 mm/s.

3.5.1.2.

If no structural cross member exists at the point of load application, a substitute test beam which does not add strength will be utilised.

3.5.2.   Longitudinal loading (figures 4.1 and 4.2)

The load shall be applied horizontally and parallel to the median plane of the tractor. If the load is applied from the rear (Section 3.4.1), the longitudinal load and the lateral load shall be applied on different sides of the median plane of the tractor. If the longitudinal load is applied from the front, it shall be on the same side as the side load.

The load shall be applied to the uppermost transverse structural member of the protective structure (i.e. that part which would be likely to strike the ground first in an overturn).

The point of application of the load shall be located at one sixth of the width of the top of the protective structure inwards from the outside corner. The width of the protective structure shall be taken as the distance between two lines parallel to the median plane of the tractor touching the outside extremities of the protective structure in the horizontal plane touching the top of the uppermost transverse structural members.

In the event that the ROPS is formed of curved members and no appropriate corners exist, the following general procedure shall apply for determining W. The test engineer shall identify the curved member most likely to first strike ground in the event of an asymmetrical rear or front overturn (e.g. an overturn to the front or rear where one side of the ROPS is likely to bear the initial loading). The endpoints of W shall be the mid-points of the external radii created between other straight or curved members which form the uppermost ROPS structure. In the event that multiple curved members could be selected, the test engineer shall establish ground lines for each possible member to determine which surface is most likely to strike ground first. See figures 4.3 a) and b) for examples.

Note:

In the event of curved members, only the width at the end of the structure to which the longitudinal load is to be applied need be considered

The length of the load distribution device (see 3.2.1.2) shall be not less than one third of the width of the protective structure and not more than 49 mm greater than this minimum.

The longitudinal loading shall be stopped when:

3.5.2.1.

the energy absorbed by the protective structure is equal to or greater than the required energy input, EIL1 where:

Formula

3.5.2.2.

the protective structure infringes on the clearance zone or leaves the clearance zone unprotected (Condition of acceptance in 3.8 below).

3.5.3.   Side loading (figures 4.4 and 4.5)

The side loading shall be applied horizontally at 90° to the median plane of the tractor. It shall be applied to the upper extremity of the protective structure at a point (160 – ah ) mm forward of the Seat Index Point.

For tractors with a reversible driver's position (reversible seat and steering wheel), it shall be applied to the upper extremity of the protective structure at the mid-point between the two Seat Index Points.

If it is certain that any particular part of the protective structure will touch ground first when the tractor overturns sideways, the loading shall be applied at that point, provided that this permits uniform distribution of the load as specified in 3.5.1.1. In the case of a two-post protective structure, side loading shall be applied at the structural member uppermost on the side, regardless of the seat index position.

Specifications for the load distribution beam are given in Section 3.2.1.2.1.

The side loading shall be stopped when:

3.5.3.1.

The energy absorbed by the protective structure is equal to or greater than the required energy, EIS , where:

Formula

3.5.3.2.

The protective structure infringes on the clearance zone or leaves the clearance zone unprotected (Condition of acceptance in 3.8 below).

3.6.   Crushing tests

3.6.1.   Crushing at the rear (figures 4.6, 4.7.a to 4.7.e)

3.6.1.1.

The crushing beam shall be positioned across the rear uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane of the tractor. The crushing force F shall be applied where:

Formula

This force shall be maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.6.1.2.

Where the rear part of the protective structure roof will not sustain the full crushing force, the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the rear of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned. The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force F = 20 M shall then be applied.

3.6.2.   Crushing at the front (figures 4.6 to 4.8)

3.6.2.1.

The crushing beam shall be positioned across the front uppermost structural members so that the resultant of the crushing forces is located in the vertical reference plane of the tractor. The crushing force F shall be applied where:

Formula

This force shall be maintained for 5 seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

3.6.2.2.

Where the front part of the roof of the protective structure will not sustain the full crushing force (figures 4.8.a and 4.8.b), the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the front of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned. The force shall then be removed and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure that would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force F = 20 M shall then be applied.

3.7.   Second longitudinal loading test

The load shall be applied in the opposite direction to and at the corner farthest from the point of application of the first longitudinal load (figures 4.1 and 4.2).

The longitudinal loading shall be stopped when:

3.7.1.

The energy absorbed by the protective structure is equal to or greater than the required energy, EIL2 , where:

Formula

3.7.2.

The protective structure infringes on the clearance zone or leaves the clearance zone unprotected (Condition of acceptance in 3.8 below

3.8.   Conditions for acceptance

For the protective structure to be accepted it shall fulfil the following conditions during and after completion of the tests:

3.8.1.

no part shall enter the clearance zone during any part of the tests. No part may strike the seat during the tests. Furthermore, the clearance zone shall not be outside the protection of the protective structure. For this purpose, it shall be considered to be outside the protection of the structure if any part of it would come in contact with flat ground if the tractor overturned towards the direction from which the test load is applied. For estimating this, the tyres and track width setting shall be the smallest standard fitting specified by the manufacturer;

3.8.2.

for the articulated tractors, the median planes of the two parts shall be assumed to be in line;

3.8.3.

after the final crushing test, the permanent deflection of the protective structure shall be recorded. For this purpose, before the start of the test, the position of the main protective structure members in relation to the Seat Index Point must be recorded. Then any displacement of the members resulting from the loading tests and any change of the height of the front and back members of the roof of the protective structure shall be recorded;

3.8.4.

at the point where the required energy absorption is met in each of the specified horizontal loading tests the force shall exceed 0,8 Fmax ;

3.8.5.

an overload test shall be required if the applied force decreases by more than 3 % over the last 5 % of the deflection attained when the energy required is absorbed by the structure (Figures 4.14 to 4.16). Description of the overload test:

3.8.5.1.

an overload test shall consist of continuing the horizontal loading in increments of 5 % of the original required energy, up to a maximum of 20 % additional energy;

3.8.5.2.

the overload test shall be successfully completed if after the absorption of 5, 10 or 15 % additional energy the force drops by less than 3 % for each 5 % energy increment whilst remaining greater than 0,8 Fmax or if, after the absorption of 20 % additional energy the force is greater than 0,8 Fmax ;

3.8.5.3.

additional cracks or tears or entry into or lack of protection of the clearance zone, due to elastic deformation, are permitted during the overload test. After removing the load, however, the protective structure shall not infringe on the clearance zone, which shall be completely protected;

3.8.6.

the required force must be sustained in both crushing tests;

3.8.7.

there shall be no protruding member or component which would be likely to cause serious injury during an overturning accident or which, through the deformation occurring, might trap the operator, for example by the leg or foot;

3.8.8.

there shall be no other components presenting a serious hazard to the operator.

3.9.   Extension to other tractor models

3.9.1.   [Not applicable]

3.9.2.   Technical extension

When technical modifications occur on the tractor, the protective structure or the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor, the testing station that has carried out the original test can issue a ‘technical extension report’ in the following cases:

3.9.2.1.

Extension of the structural test results to other models of tractors

The loading and crushing tests need not be carried out on each model of tractor, provided that the protective structure and tractor comply with the conditions referred to hereunder 3.9.2.1.1 to 3.9.2.1.5

3.9.2.1.1.

The structure shall be identical to the one tested;

3.9.2.1.2.

The required energy shall not exceed the energy calculated for the original test by more than 5 %. The 5 % limit shall also apply to extensions in the case of substituting tracks for wheels on the same tractor;

3.9.2.1.3.

The method of attachment and the tractor components to which the attachment is made shall be identical;

3.9.2.1.4.

Any components such as mud-guards and bonnet that may provide support for the protective structure shall be identical;

3.9.2.1.5.

The position and critical dimensions of the seat in the protective structure and the relative position of the protective structure on the tractor shall be such that the clearance zone would have remained within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests (this shall be checked by using the same reference of clearance zone as in the original test report, respectively Seat Reference Point [SRP] or Seat Index Point [SIP]).

3.9.2.2.

Extension of the structural test results to modified models of the protective structure.

This procedure has to be followed when the provisions of paragraph 3.9.2.1 are not fulfilled, it may not be used when the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor does not remain of the same principle (e.g. rubber supports replaced by a suspension device)

3.9.2.2.1.

Modifications having no impact on the results of the initial test (e.g. weld attachment of the mounting plate of an accessory in a non-critical location on the structure), addition of seats with different SIP location in the protective structure (subject to checking that the new clearance zone(s) remain(s) within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests).

3.9.2.2.2.

Modifications having a possible impact on the results of the original test without calling into question the acceptability of the protective structure (e.g. modification of a structural component, modification of the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor). A validation test can be carried out and the test results will be drafted in the extension report.

The following limits for this type extension are fixed.

3.9.2.2.2.1.

No more than 5 extensions may be accepted without a validation test;

3.9.2.2.2.2.

The results of the validation test will be accepted for extension if all the acceptance conditions of this Annex are fulfilled and if the force measured when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the force measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test by more than ± 7 % and the deflection measured(3) when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the deflection measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test report by more than ± 7 %.

3.9.2.2.2.3.

More than one protective structure modifications may be included in a single extension report if they represent different options of the same protective structure, but only one validation test can be accepted in a single extension report. The options not tested shall be described in a specific section of the extension report.

3.9.2.2.3.

Increase of the reference mass declared by the manufacturer for a protective structure already tested. If the manufacturer wants to keep the same approval number it is possible to issue an extension report after having carried out a validation test (the limits of ± 7 % specified in 3.9.2.2.2.2 are not applicable in such a case).

3.10.   [Not applicable]

3.11.   Cold weather performance of protective structures

3.11.1.

If the protective structure is claimed to have properties resistant to cold weather embrittlement, the manufacturer shall give details that shall be included in the report.

3.11.2.

