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Two or three-wheeled motor vehicles: components and characteristics

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Two or three-wheeled motor vehicles: components and characteristics

The European Union is updating its law concerning the approval of two or three-wheel motor vehicles. Until 31 December 2015, the existing system continues to operate in parallel with a new system introduced in March 2013.

ACT

Directive 97/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 1997 on certain components and characteristics of two or three-wheel motor vehicles [See amending acts].

SUMMARY

The vehicles covered by this Directive are subdivided into:

mopeds: two or three-wheel vehicles fitted with an engine having a swept volume not exceeding 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed not exceeding 45 km/h;

motorcycles: two-wheel vehicles fitted with an engine having a swept volume of more than 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed of more than 45 km/h;

tricycles: three-wheel vehicles fitted with an engine having a swept volume of more than 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed of more than 45 km/h;

quadricycles: vehicles whose unladen mass is less than 350 kg, whose maximum design speed does not exceed 45 km/h and whose swept volume does not exceed 50 cm3, or (whose engine power) does not exceed 4 kW.

It incorporates the procedures for granting component type approval laid down in Directive 2002/24/EC, for:

tyres;

lighting and light signalling devices;

external projections;

rear-view mirrors;

measures to counter atmospheric pollution;

fuel tanks;

anti-tampering devices;

electromagnetic compatibility (electronic equipment that operates near electromechanical devices must not negatively impact on their output or performance);

permissible sound level and exhaust system (vehicles must comply with noise and exhaust emission rules);

coupling and attachment devices (e.g. tow-bars for trailers);

safety-belt attachment points and safety belts;

glazing, windscreen wipers, windscreen washers and de-icing and de-misting systems.

Equivalence has been established between certain requirements of the Directive (tyres, lighting and light signalling devices, rear view mirrors and safety belts) and certain of the regulations issued by the United Nations' Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

Authorities in EU countries granting component type approval thus accept the component type approvals that are issued in accordance with the above-mentioned UNECE regulations.

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 repeals Directives 97/24/EC and 2002/24/EC as of 31.12.2015.

BACKGROUND

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 entered into force on 22 March 2013. If requested to do so by a manufacturer, EU countries' authorities cannot refuse to grant EU type-approval or national type-approval for a new type of vehicle where the vehicle complies with the Regulation. Nor may they prohibit registration, the placing on the market or entry into service of a new vehicle where the vehicle complies. Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 is accompanied by 4 delegated and implementing acts in which test procedures and technical specifications are laid down.

REFERENCES

Act

Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Directive 97/24/EC

18.8.1997

17.12.1998

OJ L 226 of 18.8.1997, pp. 1-454

Amending act(s)

Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Directive 2002/51/EC

20.9.2002

31.3.2003

OJ L 252 of 20.9.2002, pp. 20-32

Directive 2003/77/EC

10.9.2003

3.9.2004

OJ L 211 of 21.8.2003, pp. 24-48

Directive 2005/30/EC

17.5.2005

17.5.2006

OJ L 106 of 27.4.2005, pp. 17-31

Directive 2006/27/EC

28.3.2006

31.12.2006

OJ L 66 of 8.3.2006, pp 7-15

Directive 2006/72/EC

8.9.2006

30.6.2007

OJ L 227 of 19.8.2006, pp. 43-45

Directive 2013/60/EU

11.12.2013

30.6.2014

OJ L 329 of 10.12.2013, pp. 15-38

RELATED ACT

Directive 2002/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 March 2002 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheel motor vehicles and repealing Council Directive 92/61/EEC (Official Journal L 124 of 9.5.2002, pp. 1-44).

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (Official Journal L 60 of 2.3.2013, pp. 52-128).

Last updated: 23.07.2015

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