The following requirements and procedures are intended to provide strength and resistance to brittle fracture at reduced temperatures. It is suggested that the following minimum material requirements shall be met in judging the protective structure's suitability at reduced operating temperatures in those countries requiring this additional operating protection.

3.11.2.1.

Bolts and nuts used to attach the protective structure to the tractor and used to connect structural parts of the protective structure shall exhibit suitable controlled reduced temperature toughness properties.

3.11.2.2.

All welding electrodes used in the fabrication of structural members and mounts shall be compatible with the protective structure material as given in 3.11.2.3 below.

3.11.2.3.

Steel materials for structural members of the protective structure shall be of controlled toughness material exhibiting minimum Charpy V-Notch loading energy requirements as shown in Table 4.1. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003.

Steel with an as-rolled thickness less than 2,5 mm and with a carbon content less than 0,2 % is considered to meet this requirement. Structural members of the protective structure made from materials other than steel shall have equivalent low temperature loading resistance.

3.11.2.4.

When testing the Charpy V-Notch loading energy requirements, the specimen size shall be no less than the largest of the sizes stated in Table 4.1 that the material will permit.

3.11.2.5.

The Charpy V-Notch tests shall be made in accordance with the procedure in ASTM A 370-1979, except for specimen sizes that shall be in accordance with the dimensions given in Table 4.1.

3.11.2.6.

Alternatives to this procedure are the use of killed or semi-killed steel for which an adequate specification shall be provided. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995; Amd1:2003.

3.11.2.7.

Specimens are to be longitudinal and taken from flat stock, tubular or structural sections before forming or welding for use in the protective structure. Specimens from tubular or structural sections are to be taken from the middle of the side of greatest dimension and shall not include welds.

Table 4.1

Minimum Charpy V-notch impact energies

Specimen size

Energy at

Energy at

 

– 30 °C

– 20 °C

mm

J

J (2)

10 × 10 (1)

11

27,5

10 × 9

10

25

10 × 8

9,5

24

10 × 7,5 (1)

9,5

24

10 × 7

9

22,5

10 × 6,7

8,5

21

10 × 6

8

20

10 × 5 (1)

7,5

19

10 × 4

7

17,5

10 × 3,5

6

15

3.12.   [Not applicable]

Figure 4.1

Front and rear load applications, Protective cab and rear roll bar frame

(Dimensions in mm)

Figure 4.1.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 4.1.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 4.2

Longitudinal load applications

Image

Figure 4.3

Examples of ‘W’ for ROPS with curved members

Figure 4.3.a

Four-post ROPS

Image

Key:

1— Seat index point

2— SIP, longitudinal centre-plane

3— Point of second longitudinal load application, front or rear

4— Point of longitudinal load application, rear or front

Figure 4.3.b

Two-post ROPS

Image

Key:

1— Seat index point (SIP)

2— SIP, longitudinal centre-plane

3— Point of second longitudinal load application, front or rear

4— Point of longitudinal load application, rear or front

Figure 4.4

Side load application (side view), protective cab and rear roll bar frame

Figure 4.4.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 4.4.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 4.5

Side load application (rear view)

Image

Image

(a)

(b)

Figure 4.6

Example of arrangement for crushing test

Image

Figure 4.7

Position of beam for front and rear crushing tests, protective cab and rear roll bar frame

Figure 4.7.a

Rear Crush

Image

Image

Figure 4.7.b

Front Crush

Image

Image

Figure 4.7.c

Crush test for rear roll bar

Image

Image

Figure 4.7.d

Protective cab

Image

Figure 4.7.e

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 4.8

Position of beam for front crushing test when full crushing force not sustained in front

Figure 4.8.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 4.8.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Image

Figure 4.9

The crushing force is applied with the beam having its centre point passing in the vertical reference plane of the tractor (being also that of the seat and steering wheel)

Case 1

:

when the ROPS, the seat and the steering wheel are rigidly fixed to the tractor body;

Case 2

:

when the ROPS is rigidly fixed to the tractor body, and the seat and the steering wheel are located on a floor (suspended or not) but they are NOT connected to the ROPS.

In these cases, the vertical reference plane referred to the seat and steering wheel includes normally also the centre of gravity of the tractor during the execution of the entire series of loadings.

Figure 4.10

The crushing force is applied with the beam having its centre point passing only in the vertical reference plane of the tractor

Image

Cases 3 and 4 can be defined, in which the ROPS is fixed to a platform, rigidly fixed (case 3) or suspended (case 4) in respect to the tractor chassis. These joining or linkage solutions cause different movements to cabs and clearance zone as well as the vertical reference plane.

Image

Table 4.2

Dimensions of the clearance zone

Dimensions

mm

Remarks

A1 A0

100

minimum

B1 B0

100

minimum

F1 F0

250

minimum

F2 F0

250

minimum

G1 G0

250

minimum

G2 G0

250

minimum

H1 H0

250

minimum

H2 H0

250

minimum

J1 J0

250

minimum

J2 J0

250

minimum

E1 E0

250

minimum

E2 E0

250

minimum

D0 E0

300

minimum

J0 E0

300

minimum

A1 A2

500

minimum

B1 B2

500

minimum

C1 C2

500

minimum

D1 D2

500

minimum

I1 I2

500

minimum

F0 G0

depending on the tractor

I0 G0

C0 D0

E0 F0

Figure 4.11

Clearance zone

Image

Key:

1

Seat index point

Note:

for dimensions, see Table 4.2 above

Figure 4.12

Clearance zone

Figure 4.12.a

Side view section in reference plan

Image

Figure 4.12.b

Rear or front view

Image

Key:

1— Seat index point

2— Force

3— Vertical reference plane

Figure 4.13

Clearance zone for tractor with reversible seat and steering wheel, protective cab and rear roll bar frame

Figure 4.13.a

Protective cab

Image

Figure 4.13.b

Rear roll bar frame

Image

Figure 4.14

Force/deflection curve

Overload test not necessary

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D'

2.

Overload test not necessary as Fa ≤ 1,03 F'

Figure 4.15

Force/deflection curve

Overload test necessary

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D'

2.

Overload test necessary as Fa > 1,03 F'

3.

Overload test performance satisfactory as Fb > 0,97 F' and Fb > 0,8 F max

Figure 4.16

Force/deflection curve

Overload test to be continued

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D'

2.

Overload test necessary as Fa > 1,03 F'

3.

Fb < 0,97 F' therefore further overload necessary

4.

Fc < 0,97 Fb therefore further overload necessary

5.

Fd < 0,97 Fc therefore further overload necessary

6.

Overload test performance satisfactory, if Fe > 0,8 F max

7.

Failure at any stage when load drops below 0,8 F max

Explanatory notes to Annex VIII

(1)

Unless otherwise stated, the text of the requirements and the numbering set out in point B are identical with the text and numbering of the OECD standard Code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test), OECD Code 4, Edition 2015 of July 2014.

(2)

Users are reminded that the seat index point is determined according to ISO 5353:1995 and is a fixed point with respect to the tractor that does not move as the seat is adjusted away from the mid-position. For purposes of determining the clearance zone, the seat shall be placed in the rear and uppermost position.

(3)

Permanent + elastic deflection measured at the point when the required energy level is obtained.


(1)  Indicates preferred size. Specimen size shall be no less than largest preferred size that the material permits.

(2)  The energy requirement at – 20 °C is 2,5 times the value specified for – 30 °C. Other factors affect impact energy strength, i.e. direction of rolling, yield strength, grain orientation and welding. These factors shall be considered when selecting and using steel.

ANNEX IX

Requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (front mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors)

A.   GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.

The Union requirements applying to roll-over protection structures (front mounted roll-over protective structures on narrow-track tractors) are set out in point B.

2.

Tests may be performed in accordance with the static or alternatively the dynamic test procedures as set out in sections B1 and B2. The two methods are deemed equivalent.

3.

In addition to the requirements set out in point 2, the requirements for foldable ROPS performance set out in section B3 shall be met.

4.

In section B4 is set out the computer programme for determining the continuous or interrupted roll over behaviour which shall be used for the virtual testing.

B.   REQUIREMENTS APPLYING TO ROLL-OVER PROTECTION STRUCTURES (FRONT MOUNTED ROLL-OVER PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES ON NARROW-TRACK TRACTORS)(1)

1.   Definitions

1.1   [Not applicable]

1.2.   Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS)

Roll-over protective structure (protective cab or frame), hereinafter called ‘protective structure’, means the structure on a tractor the essential purpose of which is to avoid or limit risks to the driver resulting from roll-over of the tractor during normal use.

The roll-over protective structure is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the driver when seated either inside the envelope of the structure or within a space bounded by a series of straight lines from the outer edges of the structure to any part of the tractor that might come into contact with flat ground and that is capable of supporting the tractor in that position if the tractor overturns.

1.3.   Track

1.3.1.   Preliminary definition: median plane of the wheel

The median plane of the wheel is equidistant from the two planes containing the periphery of the rims at their outer edges.

1.3.2.   Definition of track

The vertical plane through the wheel axis intersects its median plane along a straight line which meets the supporting surface at one point. If A and B are the two points thus defined for the wheels on the same axle of the tractor, then the track width is the distance between points A and B. The track may be thus defined for both front and rear wheels. Where there are twin wheels, the track is the distance between two planes each being the median plane of the pairs of wheels.

1.3.3.   Additional definition: median plane of the tractor

Take the extreme positions of points A and B for the tractor rear axle, which gives the maximum possible value for the track. The vertical plane at right angles to the line AB at its centre point is the median plane of the tractor.

1.4.   Wheelbase

The distance between the vertical planes passing through the two lines AB as defined above, one for the front wheels and one for the rear-wheels.

1.5.   Determination of seat index point; seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.1.   Seat index point (SIP)(2)

The seat index point shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5353:1995

1.5.2.   Seat location and adjustment for test

1.5.2.1.

where the seat position is adjustable, the seat must be adjusted to its rear uppermost position;

1.5.2.2.

where the inclination of the backrest is adjustable, it must be adjusted to the mid position;

1.5.2.3.

where the seat is equipped with suspension, the latter must be blocked at mid-travel, unless this is contrary to the instructions clearly laid down by the seat manufacturer;

1.5.2.4.

where the position of the seat is adjustable only lengthwise and vertically, the longitudinal axis passing through the Seat Index Point shall be parallel with the vertical longitudinal plane of the tractor passing through the centre of the steering wheel and not more than 100 mm from that plane.

1.6.   Clearance zone

1.6.1.   Reference vertical plane and line

The clearance zone (figure 6.1) is defined on the basis of a vertical reference plane and a reference line:

1.6.1.1.

The reference plane is a vertical plane, generally longitudinal to the tractor and passing through the Seat Index Point and the centre of the steering wheel. Normally the reference plane coincides with the longitudinal median plane of the tractor. This reference plane shall be assumed to move horizontally with the seat and steering wheel during loading but to remain perpendicular to the tractor or the floor of the roll-over protective structure.

1.6.1.2.

The reference line is the line contained in the reference plane that passes through a point located 140 + ah rearward and 90 – av below the Seat Index Point and the first point on the steering wheel rim that it intersects when brought to the horizontal.

1.6.2.   Determination of the clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat

The clearance zone for tractors with a non-reversible seat is defined in 1.6.2.1 to 1.6.2.11 below and is bounded by the following planes, the tractor being on a horizontal surface, the seat adjusted and located as specified in sections 1.5.2.1 to 1.5.2.4(3), and the steering wheel, where adjustable, adjusted to the mid position for seated driving:

1.6.2.1.

two vertical planes 250 mm on either side of the reference plane, these vertical planes extending 300 mm upwards from the plane defined in 1.6.2.8 below and longitudinally at least 550 mm in front of the vertical plane perpendicular to the reference plane passing (210 – ah ) mm in front of the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.2.

two vertical planes 200 mm on either side of the reference plane, these vertical planes extending 300 mm upwards from the plane defined in 1.6.2.8 below and longitudinally from the surface defined in 1.6.2.11 below to the vertical plane perpendicular to the reference plane passing (210 – ah ) mm in front of the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.3.

an inclined plane perpendicular to the reference plane, parallel with and 400 mm above the reference line, extending backwards to the point where it intersects the vertical plane which is perpendicular to the reference plane and which passes through a point (140 + ah ) mm rearward of the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.4.

an inclined plane, perpendicular to the reference plane which meets the plane defined in 1.6.2.3 above at its rearmost edge and rests on the top of the seat back rest;

1.6.2.5.

a vertical plane perpendicular to the reference plane, passing at least 40 mm forward of the steering wheel and at least 760 – ah forward of the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.6.

a cylindrical surface with its axis perpendicular to the reference plane, having a radius of 150 mm and tangential to the planes defined in 1.6.2.3 and 1.6.2.5;

1.6.2.7.

two parallel inclined planes passing through the upper edges of the planes defined in 1.6.2.1 above with the inclined plane on the side where the impact is applied no closer than 100 mm to the reference plane above the zone of clearance;

1.6.2.8.

a horizontal plane passing through a point 90 – av below the Seat Index Point;

1.6.2.9.

two portions of the vertical plane perpendicular to the reference plane passing 210 – ah forward of the Seat Index Point, both these part planes joining respectively the rearmost limits of the planes defined in 1.6.2.1 above to the foremost limits of the planes defined in 1.6.2.2 above;

1.6.2.10.

two portions of the horizontal plane passing 300 mm above plane defined in 1.6.2.8 above, both these part planes joining respectively the uppermost limits of the vertical planes defined in 1.6.2.2 above to the lowermost limits of the oblique planes defined in 1.6.2.7 above;

1.6.2.11.

a surface, curved if necessary, whose generating line is perpendicular to the reference plane and rests on the back of the seat backrest.

1.6.3.   Determination of the clearance zone for tractors with a reversible driver’s position

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the clearance zone is the envelope of the two clearance zones defined by the two different positions of the steering wheel and the seat. For each position of steering wheel and the seat the clearance zone shall respectively be defined on the basis of above sections 1.6.1 and 1.6.2 for driver’s position in normal position and on the basis of sections 1.6.1 and 1.6.2 of Annex X for driver’s position in reverse position (see figure 6.2).

1.6.4.   Optional seats

1.6.4.1.

In case of tractors that could be fitted with optional seats, the envelope comprising the Seat Index Points of all options offered shall be used during the tests. The protective structure shall not enter the larger clearance zone which takes account of these different Seat Index Points.

1.6.4.2.

In the case where a new seat option is offered after the test has been performed, a determination shall be made to see whether the clearance zone around the new SIP falls within the envelope previously established. If it does not, a new test must be performed.

1.6.4.3.

Optional seat does not include a seat for a person in addition to the driver and from where the tractor cannot be controlled. The SIP shall not be determined because the definition of the clearance zone is in relation to the driver seat.

1.7.   Mass

1.7.1.   Unballasted / Unladen Mass

The mass of the tractor excluding optional accessories but including coolant, oils, fuel, tools plus the protective structure. Not included are optional front or rear weights, tyre ballast, mounted implements, mounted equipment or any specialised components;

1.7.2.   Maximum Permissible Mass

The maximum mass of the tractor stated by the manufacturer to be technically permissible and declared on the vehicle’s identification plate and/or in the Operator’s Handbook;

1.7.3.   Reference Mass

The mass, selected by the manufacturer, used in formulae to calculate the height of fall of the pendulum block, the energy inputs and crushing forces to be used in the tests. Must not be less than the unballasted mass and must be sufficient to ensure the Mass Ratio does not exceed 1,75 (see Sections 1.7.4 and 2.1.3);

1.7.4.   Mass Ratio

The ratio of Formula This must not be greater than 1,75.

1.8.   Permissible measurement tolerances

Linear dimension:

 

± 3 mm

except for:

- - tyre deflection:

± 1 mm

 

- - structure deflection during horizontal loadings:

± 1 mm

 

- - height of fall of the pendulum block:

± 1 mm

Masses:

 

± 0,2 % (of the sensor full scale)

Forces:

 

± 0,1 % (of the full scale)

Angles:

 

± 0,1°

1.9.   Symbols

ah

(mm)

Half of the horizontal seat adjustment

av

(mm)

Half of the vertical seat adjustment

B

(mm)

Minimum overall width of the tractor;

Bb

(mm)

Maximum outer width of the protective structure;

D

(mm)

Deflection of the structure at the point of impact (dynamic tests) or at the point of, and in line with, the load application (static tests);

D'

(mm)

Deflection of the structure for the calculated energy required;

Ea

(J)

Strain energy absorbed at point when load is removed. Area contained within F-D curve;

Ei

(J)

Strain energy absorbed. Area under F-D curve;

E'i

(J)

Strain energy absorbed after additional loading following a crack or tear;

E''i

(J)

Strain energy absorbed in overload test in the event of the load having been removed before starting this overload test. Area under F-D curve;

Eil

(J)

Energy input to be absorbed during longitudinal loading;

Eis

(J)

Energy input to be absorbed during side loading;

F

(N)

Static load force;

F'

(N)

Loading force for calculated energy required, corresponding to E’i ;

F-D

 

Force/deflection diagram;

Fi

(N)

Force applied to rear hard fixture;

Fmax

(N)

Maximum static load force occurring during loading, with the exception of the overload;

Fv

(N)

Vertical crushing force;

H

(mm)

Falling height of the pendulum block (dynamic tests);

H’

(mm)

Falling height of the pendulum block for additional test (dynamic tests);

I

(kg.m2)

Tractor reference moment of inertia about the centre line of the rear wheels, whatever the mass of these rear wheels may be;

L

(mm)

Tractor reference wheelbase;

M

(kg)

Tractor reference mass during strength tests.

2.   Field of application

2.1.

This Annex shall apply to tractors having the following characteristics:

2.1.1.

ground clearance of not more than 600 mm beneath the lowest points of the front and rear axles, allowing for the differential;

2.1.2.

fixed or adjustable minimum track width with one of the axles less than 1 150 mm fitted with tyres of a larger size. It is assumed that the axle mounted with the wider tyres is set at a track width of not more than 1 150 mm. It must be possible to set the track width of the other axle in such a way that the outer edges of the narrower tyres do not go beyond the outer edges of the tyres of the other axle. Where the two axles are fitted with rims and tyres of the same size, the fixed or adjustable track width of the two axles must be less than 1 150 mm;

2.1.3.

mass greater than 400 kg but less than 3 500 kg, corresponding to the unladen mass of the tractor, including the roll-over protective structure and tyres of the largest size recommended by the manufacturer. The maximum permissible mass shall not exceed 5 250 kg and the Mass Ratio (Maximum Permissible Mass / Reference Mass) must not be greater than 1,75;

2.1.4.

and being fitted with roll-over protective structures of the dual-pillar type mounted only in front of the Seat Index Point and characterised by a reduced clearance zone attributable to the tractor silhouette, thus rendering it inadvisable, under any circumstances, to impede access to the driving position but worthwhile retaining these structures (fold-down or not) in view of their undoubted ease of use.

2.2.

It is recognised that there may be designs of tractors, for example, special forestry machines, such as forwarders and skidders, for which this Annex is not applicable.

B1.   STATIC TEST PROCEDURE

3.   Rules and directions

3.1.   Prior conditions for the strength tests

3.1.1.   Completion of two preliminary tests

The protective structure may only be subjected to the strength tests if both the Lateral Stability Test and the Non-Continuous Rolling Test have been satisfactorily completed (see flow diagram as figure 6.3).

3.1.2.   Preparation for the preliminary tests

3.1.2.1.   The tractor must be equipped with the protective structure in its safety position.

3.1.2.2.   The tractor must be fitted with tyres having the greatest diameter indicated by the manufacturer and the smallest cross-section for tyres of that diameter. The tyres must not be liquid-ballasted and must be inflated to the pressure recommended for field work.

3.1.2.3.   The rear wheels must be set to the narrowest track width; the front wheels must be set as closely as possible to the same track width. If it is possible to have two front track settings which differ equally from the narrowest rear track setting, the wider of these two front track settings must be selected.

3.1.2.4.   All the tractor’s tanks must be filled or the liquids must be replaced by an equivalent mass in the corresponding position.

3.1.2.5.   All attachments used in the series production shall be fixed to the tractor in the normal position.

3.1.3.   Lateral stability test

3.1.3.1.   The tractor, prepared as specified above, is placed on a horizontal plane so that the tractor front-axle pivot point or, in the case of an articulated tractor, the horizontal pivot point between the two axles can move freely.

3.1.3.2.   Using a jack or a hoist, tilt the part of the tractor which is rigidly connected to the axle that bears more than 50 per cent of the tractor’s weight, while constantly measuring the angle of inclination. This angle must be at least 38° at the moment when the tractor is resting in a state of unstable equilibrium on the wheels touching the ground. Perform the test once with the steering wheel turned to full right lock and once with the steering wheel turned to full left lock.

3.1.4.   Non-continuous rolling test

3.1.4.1.   General remarks

This test is intended to check whether a structure fitted to the tractor for the protection of the driver can satisfactorily prevent continuous roll-over of the tractor in the event of its overturning laterally on a slope with a gradient of 1 in 1.5 (figure 6.4).

Evidence of non-continuous rolling can be provided in accordance with one of the two methods described in 3.1.4.2 and 3.1.4.3.

3.1.4.2.   Demonstration of non-continuous rolling behaviour by means of the overturning test

3.1.4.2.1.

The overturning test must be carried out on a test slope at least four metres long (see figure 6.4). The surface must be covered with an 18-cm layer of a material that, as measured in accordance with Standards ASAE S313.3 FEB1999 and ASAE EP542 FEB1999 relating to soil cone penetrometer, has a cone penetration index of:

Formula

or

Formula

3.1.4.2.2.

The tractor (prepared as described in paragraph 3.1.2) is tilted laterally with zero initial speed. For this purpose, it is placed at the start of the test slope in such a way that the wheels on the downhill side rest on the slope and the tractor’s median plane is parallel with the contour lines. After striking the surface of the test slope, the tractor may lift itself from the surface by pivoting about the upper corner of the protective structure, but it must not roll over. It must fall back on the side which it first struck.

3.1.4.3.   Demonstration of non-continuous rolling behaviour by calculation

3.1.4.3.1.

For the purpose of verifying non-continuous rolling behaviour by calculation, the following characteristic tractor data must be ascertained (see figure 6.5):

B0

(m)

Rear tyre width;

B6

(m)

Width of protective structure between the right and left points of impact;

B7

(m)

Width of engine bonnet;

D0

(rad)

Front-axle swing angle from zero position to end of travel;

D2

(m)

Height of front tyres under full axle load;

D3

(m)

Height of rear tyres under full axle load;

H0

(m)

Height of the front-axle pivot point;

H1

(m)

Height of centre of gravity;

H6

(m)

Height at the point of impact;

H7

(m)

Height of engine bonnet;

L2

(m)

Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and front axle;

L3

(m)

Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and rear axle;

L6

(m)

Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and the leading point of intersection of the protective structure (to be preceded by a minus sign if this point lies in front of the plane of the centre of gravity);

L7

(m)

Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and the front corner of the engine bonnet;

Mc

(kg)

Tractor mass used for calculation;

Q

(kgm2)

Moment of inertia about the longitudinal axis through the centre of gravity;

S

(m)

Rear track width.

The sum of the track (S) and tyre (B0) widths must be greater than the width B6 of the protective structure.

3.1.4.3.2.

For the purposes of calculation, the following simplifying assumptions can be made:

3.1.4.3.2.1.

the stationary tractor overturns on a slope with a 1/1,5 gradient with a balanced front axle, as soon as the centre of gravity is vertically above the axis of rotation;

3.1.4.3.2.2.

the axis of rotation is parallel to the tractor’s longitudinal axis and passes through the centre of the contact surfaces of the downhill front and rear wheel;

3.1.4.3.2.3.

the tractor does not slide downhill;

3.1.4.3.2.4.

impact on the slope is partly elastic, with a coefficient of elasticity of:

Formula

3.1.4.3.2.5.

the depth of penetration into the slope and the deformation of the protective structure together amount to:

Formula

3.1.4.3.2.6.

no other components of the tractor penetrate into the slope.

3.1.4.3.3.

The computer programme (BASIC(4)) for determining the continuous or interrupted roll-over behaviour of a laterally overturning narrow-track tractor with a front-mounted roll-over protective structure is in section B4, with examples 6.1 to 6.11.

3.1.5.   Measurement methods

3.1.5.1.   Horizontal distances between the centre of gravity and rear (L3) or front (L2) axles

The distance between the rear and front axles on both sides of the tractor shall be measured in order to verify there is no steering angle.

The distances between the centre of gravity and the rear axle (L3) or the front axle (L2) shall be calculated from the mass distribution of the tractor between the rear and the front wheels.

3.1.5.2.   Heights of rear (D3) and front (D2) tyres

The distance from the highest point of the tyre to the ground plane shall be measured (figure 6.5), and the same method shall be used for the front and rear tyres.

3.1.5.3.   Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and the leading point of intersection of the protective structure (L6).

The distance between the centre of gravity and the leading point of intersection of the protective structure shall be measured (figures 6.6.a, 6.6.b and 6.6.c). If the protective structure is in front of the plane of the centre of gravity, the recorded measure will be preceded by a minus sign (– L6).

3.1.5.4.   Width of the protective structure (B6)

The distance between the right and left points of impact of the two vertical posts of the structure shall be measured.

The point of impact is defined by the plane tangent to the protective structure passing through the line made by the top outer points of the front and rear tyres (figure 6.7).

3.1.5.5.   Height of the protective structure (H6)

The vertical distance from the point of impact of the structure to the ground plane shall be measured.

3.1.5.6.   Height of the engine bonnet (H7)

The vertical distance from the point of impact of the engine bonnet to the ground plane shall be measured.

The point of impact is defined by the plane tangent to the engine bonnet and the protective structure passing through the top outer points of the front tyre (figure 6.7). The measurement shall be made on both sides of the engine bonnet.

3.1.5.7.   Width of the engine bonnet (B7)

The distance between the two points of impact of the engine bonnet as defined previously shall be measured.

3.1.5.8.   Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and the front corner of the engine bonnet (L7)

The distance from the point of impact of the engine bonnet, as defined previously, to the centre of gravity shall be measured.

3.1.5.9.   Height of the front-axle pivot point (H0)

The vertical distance between the centre of the front-axle pivot point to the centre of axle of the front tyres (H01) shall be included in the manufacturer’s technical report and shall be checked.

The vertical distance from the centre of the front tyres axle to the ground plane (H02) shall be measured (figure 6.8).

The height of the front-axle pivot (H0) is the sum of both previous values.

3.1.5.10.   Rear track width (S)

The minimum rear track width fitted with tyres of the largest size, as specified by the manufacturer, shall be measured (figure 6.9).

3.1.5.11.   Rear tyre width (B0)

The distance between the outer and the inner vertical planes of a rear tyre in its upper part shall be measured (figure 6.9).

3.1.5.12.   Front axle swinging angle (D0)

The largest angle defined by the swinging of the front axle from the horizontal position to the maximum deflection shall be measured on both sides of the axle, taking into account any end-stroke shock absorber. The maximum angle measured shall be used.

3.1.5.13.   Tractor Mass

The tractor mass shall be determined according to the conditions specified in section 1.7.1.

3.2.   Conditions for testing the strength of protective structures and of their attachment to tractors

3.2.1.   General requirements

3.2.1.1.   Test purposes

Tests made using special rigs are intended to simulate such loads as are imposed on a protective structure, when the tractor overturns. These tests enable observations to be made on the strength of the protective structure and any brackets attaching it to the tractor and any parts of the tractor which transmit the test load.

3.2.1.2.   Test methods

Tests may be performed in accordance with the static procedure or the dynamic procedure (see Annex A). The two methods are deemed equivalent.

3.2.1.3.   General rules governing preparation for tests

3.2.1.3.1.

The protective structure must conform to the series production specifications. It shall be attached in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended method to one of the tractors for which it is designed.

Note:

A complete tractor is not required for the static strength test; however, the protective structure and parts of the tractor to which it is attached represent an operating installation, hereinafter referred to as ‘the assembly’.

3.2.1.3.2.

For both the static test and the dynamic test the tractor as assembled (or the assembly) must be fitted with all series production components which may affect the strength of the protective structure or which may be necessary for the strength test.

Components which may create a hazard in the clearance zone must also be fitted on the tractor (or the assembly) so that they may be examined to see whether the requirements of the Acceptance Conditions in 3.2.3 have been fulfilled.

All components of the tractor or the protective structure including weather protective must be supplied or described on drawings.

3.2.1.3.3.

For the strength tests, all panels and detachable non-structural components must be removed so that they may not contribute to the strengthening of the protective structure.

3.2.1.3.4.

The track width must be adjusted so that the protective structure will, as far as possible, not be supported by the tyres during the strength tests. If these tests are conducted in accordance with the static procedure, the wheels may be removed.

3.2.2.   Tests

3.2.2.1.   Sequence of tests according to the Static Procedure

The sequence of tests, without prejudice to the additional tests mentioned in sections 3.3.1.6, and 3.3.1.7 is as follows:

(1)

loading at the rear of the structure

(see 3.3.1.1);

(2)

rear crushing test

(see 3.3.1.4);

(3)

loading at the front of the structure

(see 3.3.1.2);

(4)

loading at the side of the structure

(see 3.3.1.3);

(5)

crushing at the front of the structure

(see 3.3.1.5).

3.2.2.2.   General requirements

3.2.2.2.1.

If, during the test, any part of the tractor restraining equipment breaks or moves, the test shall be restarted.

3.2.2.2 2.

No repairs or adjustments of the tractor or protective structure may be carried out during the tests.

3.2.2.2.3.

The tractor gear box shall be in neutral and the brakes off during the tests.

3.2.2.2.4.

If the tractor is fitted with a suspension system between the tractor body and the wheels, it shall be blocked during the tests.

3.2.2.2.5.

The side chosen for application of the first load on the rear of the structure shall be that which, in the opinion of the testing authorities, will result in the application of the series of loads under the most unfavourable conditions for the structure. The lateral load and the rear load shall be applied on both sides of the longitudinal median plane of the protective structure. The front load shall be applied on the same side of the longitudinal median plane of the protective structure as the lateral load.

3.2.3.   Acceptance conditions

3.2.3.1.   A protective structure is regarded as having satisfied the strength requirements if it fulfils the following conditions:

3.2.3.1.1.

After each part-test it must be free from cracks or tears within the meaning of section 3.3.2.1 or

3.2.3.1.2.

If, during one of the crushing tests, significant cracks or tears appear, an additional test, in accordance with section 3.3.1.7, must be applied immediately after the crushing which caused cracks or tears to appear;

3.2.3.1.3.

during the tests other than the overload test, no part of the protective structure must enter the clearance zone as defined in 1.6;

3.2.3.1.4.

during the tests other than the overload test, all parts of the clearance zone shall be secured by the structure, in accordance with 3.3.2.2;

3.2.3.1.5.

during the tests the protective structure must not impose any constraints on the seat structure;

3.2.3.1.6.

the elastic deflection, measured in accordance with 3.3.2.4 shall be less than 250 mm.

3.2.3.2.   There shall be no accessories presenting a hazard for the driver. There shall be no projecting part or accessory which is liable to injure the driver should the tractor overturn, or any accessory or part which is liable to trap him — for example by the leg or the foot — as a result of the deflections of the structure.

3.2.4.   [Not applicable]

3.2.5.   Test apparatus and equipment

3.2.5.1.   Static testing rig

3.2.5.1.1.

The static testing rig must be designed in such a way as to permit thrusts or loads to be applied to the protective structure.

3.2.5.1.2.

Provision must be made so that the load can be uniformly distributed normal to the direction of loading and along a flange having a length of one of the exact multiples of 50 between 250 and 700 mm. The stiff beam shall have a vertical face dimension of 150 mm. The edges of the beam in contact with the protective structure shall be curved with a maximum radius of 50 mm.

3.2.5.1.3.

The pad shall be capable of being adjusted to any angle in relation to the load direction, in order to be able to follow the angular variations of the structure’s load-bearing surface as the structure deflects.

3.2.5.1.4.

Direction of the force (deviation from horizontal and vertical):

at start of test, under zero load: ± 2°;

during test, under load: 10° above and 20° below the horizontal. These variations must be kept to a minimum.

3.2.5.1.5.

The deflection rate shall be sufficiently slow, less than 5 mm/s so that the load may at all moments be considered as static.

3.2.5.2.   Apparatus for measuring the energy absorbed by the structure

3.2.5.2.1.

The force versus deflection curve shall be plotted in order to determine the energy absorbed by the structure. There is no need to measure the force and deflection at the point where the load is applied to the structure; however, force and deflection shall be measured simultaneously and co-linearly.

3.2.5.2.2.

The point of origin of deflection measurements shall be selected so as to take account only of the energy absorbed by the structure and/or by the deflection of certain parts of the tractor. The energy absorbed by the deflection and/or the slipping of the anchoring must be ignored.

3.2.5.3.   Means of anchoring the tractor to the ground

3.2.5.3.1.

Anchoring rails with the requisite track width and covering the necessary area for anchoring the tractor in all the cases illustrated must be rigidly attached to a non-yielding base near the testing rig.

3.2.5.3.2.

The tractor must be anchored to the rails by any suitable means (plates, wedges, wire ropes, jacks, etc.) so that it cannot move during the tests. This requirement shall be checked during the test, by means of the usual devices for measuring length.

If the tractor moves, the entire test shall be repeated, unless the system for measuring the deflections taken into account for plotting the force versus deflection curve is connected to the tractor.

3.2.5.4.   Crushing rig

A rig as shown in figure 6.10 shall be capable of exerting a downward force on a protective structure through a rigid beam approximately 250 mm wide, connected to the load-applying mechanism by means of universal joints. Suitable axle stands must be provided so that the tractor tyres do not bear the crushing force.

3.2.5.5.   Other measuring apparatus

The following measuring devices are also needed:

3.2.5.5.1.

A device for measuring the elastic deflection (the difference between the maximum momentary deflection and the permanent deflection, see figure 6.11).

3.2.5.5.2.

A device for checking that the protective structure has not entered the clearance zone and that the latter has remained within the structure’s protection during the test (section 3.3.2.2).

3.3.   Static test procedure

3.3.1.   Loading and crushing tests

3.3.1.1.   Loading at the rear

3.3.1.1.1.

The load shall be applied horizontally in a vertical plane parallel to the tractor’s median plane.

The load application point shall be that part of the roll-over protective structure likely to hit the ground first in a rearward overturning accident, normally the upper edge. The vertical plane in which the load is applied shall be located at a distance of 1/6 of the width of the top of the protective structure inwards from a vertical plane, parallel to the median plane of the tractor, touching the outside extremity of the top of the protective structure.

If the structure is curved or protruding at this point, wedges enabling the load to be applied thereon shall be added, without thereby reinforcing the structure.

3.3.1.1.2.

The assembly shall be lashed to the ground as described in 3.2.6.3.

3.3.1.1.3.

The energy absorbed by the protective structure during the test shall be at least:

Formula

3.3.1.1.4.

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the same formula shall apply.

3.3.1.2.   Loading at the front

3.3.1.2.1.

The load shall be applied horizontally, in a vertical plane parallel to the tractor’s median plane and located at a distance of 1/6 of the width of the top of the protective structure inwards from a vertical plane, parallel to the median plane of the tractor, touching the outside extremity of the top of the protective structure.

The load application point shall be that part of the roll-over protective structure likely to hit the ground first if the tractor overturned sideways while travelling forward, normally the upper edge.

If the structure is curved or protruding at this point, wedges enabling the load to be applied thereon shall be added, without thereby reinforcing the structure.

3.3.1.2.2.

The assembly shall be lashed to the ground as described in 3.2.5.3.

3.3.1.2.3.

The energy absorbed by the protective structure during the test shall be at least:

Formula

3.3.1.2.4.

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the energy shall be whichever is the higher of the above or either of the following as selected:

Formula

or

Formula

3.3.1.3.   Loading from the side

3.3.1.3.1.

The side loading shall be applied horizontally, in a vertical plane perpendicular to the tractor’s median plane. The load application point shall be that part of the roll-over protective structure likely to hit the ground first in a sideways overturning accident, normally the upper edge.

3.3.1.3.2.

The assembly shall be lashed to the ground as described in 3.2.5.3.

3.3.1.3.3.

The energy absorbed by the protective structure during the test shall be at least:

Formula

3.3.1.3.4.

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the energy shall be whichever is higher of the above or the following:

Formula

3.3.1.4.   Crushing at the rear

The beam shall be positioned over the rear uppermost structural member(s) and the resultant of crushing forces shall be located in the tractor’s median plane. A force Fv shall be applied where:

Formula

The force Fv shall be maintained for five seconds after cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

Where the rear part of the protective structure roof will not sustain the full crushing force, the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the rear of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned.

The force shall then be removed, and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure which would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force Fv shall then be applied again.

3.3.1.5.   Crushing at the front

The beam shall be positioned across the front uppermost structural member(s) and the resultant of crushing forces shall be located in the tractor’s median plane. A force Fv shall be applied where:

Formula

The force Fv shall be maintained for five seconds after the cessation of any visually detectable movement of the protective structure.

Where the front part of the protective structure roof will not sustain the full crushing force, the force shall be applied until the roof is deflected to coincide with the plane joining the upper part of the protective structure with that part of the front of the tractor capable of supporting the tractor when overturned.

The force shall then be removed, and the crushing beam repositioned over that part of the protective structure which would support the tractor when completely overturned. The crushing force Fv shall then be applied again.

3.3.1.6.   Additional overload test (figures 6.14 to 6.16)

An overload test shall be carried out in all cases where the force decreases by more than 3 per cent during the last 5 per cent of the deflection reached when the energy required is absorbed by the structure (see figure 6.15).

The overload test involves the gradual increase of the horizontal load by increments of 5 per cent of the initial energy requirement up to a maximum of 20 per cent of energy added (see figure 6.16).

The overload test is satisfactory if, after each increase by 5, 10 or 15 per cent in the energy required, the force decreases by less than 3 per cent for a 5 per cent increment and remains greater than 0,8 Fmax.

The overload test is satisfactory if, after the structure has absorbed 20 per cent of the added energy, the force exceeds 0,8 Fmax.

Additional cracks or tears and/or entry into or lack of protection of the clearance zone due to elastic deflection are permitted during the overload test. However, after the removal of the load, the structure shall not enter the clearance zone, which shall be completely protected.

3.3.1.7.   Additional crushing tests

If cracks or tears which cannot be considered as negligible appear during a crushing test, a second, similar crushing, but with a force of 1,2 Fv shall be applied immediately after the crushing test which caused the cracks or tears to appear.

3.3.2.   Measurements to be made

3.3.2.1.   Fractures and cracks

After each test all structural members, joints and attachment systems shall be visually examined for fractures or cracks, any small cracks in unimportant parts being ignored.

3.3.2.2.   Entry into the clearance zone

During each test the protective structure shall be examined to see whether any part of it has entered the clearance zone as defined in 1.6 above.

Furthermore, the clearance zone shall not be outside the protection of the protective structure. For this purpose, it shall be considered to be outside the protection of the structure if any part of it would come in contact with flat ground if the tractor overturned towards the direction from which the test load is applied. For estimating this, the front and rear tyres and track width setting shall be the smallest standard fitting specified by the manufacturer.

3.3.2.3.   Rear hard fixture tests

If the tractor is fitted with a rigid section, a housing or other hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat, this fixture shall be regarded as a protective point, in the event of sideways or rear overturning. This hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat shall be capable of withstanding, without breaking or entering the clearance zone, a downward force Fi, where:

Formula

applied perpendicularly to the top of the frame in the central plane of the tractor. The initial angle of application of force shall be 40° calculated from a parallel to the ground as shown in figure 6.12. The minimum width of this rigid section shall be 500 mm (see figure 6.13).

In addition, it shall be sufficiently rigid and firmly attached to the rear of the tractor.

3.3.2.4.   Elastic deflection under side loading

The elastic deflection shall be measured (810 + av ) mm above the Seat Index Point, in the vertical plane in which the load is applied. For this measurement, any apparatus similar to that illustrated in figure 6.11 shall be used.

3.3.2.5.   Permanent deflection

After the final crushing test the permanent deflection of the protective structure shall be recorded. For this purpose, before the start of the test, the position of the main roll-over protective structure members in relation to the Seat Index Point shall be recorded.

3.4.   Extension to other tractor models

3.4.1.   [Not applicable]

3.4.2.   Technical extension

When technical modifications occur on the tractor, the protective structure or the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor, the testing station that has carried out the original test can issue a ‘technical extension report’ if the tractor and protective structure satisfied preliminary tests of lateral stability and non-continuous rolling as defined in 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 and if the rear hard fixture as described in paragraph 3.3.2.3., when fitted, has been tested in accordance with the procedure described in this paragraph (except 3.4.2.2.4) in the following cases:

3.4.2.1.   Extension of the structural test results to other models of tractors

The impact or loading and crushing tests need not be carried out on each model of tractor, provided that the protective structure and tractor comply with the conditions referred to hereunder in 3.4.2.1.1 to 3.4.2.1.5.

3.4.2.1.1.

The structure (including rear hard fixture) shall be identical to the one tested;

3.4.2.1.2.

The required energy shall not exceed the energy calculated for the original test by more than 5 per cent;

3.4.2.1.3.

The method of attachment and the tractor components to which the attachment is made shall be identical;

3.4.2.1.4.

Any components such as mud-guards and bonnet that may provide support for the protective structure shall be identical;

3.4.2.1.5.

The position and critical dimensions of the seat in the protective structure and the relative position of the protective structure on the tractor shall be such that the clearance zone would have remained within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests (this shall be checked by using the same reference of clearance zone as in the original test report, respectively Seat Reference Point [SRP] or Seat Index Point [SIP]).

3.4.2.2.   Extension of the structural test results to modified models of the protective structure

This procedure has to be followed when the provisions of section 3.4.2.1 are not fulfilled, it may not be used when the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor does not remain of the same principle (e.g. rubber supports replaced by a suspension device):

3.4.2.2.1.

Modifications having no impact on the results of the initial test (e.g. weld attachment of the mounting plate of an accessory in a non-critical location on the structure), addition of seats with different SIP location in the protective structure (subject to checking that the new clearance zone(s) remain(s) within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all tests).

3.4.2.2.2.

Modifications having a possible impact on the results of the original test without calling into question the acceptability of the protective structure (e.g. modification of a structural component, modification of the method of attachment of the protective structure to the tractor). A validation test can be carried out and the test results will be drafted in the extension report.

The following limits for this type extension are fixed:

3.4.2.2.2.1.

no more than 5 extension may be accepted without a validation test;

3.4.2.2.2.2.

the results of the validation test will be accepted for extension if all the acceptance conditions of this Annex are fulfilled and:

if the deflection measured after each impact test does not deviate from the deflection measured after each impact test in the original test report by more than ± 7 % (in the case of dynamic tests);

if the force measured when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the force measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test by more than ± 7 % and the deflection measured(4) when the required energy level has been reached in the various horizontal load tests does not deviate from the deflection measured when the required energy has been reached in the original test report by more than ± 7 % (in the case of static tests).

3.4.2.2.2.3.

more than one protective structure modification may be included in a single extension report if they represent different options of the same protective structure, but only one validation test can be accepted in a single extension report. The options not tested shall be described in a specific section of the extension report.

3.4.2.2.3.

Increase of the reference mass declared by the manufacturer for a protective structure already tested. If the manufacturer wants to keep the same approval number it is possible to issue an extension report after having carried out a validation test (the limits of ± 7 % specified in 3.4.2.2.2.2 are not applicable in such a case).

3.4.2.2.4.

Modification of the rear hard fixture or addition of a new rear hard fixture. It has to be checked that the clearance zone remains within the protection of the deflected structure throughout all test taking into account the new or modified rear hard fixture. A validation of the rear hard fixture consisting in the test described in 3.3.2.3 has to be carried out and the test results will be drafted in the extension report.

3.5.   [Not applicable]

3.6.   Cold weather performance of protective structures

3.6.1.   If the protective structure is claimed to have properties resistant to cold weather embrittlement, the manufacturer shall give details that shall be included in the report.

3.6.2.   The following requirements and procedures are intended to provide strength and resistance to brittle fracture at reduced temperatures. It is suggested that the following minimum material requirements shall be met in judging the protective structure’s suitability at reduced operating temperatures in those countries requiring this additional operating protection.

3.6.2.1.   Bolts and nuts used to attach the protective structure to the tractor and used to connect structural parts of the protective structure shall exhibit suitable controlled reduced temperature toughness properties.

3.6.2.2.   All welding electrodes used in the fabrication of structural members and mounts shall be compatible with the protective structure material as given in 3.6.2.3 below.

3.6.2.3.   Steel materials for structural members of the protective structure shall be of controlled toughness material exhibiting minimum Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements as shown in Table 6.1. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995.

Steel with an as-rolled thickness less than 2,5 mm and with a carbon content less than 0,2 per cent is considered to meet this requirement.

Structural members of the protective structure made from materials other than steel shall have equivalent low temperature impact resistance.

3.6.2.4.   When testing the Charpy V-Notch impact energy requirements, the specimen size shall be no less than the largest of the sizes stated in Table 6.1 that the material will permit.

3.6.2.5.   The Charpy V-Notch tests shall be made in accordance with the procedure in ASTM A 370-1979, except for specimen sizes that shall be in accordance with the dimensions given in Table 6.1.

3.6.2.6.   Alternatives to this procedure are the use of killed or semi-killed steel for which an adequate specification shall be provided. Steel grade and quality shall be specified in accordance with ISO 630:1995, Amd 1:2003.

3.6.2.7.   Specimens are to be longitudinal and taken from flat stock, tubular or structural sections before forming or welding for use in the protective structure. Specimens from tubular or structural sections are to be taken from the middle of the side of greatest dimension and shall not include welds.

Table 6.1.

Minimum Charpy V-notch impact energies

Specimen size

Energy at

Energy at

 

– 30 °C

– 20 °C

mm

J

J (2)

10 × 10 (1)

11

27,5

10 × 9

10

25

10 × 8

9,5

24

10 × 7,5 (1)

9,5

24

10 × 7

9

22,5

10 × 6,7

8,5

21

10 × 6

8

20

10 × 5 (1)

7,5

19

10 × 4

7

17,5

10 × 3,5

6

15

10 × 3

6

15

10 × 2,5 (1)

5,5

14

3.7.   [Not applicable]

Figure 6.1

Clearance zone

Dimensions in mm

Figure 6.1.a

Side view

Cross-section through the reference plane

Image

Figure 6.1.b

Rear view

Image

Figure 6.1.c

View from above

Image

1– Reference line

2– Seat index point

3– Reference plane

Figure 6.2

Clearance zone for tractors with reversible seat and steering wheel

Image

Figure 6.3

Flow diagram for determining the continuous roll-over behaviour of a laterally overturning tractor with a front mounted roll-over protective structure (ROPS)

Image

Version B1: Point of impact of ROPS behind longitudinally unstable equilibrium point

Version B2: Point of impact of ROPS near longitudinally unstable equilibrium point

Version B3: Point of impact of ROPS in front of longitudinally unstable equilibrium point

Figure 6.4

Rig for testing anti-roll properties on 1/1,5 gradient

Image

Figure 6.5

Data required for calculating the overturn of a tractor with triaxial rolling behaviour

Image

Figures 6.6.a, 6.6.b, 6.6.c

Horizontal distance between the centre of gravity and the leading point of intersection of the protective structure (L6)

Image

Figure 6.7

Determination of points of impact for measurement of width of protective structure (B6) and height of engine bonnet (H7)

Image

Figure 6.8

Height of the front-axle pivot point (H0)

Image

Figure 6.9

Rear track width (S) and Rear tyre width (B0)

Image

Figure 6.10

Example of crushing rig of the tractor

Image

Figure 6.11

Example of apparatus for measuring elastic deflection

Image

1– Permanent deflection

2– Elastic deflection

3– Total deflection (permanent plus elastic)

Figure 6.12

Simulated ground line

Image

Figure 6.13

Minimum width of the rear hard fixture

Image

Figure 6.14

Force / deflection curve

Overload test not necessary

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D’

2.

Overload test not necessary as Fa ≤ 1,03 F’

Figure 6.15

Force / deflection curve

Overload test necessary

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D’

2.

Overload test necessary as Fa > 1,03 F’

3.

Overload test performance satisfactory as Fb > 0,97 F’ and Fb > 0,8 Fmax.

Figure 6.16

Force / deflection curve

Overload test to be continued

Image

Notes:

1.

Locate Fa in relation to 0,95 D’

2.

Overload test necessary as Fa > 1,03 F’

3.

Fb < 0,97 F’ therefore further overload necessary

4.

Fc < 0,97 Fb therefore further overload necessary

5.

Fd < 0,97 Fc therefore further overload necessary

6.

Overload test performance satisfactory, if Fe > 0,8 Fmax

7.

Failure at any stage when load drops below 0,8 Fmax.

B2.   ALTERNATIVE ‘DYNAMIC’ TEST PROCEDURE

This section sets out the Dynamic Testing Procedure alternative to the static test procedure set out in section B1.

4.   Rules and directions

4.1.   Prior conditions for the strength tests

See requirements stated for static testing.

4.2.   Conditions for testing the strength of protective structures and of their attachment to tractors

4.2.1.   General requirements

See requirements stated for static testing.

4.2.2.   Tests

4.2.2.1.   Sequence of tests according to the Dynamic Procedure

The sequence of tests, without prejudice to the additional tests mentioned in sections 4.3.1.6 and 4.3.1.7 is as follows:

(1)

impact at the rear of the structure

(see 4.3.1.1);

(2)

rear crushing test

(see 4.3.1.4);

(3)

impact at the front of the structure

(see 4.3.1.2);

(4)

impact at the side of the structure

(see 4.3.1.3);

(5)

crushing at the front of the structure

(see 4.3.1.5).

4.2.2.2.   General requirements

4.2.2.2.1.

If, during the test, any part of the tractor restraining equipment breaks or moves, the test shall be restarted.

4.2.2.2.2.

No repairs or adjustments of the tractor or protective structure may be carried out during the tests.

4.2.2.2.3.

The tractor gear box shall be in neutral and the brakes off during the tests.

4.2.2.2.4.

If the tractor is fitted with a suspension system between the tractor body and the wheels, it shall be blocked during the tests.

4.2.2.2.5.

The side chosen for application of the first impact on the rear of the structure shall be that which, in the opinion of the testing authorities, will result in the application of the series of impacts or loads under the most unfavourable conditions for the structure. The lateral impact and the rear impact shall be applied on both sides of the longitudinal median plane of the protective structure. The front impact shall be applied on the same side of the longitudinal median plane of the protective structure as the lateral impact.

4.2.3.   Acceptance conditions

4.2.3.1.   A protective structure is regarded as having satisfied the strength requirements if it fulfils the following conditions:

4.2.3.1.1.

After each part-test it must be free from cracks or tears within the meaning of section 4.3.2.1 or

4.2.3.1.2.

If, during one of the tests, significant cracks or tears appear, an additional test, as defined in sections 4.3.1.6 or 4.3.1.7, must be applied immediately after the impact or the crushing test which caused cracks or tears to appear;

4.2.3.1.3.

during the tests other than the overload test, no part of the protective structure must enter the clearance zone as defined in 1.6;

4.2.3.1.4.

during the tests other than the overload test, all parts of the clearance zone shall be secured by the structure, in accordance with 4.3.2.2;

4.2.3.1.5.

during the tests the protective structure must not impose any constraints on the seat structure;

4.2.3.1.6.

the elastic deflection, measured in accordance with 4.3.2.4 shall be less than 250 mm.

4.2.3.2.   There shall be no accessories presenting a hazard for the driver. There shall be no projecting part or accessory which is liable to injure the driver should the tractor overturn, or any accessory or part which is liable to trap him — for example by the leg or the foot — as a result of the deflections of the structure.

4.2.4.   [Not applicable]

4.2.5.   Apparatus and equipment for dynamic tests

4.2.5.1.   Pendulum block

4.2.5.1.1.

A block acting as a pendulum must be suspended by two chains or wire ropes from pivot points not less than 6 m above the ground. Means must be provided for adjusting independently the suspended height of the block and the angle between the block and the supporting chains or wire ropes

4.2.5.1.2.

The mass of the pendulum block must be 2 000 ± 20 kg excluding the mass of the chains or wire ropes which themselves must not exceed 100 kg. The length of the sides of the impact face must be 680 ± 20 mm (see figure 6.26). The block must be filled in such a way that the position of its centre of gravity is constant and coincides with the geometrical centre of the parallelepiped.

4.2.5.1.3.

The parallelepiped must be connected to the system which pulls it backwards by an instantaneous release mechanism which is so designed and located as to enable the pendulum block to be released without causing the parallelepiped to oscillate about its horizontal axis perpendicular to the pendulum’s plane of oscillation.

4.2.5.2.   Pendulum supports

The pendulum pivot points must be rigidly fixed so that their displacement in any direction does not exceed 1 per cent of the height of fall.

4.2.5.3.   Lashings

4.2.5.3.1.

Anchoring rails with the requisite track width and covering the necessary area for lashing the tractor in all the cases illustrated (see figures 6.23, 6.24 and 6.25) must be rigidly attached to a non-yielding base beneath the pendulum.

4.2.5.3.2.

The tractor shall be lashed to the rails by means of wire rope with round strand, fibre core, construction 6 × 19 in accordance with ISO 2408:2004 and a nominal diameter of 13 mm. The metal strands must have an ultimate tensile strength of 1 770 MPa.

4.2.5.3.3.

The central pivot of an articulated tractor shall be supported and lashed down as appropriate for all tests. For the lateral impact test, the pivot shall also be propped from the side opposite the impact. The front and rear wheels need not be in line if this facilitates the attachment of the wire ropes in the appropriate manner.

4.2.5.4.   Wheel prop and beam

4.2.5.4.1.

A softwood beam of 150 mm square shall be used as a prop for the wheels during the impact tests (see figures 6.27, 6.28 and 6.29).

4.2.5.4.2.

During the lateral impact tests, a softwood beam shall be clamped to the floor to brace the rim of the wheel opposite the side of impact (see figure 6.29).

4.2.5.5.   Props and lashings for articulated tractors

4.2.5.5.1.

Additional props and lashings must be used for articulated tractors. Their purpose is to ensure that the section of the tractor on which the protective structure is fitted is as rigid as that of a non-articulated tractor.

4.2.5.5.2.

Additional specific details are given in the section 4.3.1 for the impact and crushing tests.

4.2.5.6.   Tyre pressures and deflections

4.2.5.6.1.

The tractor tyres shall not be liquid-ballasted and shall be inflated to the pressures prescribed by the tractor manufacturer for field work.

4.2.5.6.2.

The lashings shall be tensioned in each particular case such that the tyres undergo a deflection equal to 12 per cent of the tyre wall height (distance between the ground and the lowest point of the rim) before tensioning.

4.2.5.7.   Crushing rig

A rig as shown in figure 6.10 shall be capable of exerting a downward force on a protective structure through a rigid beam approximately 250 mm wide connected to the load-applying mechanism by means of universal joints. Suitable axle stands shall be provided so that the tractor tyres do not bear the crushing force.

4.2.5.8.   Measuring apparatus

The following measuring apparatus is needed:

4.2.5.8.1.

device for measuring the elastic deflection (the difference between the maximum momentary deflection and the permanent deflection, (see figure 6.11).

4.2.5.8.2.

device for checking that the protective structure has not entered the clearance zone and that the latter has remained within the structure’s protective during the test (see section 4.3.2.2).

4.3.   Dynamic test procedure

4.3.1.   Impact and crushing tests

4.3.1.1.   Impact at the rear

4.3.1.1.1.

The tractor shall be so placed in relation to the pendulum block that the block will strike the protective structure when the impact face of the block and the supporting chains or wire ropes are at an angle with the vertical plane A equal to M/100 with a 20° maximum, unless, during deflection, the protective structure at the point of contact forms a greater angle to the vertical. In this case the impact face of the block shall be adjusted by means of an additional support so that it is parallel to the protective structure at the point of impact at the moment of maximum deflection, the supporting chains or wire ropes remaining at the angle defined above.

The suspended height of the block shall be adjusted and necessary steps taken so as to prevent the block from turning about the point of impact.

The point of impact is that part of the protective structure likely to hit the ground first in a rearward overturning accident, normally the upper edge. The position of the centre of gravity of the block is 1/6 of the width of the top of the protective structure inwards from a vertical plan parallel to the median plane of the tractor touching the outside extremity of the top of the protective structure.

If the structure is curved or protruding at this point, wedges enabling the impact to be applied thereon must be added, without thereby reinforcing the structure.

4.3.1.1.2.

The tractor must be lashed to the ground by means of four wire ropes, one at each end of both axles, arranged as indicated in figure 6.27. The spacing between the front and rear lashing points must be such that the wire ropes make an angle of less than 30° with the ground. The rear lashings must in addition be so arranged that the point of convergence of the two wire ropes is located in the vertical plane in which the centre of gravity of the pendulum block travels.

The wire ropes must be tensioned so that the tyres undergo the deflections given in 4.2.5.6.2. With the wire ropes tensioned, the wedging beam shall be placed in front of and tight against the rear wheels and then fixed to the ground.

4.3.1.1.3.

If the tractor is of the articulated type, the point of articulation shall, in addition, be supported by a wooden block at least 100 mm square and firmly lashed to the ground.

4.3.1.1.4.

The pendulum block shall be pulled back so that the height of its centre of gravity above that at the point of impact is given by one of the following two formulae, to be chosen according to the reference mass of the assembly subjected to the tests:

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of less than 2 000 kg;

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of more than 2 000 kg.

The pendulum block is then released and strikes the protective structure.

4.3.1.1.5.

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the same formulae shall apply.

4.3.1.2.   Impact at the front

4.3.1.2.1.

The tractor shall be so placed in relation to the pendulum block that the block will strike the protective structure when the impact face of the block and the supporting chains or wire ropes are at an angle with the vertical plane A equal to M/100 with a 20° maximum, unless, during deflection, the protective structure at the point of contact forms a greater angle to the vertical. In this case the impact face of the block shall be adjusted by means of an additional support so that it is parallel to the protective structure at the point of impact at the moment of maximum deflection, the supporting chains or wire ropes remaining at the angle defined above.

The suspended height of the pendulum block shall be adjusted and the necessary steps taken so as to prevent the block from turning about the point of impact.

The point of impact is that part of the protective structure likely to hit the ground first if the tractor overturned sideways while travelling forward, normally the upper edge. The position of the centre of gravity of the block is 1/6 of the width of the top of the protective structure inwards from a vertical plane parallel to the median plane of the tractor touching the outside extremity of the top of the protective structure.

If the structure is curved or protruding at this point, wedges enabling the impact to be applied thereon must be added, without thereby reinforcing the structure.

4.3.1.2.2.

The tractor must be lashed to the ground by means of four wire ropes, one at each end of both axles, arranged as indicated in figure 6.28. The spacing between the front and rear lashing points must be such that the wire ropes make an angle of less than 30° with the ground. The rear lashings shall in addition be so arranged that the point of convergence of the two wire ropes is located in the vertical plane in which the centre of gravity of the pendulum block travels.

The wire ropes must be tensioned so that the tyres undergo the deflections given in 4.2.5.6.2. With the wire ropes tensioned, the wedging beam shall be placed behind and tight against the rear wheels and then fixed to the ground.

4.3.1.2.3.

If the tractor is of the articulated type, the point of articulation shall, in addition, be supported by a wooden block at least 100 mm square and firmly lashed to the ground.

4.3.1.2.4.

The pendulum block shall be pulled back so that the height of its centre of gravity above that at the point of impact is given by one of the following two formulae, to be chosen according to the reference mass of the assembly subjected to the tests:

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of less than 2 000 kg.

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of more than 2 000 kg.

The pendulum block is then released and strikes the protective structure.

4.3.1.2.5.

For tractors with a reversible driver’s position (reversible seat and steering wheel), the height shall be whichever is greater from the formula applied above and that selected below:

Formula

or

Formula

4.3.1.3.   Impact from the side

4.3.1.3.1.

The tractor shall be so placed in relation to the pendulum block that the block will strike the protective structure when the impact face of the block and the supporting chains or wire ropes are vertical unless, during deflection, the protective structure at the point of contact forms an angle of less than 20° to the vertical. In this case the impact face of the block shall be adjusted by means of an additional support so that it is parallel to the protective structure at the point of impact at the moment of maximum deflection, the supporting chains or wire ropes remaining vertical on impact.

The suspended height of the pendulum block shall be adjusted and necessary steps taken so as to prevent the block from turning about the point of impact.

The point of impact shall be that part of the protective structure likely to hit the ground first in a sideways overturning accident.

4.3.1.3.2.

The tractor wheels on the side which is to receive the impact must be lashed to the ground by means of wire ropes passing over the corresponding ends of the front and rear axles. The wire ropes must be tensioned to produce the tyre deflection values given in 4.2.5.6.2.

With the wire ropes tensioned, the wedging beam shall be placed on the ground, pushed tight against the tyres on the side opposite that which is to receive the impact and then fixed to the ground. It may be necessary to use two beams or wedges if the outer sides of the front and rear tyres are not in the same vertical plane. The prop shall then be placed as indicated in figure 6.29 against the rim of the most heavily loaded wheel opposite to the point of impact, pushed firmly against the rim and then fixed at its base. The length of the prop shall be such that it makes an angle of 30° ± 3° with the ground when in position against the rim. In addition, its thickness shall, if possible, be between 20 and 25 times less than its length and between 2 and 3 times less than its width. The props shall be shaped at both ends as shown in the details on figure 6.29.

4.3.1.3.3.

If the tractor is of the articulated type, the point of articulation shall in addition be supported by a wooden block at least 100 mm square and laterally supported by a device similar to the prop pushed against the rear wheel as in 4.3.1.3.2. The point of articulation shall then be lashed firmly to the ground.

4.3.1.3.4.

The pendulum block shall be pulled back so that the height of its centre of gravity above that at the point of impact is given by one of the following two formulae, to be chosen according to the reference mass of the assembly subjected to the tests:

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of less than 2 000 kg.

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of more than 2 000 kg.

4.3.1.3.5.

For reversible tractors, the height shall be whichever is greater of the results obtained from the formulae applicable above and below:

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of less than 2 000 kg.

Formula

for tractor with a reference mass of more than 2 000 kg.

The pendulum block is then released and strikes the protective structure.

4.3.1.4.   Crushing at the rear

All provisions are identical to those given in section 3.3.1.4 of Part B1.

4.3.1.5.   Crushing at the front

All provisions are identical to those given in section 3.3.1.5 of Part B1.

4.3.1.6.   Additional impact tests

If cracks or tears which cannot be considered negligible appear during an impact test, a second, similar test, but with a height of fall of:

Formula

shall be performed immediately after the impact tests causing these tears or cracks to appear, ‘a’ being the ratio of the permanent deformation (Dp) to the elastic deformation (De):

Formula

as measured at the point of impact. The additional permanent deformation due to the second impact shall not exceed 30 per cent of the permanent deformation due to the first impact.

In order to be able to carry out the additional test, it is necessary to measure the elastic deformation during all the impact tests.

4.3.1.7.   Additional crushing tests

If during a crushing test, significant cracks or tears appear, a second, similar, crushing test, but with a force equal to 1,2 Fv shall be performed immediately after the crushing tests which caused these tears or cracks to appear.

4.3.2.   Measurements to be made

4.3.2.1.   Fractures and cracks

After each test all structural members, joints and fastening systems shall be visually examined for fractures or cracks, any small cracks in unimportant parts being ignored.

Any tears caused by the edges of the pendulum weight are to be ignored.

4.3.2.2.   Entry into the clearance zone

During each test the protective structure shall be examined to see whether any part of it has entered the clearance zone round the driving seat as defined in 1.6.

Furthermore, the clearance zone shall not be outside the protection of the protective structure. For this purpose, it shall be considered to be outside the protection of the structure if any part of it would come in contact with flat ground if the tractor overturned towards the direction from which the test load is applied. For estimating this, the front and rear tyres and track width setting shall be the smallest standard fitting specified by the manufacturer.

4.3.2.3.   Rear hard fixture tests

If the tractor is fitted with a rigid section, a housing or other hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat, this fixture shall be regarded as a protective point, in the event of sideways or rear overturning. This hard fixture placed behind the driver’s seat shall be capable of withstanding, without breaking or entering the clearance zone, a downward force Fi where:

Formula

applied perpendicularly to the top of the frame in the central plane of the tractor. The initial angle of application of force shall be 40° calculated from a parallel to the ground as shown in figure 6.12. The minimum width of this rigid section shall be 500 mm (see figure 6.13).

In addition, it shall be sufficiently rigid and firmly attached to the rear of the tractor.

4.3.2.4.   Elastic deflection (under side impact)

The elastic deflection is measured (810 + av ) mm above the index point, in the vertical plane passing through the point of impact. For this measurement, apparatus similar to that illustrated in figure 6.11 shall be used.

4.3.2.5.   Permanent deflection

After the final crushing test, the permanent deflection of the protective structure shall be recorded. For this purpose, before the start of the test, the position of the main roll-over protective structure members in relation to the Seat Index Point shall be used.

4.4.   Extension to other tractor models

All provisions are identical to those given in section 3.4 of section B1 to this Annex.

4.5.   [Not applicable]

4.6.   Cold weather performance of protective structures

All provisions are identical to those given in section 3.6 of section B1 to this Annex.

4.7.   [Not applicable]

Figure 6.26

Pendulum block and its suspending chains or wire ropes

Image

Figure 6.27

Example of tractor lashing (rear impact)

Image

Figure 6.28

Example of tractor lashing (front impact)

Image

Figure 6.29

Example of tractor lashing (side impact)

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B3.   REQUIREMENTS FOR FOLDABLE ROPS PERFORMANCE

5.1.   Scope

This procedure provides minimum performance and tests requirements for front mounted foldable ROPS

5.2.   Explanation of terms used in the performance testing:

5.2.1.

hand-operated foldable ROPS is a front mounted dual pillar protective structure with hand raising/lowering directly managed by the operator (with or without partial assistance).

5.2.2.

automatic foldable ROPS is a front mounted dual pillar protective structure with full assisted raising/lowering operations.

5.2.3.

locking system is a device fitted to lock, by hand or automatically, the ROPS in the raised or lowered positions.

5.2.4.

grasping area is defined by the manufacturer as a portion of the ROPS and/or additional handle fitted to the ROPS where the operator is allowed to carry out the raising/lowering operations.

5.2.5.

accessible part of the grasping area is intended as the area where the ROPS is handled by the operator during the raising/lowering operations. This area shall be defined with regard to the geometric centre of cross sections of the grasping area.

5.2.6.

pinching point is a dangerous point where parts move in relation to each other or to fixed parts in such a way as may cause persons or certain parts of their bodies to be pinched.